Cecil Papers: October 1584

Pages 67-72

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 3, 1583-1589. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1889.

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October 1584

105. Sir Edward Hoby to Lord Burghley.
1584, Oct. 1. Informs him that he has appointed Mr. D. Parry to act as his solicitor, with his lordship and all his friends in Court, and begs him to give to Mr. Parry the same credit as to himself.
Further requests his lordship to take charge of a letter from him to his mother, from whom he has not heard since her widowhood, and fears that his former letters may not have reached her.—Berwick, 1 October 1584.
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106. The Lord Deputy of Ireland to Sir N. Bagenall.
1584, Oct. 7. Commission authorizing him to order and govern the countries of Iveagh, Upper and Nether Clandeboy, Route, Kilwarlin, Kilultagh, and McCartan's country, Con O'Neill, late Earl of Tyrone, having in Sir Henry Sidney's time and lately again renounced claim to these urraghs.—Given at the Newry, 7 October 1584.
Copy 1 p.
107. The Lord Deputy of Ireland to T. o'neill, Baron of Dungannon.
1584, Oct. 7. Commission authorising him to order and govern the countries of Tyrone, Clancan, Clanbrasselagh, Maguire's country called Fermanagh, aud O'Chaines country called Oyraghtie.—Given at the Newry, 7 October 1584.
Copy. 1 p.
108. Questions, &c. touching the Low Countries on the Death of the Prince of Orange.
1584, Oct. 10. The principal questions are : (1) If the French King will not join her Majesty in aiding them of the Low Countries pursued by the King of Spain's forces, shall her Majesty take in hand to defend and protect them to recover their liberties, and freedom from the tyranny and persecution of the Romish Inquisition ? and (2) if her Majesty shall not take them into her defence, then what shall she do or provide for her own surety against the King of Spain's malice and forces, which he shall offer against this realm, when he hath subdued Holland and Zeeland ?
Articles to move her Majesty to defend Holland and Zeeland : (1) The people of these countries are included within all the treaties of England and Burgundy, by which Princes and people are mutually bound for defence the one to the other, and the assailing of them by Spanish forces, Italians and other strangers, tendeth to the destruction of the natural people of the Low Countries, and by way of conquest to plant in strangers, so as the ancient confederacies and intercourses between the two natural nations of England and Scotland and Holland are to be dissolved. (2) The King of Spain hath shown his manifest intention many ways to attempt violence to the Queen's Majesty and her true and obedient people, and there is no trust to be had to his quiet neighbourhood when he hath overcome Zeeland and Holland, and hath the possession of their havens and ships, for he is like to be able by his great riches to continue an army on the seas which neither England nor France jointly shall withstand. [Margin in Burghley's hand : “The confession of many persons taken, as Creytton, &c., and of the papers of discourses agreable with Throgmorton's confessions.”]
Proofs of his ill mind to England : His mortal enmity against all persons not of the Romish religion. He is by the Pope and his ghostly father not only by persuasion enjoined, but upon pain of damnation adjured thereto. He hath put to death both his own subjects found suspected of contrary religion, and all the Queen's subjects in Spain who show but mislike of his religion. He hath adventured the loss of all his Low Countries, endured inestimable charges by his wars there, lost his revenues totally these many years, and spent millions of his subjects' lives for this only quarrel. There is no hope of alteration of his hatred at this day, but rather an increase, by reason of the increase of his worldly successes in gaining Portugal and the East Indies, and lately in recovering the greater part of Flanders, Artois and Hainault. And now his stomach is increased by the death of the Duke of Anjou, who was some obstacle to him; but lastly by the murder of the Prince of Orange, who of all men living has been the greatest stay to his conquest. In England his ambassadors have ever furthered all rebellious attempts. The Count de Feria and the Bishop of Aquila began as soon as her Majesty came to the throne. Don Guerau “comforted” the Northern rebels by offering aid out of Flanders. Alva sent “exploratory,” like La Motte of Gravel ines, to lind landing places. The ambassador and Alva directed Ridolfi to the Duke of Norfolk to solicit an invasion. The King of Spain in Spain, his ambassadors in all other courts, his Lieutenants in the Low Countries, Alva, the Commendado, Don John, and lastly, the Prince of Parma, have continually relieved and maintained rebels, traitors, and fugitives to practice sedition in England. The King of Spain sent a power of soldiers into Ireland with ships' victuals and munitions openly to raise war against the Queen. Now of late are discovered the treacheries of his Ambassador, Don Bernardino, to invade England, as appears by the process duly executed against Fr. Throckmorton. He has never shown kindness to the Queen or her Ministers these twenty-five years, and there is no hope of amity between England and Spain when he has conquered the Low Countries, for, though by many ambassadors solicited thereto, he would never ratify his father the Emperor Charles' treaties. This conquest of Holland or Zeeland, or even of Walcheren alone, will end his wars, as, if he obtains any of them, the rest have no power to resist. The nearer their end, the nearer is the peril to come to England.
Provocations moving the King of Spain to attempt violence against England : (1) The title of King of Scots, if he marry the King's daughter, as is probable, it being the marriage in all Christendom meetest to exalt him, and that to which the Queen of Scots has heretofore showed her most liking. (2) The reputation the King of Spain will conceive, after conquering the Low Countries, to be the Grand Conqueror for the Church of Rome over all regions adverse to Rome, amongst which England has most reputation. (3.) The King of Spain having so great a number of captains and soldiers in sold. No place to employ them, nor better reward to offer than the spoil of England. (4) Rebels in England will readily prevail with him to make this attempt. For satisfaction to the world that may calumniate these the Queen's proceedings as unjust against the King of Spain making no war against her, it were good to notify what causes her Majesty hath to doubt the King's violence against her and her countries upon his conquests and destruction of the Low Countries, who have been time out of mind tied in friendship to the natives of England, and between whom there hath been a perpetual enterprise and traffic, which the King of Spain by his conquests intends to dissolve.
Minute, with Burghley's notes in margin.
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109. Objections to the Protection of Holland and Zeeland by the Queen.
1584, Oct. 10. It will appear unadvised, they being but part of the provinces, and their principal Governor, the Prince of Orange, being dead, leaving none of worthiness or credence to succeed him, nor any nobleman born of these two provinces to take his place; the whole country consisting altogether of popular states, of many towns subject to mutinies and corruptions, so as of many if but two or three revolt, it will hazard the whole.
The case now much worse for ten or twelve years past than when the Queen might have had all the rest of the fifteen provinces united together to withstand the Spaniards. The greater part are now returned to the King of Spain's obedience, and can join the Spaniard against these two provinces.
The helps the Queen gave the States formerly were reasonably defended, being to maintain them from revolting to the crown of France, which excuse cannot now hold, as the French King not only forbears to help them, but refuses to join with the Queen in their protection, and will probably keep Cambray as a condition of peace with Spain. [Burghley notes in margin : the excuses not allowable.]
The charges of the defence not to be estimated. Whatever the country itself offers, it cannot be relied upon to pay, as experience has taught even in the Prince's lifetime. If the Queen aid with men, the number must be such as, being in a strange country, they may be able to defend themselves from all sudden surprises or treasons. They must be paid by the Queen, or else, lack their pay when they expect it of the country.
Her Majesty aiding them, the King of Spain will take to be an act of open war, and how shall the Queen be a match for him? He now hath Portugal, and thereby the riches of the East Indies; the greater part of the Low Countries returned to his obedience; the French King not his enemy; the Emperor his sure ally; no Prince in Europe at war with him but her Majesty; and it may be the King of Scots a party with him.
How in time of war are her people to have traffic and vent for the commodities of the realm, for if England have no other war, but a stay of vent, the realm would not long yield obedience or profit to her Majesty.
Minute, with Burghley's notes in margin.
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110. Conditions of the Queen's aiding the Low Countries.
1584, Octobe. 10. If the Queen aids them, she must aid herself by these things following. First to make her conditions with the Provinces to as little charges as she can.
To have good assurance of the best peer in Zeeland and another in Holland, and have them in custody with her own captains and soldiers. The towns where there are forts to remain peopled with the naturals.
To have authority for some one or two of her noblemen to take principal charge of the army, the men of war, the ordering of the martial government of the provinces. Some of her own officers to oversee the levies and contributions of the country.
To procure the King of Scots to depend upon her, and not upon the Spanish King, though it be to her Majesty's charge, but especially to procure his marriage to be at her disposition.
Item, to procure the King of Navarre to occupy the King of Spain in the Kingdom of Navarre, and also in the Indies.
Item, her Majesty is to call a Parliament, to show the just cause of these her actions, and to obtain a subsidy.
Item, if the Provinces would contribute so much as would enable Casimir to come with a power into Friezeland or Guelderland, to occupy and stay the Spanish forces with some wars there, Holland and Zeeland might be freer from annoyance. The malcontents that are returned to the King's obedience may be reduced back to unite with Holland, on some proof that the King will not keep truth with them, and on finding her Majesty disposed to help them, whereunto before she never yielded. By some wise practice they may be reduced to their first union, wherein liberty is to be left for their religion to be free on both sides.
But if, on consideration of the difficulties, it shall be thought meet to forbear aid, and to expect the King of Spain's victories in his Low Countries, then her Majesty is to make her realm as strong as she may, to unite the hearts of her best subjects, to keep under the evil affected, [Burghley in margin : “and to have the principal heads of the Popish faction in surety”], to make some mass of money by all good means possible, and to provide for the strength of the Navy; to have in readiness to entertain some number of Keiters of Germany to lie upon the frontiers of Scotland, and some on the sea coast countries, so distributed in troops as that they shall not command too much the countries where they lie. Finally, that ought to be Alpha and Omega, to cause her people to be better taught to serve God, and to see justice duly administered, whereby they may serve God and love her Majesty, and that it may be concluded, Si Deus nobiscum, quis contra nos ?
Minute, with Burghley's notes in margin.
111. Lady Katherine Paget to Sir Philip Sidney.
1584, Oct. 13. “Nevhue, this 13 off October I receved your leter, beinge dateid the 23 off July, wherin you reqier of me a bouck in Marybone Park. The delaye of your messhenger, parhapes not unwyllingly, has transfourmed it unto a doe, the which Mr. Carye thinketh on you very well bestowd, allthowth in jennarall he be a Sparar of that game. This bearar hath receved commetion to the kiper ther to delever when you shall send. Thus wesshinge unto you fortunat suckses in all your disiores, espeshally in the travells of my nees, with my comindacions unto you boueth, and lykewyes to my sister Wallshinggame, I leve you to God.—Frome my houes at Barchampsted, this 13 of October.”
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112. R. Glover, Somerset Herald, to Lord Burghley.
1584, Oct. 15. Begs his lordship's interference to prevent the threatened amalgamation of the Office of Garter, which is now vacant, with that of Clarencieux, which would be to give to one officer the lion's share, and, in time to come, to stop all preferment.
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113. The Privy Council to Lord Cobham.
1584, Oct. 18. You shall understand that the Queen's Majesty, for divers especial considerations, is determined to call Parliament together on the 2nd of next month. And, for the better advancement of the benefit of the realm, and redress of sundry inconveniences, her Majesty is desirous that there should be great care used in the choosing of the burgesses, that they may be both of good dispositions and sufficiency. These shall be therefore to pray and require your lordship, in her Majesty's, name, to deal with all the boroughs within the Cinque Ports, and to exhort them, with such persuasions as you shall think meet, to have an especial regard in their choice of burgesses for this Parliament, that they may be not only discreet and sufficient persons, but known to be well affected in religion and towards the present state of this Government, And if the said boroughs shall be content and willing to refer to your discretion the denomination of such as you shall think meet, we do not doubt but you will have care so as the places shall be supplied accordingly. Wherein we pray you to take that course which shall seem best unto you, and shall stand with the liking of the said boroughs, whether it shall be in taking upon you the naming of the burgesses yourself, or by such good advice and direction as you shall give to the said boroughs, that there may at this present a good and especial choice be made, to the end that there may ensue that good of this general assembly which is hoped for, both for the advancement of the glory of God and benefit of the realm.—From Hampton Court, 18 October, 1584.
Signed :—T. Bromley, Canc.; W. Burghley; R. Leycester; E. Howard; F. Knollys; James Croft; Chr. Hatton; and Fra. Walsingham.
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114. Sir Edward Hoby to Lord Burghley.
1584, Octobe. 19. The Master of Gray, with commission of embassy from the King of Scots, arrived on Saturday. By reason of our long acquaintance in France I lodged him in a house furnished with my own. Good, honourable and kind usage will prevail much with him. If he be discountenanced he will speak little. I knew him a man most affected to the service of the Scottish Queen. If his bias be now turned, as is presumed both in Scotland and elsewhere, he may prove a fit instrument for her Majesty's service and safety. He can speak and tell tales if he list. Incendium Gloriæ prevaileth much with him; he taketh honourably his estate with gravity enough upon him. The King has made him first gentleman of his Chamber and master of his Garderobe, his jewel-keeper, and he lies in the King's chamber. He hath a letter from the King of his Majesty's own hand for your Lordship. Likewise one to my Lord of Leicester, which he has resolved to deliver, and doubteth not, for all his crabbed course already run, but he may in this time be gained, and supposeth he will be glad enough thereof. But the letter he hath unto Mr. Secretary in no wise will be delivered, nor any dealings had with him. Upon agreeable conference with her Majesty, he hath in like sort a letter from the King to my Lord Seaton, now in France, to cause his speedy return home, if he be supposed in our Court to do ill offices in those parts.
My Lord Ambassador doth not think the secret of this negotiation has been revealed to you, but after her Majesty has been moved and thoroughly conferred with, it is thought best that herself break it, with you; only this I dare avow, that the King is a muccle dissembler, if, upon kind correspondence of her Majesty, he, upon safe conduct from her, offer not with her liking to come into England, to confer with herself in summo gradu, Lord Arran to be left Viceroy in his absence. The plot is already laid.
He would not consent to Lord Claud Hamilton meeting him on the way to confer with him, considering on what terms he stood with the King his master; though in his particular he professed friendship. The chief man about him as overseer of all his charges is one Captain Bruis, sometime servant to the Queen of Scots, who remained with her at Sheffield. Lord Hunsdon will accompany him to Newcastle.
The Earl of Arran is lately made Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and hath newly constituted over the town fifty quarter masters, each having under him 500 or 600 men, none under 300 men, who are all under pain of lese majesté to attend with their furniture upon summons, each one in his ward. Sir William Stuart, brother of the Earl of Arran, is lately come out of Sweden, and will be Captain of Edinburgh Castle. He is counted a brave man for execution. My lord of Arran is now full Chancellor of Scotland by the late death of the Earl of Argyle. Colonel Stuart in disgrace.
The Abbot of Dunfermline, sometime Secretary, is returned to Scotland without leave, to see if his own country will restore him to health, submitting himself wholly unto the King's mercy, who, in this his great sickness, taketh care of him, and hath sent the principal doctors of Edinburgh unto him.
Dissensions amongst the Scottish troops at Newcastle. They are heartily afraid of the Ambassador's coming, supposing that, if the two Princes accord, their abode will not be long in England, and that he hath to that end especial commission.
The old Countess of Mar, one of the late forfeited ladies, is wholly restored to all her goods and free remission for her late succouring the Earl her son. If her Majesty have cause to send into Scotland, and I may be thought a fit messenger, I beseech you to further my going.— From Berwick, 19 October 1584.
Holograph. 3 pp.
115. Lord Burghley to Lord Cobham.
1584, Oct. 27. His lordship has doubtless heard that a number of noblemen and gentlemen have voluntarily formed themselves into an association for her Majesty's defence and safety, subscribing a bond similar to that of which he encloses a copy.
Suggests that his lordship should make this known to the gentlemen and Justices of the Peace in the county of Kent, leaving it to their judgment to enter into the like union and association. Thinks it would be more convenient for his lordship himself to join on his coming to London with the other Lords of Parliament.—Westminster, 27 October 1584.
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