The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: Volume 2, Chester Ward. Originally published by Nichols and Son, London, 1820.
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PARISH OF GATESHEAD.
THE Parish of Gateshead is bounded by the Tyne on the North, by the Parish of Jarrow on the East, by the Washington on the South-East, by the Chapelry of Lamesly on the South and South-West, and by the Parish of Whickbam on the West.
The whole Parish forms only one ancient Constablery; but an Act was passed in 1809, for constituting the Fell a separate Rectory, leaving, however, the whole original Parish still united as to the joint maintenance of the poor.
The borough of Gateshead.
The Borough in its present state consists chiefly of the Fore street, one continued line of building of various and irregular appearance, extending above a mile along the great North road, and at last descending rapidly from Bottlebank to Tyne Bridge; and of several ancient streets or lanes, or more properly gates. Pipewell gate (fn. 1), stretching from Tyne Bridge Westward parallel with the river, derives its name from the pipes or conduits which brought water into the Borough from the higher grounds (fn. 2). Hillgate (fn. 3)., or St. Marygate, runs parallel with the river Eastwards. Oakwell, gate lies parallel to the Fore street from North to South, and takes its name from an ancient well, once shadowed by a broad branching oak (fn. 4). At the Southern extremity of Oakwell gate are some buildings called Palace place (fn. 5), where popular tradition has fixed the Palace of King John; and much more certainly, betwixt Oakwell gate and the Fore street lay the house and gardens of the loyal and wealthy family of Cole (fn. 5). The mansion has been long converted to purposes of trade; but its chief front in the Fore street still exhibits the stile of domestic architecture of the reign of James or Charles, and one principal room, an upper chamber, lately remained pannelled with dark oak, with a mantle-piece ornamented with carvings of scripture history, and supported by terms, with a profusion of flowers and foliage.
The New street, which turns Eastwards to the church, and avoids the steep descent of Bottlebank, was built in 1790. The Back lane, or Mirk lane, stiled in some ancient charters the Angiport, has lately received considerable improvement, and from its airy situation and prospect over the vale of Tyne, bids fair perhaps to become the residence of the principal inhabitants.
The lesser passes and avenues are, as in Newcastle, called Chares. Oakwellgate Chare, High and Low Church Chare, St. Mary's Chare, Thomlinson's or Bailiff's Chare (now Half Moon lane (fn. 6) ), deriving name from some ancient officers of the Borough, and Jackson's or Colliers Chare.
To the extinct topography of Gateshead, belong Poterschihera, mentioned in the earliest charter relative to the Borough in the Durham Treasury. Waldeschere (fn. 7). St. Elyn's well, and Elyngate, which occur in 1324 (fn. 8). Pylotchare, and the Smithirawe, both named in the inquest on the death of Roger Thornton, 1430 (fn. 9); and within or immediately without the Borough in the town fields and meadows, Kabyncroft, Camerdykes, and Rikburnhede, all part of the possessions of the ancient Gategangs, some of whom assume in their charters the lofty title of Lords of Pipewellgate (fn. 10).
Chilside and Spinner flatt are mentioned in an inquest on the death of David de Roddam in 1381 (fn. 11).
(fn. 12) In ancient days Gateshead, before it shrunk under the influence of Newcastle, had a Borough market, which, according to depositions taken as late as 1577, was held twice a week, Tuesday and Friday, and extended from the Market cross, betwixt the Toll booth and Pant, to the blue stone on Tyne Bridge, or to the Brig yate. This Toll booth stood in the main street a little below the West end of Oakwellgate chare, and had latterly performed the functions, first of a School, and then of a public Bridewell. At this period also, the Pinfold, now removed to the Windmill hills, stood in the middle of the Fore street, opposite the Five Wand mill. The post road came down St. Mark's lane (fn. 13), and entered Gateshead by Half Moon lane or Miller's Chare. A Post office was established in Gateshead in 1772, intended at first only as a temporary measure during the rebuilding of Tyne Bridge, but from its great convenience, both to the borough and neighbourhood, it has been since rendered permanent.
The borough lands.
The origin of this freehold property, vested in the Burgesses, cannot be traced to its original source. In 1551, the Burgesses were in possession of Wynde Mylne hill, Langflatt, and Stone-flatt. In 1563, they litigated their common right in Redheugh and Harelaw, with the Whites of Redheugh. A decree in the third year of Elizabeth (by Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, Lord Eure, and the Dean of Durham,) refers to a former decree made by the President and Council of the North in 1540, and orders the usage of pasturing the town fields therein prescribed to be observed till otherwise regulated by the Council of the North (fn. 14) (fn. 15).
In 1814, an Act was obtained for enclosing the Borough lands or Town fields. These consisted of the Windmill hills on the West of Gateshead, and of Benchelm or Bensham (fn. 16), the High and Low Swards, Threstley close, the Low flatt, Middle flatt, and Bull close, lying on the West as far as the water of Team. The whole quantity of these lands, which were divided according to the proportions of Borough tenure and common right, amounted to 157 acres. The Borough lands are now much improved and well fenced.
Benchelm. John Banks of the Borough of Gaitshed of age of LXXII zeres, examynyde and sworne, saith that the said p'cell of grounde caled Bensham is, & ever was, belonging to the broughe of Gaitshed, & the burgeeses & comynaltie of the same have hade peaceable possession and occupation of herbage of the same, wth ther cattell every year & all seasons of the years at ther libertie, without vexation, claime, &c. Sir Germayne Cregton, Chantre prest within the said church, of the age of 4 score & on zears, sworne and examynyd, saith, he never knew other wayes but the said burgesses had evr peaceable possession and occupation of the said ground, & that also the tennts to the hospital of Sainct Edmond did close ther ground from the said Bensham, & never claimed or p'tended anye entrost in the said Bensham (fn. 17).”
A true survey made & taken of the mannor of Gateshead w th the appurtenances in the County of Durham, by us George Lilburne, Georage Grey, Thomas Sanders, Samuel Leigh, John Husband, amongst others appointed Surveyors by com'on from the hon ble com'ittee of Trustees for the disposal and sale of the late B'pps lands, wthin the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, by seuerall ordinances of Parliamt, Anno Dñi 1647.
To the ffourth ar'le we p'sent & say, that there are no outwoods nor com'ons wthin this mannor, excepting one com'on or waist called by the name of Gateshead fell. The com'on or herbage whereof belongs to the free borough men & ffreemen of the sd mannor & borough of Gateshead, containing one thousand three hundred acres or thereabouts, the bounders whereof begins & ends at a blew stone near Sr Thomas Riddell, Knt. his house, wch is fixed in the ground or earth near to the high street leading to the Southwards, close by the East side of the causway, till we come abt seventy yards or thereab ts to the Westwards of Moodyes Wind milne, from thence Southwards to a place called the White quarry, then to the next Dowl, & so to the second, third, & ffourth mark or crosse wch lyes to the Westward of the white house belonging to Mr. Ralph Cole; and thus far bounders upon a com'on or waist belonging to Upper heworth & Nether Heworth, then Southwards to a fifth mark, and from thence to a place called Wrakendike, where a crosse hath been, and a p't yet remains wth these l'res ingraven “I. Chirst”. from thence Westwards along the sd Wrakendike, till we come to Eighton quarrie, and thus far it bounders upon the East p't on a p't of a moor or waist belonging to the Baron of Hilton his tenants or assignes, and from Wrakendike crosse to Eighton quarry afores d, the other p't of the sd waist belongings to the sd Baron of Hilton, & bounders upon it on the South p't, from thence to upper Eighton hedge Westwards, & so along that hedge till wee come down to the sd upper eighton lane, and boundering for the most p't upon Eighton grounds on the south of the sd waist called Gateshead fell, from thence Northwards to the beginning of Chowden, & thence to Darwin Crooke grounds, Northwards, till wee come to goe Eastwds by the Whinney house grounds on the North of itt; and thence to the high street or way, & so to the blew stone formerly menc'oned where we begun. And we say further, that the lord of the mannor cannot improve any p't of the same, but wth the consent of the sd free borough men, and of the freeholders of Gateshead aforesd.
Formerly a wide spongy dark moor, extending from Wreken Dyke on the South to the toll-bar on the North, has been gradually spotted with scattered buildings of various description; and in 1809 an Act of Parliament was obtained for a general inclosure, which is now carried into effect (fn. 18).
By another Act, passed in the same Session, the Fell is constituted a separate Rectory, and one acre of ground is ordered to be allotted to the Rector of Gateshead, for the scite of a church and church-yard.(The whole parish is still, however, to be considered as one township for the maintenance of their poor.) One rate has been already levied under the Act towards the building of the church.
The old Gategangs occur as proprietors of various parcels in the Park. John Gategang, in 1340, held twenty-six acres “in veteri Parco juxta Gateshed,” by fealty, and 17s. 4d. (fn. 19); and in 1351 another John held thirty-three acres “in le ald Parke,” by fealty, and 22s. (fn. 20) The modern estate of Gateshead Park is held under the see of Durham, by lease for 21 years, and is vested in Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. to whose ancestor, William Coastworth, Esq. Bishop Crew demised in 1716 (fn. 21).
Not to insist much on the ancient Gabrocentum (fn. 22), the present name of Gateshead may be very well derived, in perfect unison with its exact situation, from the Saxon Gatesheved, the top or head of the gate or road leading to the great pass of the Tyne. Whether Bede intended to translate Gateshead into ad Capræ Caput (fn. 23), may be as doubtful as to fix the situation of Gabrocentum. The first certain notice of Gateshead, which proves that the place had a church, and was in all probability even then an ancient and considerable vill, is the outrageous murder of Bishop Walcher, already related, vol. I. p. xvii.
In 1164 Bishop Hugh Pudsey granted a charter (fn. 24) to the Burgesses of Gateshead, of which the chief privileges were, liberty of the forest, freedom from toll within the Palatinate, and, in general words, all such advantages as were enjoyed by the Burgesses of Newcastle. The charter, of course pre-supposes the existence of the Borough, the original foundation of which is, I believe, totally unknown. Under the same prelate, Hugh, the survey of Boldon Buke states that Gateshead, with the profits of the Borough, the mills, fisheries, and back-house, and three parts of the arable land, were farmed under sixty marks rent. The remaining fourth of the arable land, with the assarts which the Bishop had brought into cultivation, were in the hands of the Bishop, with a stock of two draughts. The land of Osmund (fn. 25) (a free tenant) paid 22s. 6d. Betwixt this date and that of Hatfield's Survey nothing occurs as to the tenure of lands; except the Inquests on the deaths of several free tenants, chiefly of the family of Gategang (fn. 26), whom I believe to have been perfectly indigenous, and to have derived their name from their residence on the main street.
Hatfield's Survey—John de Ravensworth holds twenty-four acres at Saltwellsyde, by charter, once William de Slikburn's, 8s. The Master of the Hospital of St. Edmund the King holds one plot of ground, Pro quodam chamino habendo, or way-leave from the Hospital to Freregose, through the Lord's meadow there, and pays 4d. The heirs of Thomas Surteys hold an aqueduct, and a messuage built above it, sometime of Cuthbert the Clerk, 8d. The Guardian of the Chantry of the Blessed Trinity, within the Hospital of St. Edmund the Confessor, holds two messuages, once of Alice Prester, 2s. 6d. Thomas del Castell, in right of his wife, one messuage and seven acres below the Cokescroft, once of Thomas Vaux, 7s. 6d. The heir of Hugh de Redhugh, Chivaler, six acres, 4s. 2d. John de Topcliff twenty acres, in Esterlin Strother, 11s. The same John one plot and twenty-two acres, 14s. 8d. William Gategang holds a meadow called the Fletes, containing one acre, by foreign service, and 10s. The same William holds the meadow called Saltwellmede, once of Alan Marshall, 3s. 4d. And sixty-eight acres in the Calschotes and in the Hough, sometime his father's, 33s.; and twelve acres in Leystrech 8s.
Exchequer Lands—The Master of St. Edmund's holds half a messuage, 2s. 6d.; and four acres and one rood, sometime of John Ade, 2s. 10d. Walter de Dymyldon holds (of the heir of John Gategang) two acres at Saltwelstrother, 2s. 6d.; and the same heir one acre near le Lonyng, 11d.; and eight other parcels under divers rents. John de Ravensworth holds one acre, under le Rategraynes, and pays 8d.; and three other parcels, once of Alan de Silkburn. Thomas del Castell one acre below Lyghtker, 4d.; two acres near Ricrustburn, sometime of Thomas Vaux, 16d.; two acres below Aveley, 2s.; and four other plots and parcels. Thomas de Claxton and four others hold one messuage and four parcels under certain rents.
John of Sadberg holds two water-mills, and one wind-mill, which used to pay 22l. now 16l. 13s. 4d. The same John holds the fishery in Tyne, 20l.; and the manor, with the burgage rents and profits, the pastures and meadows of the demesne, of which fourscore and fourteen acres lie in Gateshead-field, and fifty-five acres on the Tyne; in all, for the whole profits of the Borough and Borough Court, 22l.
There are six acres now waste, sometime in the tenure of Richard Slikburn, under 3s. 6d. rent, and it is said that the Parson of Gatesheved holds in divers Places of Gateshead-field fifteen acres, which they believe to the Exchequer land, but for which nothing is paid.
The usual government of the town of Gateshead, from the earliest period on record, was by a Bailiff (fn. 27), appointed by the Bishops of Durham. Bishop Hatfield, in 1348, appointed a Park-keeper of Gateshead, an office which was regularly continued by his successors (fn. 28). Bishop Nevill, whose rolls are full of novel patents, added another office of Keeper of Gateshead Tower, which in all probability stood on Tyne bridge, and had been rebuilt or repaired when Nevill's predecessor, Langley, recovered one third of the bridge from the Corporation of Newcastle. The most important portion, perhaps, of the Borough history of Gateshead is that of the perpetual disputes betwixt the See of Durham and the powerful and wealthy Corporation of Newcastle, for the free navigation of the river Tyne, and the right of building quays and ballast-shores on its banks. This continued contest is, however, matter of general history, and shall be only referred to here as far as it affected in its progress the local interests of the Borough of Gateshead. The charters of the Norman Sovereigns name the Tyne as the natural and equal boundary betwixt Durham and Northumberland; and it is evident that amongst the Calumpnies, or claims injurious, of the men of Northumberland, “calumpnias quas diracionavit adversus cos Ranulphus Episcopus in presentia Henrici Regis (fn. 29),” &c. the usurpation of the whole exclusive navigation of the Tyne was one of the principal injuries of which the See of Durham, or their Grantees, the Church of St. Cuthbert, claimed and obtained the redress. “From Staneburnmouth to Tynemouth, even to the sea, half the water of Tyne belongs to St. Cuthbert and to the Bishoprick of Durham, the other half to the county of Northumberland; yet so that a third part, in the midst, shall be free and open to both; and the same water shall be measured at main flode, when the water flows full bank and bank:” and all the fisheries have “local name and habitation.” [The first fishery is St. Hilde yare and Ebbe yare, these belong to Wyvestow (Westoe); to Jarrow belong Ful yare in Pul, Ebbe yare, Aches yare, Uth yare, Huterdes yare, Stanre yare; to Munchestun belong Fule yare, Hungre yare; to Hebburne, Peth yare, Sywyne yare, Uthward yare; to Heworthe, Uthward yare, Uth yare, Londe yare, Hochemunges yare, Bondene yare, Fildene yare. These are the fisheries of the Monk's land, which they held from ancient time. The following belong to the Bishopric of Durham: to Gateshead, Goureth, Cuiper, Huulfs yare, Bosi-Hongri yare, Dike yare, Olfletes yare, Chirche yare, and another Chirche yare, Letherhose, Gaene yare, Deapha yare, Offulnes yare, Malde yare, Littell yare, Bonde yare, two Comerthe yares; to Whickham belong Tinnmuthes yare, Hurlhomes yare, Grip-Rote, Vornerk, Deape yare, Alcheres yare, Heh-Werestion; to Derwantemouth, one net (sagena) called Seth-Brannet; to Whynauton, Berde yare, Bladene yare, two nets called Toletpula, four Stelentes, two Rednettes; to Riton belong Crumbwell, Wytherpole, Stampul, four Stelents; and to Crawcruke, Buresfordes pull.”] And this record was made by the Elders of Haliwerefolk and of Northumberland in the time of King Henry II. before the Justices of England.
Various confirmations follow, amongst which that of Henry II. expressly mentions as a privilege of the free of Durham the free plying of ships on the South said of Tyne, sicut Rex habet ex parle altera (fn. 30) . Inquisitions were taken, one held in very Newcastle 1293 (fn. 31), and others in 1317 and 1323, finding that half the water of Tyne was the ancient right of the See of Durham. Yet the rights of the county of Northumberland, as far as concerned the Tyne, from Hedwin streams to Tynemouth, centering in the infant Borough of Newcastle, grew with the growth, and strengthened with the strength, of the Corporation, which was pullulating with all the vigour of novel existence.
The King's free Port of Newcastle obtained successively, an injunction to the Prior of Tynemouth to remove at his own costs a quay-shore, or mole, driven within the flood-mark of Tyne at North Shields; a revocation of Conservatorship granted to an individual, as trenching on the acknowledged rights of the Corporation of Newcastle; and an explicit and exclusive grant of the said Conservatorship to the Mayor and Aldermen from Edward II (fn. 32). Under these circumstances the true men of the Bishop's Borough of Gates-head were driven to an open declaration of grievance, taken, in from of an inquest, at Durham, Monday before the feast of St. Margaret, 1336, claiming, as their ancient and vested right, free passage by the mid-stream of Tyne, and equally free lading and discharging of their cargoes all along the rivage or coast of the Palatine franchise of Durham; free fisheries, moreover, of the Lord Bishop and the Prior of St. Cuthbert on their own side of Tyne, with liberty to the fishermen to sell their fish where it listed them, and a market twice a week, and a fair once a year (on St. Peter's day), as far as the midst of Tyne bridge. But now the fishermen of the Lord Bishop and Prior, the first of Pipewellgate, the second of le Scheles, were utterly routed and disturbed from their said free sale, and were haled and drawn, vi et armis, &c. to sell their fish in Newcastle market. Moreover, none of the Halywerefolk were suffered to lade or discharge on their own side of the Tyne, and even the Prior's own proper wool, coming from Halieland (Holy Island), and landed on the Prior's soil at le Sheles, was seized, and the ship carried into Newcastle and embargoed, propter illam liberationem. And if the Scheles fishermen sell their fish to the very Bishop himself, or to the Prior, the Bailiffs of Newcastle hale and tug, and imprison, fine and amerce them, and put to rout all who attempt to carry, without composition, firewood, turf, coal, timber, or other articles of necessity, along the Tyne to the side of the Bishopric. Further, the town of Newcastle have built on Tyne bridge (fn. 33), to its very Southern extremity, robbing the Bishop of his free soil and inheritance. And worst and most grievous of all, when William de Ullesam fell from the bridge into the water of Tyne, and there drowned, immediately came one Richard Mckilmuk, with Thomas Parry, found the dead body within the water-mark of the Bishopric, and dragged the corpse to Newcastle before they returned it for Christian burial to the church-yard of blesses St. Mary of Gateshead (fn. 34). And hereupon the King, on petition of the Bishop of Durham, directed his writ to the Mayor and Bailiffs of Newcastle, reciting the Bishop's rights, and ordering them for the future to forbear from the outrageous practices in which they had indulged, to the grave and manifest injury of the see and franchise of Durham; to permit ships to moor, if they chose it, on the South said of Tyne, and to let the fishers catch and sell their fish quietly (fn. 35).
A variety of inquisitions and processes follow on the heels of this. In 1345 the same Bishop, Richard Bury, had a verdict against the Commissioners of the Crown for interfering with the Conservatorship of the Southern side of the water of Tyne, which was vested in the Bishop jure sedis (fn. 36); and in 1352 (to omit other instances) the Burgesses of Newcastle humbled themselves for having seized the South Shields fishing-boats, and forced them up to Newcastle, even before the Cell of Jarrow had received its tithe of fish: compelling, moreover, the poor “seely fishermen” to swear that they would never sell fish but in Newcastle market (fn. 37).
In 1384 and 1393 Richard II. (fn. 38) again confirmed to the See of Durham their right of mooring and unlading on the South of Tyne, and the free navigation of the river by the mid-stream, without let or hindrance of the Corporation. Yet, notwithstanding these reiterated royal confirmations, it may be doubted how far the active and wealthy Corporation of Newcastle ever totally removed their hook from the nostrils of the river dragon; for in 1414 the recovery of a third of Tyne bridge, and of the tower of offence (fn. 39) which the adversary had erected on it, seems to have been matter of no moderate triumph to Cardinal Langley, one of the wisest and most powerful Prelates who ever filled the Palatine throne, and who took possession of the disputed bulwark on the 3d of August 1414, with all his chivalry (fn. 40). The third part of Tyne bridge has ever since, except during two brief and lawless periods of separation, remained attached to the See of Durham (fn. 41); but as to the river Tyne, matters went more in favour of Newcastle. In 1447 the river, from Sparhawk to Hedwin streams, was stated to be under the Crown the right of the Corporation. In 1454 the King granted the Conservatorship of the Tyne, within the same limits, to the Mayor and Burgesses; the same exclusive privilege is confirmed by a series of royal grants and confirmations; and in 1630 and 1637 the prescriptive right of the Mayor and Burgesses to hold the Conservatorship of the Tyne was pleaded and allowed in the King's Bench and Court of Exchequer (fn. 42).
Gateshead, meanwhile, throve as it might, under the overshadowing influence of its neighbour; but this Southern suburb was always an object of attraction to the wealthy Burghers of Newcastle, and the temporary dissolution of the See of Durham, amidst the storms which attended the Reformation, offered an easy opportunity for making the acquisition. In 1552 an Act was obtained which severed Gateshead from the Bishopric and annexed it to Newcastle. The reasons for this severing and annexing, adduced in the Preamble to the Act, are,
That the quiet, order, regiment, and gouvernance, of the Corporac'n and body politike of the Towne of Newcastle upon Tyne hath bene not a lyttel disturbed and hindered, to a moche greate and manifest ympoverishment, ruyne, and decaye, of the saide Corporac'n, by reasone aswel that in the Towne of Gatesyde, parcel bothe of the possessione of the Bishopricke of Duresme, and also of the Libretyes, and Counte Palentyne of Duresme aforsaide, next adjoyning unto the said havon towne of Newcastle, on the South syde of the said ryver of Tyne, doo inhabyte and bene from tyme to tyme a greate nombre of carpenters, collyers, fishers, maryners, and other handycraftes menne, which by their handy workes gayne and have their cheif and in manner hole lyving in the said towne of Newcastle, wher they daly com'it manyfolde enormetyes and disorders which escape unponished, to a very evil example in the hinderance of justice, by reasone that soch offendors by repairing untto the saide towne of Gatesyde, being withowte the jurisdic'n of the said haven towne of Newcastle, fynde evasone and meanes to escape the condign correc'n and punishment of their saide mysbehavors; as also that for no smal nombre of the inhabitants of Gatesyde, withoute any respect to the conservac'n of the havon of the saide porte towne of Newcastle, being the chief maintenance and upholde of the same, do cast into the saide havon rubishe, wth all the refuse of their building, besydes the other clensing of their howses and streets, without any correcc'n or punishment extended unto them for the same, by reasone that the saide towne of Gatesyde is parcel of the saide Counte Palentyn of Duresme, and withoute the libertyes of the saide havon towne as is aforesaide; without remedye wherof the saide havon shulde perish, and therby the towne sholde be in great jeoperdye of ruyne and decaye: And further more, forasmuch also as a parte of the bridge over the saide ryver of Tyne, perteyning to the saide towne of Gatesyde is so farre in ruyne and decay for lacke of reparac'n that no cartes or carryages maye be suffered to passe over the same; for remedye whereof, and sundry other com'odyties here not recited, Be it, &c (fn. 43).
To all this reasoning the community of Gateshead answered by setting forth, in a petition to Master Bell, Speaker of the Honourable House of Parliament, “Certen inconvenients that may arise by the unitinge of the Borough of Gaiteshed unto the Towne of Newcastell.”
- 1. The Towne of Gaitshed is within the Countie of Durham, and hath his liberties and customs graunted by the Bishoppes predecessors, and payeth all assessments for the repayre of waies, bridges, charge to the warrs, watches of the beacons, and towne and feild watches, within the Countie of Durham, and yf the shoud be united they should bear charges there.
- 2. The Towne of Gateshed is ruled by the Bayliff and Burgesses, and hath good and holsome constituc'ns and ordinances within themselves, and is as well gov'ned for justice as they are in Newcastell, punishing all offendors wh cast rubbishe and clensinge of their howses into the river of Tyne, and therefore the suggestion wh they alleage in the statute of unitinge the townes is manifestly untrew, as it is evidently knowen for that the South sid of the river, wh is towards Gateshead, is deep and more cleane then that sid towards Newe Castell.
- 3. The statute wh they would revive by this Act is, that Gateshed, and all the inhabitants therin, should be united and annexed unto Newcastell, and he p'cell therof, and not of the County of Durham, and yet they would have a proviso to leave them to be punished in the County Palantyne, so they shall be under the rule, correc'n, government, and chardge of the Mayre and Aldermen of Newcastell, and also under the correc'n, punishment, and chardge of the lawes wth in the County of Durham, and of their Justices of Peace, and also under the rule and correc'on of their Wardens and Stewards of theire occupac'ns wth in the same towne, according to their orders in that behalfe p'vided.
- 4. And also by the statute that should be revived the proviso is, that it should not extend to take away any com'on; inded they need not, for they may have a thousand acres and more wh doth belonge to Gateshed and other townes adjoyninge. But yf theis townes shal be annexed they may put all their cattle to eat wth Gateshed, or may enclose, and they may have the cole of Gateshed moore, wh will be worth, yf they may wyn the same, x thousand pownd, wh wcare to the disheritaunce of the Sea of Durham.
- 5. Yf Gateshead should be taken from the County of Durham, it should be a hinderaunce also to the countrie, and do them wronge, for so they should want the helpe of Gateshed in bearinge the charge of warrs, bridges, wayes, watches, and other things.
- 6. And yf it should be united in Newcastell, and we are not wth in the County of Durham, it would be replenyshed wth evell disposed persons and theues, because it is wth out their walls, as is the North p'te of Newcastell; whereas nowe in Gateshed their are a great nomber of substanc'al honest men faythful and trewe subjects, as did appere in the late rebellyon, some merchaunts, some drapers, and other honest artificers, whom the towne of Newcastell doth envie because they dwell so nie unto them.
The remonstrances of the “poore towne of Gateshede” were easily pushed aside; but one of the first Acts of Queen Mary's reign re-established the See of Durham ad integrum, and the Borough of Gateshead was restored, or rather, the late Acts affecting the See being declared null and void, reverted to its pristine connection with the Bishopric. Yet Bishop Tunstall, with a view, probably, to take off the opposition of the wealthy and powerful Corporation of Newcastle, who reluctantly quitted their grasp on the South side of the river, granted to the Mayor and Burgesses a lease of the salt-meadows for four hundred and fifty years, under 2l. 4s. rent, and of the Borough tolls during the same period under 4l. 6s. rent (fn. 44); and this sweeping grant being executed before the restraining statute, and confirmed by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, is enjoyed by the Corporation of Newcastle at this day. In 1578 Bishop Barnes, amongst his other spoliations of the See of Durham in favour of the Crown, granted a lease of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham to Queen Elizabeth for seventy-nine years; but the term being either thought too short, or for other reasons, in 1582 the same Prelate granted a new lease to the Crown for ninety-nine years, including all the pits, mines, wastes, parks, and royalties, under 117l. 15s. 8d. reserved rent. November 12, 1583, the Queen assigned to Henry Anderson and William Selby, Aldermen of Newcastle; and they; 4 August 1591, again assigned to thirteen of the principal Burgesses, on trust for the Corporation. The subesequent conveyances may be seen in Brand. The grand lease expired in 1682, when the manor reverted to See of Durham (fn. 45). In 1716 Lord Crewe (Bishop of Durham) demised the manor of Gateshead, for twenty-one years, to William Coatsworth, Esq. (excepting as much of Tyne bridge, &c. and the buildings thereon, and excepting the advowson of the two rectories.) The lease has been since renewed to the Coatsworths, and their descendants the Ellisons; and is now vested in Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. (fn. 46)
Bishop Tunstall incorporated the barkers and tanners of Gateshead (fn. 47).
In 1594 Bishop Toby Mathew confirmed the dyers, fullers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, cutlers, joiners, and carpenters (fn. 48), and the cordwainers in 1602 (fn. 49). In 1661 Bishop Cosin incorporated in one company the drapers, taylors, mercers, hardwaremen, coopers, and chandlers (fn. 50); and in 1671 (fn. 51) [at the request of Sir Ralph Cole, Bart. George Davenport, Clerk, Miles Stapleton, Esq. George Kirkby, &c.] the occupations of free-masons, carvers, stone-cutters, sculptors, brick-makers, tilers, bricklayers, glaysers, painter-stainers, founders, neilers, pewterers, plumbers, millwrights, sadlers and bridlers, trunk-makers, and distillers. Several of these companies are extinct (fn. 52).
Of the modern Trade of Gateshead it is impossible to give more than a very general account. The whole merchandize of the place passes through the custom-house of New castle. The principal manufactures are Messrs. William Hawks and Co. foundery and iron works for anchors, mooring-chains, and all kinds of large iron works for the Government dock-yards. The Team iron-works, Messrs. Morrison, Mosman, and Co. Messrs. Whinfield and Thompson's foundery for cast iron in Pipewellgate. The Tyne glasshouse, Messrs. Atwood, Smith, and Richardson, in the Salt-meadows, for the manufacture of crown-glass. New Stourbridge works for flint-glass, Messrs. Lowry and Sowerby, Pipewellgate. Durham flint-glass-house, Price and Co. Pipewellgate. Building-yards, Forster and Co. South Shore; Jonathan Brown, ditto. Roperies, Harle and Co.; Miekle and Maggie, Hillgate. Colour manufactories, W. Hind, Pipewellgate; J. Gibson, Salt-meadows. Vinegar manufactory, Messrs. Batson's, Reid, &c. Hillgate. Oil ditto, W. Green, Hillgate.
|Inch diameter.||Inch thick.||N° in a chaldron|
A grindstone foot is 8 inches; the size is found by adding together the diameter and thickness. Grindstones are made, when ordered, of larger, dimensions, up to 76 inches diameter, by 14 or 15 thick. The annual quantity wrought is about five thousand chaldron, each chaldron weighing about 14 hundred weight; the price about 1l. 7s. per chaldron (fn. 53).
Under the return of 1801 Gateshead contained—inhabited houses 1037; families 2099; males 3974; females 4623: total population 8597. In 1811 total population 8782. It was computed at 7000 between 1690 and 1700.
Tyne Bridge belongs rather to the history of Newcastle, and (premising therefore, that a full account of its rise, progress, fall, and renovation, may be seen in Brand, I. 35–53,) it will be sufficient very briefly to remark, that it is supposed to owe its first foundation to the Emperor Hadrian. Pennant supposed even that part of the Roman masonry was still remaining, and several Roman coins (somewhat later than Hadrian) were certainly found in the ruined piers after the flood of 1771. The first bridge, however, was doubtless of wood; it existed under Henry II., and was consumed by fire, with a great part of Newcastle, in 1248. Brand records several subsequent benefactions for the repair of Tyne bridge; and an indulgence of twenty days, for the same purpose, from Bishop Walter occurs in 1256. In 1339, part of the bridge was washed away, and it is described as ruinous in 1342 and 1370. In 1414, Bishop Langley recovered the third part of the bridge belonging to the See of Durham (fn. 54), which third part Bishop Tunstall repaired in 1530 and 1559. In 1582, a degree passed in the Exchequer, that the Bishop of Durham, and not the inhabitants of the County at large, should be charged with the repair of the third part of the bridge. The repairs of the bridge are mentioned in 1646 and 1649, to which, it seems, Charles I. had given timber out of the Crown woods at Chopwell. In 1770, the Bishop of Durham repaired with stone work that portion of Tyne bridge, where there had anciently been a drawbridge. On the night betwixt the 16th and 17th of November, 1771, the Tyne rose in flood from incessant rain which had fallen the preceding day to the South and Westward. On Sunday the 17th, the dawn of day discovered all the cellars, warehouses, shops, and lower stages of buildings from the West end of the close to Ouseburn, totally under water. The middle arch of Tyne bridge, and another arch towards the South, gave way with a tremendous crash, with eight of the houses (fn. 55) which crowded the old bridge, and overhung its Western parapet. On the Monday at four in the afternoon, another South arch fell with four other houses, and soon after the whole range of buildings, from the Blue Stone to Gateshead. In Newcastle, the Sandhill was a wide flood where boats plied; the timber and stores on the Quay were swept away, and the whole river as far as Shields, was covered with the wreck of boats, keels and craft, stranded and scattered along both coasts. Several small vessels were carried out to sea; and three sloops and a brig drove on the Quay side, and were left there when the flood ebbed.
It was found necessary to take down the whole of the old bridge (fn. 56). The rebuilding of a third part of the fabric from the Blue Stone Southwards, was incumbent on the See of Durham; and in 1772, an act passed enabling the Bishop to raise 12,000l. for the purpose, by granting annuities for lives, not exceeding ten per cent. The foundation stone of the Bishop's part was laid October 14, 1774 (fn. 57), and the first arch closed in July 8th, 1775 (fn. 58). (fn. 59)
Rather than load the text with a tedious reference to small properties, I have preferred throwing together in this place ad calcem, a few of the oldest charters in the Treasury, relative to Gateshead, and the descents of a very few of the principal ancient proprietors.
Will. de Granavilla oib. fidelib. S'cte Eccl'ie sal. Sciatis me dedissee & c'cessisse Dõ et Scõ Cuthb'to & monachis ibide' servientib' in Eccl'ia de Dunolm. Pottershihera q' juxta Novũ Castellũ in ppetuũ p aĩa mea & aĩab. oiũ parentũ meor. Testib. istis, Emma uxor. mea, Jordano de Umframvilla & fre' ej. Rodb'to, Joh' Constabulario de Novo Castello, & Hugone de Helletun, & Adam de Merlaio, & Nicholao de Bichar, Jordano de parva Benthona, Willõ fil. Ulgari, & Gervasio Medico, & Rog. fil. Hucdredi, & Rodb. fil. Elfledi, & Rob'to fil. Gualonis, & Gileb'to fil. Hug. & multis aliis hoĩb. de Gesemuthe & de Hetthona & de Cramlingatuna & de Hertalalive.
[This Charter rests in Gateshead Box, Dean and Chapter Treasury. I suspect, however, that Pottershihera is scarcely Potterschare in Gateshead; the witnesses seem to point North of the Tyne. NosII. and III. are genuine Pipewellgate Charters.]
Hugo Dei gra. Dunelm. Ep'us om'ib[us] hõib[us] suis fr'ncis et Anglis, qi has tras vidint et audierint salt'm. Sciatis me cõcessisse Thuroldo de Londiniis, et hed'b's suis totã illã trã meã que jacet juxt' Tynam ap'd West a capite pontis Tyne usq' ad Redhogh sicut meũ guastũ p. xx m'cis quas ip'e et Lessinus pat. uxĩs sue mĩ dederunt, tenend. Lib'e et qũete reddõ annuat' p' om'ib's franco burgo XIXd Volo aute' q'd p'd's Thuroldus et he'des sui sint lib'i et qũeti de tollnio et pañagio. Hiis T. Teb. de Sceltona, Willõ de Insula, Willõ Capellõ, Johe ru. Edm. Dapif., Ric. venator., Tho. fil. Wilti, Alano Cap'no, et m' aliis.
Om'ib[us] vid'ntib[us] v'l audientib[us] has lit'as tam fut'is q'm p'sentib[us] Nicholaus fili9 Toraldi de Folottebi salt'. Sciatis me concessisse & hac mea carta confirmasse Sparco filio Gamelli Oter & h'dib[us] suis t'ram illa; in villa de Gatesh' q'm tenet de me, & tenuit de patre meo thoraldi & quã edificavit ex vasto tempore ipi' thoraldi p'ris mei, & jacet int' t'ram Warnebaldi Monetarii & t'ram Ade Cyrotecarii, h'ndam & tenend de me & he'dib[us] meis in feodo & her'itate lib'e solute, &c. reddõ & faciendo illud servitiũ q'd fac'e solebat Thoraldo pati meo scilicet annuatim sex denarios ad duos t'minos scilicet tres d' ad Rogat'ones, &c. His testib[us] H'nrico decano. Rañ Capelt. Reginaldo de Leu. Baldewino fil Kile. Rob' fil' Brien. Nichol Scot. Daniele. Hñrico fit Botilde. Simone taliatore. Willõ de Lamesleie. Willõ lincoln. Lamb'to. Edm'do taliatore. Warino Cambere. Joh'e clico. & multis aliis.
IV. Omnibus, &c. Isolda, relicta Roberti Fader de Pipewellgate in villa de Gatesheved, in viduitate et ligia potestate mea. Sciatis me dedisse, &c. Willõ Syre de Pypewellgate et Eve uxori ejus totam illam terram cum pretin. suis jacentem super ley Stathes (fn. 60) in longit. et latit. inter terram predicti Willĩ et terram quondam Nicholai de Malton, reddendo Roberto de Hedworth et Julie uxori ejus et hered.2s. 6d. per annum. T. Walrano de Lomley, Ballivo de Gatesheved, Johanne Scot de Pampeden, Ballivo de Pipewellgate, Rogero Rede, Thoma fil. Uctredi, Johanne de Haxbye, Roberto del holme, et multis aliis. Apud Pipewellgate, 26 Jul. 1349
V. Omnibus, &c. Gocelinus Surtees sal. Noveritis me dedisse, &c. Wilto Syre de Pipewellgate in Gatesheved duas acras prati et dimidiam vocat. Thomaslandes(scilt) habitac'ones super aquam de Tyne, et quæ jacent in campo de swalwelles inter pratum vocat. le Briggemedowe ex occid. et pratum vocat. le Milnemedowe ex orien. T. Walrano de Lomley, Wilto Freman de Qwycham, Gilberto de Merlay, Roberto de Lambton, Roberto de Massam, et aliis. Dat. apud Swalwelles, 10 Octobr. A. D. 1352.
VI. Noverint presents et futuri quod ego Emma filia Johannis le Quareur de Gatesheved dedi, &c. Henrico de Farnakris quandam placeam terre in villa de Gatesheved, quæ se extendit a parte aquilonali in longitudine a loco ubirivulus de Pypewell cadit in aquam de tyne usque ad forinsecas metas et bundarias terras quæ fuerunt quondam Hugonis Fertlyng in vico de Pypewellgate, et in longit. similiter ad aliud capud a parte occid. a predictis metis usque ad quend. venellum qu. ducit ad fontem de Pypewell. T. Gilberto Gategang, tunc Ballivo de Gatesheved, Johanne fratre suo, Johanne Ade, Thoma de Vaus, Bartholomeo Plok, Radulfo Burdok, Ricardo de Cestria, &c.
VII. Indentura facta inter Willielmum Syre et Thomam Fournays, pro factura unius Staythe de lapide quadrato (fn. 61).
Hec Indentura inter Wiltm Syre ex parte una et Thomam de Fournays cementarium ex altera teatatur quod predictus Thomas bene et fideliter manuceperit fide media predicto Wiltmo sibi facere unum stathe super suum capitale messuagium in Pypewellgate in Gatesheved, super aquam de Tyne ex parte boriali contin. in se in longit. decem et octo pedes in le ground ebbe de Tyne, equaliter in latitudine sicut latitudo dicti messuag. ex parte boreali, et totum de costagiis predicti Thome. Ita quod centum primum de taillstan ad dictum opus, quilibet taillstan erit de duobus et dimid. et resid. Omnium taillstans erit de tribus pedibus et magis ultra quam infra, ad dictum opus perficiendum. Et occidentalis pars predictæ stathe erit firmiter conjuncta cum coglestan equaliter sine defectu. Et quod dictum opus sit factum citra festum S. Nicholai prox. futur. post dat. confectionis presentium, nisi sit perturbatum per tempestatem, fluvium, vel maliciose (fn. 62) per gentes ville Novi Castri super Tynam. Et quod dictus Thomas dicto Wiltmo facit unam sufficientem latrinam infra dictam statham, et pro isto opere faciendo et perficiendo predictus Will's dabit p'd'o Thomæ vel suo certo attornato decem marcas sterling. argenti ut opus suum sine defectu pficiatur. In cujus rei testimonium partes predictæ presenti indenturæ alternatim sigilla sua apposuerunt. Testibus, Petro de Lewe, Ballivo de Gatesheved, Alano Gategang, Jacobo Gategang, Petro tinctore, Rogero Rede, Cuthberto Clerico, et multis aliis. Datum apud Pypewellgate, die dominica prox. post F.S. Petri ad Vincula, A.D. 1408.
Pedigree of Ravensworth.
† Inq. p. m. John de Eyghton, Monday after All Saints, 35 Hatf. 26 acres in Saltwellsyde by 4s. 4d. rent; a cot and three acres in Eyghton. John de Ravensworth, son of Emma, sister of John de Eyghton, heir, aged 24.
‡ John Ravensworth, by charter of Bishop Lewis, produced on the inquest, and dated 24 Jan. 1324, held 86 acres in Saltwellsyd and in Gatesheved-field by 3s. 4d. rent; three acres in Gateshead, &c. one messuage and a half, once of Alan de Slikburn, and thirteen acres—one acre subter le Rotgraynes—the manor of Ravensworth (or, rather, a manor within Ravensworth) containing three messuages, value 9s.; one cottage, 2s.; eighty acres of arable, 15s. 4d. per ann.; four acres and a half of pasture, 2s.; one acre of meadow, 8d.; one acre of wood, 20d.; held of Sir William Lumley, Knt. by the eighth part of a knight's service. A cottage, toft, croft, and three acres in Kibblesworth, held of John Scrutevile.
Pedigree of Gategang.
* Ominibus, &c. Thomas Sparce capellanus. Sciatis me concessisse Stephano Sparee fratri meo unum tenementum in Pypewellgate, ab aqua de Tyne usque fossatum versus austrum et in latitudine inter terras Will'i Gategang ex utraque parte. Testibus Gilberto Gategang, Gilberto filio suo tune Ballivo de Gatesheved, Will'o Gategang, &c. Apud Gateshed die Annunc. A. D. incipiente 1287. D. & C. Treas.
§ Inq. die L. prox. p. F. S. Joh. ante Port. Lat. ao 11 Hatf. Sibilla, the widow of Gilbert Gategang, died seized of a capital messuage and seven acres in Kablyncroft infra Burgum de Gatesheved; three acres in Seynt Elyn Wel-croft infra eundem Burgum; a medow called the Marshel medowe, and le Fletes and le Strother medowe, and eighty acres of newly granted waste, novi vasti, in the fields of Gateshead, held by an exchequer rent of 4l. 2s. 2d., fifty-eight acres in Folesteby, held of the Almoner of the House of Durham. John, son of Alan Gategang, heir, aged 14.
§§ Henricus Gategang, Rector Ecclesie de Belton, heres Joh'is Gategang, et Joh'is de Castro Bernardi, dedimus Joh'i de Dolphanby terram in villa de Gatesheved inter terram D'ni Thome Surteys mil. ex parte austral. et viam que vocatur Hellegate ex bor. et in longit. a via regia ex parte occid.usque ad terram quam Robertus de Beltoft, &c. T. Will'o Gategang, &c. 1375. Orig.—Earl of Strathmore.
** Inq. p. m. die L. prox. ante F. S. Greg. Papæ 5 Hatf.; obiit seisitus de tota terra de Pipewellgate, quæ tenetur de Episcopo in Baronia, val. 13s. 4d.; one place called Joppesriding, and one acre near the water of Tame, held of the Bishop by fealty; twelve burgages in Gateshead; a messuage and carucate of land in Boldon, called Faderleshouse; and four acres in Whickham, and a messuage and eleven acres in Folesteby. John son and heir, aged 4.
†† Indent. Inter Will'um Gategang fil. Alani ex una parte et Dom. Priorem et Convent. de Dunelm. ex altera, quod non liceat Will'o alienare terras suas in Pypewellgate nisi dictis Priori et Convent. sub pena 100l. sterling. 19 Feb. 1387. D. & C. Treas.
Sciant, &c. quod ego Will'us de Gategang de Gatesheved dedi, &c. Joh'i de Dolfynby et Ricardo de Huton, cissori, unam acram in Colyerchare abuttan. super terras dominicas Episcopi Dunelmensis, in F. S. Cuthberti 1402.
║║ Will'us Gategang et Katerina uxor ad firm. dimiser. Walt'ro de Hesilden mess. In Gatesheved quod Joh'es de Bardenay forisfecit nobis causa vasti, &c. T. Johanne de Dolphanby, &c. 1375. Orig.—Earl of Strathmore.
‡‡ Inq. p. m. die Mere. prox. p. F. S. Mich. 25 Langley. Per quend. fin. Temp. Ricardi Bury, inter Alan Gategang et Agnet. ux. Quer. et Nicholaum Gategang, before. &c. 4 mess. 4 croft. in Gatesheved; 9 acr. de Joppesriding. Also in fee-tail, by virtue of the said fine, 146 acres in Gatesheved; fourteen acres called Salt-medowe; the place called Pypewellgate; Camerdykes; twenty-four acres called Strothir-medowe; fourteen acres at Rikburnhede. John Gildeford cousin and heir, viz. son of John son of Sibilla sister of William Gategang, aged 24.
Pedigree of Dolphanby.
* The inquisition adds that William Hardyng holds 10l. per ann. out of the premises for term of life of Agnes his wife, and two tenements are abandoned, and are thrown up to the chief Lord, the Earl of Westmoreland, for lack of tenants, “tepentium in pestilencia modo regnante defunctorum,” and the very tenements themselves are represented as seriously affected, “valde debilia et ruinosa.”
† Probacio ætatis Johanne, &c. Witnesses, Henry Ravensworth, aged 60; John Hadham, æt. 50, came that day to town, being St. Michael's-day, and, alighting at the house of Thomas Hedlam, of Gatesheved, found that Joan, his landlady, was gone to church to be gossip for Joan Dolphanby, together with John Vescy, Chaplain, and Joan Pape. Thomas Botrell, æt. 56, “venit de partibus transmarinis in Vigil. Festi S. Mich. et fuit in ecclesia B. Marie de Gatesheved, rumores transmarinos annuncians et revelans vicinis suis, quando consang. suus Jo. Vesey,” &c. &c. 17 Dec. 14 Nevill. John Claxton, æt. 46, was on the Sandhill with Thomas Pape when Robert Dolphanby asked him (Pape) to let Joan his wife stand god-mother, &c.
‡ 26 Nov. 1490, Omnibus, &c. Conan Barton, arm. Noveritis me de consensu Roberti filii mei dedisse Henrico Bointon de Sadbury, arm. Will. Pudsay, Rectori de Bolton, Rolando Pudsey, arm. Tho. Strangwish de Ketton, arm. & Thome Herbotill de Ponteland, 1 claus. ex parte oriental. de Gateshed, vocat. Le Abraham Close. Rot. Sherwood.
Pedigree of Thomlison, of Gateshead.
*** Mr. James Gascoyne, buried 23 Feb. 1630; John Gascoyne, Surgeon, 21 Aug. 1647; Thomas Gascoyne, Chirurgeon, 6 May 1652; Emanuel Gascoyne and Mary Harper, married 28 Feb. 1662; Margaret, daughter of Emanuel, bapt. 26 Jan. 1668; Mary, wife of Mr. John Gascoigne, buried 14 March 1628–9.
The Church (fn. 63) is a spacious building of regular architecture, consisting of a nave (with uniform ailes), West tower, chancel, and transept. The ailes are formed by light octagonal pillars, supporting on each side five spacious arches. The transept opens into the ailes under similar arches. The whole body of the church is old; but the tower or steeple, and a portion of the West end of the nave, was rebuilt in 1740 (fn. 64), when a new West doorway was opened under the tower; the old entrance is by a South porch. The whole of the light are modern, both in the ailes and chancel. The nave has uniform clerestory windows both on the North and South. The chancel opens into the nave under a wide pointed arch. There were formerly there recesses in the wall within the alter-rails for officiating ministers, but when the chancel was repaired by Dr. Prosser the recesses and piscina were removed. The old chancel roof is covered with a plain ceiling. The whole church is regularly stalled with old oak, carved with fleurs de lis, and with the Prince's feathers frequently repeated. There are also several coats of arms, particularly Cole, a cheveron engrailed inter three scorpions erect, on a chief three fleurs de lis (fn. 65); crest, a dexter hand grasping a scorpion. Gray, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed quarterly with Ridell, a fesse between three grabs: Virtute non vi. Liddell, fretty, on a chief there leopards' heads, impaling Tempest, a bend engrailed inter six martlets: Fama semper vivit. ....a fesse engrailed between three griffins' heads erased: and perhaps some other bearings. The font is a large basin of black marble. The ground immediately adjoining the church is called the Anchorage, and is occupied by the School-house, the Beadle's house, and other office connected with the Church.
The Parsonage, a good house with gardens and a view towards the river, nearly adjoins the church on the East (fn. 66).
Succession of Rectors.
- Robert de Plessis.
- Robert, 1275.
- Henry Manselot, 1322.
- Rich. Kilvington, S. T. P. 1344, p.m. Manselot.
- John de Castro Bernardi, 1370, p.m. Kilvington.
- Adam de Fenrother, p. res. John.
- John de Castro Bern. p. res. Fenrother, 1376.
- John Bathre, 1370, p. res. John.
- Thomas Everard, 1380, p. res Bathre.
- William de Dalington, 1389, p.m. Everard
- John de Longley, p.m. Dalington.
- William Malberthorp, Cl. p. res Longley.
- William Wandesford, 1410, p.m. Malberthorp.
- John de Thoralby, 1419, p. res. Wandesford.
- Henry de Eton, 1421, p. res. Thoralby.
- John Bonour, 1427, p.m. Eton.
- John Lethom, 1435, p. res. Bonour.
- Thomas Tanfield, 1436, p. res. Lethom.
- Robert Mason, LL. D. 1474, p. m. Tanfield.
- Ch. Mann, 1493, p. m. Mason.
- John Brown, Cl. 1532.
- William Bell, S. T. P. 1557, p. res. Brown.
- William Byrche, A. M. (fn. 67) 1559.
- Lancelot Doddisworthe, 19 July 1564.
- William Hodgeson, 5 Oct. 1571, p. m. Doddisworth.
- Clement Colmore, LL. D. (fn. 68) 1587.
- John Hutton, 1595.
- Thomas Hooke, 25 May 1612.
- Joseph Browne, A. M. 18 July 1620.
- Thomas Weld, an intruder (fn. 69), 1649–1657 (fn. 70).
- John Laidler, A. M. (fn. 71) 16 Mar. 1660, pr. King Charles II. Sede vac.
- John Cave, A. M. 1685.
- Richard Werge, A. M (fn. 72) 1683, p. res. Cave.
- John Cock, A. M. (fn. 73) 1687, p. m. Werge.
- Robert Brograve, A. M. 1691, p. depr. Cock.
- George Tully, A. M. (fn. 74) 16
- John Smith, A. M. 12 June 1695, p.m. Tully.
- Theophilus Pickering, S.T.P. 5 Dec.1695, p. res. Smith (fn. 75).
- Leonard Shafto, A. M. (fn. 76) 1705, p. res. Pickering.
- Rebort Stillingfleet, A. M. (fn. 77) 1732, p. m. Shafto.
- William Lambe, A. M. 1733, p. res. Stillingfleet.
- Andrew Wood, A. M. 1769, p. m. Lambe.
- Richard Faweett, D. D. (fn. 78) 1772, p. m. Wood.
- Robert Thorpe, A. M. (fn. 79) 1782, p. m. Fawcett.
- Richard Prosser, D. D. (fn. 80) Bal. Coll. Oxon. res.1808.
- Henry Frederic Phillpotts, A.M. (fn. 81) Magdalen Coll. Oxon. res. 1810
- John Collinson, A. M. of Queen's Coll Oxon. p. res Phillpotts, 1810 (fn. 82).
The glebe, besides the house and gardens, consists of a field at High Team, of five acres, two roods, and twenty perches; a field of three acres, two roods, and thirty perches, between the Middle and Stony Flats (fn. 83); also a field three acres and twelve perches, bounded on the North by the Hexham road; a field of three roods and thirty-two perches at Bencham; and a field of one acre, three roods, and twenty-five perches, adjoining the Rectory house and gardens, and now called the Rectory-field (fn. 84).
The Rector is Master of King James's Hospital, and there belong to him the fishery of Friar's Goose, with the liberty of drying nets, and 40s. paid annually by the grassmen for Parson's flatt and Bull's acre (fn. 85).
The Rector is generally entitled to great and small tithe throughout the parish, excepting the following portions, covered by moduses: 5l. per annum, paid by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. for tithe-hay of St. Edmund's lands in his possession; 2l. 10s. for all tithe of Darwent-crook; 6s. 8d. for tithe-hay of Saltwellside; 3s. 4d for tithe-hay of Field-house; all payable at Michaelmas. The Rector of Gateshead pays annually to the Bishop of Durham 1s. 8d. at Martinmas, for lands belongings to the dissolved house of St. Edmund's; 3s. 4d. to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, for St. Edmund's lands; and 2l. 13s. 4d. to Kepyer School, in Houghton-le-Spring.
1. St. Mary's Chantry, in the North porch. In 1330, Alan, son of Roger Prestre, and Alan Prestre of Gateshead, confirmed to Roger de Thorington, Chaplain, ten messuages in Gateshead, and 6s. 8d. out-rent. The Commonalty of Gateshead were to be patrons after the decease of Roger and Alan, et jurabit capellanus coram Rectore de Gatesheved qui pro tempore, &c. The foundation was confirmed by Bishop Skirlaw, 2 Nov. 1402, and by the Prior and Convent Aug. 8, 1403.
The Chauntrie of our Lady in Gatishedd was founded by one Alan Prestore, to fynde a preste for the mayntenaunce of God's service, and to praye for his sowle and all Cristen sowles, by reporte, but ther is no dede of eny foundacion therof to be shewed. Yerly value 75s 4d.; valew accordyng to this survey, 8l. 2s. (paid thereout for the rent 29s 4d. for King's tenths 7s. 6d. ob.); remayneth clerely 6l. 3s. 3d. ob. which ben employed to the sustentac'n and relif of Willyam Blynkynnsope, Prieste, incumbent there; ornaments 4l. 13s. 11d. (fn. 86)
Incumbents: 1330, Roger de Thorington. William de Norham occurs 1402. Sir John Bell. Sir John Turpyne, p. m. Bell, 1496. William Gotten occurs 1519. william Friende, Chaplain, 10 March 1544 (on the presentation of the Bailiff and Commonalty of Gateshead). William Blenkynsop 1546. Thomas Worthy received a pension of 6l.1553 (fn. 87).
2. St. John's Chantry. By deed, dated on the feast of St. peter and St. Paul, 1421, John Dolphanby of Gateshead granted to John Vescy, Chaplain of the Chantry of St. John Baptist and St. John Evangelist (which he had then lately founded), fourteen tenements or burgages in Gateshead (fn. 88). The charter was confirmed by the Bishop of Durham 1421, and by the Prior and Convent 1424.
Chaplains: John Vescy 1421. Thomas Hochinson. Sir Robert Beste, 14 June 1496, admitted on presentation of Conand Barton, of Whenby (a Yorkshire Esquire, and heir of blood of Dolphanby). Thomas Hochinson, 37 Henry VIII.; received a pension of 6l. in 1553.
At the Dissolution, yearly value 6l. 12s. 8d. ob.; value by survey 7l. 16s. 8d. wherof for one yearly obit, 6s. 8d.; for the King's tenths 13s. 3d. quad.; 6l. 16s. 8d. ob. quad. de claro; ornaments 47s.
3. St. Loy's Chantry, founded by John Dolphanby before 1442. The founder settled the patronage of this Chantry by deed, on the feast of Holy Cross 1442, on his grandson Robert Dolphanby and his heirs, by which descent it became vested in Conan Barton, of Whenby, Esq.
Sept. 28, 1532, Bishop Tunstall instituted Sir Robert Galele (p. mort. Sir Richard Rande), on the joint presentation of Anthony Lumley, Esq. (patron for that turn, on account of the minority of Conan Barton,) and of John Brown Rector of Gateshead. Richard Jackson received a pension of 3l. in 1553 (fn. 89).
4. Trinity Chantry. "The Chauntrie of the Trinitie in Gateshead was founded by one Alan Prestore, to fynde a Prieste," &c. Yerelie value 4l. 4s. 2d.; value by survey 6l. 18d.; rent resolut. 2s. 6d.; King's tenths 8s. 5d.; remayneth clerely 110s. 7d. ornamenths 79s. 1d. (fn. 89)
John Huchynson received a pension of 5l. in 1553 (fn. 90).
The first place shall be assigned to Robert Trollop (architect of the Town-hall in Newcastle, 1659),descended from a line of stone-masons (fn. 91), and who prepared his own tombhouse, a heavy square pile, the lower part brick, the upper stone, sometime ornamented with golden texts beneath the cornice. On the North side, according to tradition, stood the image of Robert Trollop, with his arm raised, pointing towards the Town-hall of Newcastle, and underneath,
Here lies Robert Trowlup,
Who made yon stones roll up;
When death took his soul up,
His body filled this hole up (fn. 92).
Here lieth interred the body of Christopher Sanderson, late of Gateshead, Mercer, who exchanged this life the 22d day of December, An Dom. 1660. Here lieth interred with him his brother, Charles Sanderson.
Here lieth the body of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of George Gray, of the Bishoprick of Durham, Esq. late wife to John Clifton, Citizen and Mercer of London, who departed this life the 6th of May 1651, near 32 years of age.
Here lieth interred the body of Timothy Tyzack, Merchant-adventurer, and Elizabeth his wife, who had issue by him seven children; two survived them, viz. Timothy and George. She departed this life the 13th day of October, an. 1659; he departed this life the 6th day of February 1684.
Here sleeps Mrs. Judith Weld, who was to three Godly Ministers a good wife; to Christ a faithfull servant; to the Church a virtuous member for piety, prudence, and patience. She departed this life 1656. In Jesu Domino splendida resurgam.
Above the South door a mural monument to Martha, wife of Thomas Richardson, of Lynn Regis, Master and Mariner, ob. 24 July 1731, æt. 50; her husband died 2 Sept. 1748 (fn. 93). Arms: Or, on a chief Sable three lions' heads erased of the first, impaling, Gules, three bars, and a dexter canton Argent.
At the West end of the nave a long Latin epitaph on Brain Borrett, merchant, son of Miles Borrett, of Dowbiggin in the parish of Sadberge, in Yorkshire; ob. 7 Feb. 1695, aet. 36. Dorothy, his only daughter, ob. 5 Oct. 1704, æt. 19 (fn. 93) Arms: Argent, three boars' heads Sable, impaling a cheveron inter three crescents, on a canton..... Crest, a lion passant.
To the Memory
Andrew Wood, M. A.
Rector of this Church.
Born XXIX May MDCCXV;
inducted IX Sept. MDCCLIX;
amidst the tears of his Parishioners,
XV March MDCCLXXII.
This monument of their esteem,
affection, and gratitude,
was erected by the people
Reader, in that piece of earth
In peace rests Thomas Arrowsmith;
In peace hee lived, in peace went hence,
With God and man, and conscience.
Peace for other men he sought,
And peace with peeces sometime bought;
Pacifici may others bee,
But ex pace factus hee.
Peace, reader, then doe not molest
That peace whereof he's now possest.
The God of peace, for him in store,
Hath joy and peace for evermore.
St. Mary's Church is rich in plate : A silver cup 20 ounces, inscribed, “The free gift of James Cole to St. Mary's church in the parish of Gateshead.” Arms : a fesse engrailed inter three scorpions erect, a mullet difference. Crest : a naked dexter arm grasping a scorpion. (Mr. Cole died 1662.) A silver flaggon, 56 ounces, inscribed, “The gift of William Collinson, late of Gateshead, deceased, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, 1672.” Arms, on a fesse a crescent inter two mullets, in chief a lion rampant, in base three battle-axes turned dexterwise. Another silver chalice, 43 ounces, “The gift of Elizabeth Collinson, in memory of her daughter, Jane Wrangham, deceased, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, 1672.” A silver paten, 20 ounces, “Honor et Gloria soli Deo, 1732.” A cup 19 ounces and a quater, “Soli Deo Gloria.” A small silver plate, 7 ounces, without inscription. A silver chalice, 73 ounces and a half ; two silver plates for collecting alms, 23 ounces and a half each ; and a silver paten, 22 ounces and a quarter; these three are inscribed, “The gift of Mrs. Ann Shaftoe to the church of St. Mary, Gateshead, July 9, 1785.” A large silver basin, in which the alms are placed on the communion-table, 40 ounces, “The gift of Richard Fawcett, D.D. Rector, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, May 13, 1780.” (fn. 94) A silver cup and salver, presented to St. Edmund's Chapel by the Rev. H. Phillpotts, Prebendary of Durham, 1815.
June 1, 1636. The names of those that died in the infection of the plauge, and is buried in ye church-yard this year, 1636, since the first begininge, being aboute the first of June, as followeth—to Sept. 30 the number has been counted, on which day it was 200.
13 Mar. Paid, for careinge the towns armor, and puder and mach, to Wetburn lesors (fn. 95), 9s.9d.
1633. To workemen, for makeing the streats even at ye King's coming, 18s. 4d.; and Paid the piper for playing to ye menders of ye high waies five severall daies, 3s. 4d. (fn. 96)
1642. Oct. 16th. “For as much as it hath pleased Almighty God to visite this P'ish with the plague of pestilence [a sume or sesse of 24 weeks ordered], collected for the use of the infected poor 28l.6s. Given to a gentleman whose father was a Doctor in Divinity, 2s.
1645. Received at the church dore at seaverall tymes, for the reliefe of the poore infected people, 7l, 17s. 5d.; for making loudges, and for the reliefe of the poore infected people in Benshom, paid more than could be collected of the 6 weekes sess (which was laid on in the year 1644) because of the peoples impoverishment, 3l. 2s. 10d.
In this year the beacon had a new pann and a crook, 18s.; and the towne paid a fine of 11l. 15s. to Captain Grey, “which the Com'ittee did lay uppon this towne for lack of the com'on armes, and for his and his mens charges when they came about the fine;” also it was not without a payment of 1s. 2d.that the poor Burghers did “redeame their great new gate, which the Scottes had taken away and carried to their leager, which gate did hang at the entring in to the towne fields.” Moreover, the town was charged with 2s. 8d. “for two forks and two rakes for the Governer's use.
1646. June. Paid to men for assisting to drive the Fell, and watching the beastes where they were pinded; but James Towers of Newcastle, p'cureing assistance of the Scotts, came violently and tooke them away by force, his beasts being in nomber 79; also ther was at that tyme 90 of another mans, 9s. 3d.
Novemb. Pd to Rob. Sanderson, for dressin jergin's hole (fn. 97), and carrying away much rubish when Newcastle men would have fined Gateshead for it, 4s.
1 stone of figgs riding the boundarie, 4s 8d. (fn. 98)
Paid at Mris Watsons, when the Justices sate to examin the witches, 3s. 4d.; for a grave for a witch 6d; for trying the witches 1l. 5s. (fn. 99)
Received of John Willowbie, which he brought from Chester in le Streett, whiche was collected 16th of October, for Mallbrough (fn. 100), and which was refussed (in regard the greatest part of the moine was in bordwells (fn. 101), which moine did remaine at Chester) 2l.18s.6d.
Paid James Madder and the rest of the constabells for Lilbourn's troupes, for coles and can-dell, and for the Irish troupe, and for keeping of sick souldiers, for the burying of one and setting away the other, 18s.
In this year, 1658, several of the four and twenty of the parish of Gateshead were displaced, as being “persons who by the humble petic'n and advice were disabled from exercising any place or office of publique trust, and guilty of profaneness and other crimes, soe that they are not fitt to be entrusted in that employment;” and their places filled by other godly and sober inhabitants of the Borough, by order in Councill, dat. at Whitehall, Tuesday 22 June, grounded on certificate from Robert Fenwick, Henry Ogle, Esquires, and John Topping, Governor of Tinmouth.
Jan. 28. Sir Franeis Liddell, Knt. and Mr. Ralph Cole, chosen of the 24. Given by James Cole, Esq. “a fair silver chalice.” Given by ffrancis Collinson, “a large pewter flagon.” For ringing the bells severall times when the King was proclaimed, and since, 1l. 13s. 8d.
Expended on the coronation day, April 23, 2 barells gunn powder, 6l.; 1 hogshd of ale, 2l.; given the gunners and their mate 15s.; paper, starch, match, and packthread, 3s. 1d.; nailes, and a skin for the rammers, 8d.; bringing up and carrying downe 9 great gunns, 1l. 0s. 4d.; 9 tar-barrells and labourers, 11s.; labourers bringing the ale and powder barr1ls, 2s.; for mending the church-yard wall, weh was pulld down for the gunns, 2s. 6d>.
1701, 22 April. Ordd that ye littell bell now in the belfrey be p'sented to Robt Ellison, Esq. for ye use of Heworth chappell, in leiue of the arrerages due to ye sd Rob. Ellison for the blew quarry spring.
1702–3. 13 Jan. Ord. that Wm Lakey be forthwith kept and indempnifyd for a vexatious suite brought agt him by the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, for breweing of ale and beer in the towne of Gateshead.
Item, Robert Robson, to ye gylton (gilding) of ye crose, xiid. Of Alison Ffathrestanhaugh, iiis iiijd. For ye beryall of John Borrell, talyor, iiis. iiiid. Gatherd in ye kirk, to ye gyltyng of ye crose, vis.
Expens. It'm, for a nald nobill (old noble (fn. 102) ) to Bartrom Yonghosban, viiis xd. To Thomas Hutchonson, for a farthyn of gold, iis. To Willm Broon, for a quartr of a nald nobill, iis. iid. For qwiksilver to gylt wt xiid. For oyle to ye lampe, iid. For gyltyng of ye crose, xxd. To the sawers, for sawying, xid. & xiid.
Expen. For payntyng of ye crose stafe, iiiid. For synggyng of ye lady mese, xld. For synggyng of a dirige for ye wife yt gafe ye skarlet hode, xviiid. To Androw Writer, for a lettr of atornay, iiiid. For mendyng of glase wyndow, iiid. For rydyng to Dorham for haloying of ye vestments, viid. For a stryng to ye litell bell, viiid. For mendyng of ye organe xxvis. viiid. For sweyng of Kyrk, iid.
St. Edmund's Hospital.
If Ad Murum were admitted to be Wallsend, Ad Capra Caput, the monastery of Uttan, might very conveniently be allowed to stand for Gateshead; but Ad Murum has been also conjectured to be Welton near Harlow Hill, or perhaps still more probably Halton Chesters. At all events, this Saxon foundation must have perished in the storm of Danish invasion. It is only possible, and totally unsupported by evidence, that the scite of the ancient monastery may have been remembered and designated as the scite of a long subsequent religious foundation.
A certain Chapel, Chantry, or Hospital, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, existed in Gateshead about the year 1200 (and possibly long anterior), and consisted of a foundation for the maintenance of one chaplain and three poor brethren. To this ancient establishment Osmund, son of Hamo, gave four acres in Harlei, nearest to the grove of Benchelm, parcel, viz. of that portion of cultivated ground which he had received from Bishop Philip, in exchange for Ulkilstan (fn. 103). Henry de Ferlington, constable of Durham about 12.., contributed his lands in Kyoe in frank almoigne (fn. 104); and by charter, also without date, Baldwin wi' the head gave to Gerard, son of Geve, Steward of the Hospital of the Holy Trinity in Gateshead, seventeen acres in the South part of his field called Alrisburne, reserving from the Hospital eight pence rent towards the reparation of Tyne bridge (fn. 105). The charter was confirmed by Alice of Quicham, and Alianor, widow of Simon de Lamford, daughters of Baldwin, reserving one toft near the church-yard of Quicham, out of which Alice and Alianor undertook to satisfy the See of Durham for one pound of pepper out of the whole tenure (fn. 105).
The revenues of this Hospital of the Trinity were extremely exile; and in 1248 Bishop Nicholas Farnham (with consent of the Prior of Durham, and of the resident brethren of the Trinity) consolidated the revenues of this house with those of his new foundation of “The Chapel and Hospital of St. Edmund, King and Confessor, and of the glorious Bishop Cuthbert in Gateshead (fn. 106).” This consolidated foundation consisted of a Master, and three Chaplains, each of whom was to receive from the Master twenty shillings; and should the good seed now sown prosper and encrease, “taliter studeat (Magister) erogare quod in districti judicii examine ut fidelis Dispensator à Judice supremo cum electis ex fructu bonorum operum vitam capiat sempiternam.” The Master was empowered, after due monition, to proceed to the deprivation of irregular or scandalous brethren (fn. 107); and the Bishop of Durham was constituted Patron and Visitor, with the power of correction and amotion. The charter of endowment included, 1. the vill of Ulkilstan (Ouston); 2. the old demesne of Gateshead, with the wood of Benchelm, containing forty-three acres, betwixt the arable lands of the Holy Trinity and the road to Farnacres, pointing towards the meadows; 3. Nine and twenty acres (being an escheat) in Aluresacyres (fn. 108). Some subsequent benefactions occur of very trifling amount. John of the Kitchen, Burgess of Gateshead, contributed a parcel of ground opposite to the venel, called Waldeschere, in Gateshead (fn. 109). In 1378 Bishop Skirlaw gave to William de Brantyngham, then Master, three cottages in Gateshead which had escheated to the See. In 1361 Isabel de Birtley died seized of a messuage and sixty acres in Kyoleeh, held of the Hospital by the service of a rose on St. John Baptist's day (fn. 110); and in 1430 an inquisition occurs concerning an acre of ground held under the Chantry of the Trinity in St. Edmund's, called Belesacre, lying near a cross at the head of the Borough of Gateshead (fn. 111). Not long after, 7 Oct. 1448, Bishop Nevill appropriated the Hospital of St. Edmund's, with the whole of its rents and possessions, to the Nuns of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle, on condition of maintaining two officiating priests in the chapel of the Hospital, and reserving two pensions of 6s. 8d. to the See of Durham, and 3s. 4d. to the Prior and Convent, as an indemnity for any loss they might respectively sustain by the annexation, which was to take place immediately on the death or removal of the existing Master of St. Edmund's (fn. 112). From this time the Hospital became, as it should seem, a mere stipendiary Chantry, dependant on the White Ladies; and the Prioiress held her courts, by her Steward, in the chapel of St. Edmund's for the lands of the Nunnery in Gateshead. Agnes Lawson, Prioress of St. Batholomew, and her chapter of nine nuns, resigned the house of the White Ladies to Henry VIII. Jan. 3, 1540 (fn. 113); and a rental remaining in the Augmentation Office, dated betwixt 4 Henry VIII.Jan.3, 1540q; and the dissolution, includes the following statement of the revenues of St. Edmund's.
|Item, the Hospytall of Sanct Edmund the Busshop and Confessor, by yer||12||0||0|
|It. a tenure and clos in the hands of Henry Anderson, by yer||0||6||8|
|It' a tenyre in the hands of the Prests of Farnacres, by yer||0||13||4|
|It. in Whikham, a tenire in the hands of Thomas Pendrat and his falo, by yer||0||6||0|
|It' a tenire in Usworth, in the hands of Thomas Harle, by yer||0||8||4|
|It' a tenire in Kyo, in the hands of Robart Marlay and Wyllm Lawes, by yer||2||1||0|
|It' Ulston, by yer||6||13||4|
|It' Stellingley (fn. 114), by yer||3||13||4|
Masters of St. Edmund's Hospital.
- Magister Ricardus, occurs 12 kal. Apr. 1265.
- John de Lynce, occurs 1 June 1344.
- John de Apilby (fn. 115), coll. by Bp. Hatfield, 20 Aug. 1353.
- Adam Fenrother (fn. 116), cl. 1366.
- William de Brantingham, 1374.
- Reginald Porter, coll. 3 Dec. 1404.
- John Newton (fn. 117), 1405.
- John King, occurs 14...
- John Walkington.
- George Radclyff, 29 Jan. 1431.
- John Heyworth (fn. 118), coll. 12 May 1435.
- Thomas Kyrkeby, cl. May 1441.
- William Hilderskelfe, 7 Oct. 1449.
- John Shirwode (fn. 119), 1467.
- Anthony Belasys, LL. D. (fn. 120) 15...
- Robert Claxton (fn. 121), 15 Aug. 1552.
- John Woodfall, 6 May 1579.
- Clement Colmore, LL. D. (fn. 122) 4 June 1587.
- John Hutton, Rector of Gateshead, appointed on the new foundation by King James, 4 January 1610.
Since which time the successive Rectors of Gateshead have been Masters of King James's Hospital (fn. 123).
The ruined Chapel of St. Edmund's stands about a mile from Tyne Bridge, on the East side of the High-street in Gateshead. The West front has a doorway under a deep pointed arch, with a profusion of plain mouldings ; on each side of the doorway plain shafts and round-headed (or trefoil ?) niches. Above the door is one long lancet light in the centre, and two smaller ones, with blank pointed arches intervening. The South side of the chapel has five lancet windows betwixt alternate buttresses. The North side has four similar lights, and two small doors, one under a narrow pointed arch, and another under a sort of trefoil head. Some of the capitals are flory, others plain. The East front has three lancet lights. The architecture of the interior is extremely plain and simple; the lights on the North and South are under round arches inwards, though pointed without; and the whole fabric consists of a single body, undivided by aile or transept.
The ancient house of St. Edmund's (as distinguished from the foundation of King James) became, after the dissolution, the seat of the Ridells, a branch of the ancient baronial family of Northumberland. The house and gardens of Sir Thomas Ridell (fn. 124) suffered severely from the Scots army under Lesley, on account of the loyalty of their owner. William Ridell, Esq. grandson of Sir Thomas, is styled of Gateshead in 1710; but the estate passed, under some family settlement, or legal transaction, which I am unable to disentangle, to the Claverings of Callaley. The house of St. Edmund's was the seat of this ancient Roman Catholic family in 1747, and was gutted and plundered by a Protestant mob. The mansion has since been untenanted. Its remains stand to the East of the Chapel, and still exhibit the ruins of a building in the high stile of Elizabeth or James, with large bay windows, divided by stone mullions and transoms; a heavy stone gateway faces to the street. The estate became, a few years ago, by purchase from the family of Barras, the property of Cuthbert Ellison, of Hebburne, Esq.
Pedigree of Ridell, of Gateshead, Fenham, Swinburne castle, and Felton.
Arms: 1. Argent. a fesse between three garbs Azure, Ridel; 2. Azure, three....Or, Horbotel; 3. Argent, a fesse inter three mullets pierced Argent; 4. Argent, a fesse (charged with a mullet) inter three martleta Sable; 5. Barry of six Argent and Azure, in chief three annulets Azure; 6. as first, Ridel. Visitation 1615.
† Tenet manerium de Tillmouth, excepta 1 carucata tradita uni Cantarie in perpetuum, et excepta tertia parte quam Emma quæ fuit uxor Willielmi patris Willielmi tenet in dotem; manerium de Twysill cum hamelettis de Dudhou et Veteri Grindon, exceptis duobus terris husband. quas Hugo Ridel tenet, &c.; duo partes man. de West Upsetlington; et omnia predicta maneria sunt destructa per Scotos, ita quod nihil valent.
The Hospital of St. Edmund's, of King James's Foundation, in Gateshead.
Either Hutchinson's supposition must be admitted, that there existed two contemporary foundations, the one dedicated to St. Edmund the King, the other to St. Edmund the Bishop; or else it must be conjectured, perhaps with more probability, that at the dissolution some small portion of the endowment of St. Edmund's was suffered to retain its original destination, for the support of a Chantry or Hospital. For though the beautiful Chapel of St. Edmund became the seat of the Ridels, and though the other principal possessions of the Hospital in Gateshead, Kyo, Whickham, and Ouston, all most evidently passed into lay hands, yet in 1543 an appointment occurs of Chaplain to the Chantry of the Trinity in the Chapel of St. Edmund's Hospital. A Master also occurs in the following year; and in 1545 (37 Henry VIII.), when Parliament granted to the Crown the last sweepings of the abbey plunder, the private chapels and chantries, this foundation of Gateshead (which had therefore most evidently survived the surrender of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew) is included in the list of houses placed by this last Act at the disposition of the Crown. “The Hospitalle of St. Edmund, in the parish of Gatishedde, was founded by the predecessors of the Bushoppes of Durham, by reporte, but to what intent or purpose we know not, for we have not sene the foundacon therof.”
In this survey the Hospital is described as standing half a mile distant from the parish church; yerely value 109s. 4d.; clear value by this survey, deducting 12s. 3d. tenths, 7l. 7s. 9d.; out of which the Master allows four marks to a Priest, who officiates twice a week; “value of ornaments nil, for ther be neither goods, catalls, ne ornaments, appertaining to the same, to our knowledge; ther were no other landes nor yerely profitts.” Yet this Chantry was still preserved; and by the Act 7 Edw. VI. which laid Gateshead to Newcastle, the patronage was vested in the Corporation, but seems to have reverted to the See of Durham. In 1611 King James totally refounded this Hospital, under the name of “King James's Hospital in Gateshead.” The charter of foundation states that there had long existed a certain Hospital within Gateshead, called the Hospital or free Chapel of St. Edmund King and Martyr, of which the founder was not certainly known; that the society consisted of a Master and three Brethren, but that the charters and muniments of the Hospital were lost or destroyed, aut senio et ætate consumpta et putrefacta; and the lands of the Hospital in a great measure converted to purposes of private emolument. The new society was ordered to consist of a Master, who shall always be the Rector of Gateshead for the time being, and of three poor Brethren, who were ordered to receive 3l. 6s. 8d. each during the life of the first Master, Hutton, then appointed; and after his death the full profits of the Hospital were to be divided, one third to the Master, and two thirds to the three poor Brethren. The endowment consisted of the scite, mansion, and garden, then belonging to the Hospital, of forty acres of arable land, five loads of hay off ten acres of meadow, forty acres of pasture, and a close at Shotley Bridge, with all such rights, members, liberties, and appurtenances, as the said Masters and Brethren, or any of them, had enjoyed, de facto saltem si non de jure, within the term of sixty years preceding the date of the letters patent.
The Masters of this Hospital have been the successive Rectors of Gateshead. The Chapel stood on the East side of the Fore-street, about a mile from Tyne Bridge; it was disused as to public service when Mr. Lambe was Master. The same Rector took down the lodgings of the Brethren, which adjoined the chapel, giving them some pecuniary allowance in lieu of them. In this situation the institution rested till 1810, when an Act passed enabling the Master and Brethren to grant leases of their property in parcels not exceeding one acre, for term of ninety-nine years, and to enable the Bishop of Durham to make statutes and ordinances for the government of the Hospital, and to augment the number of poor Brethren, so as the incomes of the present Master and Brethren suffer no diminution.
Under the powers of the above Act the Bishop of Durham issued a set of statutes for the government of the Hospital (October 17, 1811), by which, amongst other regulations, ten younger Brethren were added to the three ancient ones; the Master shall enjoy one third of the clear rents; out of the residue he shall pay 25l. to each of the ancient Brethren, 40l. to the Chaplain, and the residue shall be divided betwixt the ten younger Brethren, so as no such younger Brother shall receive more than 25l. (fn. 125)
While the Act was passing, a new Chapel was begun and finished by subscription, a little to the South of the old seite. The dimensions of the new Chapel are, 80 feet by 40; and it was consecrated by the name of St. Edmund's Chapel, by the Bishop of Durham, A. D. 1810. A piece of ground adjoining to the South, consisting of two roods and twenty-three perches, was purchased by the parish, and consecrated at the same time, for a church-yard. Divine Service is performed on Sundays, by the Chaplain; and the rest of the week the Chapel is used as a School, on the Madras or Bell system, which is supported by voluntary annual subscriptions, and well attended.
In the year 1811 the old ruined Chapel of St. Edmund's, and the Master's house, were taken down; and the houses of the three elder Brethren were at the same time rebuilt, a little to the North of the new Chapel; and on these new buildings all Dr. Lamb's remaining dilapidations were expended.
The name occurs in Hatfield's Survey, when John of Ravensworth held twenty-four acres here (which had belonged to William Slikburn), under 8s. rent. Henry Ravensworth had livery of lands in Saltwellside 26 Langley (fn. 126), part of which were the property of his descendants 13 Nevill. In 1504 Christopher Brigham, merchant, John Hedworth, Esq. Richard Errington, and Barbara Yonghosband, sued out a pardon for acquiring the tenement called Saltwellsyde from Robert Brigham, merchant (fn. 127).
The estate was soon after the property of the Hedworths of Harraton, and, towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth, their occasional residence (fn. 128). In 1629 (fn. 129) Sir John Hedworth, Knt. Richard Hedworth, and Elizabeth, conveyed to William Hall, merchant, and Alexander his son, their lands in Saltwellside, Beacon-house, Birdside, Threeleazes, Deckham, and Gateshead. In 1640 Sir Alexander Hall (fn. 130) devised his manor of Saltwellside (failing his son Alexander, who died in infancy,) to his brother-in-law, Ralph Maddison, Esq. Lyonel, son of Ralph, was of Saltwellside in 1666, and his son, another Lyonel, left only two daughters, by Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Herbert, of Midpleton-Quernhow (fn. 131). The eventual sole heir became the wife of Thomas Place, of Green Hammerton, co. York, Esq. Recorder of York, who sold Saltwellside to Joseph Liddell, of Moorhouse, near Carlisle, from whom it passed by purchase to Joseph Dunn, Esq. the late owner, whose widow now resides there.
By will, dated 17 Dec. 1614, Thomas Dackham, of Gateshead, Gent. devises to his daughter's daughter Elizabeth, wife of Henry Mitford, “his capital messuage and tenement in the parish of Gateshead, adjoyning unto Gateshead More, wherein Henry Mitford now dwelleth, and all that his nether tenement thereunto adjoyning,” and to her first-born child and its heirs successively, &c.; and, failing her issue, to Robert Brighouse, son of Tempest Brighouse, late of Newcastle, Draper; and failing, &c. to Jane Mitford, daughter of Anderson Mitford, by testator's daughter deceased; remainder to his own right heirs. Lands in Backworth to Robert Brighouse, and desires the Earl of Northumberland to admit him as next heir. To the poor of Gateshead “three pounds towards the bringing home of the water.” To William, son to his brother Henry Dackham, 5l.; to his cosin John Dackham, one of the Maisters of Requests; Henry Mitford, Executor, friends Thomas Riddell and Thomas Chaitor of Butterby, Supervisors.” Inventory 29 Dec. 1614.
Deckham's Hall (fn. 132) lies to the East of the great road, near Gateshead toll-bar. It was sold a few years ago, by George Wooler (of Fawnlees near Wolsingham), to William James, Esq. (fn. 133) the present proprietor.
Redheugh, a mile from Gateshead, now the handsome modern seat of the Askews, gave local name and residence to a long race of ancient owners. Alexander del Redhogh occurs in a charter of the thirteenth century, and in the great Bounders Riding, or, “Chivauche faicte à remember par quatre prodes hommes elus et assignez de par I'Evesque et quatre par le comune,” an entry occurs, Willam del Redhowe “a relesse son droit en les wastes de Gatesheved pour douze acres à tenir par la chartre de I'Evesque (fn. 134).”
In 1350 the manor was held by Thomas del Redhough of the See of Durham, by homage, fealty, and suit of court (fn. 135). He left an only daughter, Isolda; but the family estates had reverted to a male heir, and Hugh del Redhugh died in 1390, seized of two thirds of the manors of Redheugh and Holynside, Lynths and Bradley, and two thirds of two thirds of the manor of Axsheeles (fn. 136). Thomas, nephew of Hugh, and the last male heir, died in 1420 (fn. 137). The manor of Redheugh, partly by descent, and partly by conveyance from the other coheir, vested in the family of White, who continued in possession till Robert (son and heir of Robert White), who had livery 1 October 1619, sold the estate to Francis, afterwards Sir Francis Liddell, Knt. about 1620 (fn. 138).
The estate was mortgaged by the descendants of Sir Francis Liddell, and the mortgagees conveyed to Francis Earl of Derwentwater, who devised to the Hon. Thomas Radcliffe and Lady Mary Radcliffe. In 1748 Lady Mary Radcliffe conveyed to Adam Askew (fn. 139), of Newcastle, M.D. grandfather of the present proprietor (fn. 140).
Pedigree of Redheugh and White, of Redheugh.
William Wilson, son and heir of Ralph Wilson, aged 30 15 Car. I. 1639, had livery of lands in Fieldhouse, Joppesriding, and Cramerdykes. The family were for two or three descents stewards to the Lords Lumley, and partook in the loyal feelings and sufferings of their patrons.
In 1684 Field House was the estate of Sir Ralph Carr, Knt. It was afterwards the property of the Liddells (owners also of Saltwellside), and was sold by Joseph Liddell, Esq. to the family of Barras. The Low Team estate (well known for its iron-works) was sold together with Field House. Mr. John Barras is owner of Low Team, and Mr. George Barras of Field House.
Pedigree of Wilson, of Field House; and afterwards of Lumley Castle.
* Pardon Rad. Harding, Ric. Harbottle, et Alex. Darley, quod per script. indentat. 17 June, 9 Eliz. adquisiv. de Ric. Hodgson I tenem. vocat Joppersriding in Gateside ad us. Ric. Hodgson pro vita rem. Radulfo Wilson & hær. masc. &c. 4 Nov. 4 Jac. Rot. W. James. Item pro Cramerdykes.
(Darwencrook,) was parcel of the possessions of Kepyer Hospital, and was purchased (by fine, 3 Aug. 1612,) from John and Thomas Heath, Esquires, by Thomas Liddell, Alderman of Newcastle, who devised the estate (27 July 1615) to his youngest son Roger Liddell, whose male issue is extinct (fn. 141). Darncrook is now, by purchase from several intermediate proprietors, vested in the family of Liddell, of Ravensworth.
Charitable Benefactions to the Parish of Gateshead.
Henry Smith, Esq. by deed, dated October 19, 1619, gave 5l. (fn. 142) per annum to the aged and impotent poor who shall have resided five years in the parish of Gateshead; charged on lands at —, in the possession of the Earl of Scarborough.
By deed, Jan. 16, 1673, Elizabeth Collinson (fn. 143) gave to the Rector and Church-wardens, on trust, for poor widows and poor inhabitants of the parish of Gateshead, certain lands in Easington [two closes and a stripe of land, whereon stood a cottage within the precincts of the Rectory at Easington], rent 8l. 11s.per annum 1792 (fn. 144).
Thomas Rawling, by will, left to the poor a house and malting in Oakwellgate, vested in the Rector and Church-wardens (fn. 145).
[Ralph] Cole, [Esq.] gave a rent-charge of 4l. per ann. on a house belonging to Thomas Pearson (fn. 146), [now to Thomas Easton, 1817.] Sir William Blackett, by will, 1680, left a rent-charge on a house near the North end of Tyne Bridge, now in the possession of James Hume; 40s. per ann. to be paid to be to the Rector, and by him to be distributed to the poor. Dr. Aldworth gave a rent-charge of 20s. on a house in Gateshead, in the possession of Mr. Thomas Harvey, payable annually at Christmas. Matthew Bates gave a rent-charge of 20s.on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Mr. Robert Proctor, payable annually at Christmas. Mrs. Jane Sutton gave a rent-charge of 20s. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Nicholas Walton, Esq. payable annually at Midsummer, [now lost, 1817.]
Robert Harrison left, by will, a sum of money, which, with other money belonging to the parish, was laid out in the purchase of 124l.6s. 6d. 3 per cent. consols. and since sold out for 128l. 13s. 3d.; of which 113l. was applied in taking a mortgage upon the houses of Taylor Ansell, in Pipewellgate, and the remainder was distributed to the poor.
Anthony Hypson, by will, Sept. 29th, 1624, left a rent-charge on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Mr. Thomas Paten, of 5s.per ann.; another rent-charge of 5s. per ann. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of William Bruce (fn. 149); another rent-charge of 3s. 4d. on a house in [Cannon-street,] Gateshead, now in the possession of George Claughton (fn. 150); another rent-charge of 1s. 8d. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Matthew Johnson (fn. 151); another rent-charge of 2s. 6d. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Christopher Bedlington (fn. 152); another rent-charge on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Robert Morgan (fn. 153), of 2s. 6d.; which several rent-charges are due annually at Whitsunday, and are left for the benefit of the poor of the parish of Gateshead. The produce is annually distributed.
In the said parish is also a School, founded by Theophilus Pickering, D. D. Rector of Gateshead, who by his will, dated Jan. 9, 1700-1, left the sum of 300l. the profits of a colliery wrought by him out of a parcel of ground called Bull's Acre, in the parish of Gateshead, and settled the same upon the Anchorage adjoining to the parish church of Gateshead, for the perpetual maintenance of a School-master, there to be chosen by the Rector of Gateshead, The said sum of 300l. is now in the hands of the Corporation of Newcastle upon Tyne, on bond (fn. 154) at 5l. per cent. per ann. And for the said yearly produce of 15l. the Master teaches 15 Scholars, appointed by the Rector of Gateshead, who, on condition of the payment of 5,l. per cent. per ann. allows the Mayor of Newcastle to name three of the said scholars, being of the parish of Gateshead. The above account is extracted from the Terrier 1792.
Pedigree of Maddison, of Saltwellside, and Newcastle upon Tyne.
§ See the issue of this marriage in Hutch. Cumb. vol. II. p. 154–5. In 1774, John Maddison, grandson of Mary Warwick, (son of the Rev. Thomas Maddison) succeeded to the Warwick Hall estate (on the death of Francis Warwick, Esq.). and died s. p. 1784, when his nephew, Robert Bonner, Esq. claimed the estate as heir at law, and took the name of Warwick.
I know not where to find a better place for the following epistle from Sir Peter Ridel to the antiquary Sir Robert Cotton, who seems to have entrusted to his care the forwarding of some Roman antiquities from Northumberland.
“Since your departure I have expected still when the burden of your stones shoulde be layde upon my care; but as I did all this tyme so I doe still wayte expecting the same; but is shoulde seame some of those you trusted in Northumb: for this business are in some degre North Bryttans, a great part whereof are in shewe at your service, but in tryall nothinge, soe the stones are not yet harde of heare att Newcastle: wherefore if you thinke it so fitt, it weare in my opinion fitt you should wryte to them that should send them hyther, otherwise your messenger's power and myne, wh is but subordynate, will not in haist turn to effect to your pleasure. If they doe come, I shall doe my parte of your busynes; and for this messinger, I assure you he hath bene very willinge to doe your service in this employment, but it must be another tyme when he must have them to carye; if he come hyther agayne, you cannot have a better caryet. Thus, assuringe you my love is ingaged unto you for requytal of muche kyndenes, I rest
“Postscript. I did intend to have requyted this kyndenes of your brother's wth an answer, but the messenger's haist, myne own shame and my insufficiency that I cannot return answer in his own language, wh is his prayer, are causes why I doe intreat you to tayke the burden of my comends to him my frend and loveing brother when wee lyved together.”