Diary of Thomas Burton Esq: Volume 2, April 1657 - February 1658. Originally published by H Colburn, London, 1828.
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No. VII. [supra, p. 480.]
The Death, Funeral Order, and Procession, of His Highness the most Serene and most Illustrious Oliver Cromwell, late Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging. The whole of this faithfully copied from the MS. of the Rev. John Prestwich, Fellow of All Soul's College, Oxford
His Highess's first illness was at Hampton-Court, where he sickened of a bastard tertian, of which he grew very ill, insomuch, that after a week's time his disease began to show very desperate symptoms; whereupon he was removed to Whitehall, Westminster, near London, where his chaplains, and others of his family, kept private meetings and fastings for his recovery. Continuing in this condition, his Highness died on Friday, the third of September, at three of the clock in the afternoon, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and fifty-eight. His body, presently after his expiration, was washed and laid out; and being opened, was embalmed, and wrapped in a sere cloth six double, and put into an inner sheet of lead, inclosed in an elegant coffin of the choicest wood. Owing to the disease he died of, which, by the by, appeared to be that of poison, his body, although thus bound up and laid in the coffin, swelled and bursted, from whence came such filth, that raised such a deadly and noisome stink, that it was found prudent to bury him immediately, which was done in as private a manner as possible. For the solemnization of the funeral, no less than the sum of sixty thousand pounds was allotted to defray the expence.
The corpse being thus quickly buried, by reason of the great stench thereof, a rich coffin of state was, on the 26th of September, about ten at night, privately removed from Whitehall, in a mourning hearse, attended by his domestic servants, to Somersethouse, in the Strand, where it remained in private for some days, till all things were prepared for public view; which being accomplished, the effigies of his Highness was, with great state and magnificence, exposed openly, multitudes daily crowding to see this glorious, but mournful sight, which appeared in the order following.
In the like manner of the first room were two others; namely, the second and third, all having funeral escutcheons very thick upon the walls; and guards of partizans were placed in each room for people to pass through.
The fourth room was completely hung with black velvet, the ceiling being of the same. Here lay the effigy of his Highness, with a large canopy of black velvet fringed, which hung over it. The effigy was of wax, fashioned like the Protector, and placed lying upon its back; it was apparelled in a rich and costly suit of velvet, robed in a little robe of purple velvet, laced with a rich gold lace, furred with ermine. Upon the kirtle was a large robe of purple velvet, laced and furred as the former, with strings and tassels of gold. The kirtle was girt with a rich embroidered belt, wherein was a sword richly gilt, and hatched with gold, which hung by the side of this effigy. In the right-hand was a sceptre; in the left, a globe. Upon his head was placed a purple velvet cap, furred with ermines suitable to the robes. Behind the head was placed a rich chair of tissued gold, whereon was placed an Imperial crown, which lay high, that the people might behold it.
BED OF STATE.
The bed of state whereon he lay, was covered with a large pall of black velvet, under which was a Holland sheet, borne up by six stools covered with cloth of gold. About the bed was placed a complete suit of arms; and at the feet of the effigy stood his crest. This bed had fixed about it an ascent of two steps. A little from thence stood eight silver candlesticks, about five foot high, with white wax tapers standing in them, of three foot long. All these things were environed with rails and balusters, four square, covered with velvet; at each corner whereof, there was erected an upright pillar; which bore on their tops, lions and dragons, who held in their paws streamers crowned. On both sides of the bed were set up in sockets, four great standards of the Protector's arms, with banners and banrols in war, painted upon taffety. About the bed stood men in mourning, holding in their hands black wands, and also standing bare-headed; and without the rails stood others, in like manner, whose office it was to receive people in, and turn them out again.
When this public wake or funeral had been kept for many weeks together, so that all strangers, &c. had seen it fully, then did the following change take place, and the whole scene become altered. The effigies being removed into another inner room, it was there set up, placed upon an ascent, under a cloth of state, being vested as it was before lying; only now his purple velvet was changed for a crown. In the same manner (as formerly) were men waiting upon him bare-headed. In this manner he continued until the twenty-third of November, which day was appointed to carry him with all solemnity to Westminster-Abbey.
THE FUNERAL PROCESSION.
This great funeral was performed with very great majesty, in this manner following. All things being in readiness, the waxen effigies of the Protector, (fn. 1) with a crown on his head, a sword by his side, a globe and sceptre in his hands, was taken down from his standings, and laid in an open chariot, covered all over with black velvet. The streets, from Somerset-House to Westminster-Abbey, were guarded by soldiers, placed without a railing, and clad in new red coats, with black buttons, with their ensigns wrapped in cypress. These made a lane, to keep off spectators from crowding the procession. (fn. 2)
The Proceeding to the Funeral of the most noble and puissant Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories thereunto belonging, from Somerset-house in the Strand, unto the Abbey Church of Westminster, on Thursday, the 23d of November, 1658. Colonel Biscoe, Knight Marshall, on horseback, with his black truncheon, tipped at both ends with gold.
Two conductors more, with black staves.
Poor men in gowns, two and two, in number 82.
Two conductors more, with black staves, in cloaks.
Servants to Gentlemen, Esquires, Knights, Baronets, two and two.
Two porters of the gate, with their staves.
Six drums, with the arms of Ireland.
Six trumpets, with banners of Ireland.
The standard of Ireland, borne by Colonel Le Hunt and Major Crooke, close mourners.
One in a cloak, to bear up the train of the standard.
A horse, covered with black cloth, adorned with plumes, and garnished with a cheveron, and escutcheons of the same, led by Mr. Tenant, equerry, in a cloak; and a groom in a coat, to attend and lead away the horse.
The household kitchen, 8; his Highness's kitchen, 7; hall-place, 5; scullery, 1.
Door-keepers. James's Park. Committee of the Army. Committee of the Admiralty. The Compting-house. Under-keepers of Parks, 2; watermen, 28; Richard Nutt, Master of the Barge; fire-makers, 5; pastry, 2; larder, 2; pantry, 1; buttery, 5; great beer-cellar, 1; wine-cellar, 1; privy cellar, 2; bakehouse, 4; porters, 2; ale-brewers; cooper; under-grooms of the chamber, 5; inferior waiters at the cofferer's table, 2; inferior waiters at the Comptroller's table, 3.
Threé drums, with escutcheons of the arms of Scotland.
Three trumpets, with banners of the same.
The Standard of Scotland, borne by Major Dawboroon and Major Babington. Assistant close mourners.
One in a cloak, to hear up the train of the Standard.
A horse, covered with black cloth, adorned with plumes, and garnished with a cheveron, and escutcheons of the same, led by Mr. Bergawny, an equerry, in a cloak, and a groom in a coat, to attend, &c.
Inferior officers of the Lord Mayor, 70.
Marshal's men, 6.
Servants relating to the Surveyor's Office, 12.
Servants in his Highness's wardrobe, 4.
Three drums, with escutcheons of the standard of the Dragon.
Three trumpets, with banners of the same.
The Standard of the Dragon, borne by Colonel Goodrick; and Major Cambridge, assistant. Close mourners.
One in a cloak, to bear the train of the standard.
Officers of better sort. Scullery, 3; larder, 1; hall-place, 2; deputy-sewer, 1; kitchen, 1; slaughterhouse, 1; spicery, 1; cellar, 1; ale-brewers, 2; falconers, 2; huntsman; key-keeper; gardeners, 3; park-keepers, 8; bird-keeper; chapel-keepers, 4.
Serjeant Dendy's men, 3; Grooms of the Chamber, 7; waiters on the cofferer's table, 2; chafe-wax and sealer of the Chancery, 2; tally-cutter; usher of the hall; usher of the council-chamber; butler to the comptroller.
Gentlemen, attendants on public ministers.
Barons', Viscounts', Earls', servants.
Gentlemen, attendants' upon Ambassadors.
Clerks in the Surveyor's office, 2; the wardrobe, 2.
Under-clerks to the Commissioners of the Admiralty, 2.
Clerk of the accounts of the army.
Clerk for the affairs of the Ordnance.
Clerk of the Commissioners of the Navy.
Clerk to the Committee of the Army.
Mr. Malin's Clerks, 2.
Clerks, under the Clerks of the Council, 10. Cash-keeper.
Printers, Mr. Henry Hill, Mr. John Field.
Gentlemen, that wait at the Comptroller's table.
A horse, covered with black velvet, adorned with plumes, and garnished with a cheveron, and escutcheons of the same, led by Mr. Bagg and Mr. Nelson, two equerries, in cloaks, and one groom in a coat, to attend, &c.
The poor knights of Windsor, (fn. 3) Mr. Richard Pratt, Captain Fanshaw, Cornet Stephens, Captain Beale, Lieutenant Parker, Cornet Olmer, Lieutenant Mayns, Major Wallinger, Lieutenant Bankes, Mr. Grosvenor, Captain Roe, Colonel Herbert, Mr. Day, Captain Cooper, Major Leventhorp, Sir David Hatfield, Captain Burges, Mr. Cary, Colonel Whitchcott.
Surveyor of Westminster Abbey.
Head Bailiff of Westminster, Mr. Jenkin.
Merchant for timber to his Highness.
Clerk of the surveys.
Assistant to the keeper of the wardrobe.
Clerks of the stables, the aviary, the spicery, wine-cellar.
Purveyor of wine.
Clerks of the household kitchen. His Highness's kitchen, 2.
Master of Westminster School, Mr. Busby. (fn. 4)
Usher of the Exchequer, Mr. Bowyer.
Deputy Chamberlains of the Exchequer.
Mr. Edward Falconbridge and Mr. Scipio Le Squire.
Clerk for approbation of Ministers, Mr. John Nye, Jun.
Solicitor of the Admiralty, Mr. Dorislaus.
Solicitor of the Treasury, Mr. William Swan.
Secretary of the Army, Captain Kingdom.
Secretary to the General at sea, Mr. Richard Creed.
Secretary to the Commissioners of the Admiralty, Mr. Blackborne.
Marshall of the Admiralty, Solomon Smith.
His Highness's Proctor in the Admiralty Court, Mr. David Bud.
Secretary to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, Mr. Sherwin.
Secretary to the Lords Keepers, Mr. Dove.
Register of the Admiralty, Mr. Rushworth.
Masters Shipwrights, Mr. John Taylor, Mr. Christopher Pett, Mr. Tippett.
Officers of the Mint. Mr. Thomas Symond, chief graver; Mr. James Hoar, clerk for his Highness; Mr. John Reynolds, under assay masteri; Mr. Thomas Birch, weigher and teller; Mr. Richard Pitt, surveyor and clerk of the irons; Mr. Samuel Bartlett, assay master; Mr. Thomas Barnardiston, comptroller; Dr. Aaron Gurdon, master of the Mint.
Clerk of the papers, Mr. Ambrose Randolph.
Surveyor of the works, Mr. Embree.
Keeper of the wardrobe at Whitehall, Mr. Clement Kinnersley.
The Post-house, Mr. Clarke.
Tellers of the Exchequer, Mr. Nicholas Bragg, Mr. George Downing, Mr, Christopher Lyster, Mr. John Stone.
Auditors of the revenue of his Highness's Exchequer, Mr. William Hill, Mr. Augustin Wingfield, (fn. 5) Mr. Henry Broad, Mr. John Brokett, Mr. John Edwards, Mr. Richard Sadler.
Auditor of the impress, Mr. Bartholomew Beale.
Counsel attending the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, Mr. Brereton, Mr. Manby.
Three drums, with escutcheons of the arms of the Union.
Three trumpets, with banners of the same.
The banner of Union, borne by Colonel Grosvenor and Colonel Ashfield.
Officers of the fleet, Captains Ming, Newburg, Nixon, Howard, Earning, Robert Sanders, Eustace Smith, Robert Blague, Whithorne Whetstone, Tittman, Blague, Witheridge, Poole, John Copping, Lambert, Anthony Young, Harman, Clarke, Cuttavie. Judge Advocate Fowler, Sir Richard Stainer, Captain Stoaks.
Officers of the Army, Mr. Nathaniel Eldred, commissary of provisions in Scotland; Mr. Simon White, apothecary; Mr. Rossington, chirurgeon; Mr. Samuel Barron, physician in Scotland; Mr. Knight, commissary of ammunition; Mr. Thomas Margetts, deputy advocate; Mr. Malin, chief secretary to the army.
Commissioners for approbation of public preachers, Mr. Holbeach, Mr. John Turner, Mr. Daniel Dyke, Mr. Samuel Fairclough, Mr. John Tombes, Mr. Samuel Slater, Mr. William Greenhill, Mr. Joseph Caryl, Mr. William Jessey, Mr. George Griffith, Mr. Thomas Valentine, Mr. Walter Cradock, Mr. William Cooper, Mr. Thomas Manton, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Thankfull Owen, Dr. Horton, Dr. Arrowsmith, Dr. Thomas Goodwin, Dr. Tuckney, Dr. John Owen.
A horse, covered with black velvet, adorned with plumes, and garnished with a cheveron and escutcheons of the same, led by two equerries, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Ireland, in cloaks, and a groom in a coat, to attend, &c.
Clerks of the signet, Mr. Samuel Moreland, Mr. James Nutley.
Clerks of the Privy-seal, Mr. Richard Whitebead, Mr. Miles Fleetwood.
Clerk of the Council, Mr. Jessop.
Clerk of the House of Commons, Mr. Smith.
Clerk of the House of Lords, Mr. Scobell.
Clerk of the Commonwealth, formerly Clerk of the Crown, Mr. Nathaniel Taylor.
Majors. John Chamberlain, William Farley, Nathaniel Cadwell, John Hill, Eaton, Robert Swallow, Holmes, Creed, John Pittman, Nicholas Andrews, John Grime, Peter Crisp, Abraham Holmes, Cranfield, Greenleaf, Elleatson.
Lieutenant-colonels, John Miller, Richard Mope, Henry Flower, William Stile, Francis Allen, Dennis Pepper, William Gough, John Pierson, John Needier, Stevenson, John Clawberry, Arthur Young, Clement Keen.
Head officers of the Army. Lieutenant-Colonel Elton, of foot, to the Lord General. Treasurers of the army, Captains Blackwell, Dean, Colonels Smith, Barry, Bridges, Rogers, William Mitchell, Fitch; Dr. William Staines, Commissary-general of Musters. Chief officers of the Fleet. Rear-admiral Bourne, Vice-admiral Goodson.
The Chief Officers and Aldermen of London. Solicitor, Auditor, Remembrancer, Comptroller, Town Clerk, Common-Serjeant, Chamberlain, Judge of the Sheriffs Court, Recorder, Sir Lislebone Long; Aldermen, 20.
Attorney-general of South Wales, Mr. Jones. (fn. 6)
His Highness's learned Counsel. Attorney of the Duchy, Mr. Nicholas Lechmere; Solicitor-general, Sir William Ellis; Attorney-general, Sir Edmund Prideaux; His Highness's Serjeants, Serjeant Maynard, Serjeant Earle.
Lord Mayor of London. Sir John Ireton. (fn. 9)
Relations, Lord Dunch, (fn. 10) Sir Robert Pye, jun., Thomas Bouchier, John Bouchier, Esquires, John Dunch, Esq., Captain Fox, Thomas Cromwell, Esq., Captain Whetstone, Mr. Phillip Loo, Mr. Edward Fleming, Mr. Edward Hooper, Mr. Edmund Phillips, Mr. Hampden, Mr. Thomas Cromwell, Mr. Hughes, Captain Hierome Ingoldsby, Captain Ingoldsby, Mr. John Whalley, Mr. Henry Whalley, Major Horseman.
William Lord Goffe, Edmund Lord Thomas, John Lord Hughson, John Lord Barkstead, Robert Lord Tichborne, Christopher Lord Packe, Archibald Lord Johnson, William Lord Roberts, Thomas Lord Honeywood, William Lord Lockhart, Alexander Lord Popham, William Lord Strickland, Richard Lord Onslow, Sir Arthur Haslerigge, (fn. 11) Phillip Lord Jones, Comptroller of his Highness's Household, Francis Lord Rouse, Phillip Lord Skippon, Charles Lord Wolseley, William Steel, Lord Chamberlain of Ireland, William Lord Lenthall, Master of the Rolls, John Lord Glynne, Chief Justice of the Upper Bench, George Monke, General in Scotland, (fn. 11) Edward Lord Montague, Lord John Disbrowe, Roger Lord Broghill, George Lord Eure, William Lord Viscount Say and Seale, Earl of Cassilis, Edward Earl of Manchester, Henry Lord Lawrence, President of the Council: all their trains borne.
Cheval de Deuil, or the Chief Horse of Mourning, covered with black velvet, adorned with plumes, and garnished with a cheveron of the same, led by two equerries, in cloaks, and a groom in a coat, to attend, &c.
Charles Lord. Fleetwood, chief mourner. (fn. 12)
Philip Lord Viscount Lisle, Lord Viscount Faulconberg, supporters to the Chief Mourner, their trains borne. Chief Mourner's train borne by Luke Skippon, Fiennes, Samuel Disbrowe, James Disbrowe, Gilbert Pickering, Esquires.
Gentlemen Porters of the Tower, Warders of the Tower. (fn. 13)
The effigies in this manner being brought to the west gate of the Abbey Church of Westminster, it was taken from the chariot by ten gentlemen, who carried it to the east end of the church, and there placed with the wax effigies of the Protector, in a most magnificent structure, built in the same form as one before had been on the like occasion for King James, but much more stately and expensive, as the expenses attending the funeral amounted to upwards of sixty thousand pounds.
This funeral procession was the last ceremony of honour to the most serene and most illustrious Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belonging; to whom less could not be performed, to the memory of him to whom posterity will pay (when Envy is laid asleep by Time) more honour than I am able to express. But, alas! how true are the words of the wise King, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity;" seeing that, after all this funeral pomp and grandeur, his dead body was lastly, by the council of these men whom his power had raised to greatness; I say, by their council to Charles the Second, he was taken out of his grave, and hanged for a traitor. O tempora ! O mores !
John Prestwich, F.A.S.C. Oxford. (fn. 14)
INSCRIPTION OVER THE BED OF STATE.
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland; Born at Huntingdon, Of the name of Williams, of Glamorgan, and by King Henry VIII. changed into Cromwell; Was educated in Cambridge, afterwards of Lincoln's Inn.
He had two sons, Lord Richard, Protector in his father's room, Lord Henry, now Lord Deputy of Ireland; And four daughters, Lady Bridget, first married Lord Ireton, afterwards, Lieutenant-general Fleetwood; Lady Elizabeth, married Lord Cleypole; Lady Mary, married Lord Viscount Fauconberg; Lady Frances, married the Honourable Robert Rich, Grand-child to the Right Honourable the Earl of Warwick.
He was declared Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Dec. 16, 1653; Died September 3,1658, after fourteen days' sickness, of An ague, with great assurance and serenity of mind, Peaceably in his bed.
Dunkirk, in Flanders, surrendered to him, June 20, 1658. (fn. 15)