Cecil Papers: March 1595, 1-15

Pages 128-145

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 5, 1594-1595. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.

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March 1595, 1–15

William [Wykeham,] Bishop of Winchester, to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 1. Having received your letters to stay my proceeding in the writ of my restitution to the temporalities of Winchester, till I had submitted myself like my predecessors to the rent charge issuing out of the Manor of Taunton Dean to the Crown, I am informed that in the very writ itself there is a special proviso for the reservation of the said rent to Her Majesty, which writ being perfected, presented, and signed, I will in all humility submit myself as my predecessors have done.—1 March, 1594.
Signed. ½ p. (25. 60.)
Anthony Mildmay to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 1. There is certain news come of my Lord of Pembroke's sickness, with some doubt of his recovery. His death may bring me some harm, if not in time, by your honourable good means, prevented. I agreed with his Lordship many years since for his term in the chase of Pewsham in the co. of Wilts, since which time I have bestowed upon a lodge there above 500l. and have taken the herbage and pannage thereof, and of the forest of Blackmore, in lease for three lives. My humble suit to you is to move Her Majesty to grant me the keeping of the game in both places for three lives or for years, the profit of them both being already mine. I will discharge Her Majesty of the keepers' wages and all other charges whatsoever. If you will undertake this suit I will most willingly bestow 100l. upon you and account myself, as already I do, most bound unto you—From my house in Great St. Bartholomews, London, 1 March, 1594.
Holograph. 1 p. (25. 61.)
John Stanhope to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 1. Mr. Gardener will have all things ready, both his deed of indenture and mortgage of his manor of Grove, wherein both he and his brother will join for our better security, and when all things are perfected, then, if we like thereof, the same shall be delivered to us, and thereupon we are on Monday next to pay him 1,200l. at Mr. Alderman Hawton's house. I use Mr. Adkynson, the lawyer, in the assurance, said to be the best in this town in perfecting such conveyances. Will you have the conveyance run both in your name and mine, which I think best for us both, and I will lay down half the money?
[P.S.] This letter came to me even now from the Earl of Sussex. I told the bearer it was given and disposed of two days since.
Undated. Endorsed :—“1 March, 1594.”
Holograph. Seal. 1 p. (25. 62.)
Lord Cobham.
1594/5, March 1. Petition of Francis Kelsham to William, Lord Cobham. As to Cobham's lands in Maidstone and Boxley, Kent, of which he is tenant. Asks leave either to fell the wood and continue in possession to the end of his lease, or to have allowance for the value of his lease.
Endorsed :—“1 March, 1594.” (712.)
Thomas Bodley to the Earl of Essex.
1594/5, March 2. Mr. Deniston, the Scottish Ambassador lieger, hath been with me of purpose to ease his stomach of dislike of this coming hither of Colonel Stuart, as well in respect of his demand of assistance, which if it be money he thinks is wholly lost, as of the marriage solicited between the Earl of Orkney and the sister of Count Maurice, under colour whereof he saith that Colonel Stuart doth practice somewhat else; and yet for aught that I can perceive, he seemeth to be ignorant of his private instructions. And thus he uttereth his fancy, not only to me, but in secret communication to divers of the States; albeit, as I am informed, he is a creature of the Chancellor as well as the Colonel. Both by him and the rest of the nation here Stuart is reputed a Papist, and a Spaniard in heart, and of a busy disposition, not, as they affirm, beloved of the King, nor of many men in Scotland. And though they speak it, as I find, somewhat of the spleen, yet many men concurring in one common conceit, I will take it for a caveat to observe his proceedings. The 26th of the last, I sent you copies of certain letters intercepted, in which was a note of a special personage, that would be won, as he thought, to do a singular piece of service, if means might be found to recompense his losses. I have been somewhat inquisitive to know among the Scots, who that party might be, by their conjecture. But they are all in a muse, not knowing whom to guess at, though their chiefest suspicion run upon the Lord Hume, by reason of the alliance between him and Thomas Tyrie. The Colonel in his discourse doth rather guess the Lord Athol, partly for the affection that he beareth to Bothwell, and partly for a pique which he saith is grown of late between him and Argyle. I cannot yet perceive by any circumstance here, that Stuart hath imparted his private instructions to any one of the States, which makes me to believe that his charge was to proceed in such sort as he should find men's dispositions, wherein I think he is deceived. I have had a letter from your Lordship by Captain Berry, whereof the date was omitted, and the tenor was only to let me know that Her Majesty complained of my silence; in which behalf I trust, by this, she is very well satisfied.—From the Hague, March 2, 1594.
Holograph. Seal. 2 pp. (170. 109.)
Sir Charles Danvers to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 3. I assure myself that my misfortunes will not alter your affection, but that instead of my father whom I have lost, I shall find myself to be ever assisted by your favour. I have not written to you as often as otherwise I would, unwilling to importune you with idle compliments, being assured that of affairs in these parts, you have more perfect advertisement than I can give you. Of my own estate I can say little, my man being not yet returned, who is to bring me those advertisements which will make me able to resolve that which now I cannot. When informed how my state stands, I will be bold to importune you if I have cause, through the confidence I have in your favour. If in anything I may do you service, I need not offer it, hoping you be sufficiently assured of the power you have to command me.—Paris, 3 March.
Endorsed :—“1594.” Seal, with a lock of hair through the wax.
Holograph. 1 p. (25. 63.)
Richard Carmarthen to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 3. As to the hearing of the matters in question betwixt H. M. farmer of the impost of French wines and the merchants trading to those parts. Asks that, in the absence of Sir Thomas Wilk, Mr. Billingsley, or some other, may be joined with him to examine the masters of the Bordeaux fleet, detained for this purpose. If this farmer hold it, the impost will be utterly overthrown in a short time, discomfort merchants and overthrow trade.—London, 3 March, 1594.
Holograph. Seal. 1 p. (25. 64.)
Sir Edward Denny to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 4. Asks him to instruct Mr. Attorney to peruse and despatch his (Denny's) leases, Mr. Attorney's answer being that he is the Queen's sworn man, and will not meddle any further therein without some notice from some of the Council that it is her Majesty's pleasure to take such leases.—4 March.
Holograph. Endorsed :—“1594.” 1 p. (25. 65.)
Thomas Bodley to the Earl of Essex.
1594/5, March 4. Having sent my lord Treasurer another letter intercepted. I have here enclosed a copy both of that and of mine own knowing no other matter worth writing.—From the Hague, March 4, 1594. Signed.
P.S.—At the closing hereof I understand the particular discourse of the late conspiracy in Scotland from Colonel Stuart. I have also the same from the lieger Ambassador. Both report it alike, for as much as doth concern the confession of Bawirie. But the Colonel upon it doth exaggerate the matter in soliciting the States for some present assistance, as if the King for his security had never more need, whereas the Ambassador tells me plainly, but under many benedicites, that the King's necessity is less than before, and sheweth me that Huntly and Errol have given caution to depart the country, and that Bothwell is also going. And thus I have found a Rowland to oppose against Oliver, and one ambassador against another.
Holograph. 1 p. (170. 111.)
Encloses :
Thomas Bodley to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 4. Among divers letters sent from Brussels, and intercepted here of late, I sent you two with my last of Feb. 26, and herewith a third, which was also written by the same Crytton to James Tyrius, the Scottish Jesuit at Rome, and did not seem to be regarded by those that kept the letters. But I find it worth the reading for many respects, because it doth manifest that there are many brabbles and discontentments among those of that nation in Brussels and elsewhere, and that they are in despair of good success in the enemy's actions, both here and in France. It is also easy to perceive, by perusing the words interlaced with the figures, that there is matter there signified of special importance, which if it cannot be deciphered by any at home, I am of opinion that the copy of the letter being sent to some man that is of capacity, and employed by your lordship in Brussels or Antwerp, if he be but acquainted with the Scots that are there and the factions among them, it will be presently discovered. Those that are here of the Scottish nation, for want of knowledge who they are that are there, and how they stand for affection one to another, can give me no light.
As touching my negotiation, the return of the deputies of Gueldres and Overyssel are daily now expected, and then the States, I am certain, will deliver me their answer, without putting me off to a farther delay. We have assured intelligence from divers places of the enemy's countries that the vulgar people everywhere cry openly out against their miseries, shewing manifest token that they desire to be joined to the rest of this union. And as far as I can judge of the States' inclination, if the motion proceed from the other side to them, there after as it is, they are fully bent to entertain it to the best advantage of their cause. But whether it were expedient that one should strike at this iron while it is hot, and be the first that should send to the enemy's provinces, that doth rest in deliberation, albeit I do perceive that most men are of mind that we should not stir in this case but as occasions are presented from them unto us. For this is alleged for it, that before they send to the enemy, in a matter of that importance, they must first of force here at home have recourse to every province to purchase authority, whereby it will be imparted to every town, and so come abroad among the people, who, as every man doubts, may prove so over headlong in such a plausible motion, as perhaps when they see it is once set a foot, they will violently 'thorowe' without regard to their own security. The fear of this humour in the multitude doth stay them from proceeding as they are otherwise willing. It is commonly reported that the enemy prepareth for the siege of Huy, which he will find a very hot and a costly exploit, for Hauraugieres, the commander, is a valiant expert soldier, and will undoubtedly perform as much as can be required.—March 4, 1594.
pp. (170. 110.)
Capt. William Ashenden to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 5. I hope you will shadow my indiscretion, and in your virtue favour me as I had a reverent intention and meaning. The ground is sure in me, which is honest reverence. Let that, and the misery which for my country I have endured, crave this much goodness that you will favour my humble suit with your allowance when you shall have conference with the Earl of Essex thereof, that I may joy and live by having the testimony that you have forgot my rudeness.—London, 5 March, 1594.
Holograph. Seal. 1 p. (25. 66.)
Sir Nicholas Clifford to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 5. On the death of Sir Francis Allen, I have obtained his company. I beg you to be a means to obtain her Majesty's gracious favour for me. I should think myself a happy man to venture my blood to recover her favour. I am banished the Court, forsaken of my friends; yet let me live, no man shall more faithfully or honester serve her than I. I am as ancient in the wars as any that standeth for it, and I protest much poorer.
Undated. Endorsed :—“5 Mar. 1594.”
½ p. (25. 67.)
Capt. Oliver Lambert to [the Earl of Essex].
1594/5, March 6. It is now a month since I arrived here from Holland, where I have spent some time, partly about my own business, and partly retained by his Excellency and the States to see the coming over of the Irish; whom they thought then, as well for the service of Her Majesty as good of the country, to make one company, and give me the charge, as one whom they have known long, and Her Majesty no cause to dislike of their choice. But finding the revolt of the Irish doubtful, I prepared for Ostend, at which instant the Governor wrote to the States for his leave and passport for England, which they easily granted. His Excellency, calling me to him, first dilating on some service to be done in Flanders, and the means how; then, whom I thought the Governor would depute in his place. I told him, being present, it belonged unto me, as the ancientest captain, unless there were cause of insufficiency. Whereupon His Excellency moved the Estates, who despatched me away presently, and by an Act have authorised me to command in the Governor's absence, and signified as much to him, the copy whereof I send enclosed.
The Governor then told me he expected his leave from England by Captain Dercombe, and if he brought no authority from Her Majesty or the Lords, then he would allow of the States' pleasure, and saith he hath not used to leave this place without somebody authorised out of England, which, with your lordship's favour, is not otherwise true but when he intends to wrong some he favours not. I am most humbly to entreat you, to whom my service is wholly devoted as the only stay and pillar of my fortune, that if the Governor sueth for Her Majesty's letter or the Lords to authorise Captain Derkombe or any other, that then you will speak what you know of me, and what of right belongs unto me, and you shall see some special service effected which the Governor hitherto has neglected, and would not hearken to the advice of any, lest by the performance thereof his greatness should be diminished, were it never so beneficial to the service of the country.
His Excellency and the States do greatly desire the surprising of Nieuport, without which they cannot commodiously pass to Dunkirk. There had been better means than now to effect the same, if the Governor had lent his ear, and been willing thereunto. As yet there is a way or two made known to his Excellency, and by the examination of such as know the places well I have great hope. His Excellency hath referred the managing of the enterprise to my discretion, and given order for such men to be sent as I shall write for, out of Zealand. There wants nothing but the absence of the Governor, and my own viewing the places, which by demonstration seems pregnable. In hope the Governor would depart, the States of Zealand commanded the ship of war that brought me to convey him for England. The Governor now saith Her Majesty will give him no leave, although your lordship, my Lord Treasurer, and my Lord Chamberlain have importuned the same, which when the States shall hear will much discontent them, for I suppose the coming of Mr. Bodley, and the demanding of his present passport, stayed the several States from complaining to Her Majesty of his abuses, being daily urged thereunto by the burghers of the town and the inhabitants of Flanders that are under contribution.
Here was alarm of a siege, which, if the wind would have suffered the news to pass, your lordship should have had it somewhat hot in England before this time. The occasion was some 7 or 800 mutinied Spaniards, which missing to surprise Armentiers, roved up and down the west quarter of Flanders, without officers; and the removing of a piece of artillery to Nieuport, which was to no other end than to guard a fort, which the enemy made the later part of the last summer near the mouth of the haven, to impeach the States' army, if they chanced to intend anything for Dunkirk, for of necessity their vanguard must pass that way, and their horses; besides, the enemy doth store all their frontiers with munition and artillery, and “garnised” Burborowe with two companies. The foresaid Spaniards, being refused by them of Dunkirk, are now fortifying Roseborugg, or, as the French term it, Pontrotard, a place which Lamott held when Dunkirk was ours to gain the contributions of the west quarters, for which purpose these mutinied Spaniards made choice thereof. Since the death of Duke Ernestus, and that the Count Mansfield is possessed of his place, the Count of Fuentes is posted for Spain, in the opinion of the country to make himself chief here.
M. Lamott is marched with the bands of ordnance towards Huy, which way the enemy's forces are all drawing. Here is nothing to be feared, so long as we perform the office of men of war, but the sea; which in the judgment of the inhabitants unless the States gain more places here about, thereby to have the assistance of all Flanders, or be at an infinite charge themselves once in seven years, the sea will eat up the town.—Ostend, 6 March. Signed.
P.S. [On separate paper.] His Excellency acquainted me in secret with a new enterprise on Bruges, which he holds most sure through the help of certain burghers. If it sort to his liking, I shall hear more thereof from him within this ten or twelve days, about which time he made account to be in Zealand; at which time you shall hear more.
Endorsed :—“Captain Lambert at Ostend. 6 Martii 1594.”
3 pp. (170. 112.)
Encloses :
1594/5, Feb. 2.—Copy of a warrant from the Council of State of the United Provinces, appointing Captain Oliver Lambert to have charge of Ostend during the absence of Sir Edward Norreys, the Governor, in England, for two or three months The Hague, 2 February, 1595. Signed : Chr. Huygens.
French. 1 p. (170. 113.)
Earl of Sussex to Sir Robert [Cecil].
1594/5, March 7. Asking for letters to the Deputy of the English House at Middleburg for his servant Gabriel Richmont, in certain mercantile matters set forth.—Bardmondsey, 7 March, 1594.
Signed. Endorsed :—“Lo. Sussex to me.”
1 p. (25. 69.)
Sir H. Killigrew to “my singular good Lord.”
1594/5, March 8. In answer to yours of 6th of March, I must call to remembrance sundry particular grounds of the troubles in France and elsewhere, looking back to the later end of Queen Mary's days, in whose time Calais was lost, and not restored again to Her Majesty that now is, by the cold and hollow dealing (as is supposed) of the King of Spain. [Sets out the particulars of the peace made by the King of Spain, and the efforts in consequence of it to root out the true professors of the reformed religion; and of the mission of the Marquis d'Albe by the Queen of Scots to be her viceroy in Scotland, “with a commission too full of jealousy for her Majesty to endure,” frustrated by his being driven back by contrary winds; also of the despatch thither of Mons. de Martigues with a great band of old soldiers, which moved the Scots to call to Her Majesty for succour, who, being moved in pity and through the greatness of the injuries offered, yielded thereunto, and by God's providence had happy success therein. Relates also the course of events in France and the contention between the Queen Mother and the King of Navarre who should be Regent, during King Charles's minority.] In the end, the Guises and the Queen Mother, perceiving that the King of Navarre was like to prevail, agreed and practised together to win him to their purpose, which in the end they did by flattery and great promises, but his light doing did so discontent the princes of the blood and all his good friends that at the next Assembly of the States the Admiral and his party thought it less harm to them that the government should be cast upon the Queen Regent than upon the King of Navarre who was so easily persuaded and led by the house of Guise. By this carriage of himself he lost all his best friends and the place he might assuredly have had if he had been constant. The Queen promised him assistance by me, at the instance of many of his good friends and kinsmen, but all would not serve; so strong were the vain allurements of his enemies against him that they brought him into utter discredit, which he did not recover to his dying day, but when the Guises would deceive the Protestants by any deceitful treaty, they made him the instrument. I cannot remember that the Queen had any further intelligence with the King of Navarre other than ordinary compliments in respect of his place and dignity, neither do I remember any particular treaty with the Admiral Chastillon till after the taking of the Prince of Condé at the battle of Dreux, when as the same Admiral came with his Reytres into Normandy to besiege Caen, whither her Majesty sent him both men and munition under Sir William Pelham, by whose assistance and industry it was taken and the Marquis d'Albany who commanded therein. But what sums of money were sent by Her Majesty unto the Admiral for the payment of the Almains I do not certainly know, for I was then prisoner, and long after, in the castle of Merlow in Picardy, neither was I ever sent with any instructions to treat with them for Her Majesty. But I know well that the aids from the Princes of Germany never marched into France (as they did sundry times for the relief of them of the Reformed Religion) without the Queen's purse and credit. I remember also that the Cardinal Chastillon was here long time with the Queen, but I was not privy to his negotiations; yet have seen in the Ecclesiastical Story of the troubles of France, a declaration and protestations set forth by Her Majesty, expressing the cause of her succours sent to the Protestants in France from time to time, which I send to you “coted,” to peruse at your leisure, being very sorry that I am not better able to satisfy your expectation, being ever since I received your letter vehemently tormented with a sore eye which hath detained me both from reading and writing, to my great grief. I pray your lordship to call to remembrance such intelligence as Sir Thomas Smith sent you from Bayonne when the Queen Mother and the King of Spain met there, and, one other point, how the King of Spain sent sundry times troops of natural Spaniards to the aid of the French King against those of the Reformed Religion, which I take to be an article of the treaty which should have proceeded farther if they had effected their enterprise at home in their own dominions.—From my brother's house in Lothbury, this 8th of March, 1594.
Unsigned. Endorsed :—“Sir H. Killigrew.”
pp. (25. 70.)
Michael Leman.
1594/5, March 8. Warrant to the Lord Treasurer authorising the payment to Michael Leman, merchant stranger, in consideration of his losses in 1588, etc., of 950l. out of the proceeds of goods and merchandize belonging to the King of Spain remaining concealed in the realm, to be searched for and discovered by him at his own charges, further order to be given to any officers thought fittest for the service, joining Leman with them.—Westminster, 8 March, 1594.
Sign manual. Signet. 1 p. (25. 73.)
The Earl of Huntingdon to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 8. Because I am desirous to perform that duty which may be expected of me, and also loth to be subject to any blame before I deserve it, I have thought it fit to send this bearer in company with Lord Scrope's men, charging him to ride all the way by the prisoner, and to lodge nightly in the same chamber where he lieth. The accidents which have happened in this action have moved me thus to do, and I humbly pray you, if Her Majesty or you do conceive me to have done amiss, that I may know it, for my better warning hereafter. I do not forget what Her Highness said to me in your hearing and of the privy Council, sitting at your lordship's house, immediately before the last Parliament, and therefore I have been ever since more careful to do that which might be most agreeable to her pleasure in those places of charge which I hold in these parts.—At York, 8 March, '94. Signed.
P.S. (Holograph.) I do send this bearer of purpose, though I had thought once to have appointed another, because, if need be, he can tell what direction I did give him when I did send him to Wetherby and Boroughbridge.
1 p. (30. 115.)
Speeches by Humfrey Bonner, late Mayor of Nottingham.
1594/5, after March 8. Saturday the 8th of March last, Humfrey Bonner, late Mayor of Nottingham, at Mr. Richard Hurt's house, in the hearing of Mr. Hurt, Mr. Hacker, and myself, spake as follows :—That Williamson, Lord Shrewsbury's man, was apprehended for treason, being confederate with one who was a traitor to the Queen and a pensioner to the King of Spain. That being known to the Queen and the Lord Treasurer, they wrote to the Lord President for his apprehension. He said that he was in the Earl of Shrewsbury's house in London within a fortnight before, and that he doubted it would hurt the Earl greatly, for that he had often given his honourable word that he was a good subject. Such things as that brought the Duke of Norfolk to his death. After which words Mr. Hacker and Mr. Hurt stood a little aside. Then he talked unto me and (as I think) in their hearing. He marvelled much my Lord would keep any such in his house. I said he did not. Then he said he had two worse in his house at this instant. I told him he said untruly. He said again, he doubted there would be two such found.
Signed, Henry Wyddeson.
1 p. (25. 72.)
Sir W. Cornwallis to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 9. Let not my absence from Court and your continual being there make me a stranger to your favour and love, which I highly value, believe me, Sir, and therein quiet and comfort myself at home. I know not what limit of time be appointed to them who have had the measles in their house, but for my part, I never came near the house by 4 miles since, and these 3 weeks now it is since the children have been plucking flowers in the garden; yet if they should judge mine ears be horns, instead of flowers I might gather thorns. Therefore for fear of pricking my fingers, I am determined to tarry longer.—From Bishopsgate, “this morning.”
No date. Endorsed :—“9 Mar. 1594.” Holograph.
1 p. (25. 74.)
Revenue from Tin.
1594/5, March 9. Two documents :—
1. The tin spent in the realm is about 300,000 lbs. weight, and for that her Majesty hath 40s. custom for every 1,000 lbs. weight. The tin transported out of the realm is esteemed to be about 700,000 lbs. and for every 1,000 lbs. weight hereof her Majesty is to have 3l. custom. Upon every hundredweight of tin transported there is imposed 20d. So that her Majesty's custom of that spent within the realm is 600l.; of that transported, 2,100l.; and the imposition, 583l. Total, 3,283l. 6s. 8d. (sic).
Her Majesty may make a greater gain of the same quantity of tin, if she make it her own commodity, if at every coinage she buy the tin into her own hands, paying the country after the rate of 25l. the 1,000 lb. weight, and selling at 35l. And for that the whole 700,000 lbs. weight comes not in but at two coinages in the year, her Majesty's stock needeth to be the less, and presupposing her to buy the half of 700,000 lb. weight at 25l. and to sell at 35l., her Majesty gaineth at every coinage 3,500l. sterling. So that within three coinages her Majesty “hath” gained 10,500l. and her stock wholly returned, and out of this gain, a stock to proceed, and so yearly for ever after to make at both coinages 7,000l. rent. And herein doing by her officer but that which three or four ingrossers do yearly, laying the stocks together, to the great hindrance of her Majesty and the realm; for in monarchy the wealth of the prince is the riches of the commonwealth, and yet being drawn into some one or few men's hands savours of a monopoly, which her Majesty by taking it into her own hands doth prevent and remedy. And whereas the stat. 8 Hen. VI. enacts that no tin or lead should be transported except to Calais upon pain of forfeiture of double value, save only by the merchants of Genoa, Venice, Florence, etc., and saving also the burgesses of Berwick; and whereas a licence is granted to one Martin for transportation of tin, which being not diligently looked into, her Majesty loseth very near half the custom due for want of entering the just weight, as will be proved by comparing the weight from the coinage with the weight entered to be transported, “the suit which I do most humbly crave” is that her Majesty will grant unto me a licence solely and only to transport tin and lead. I will not only yield to her Majesty 500l. a year rent, but will also take care to see the just weight entered, whereby the customs shall be better answered than hitherto they have been.
2. “Articles touching the matter of tin by which it is proved that her Majesty may lawfully resume into her hands the first buying of tin, and that thereby she shall gain 10,000l. yearly, and the counties of Devon and Cornwall greatly benefited thereby,” containing the following particulars, among others :—
The common price of tin in Cornwall and Devon by ten years past hath not exceeded communibus annis above 22l. the thousandweight, but of late was raised from 22l. to 24l., and yet the price among the tinners is always uncertain, rising [and falling] twice every year, and for the most part rather decreasing than increasing. There might be established a certain price of 25l. very acceptably and profitably for the tinners. If her Majesty restrain the sale of tin and take the whole commodity thereof into her own hands, allowing the tinners 25l. for every 1,000 lbs. (a matter usual with foreign princes), she may by stopping the sale for one year raise the price to 40l. by reason of the trade into the Straits and other places. The quantity of tin wrought yearly in Devon and Cornwall these ten years last past has been communibus annis about 1,400,000 lb. weight, worth now in London 30l. the thousand.
The first document endorsed :—“9 March, 1594. E. of Oxford” [? written over another name]. The second document imperfect.
Unsigned. 2 pp. and 2 half pp. (25. 76.)
Trade in Tin.
1594/5, March 9. There was discharged in the port of London from the Western ports between Michaelmas 1592 and Michaelmas 1594, 3,200 blocks of tin yearly, which, esteeming each block to weigh 3½ cwt., amounts to 11,200 cwt., or 560 tons.
From Michaelmas last till this day the 8th of March are come 1,670 blocks, weighing 5,845 cwt., or 292 tons 5 cwt.
From the Western ports they use not to put down any weights in their certificates that they send to London, other than the number of pieces or blocks, because the merchant or shipmaster puts in bonds to come to London, and to return certificates of the discharge there, which is duly and orderly observed; but the certainty of all the tin yearly made, is to be found by the weight taken at the Stannary. This tin is dispersed from London as well into all parts of the realm as spent for service there, but three-quarters and more is shipped for foreign parts.
Englishmen pay for subsidy of tin unwrought, 20d. the cwt., and for tin wrought, 2s. 4d. the cwt. Strangers pay for custom and subsidy of tin unwrought, 3s. 4d. the cwt., and for tin wrought 4s. 8d. the cwt.
The twentieth part of the tin carried forth is not wrought into pewter, but goeth forth unwrought.
There is shipped from the Western ports into other foreign ports, great store of tin over and besides that cometh to London, specially for Rouen in Normandy, when there is good peace and quietness in France.
Endorsed by Lord Burghley :—“9 March 1594. Mr. Dove's certificate of tin.” (170. 115.)
1594/5, March 9. List of “books received from my Lord of Canterbury.” Latin works, theological and historical.
½ p. (140. 49.)
— to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 10. Encloses the interrogatories whereupon the parties “hereunder written” are to be examined, to be delivered unto the judge, the depositions to be delivered to Cecil without entering them in the Registers' book.—Sandwich, 10 March 1594.
Unsigned. Seal. ½ p. (25. 78.)
Earl of Huntingdon to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 10. Relative to the conveyance of Nicholas Williamson from Cumberland to London.—York, 10 March '94.
Signed. Seal. 1 p. (25. 79.)
Lord Burghley to the Sheriff of Warwick.
1594/5, March 10. Requiring him to forbear to execute any process like to come to his hands for the extending of Sir John Conway's lands and goods, at the suit of Edward and William Lane, upon a bond entered unto them of 600l., for the forfeiture of the goods of Mr. Bourne, at such time as he departed the realm without licence; whereof no interest was in them, but in Her Majesty, and for which Sir John Conway hath answered 1,000l. to Her Majesty's use.—From the Court at Whitehall, 10th March, 1594.
1 p. (170. 116.)
Sir John Gilbert to his Nephew.
1594/5, March 12. I have received a letter from Sir Robert Cecil and another from you, “who write” that the Council have granted their letter for the examining the matter between you and me. As yet I know none; but let me thoroughly understand the cause, and then I do not doubt but to satisfy both him and you. I marvel that you and some of your best friends come not to me to let me thoroughly understand the matter, and then you shall better understand my mind and answer, and I your demand and causes. Surely I have not nor will not hold anything that is yours.—Greenway, 12 March 1594.
Signed. ¼ p. (25. 80.)
Names of Persons stayed in Williamson's House.
1594/5, March 13. Edmund Williamson; William Hampe, his servant; James Tybalkes of Kent, gent.; Edward Vaughan, servant to Sir John Wolley; Nicholas Kyrse alias Skeers, servant to the Earl of Essex; George Williamson; John Brogden, citizen; James Williamson; Peter Swetnam, servant to Vaughan aforesaid; John Poutone, servant to one Mr. William Long of Wiltshire. All close prisoners in the Compter in Wood Street.
James Boultone, servant to Mr. Ladwyn; Jedian Mansell, citizen; Rowland Lloyd, servant to Mr. Pratt, draper in Paul's Churchyard at the sign of the Anchor. Close prisoners in the Compter in the Poultry.
Ann Williamson, wife to Edmund Williamson; Margaret Markham, her servant. These remain in the house.
Endorsed :—“13 Mar. 1594.” (25. 92.)
Sir Richard Martin, Alderman of London to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 13. This day about dinner-time I received your warrant importing the search of Edmund Williamson's house, and some other business, for despatch of which I thought the most fit time about 5 of the clock this evening : at which time I made my repair thither without other company than my own servants, except Mr. Lee who came to the house presently. I found such company as is mentioned in this note here enclosed, except two or three who came thither whilst I was in the house, all which I have committed close prisoners until your pleasure be further known, except Williamson's wife and maid whom I left in the house in charge of the constable, with commandment to stay all that come to the house. I have also locked up the chests, trunks, and all things in the house, and taken the keys into my keeping until your pleasure be further known. I have also sent you two keys I found in his pocket, which the said Williamson saith are for two rooms in his father's house within ten miles of Oxenford : but I do rather think they are for a chamber which I hear he hath in Cole Harbert (Cold Harbour) which is a privileged place, and therefore the authority of our city doth not reach thither. Yet the same place may be searched by the help of the Earl of Shrewsbury. I have also sent a little book and a letter I found in his pocket by this bearer, Mr. Lee. They were a very dangerous company, and very well provided of weapons, and therefore it were good you gave some order for their strait examinations—Thursday, 13 March 1594.
Holograph. 1 p. (31. 10.)
George Gilpin to the Earl of Essex.
1594/5, March 14. I send a letter of late received from Antwerp showing what Hull hath done, how matters stand, and that he means to proceed. I have conferred with Mr. Bodley about my coming over with the first answer the States may make to his proposition, whereof he could like well enough if it be of any importance, and that my being there should not cause his longer stay here than he wisheth. I would be glad to take so fit an opportunity, fearing that after he shall be departed again and I left here alone, I shall hardly be spared hence, to despatch a little private business, and especially to lay open my case and obtain of her Majesty some further relief for my maintenance in this most chargeable country. Huy is begun to be besieged by the Spaniards, and as the news came yesterday, had made an attempt to scale or otherwise to surprise it, but were repulsed with the loss of 100 men, and amongst them two captains of note. Harroguieres hath provided himself with victuals and ammunition, meaning to hold the place to the uttermost, so that it will cost them at least all this summer, and is therefore thought they will seek to block up all the passages and so to famish the besieged. There is money sent unto him with orders to levy two or three companies to re-inforce his garrison. The Deputies of Liege, come hither to demand restitution of the town and castle, are answered that when the Spaniards have restored Berck, Bonne and other places they hold contrary to promise heretofore made, Huy shall likewise be yielded to them of Liege. The Duc de Bouillon's war groweth cold because he is not seconded by the King, and the States' troops are much diminished, being so weary of the service, that if they be not revoked they threaten to give it over and get away and provide for themselves as they can. In Burgundy there is some stir also, and two or three places gotten for the King and others attempted. The mutinied Italians are in Tilemont or Tienen, and expect the performance of the agreement in Ernest's time made with them, and yet have sent hither deputies to give thanks, with offers of all kindness and other compliments. All the captains here are written unto to re-inforce their companies and have them in readiness against the 20th April, new style, being thought that there shall be 20 new companies raised to supply the number in place of those in France which, by such as favour that cause, are sought to be continued there. It is still looked for that Ernest's death would have wrought some alteration, and notwithstanding that Fuentes hath taken upon him the provisional government, yet there is a further meaning in the States of those provinces to tolerate it.—Hague, 14 March 1594.
[P.S.] Since the ending of the abovewritten, news is come that the enemy hath gotten part of the town of Huy and sacked and consumed it. The other part is commanded by the Castle, and though it hold out awhile the end is feared, and they no better to be looked for of the Castle, yet otherwise hoped.
Signedpp. (25. 81.)
James Williamson.
1594/5, March 14. The examination of James Williamson, taken 14 March, 1594.
Confesseth that he saw Nicholas Williamson about a fortnight after Michaelmas at his house in Derbyshire and that he knew of Nicholas's purpose to go beyond sea to avoid the payment of the fine imposed upon him; also of the receipt of a letter from Nicholas Williamson from Euensen, writing for a cloth cloak, etc., and of another letter from Calais, the latter left for him by a sailor boy, servant to Thomas Holwood lying at Ironmonger Hall, at Mr. Dixon's house in Gratybs Street.
Signed : James Williamson. Countersigned : Richard Martyn, Richard Skevynton, W. Waad.
pp. (25. 83.)
The Archbishop of Canterbury to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 14. I have not heard that any censures of universities against K. Henry the VIIIth's marriage were ever either printed or under “attentike” seal, for albeit some universities which were solicited did deny to resolve, yet can I not learn that any public instrument was made of their dissent, or that the same was at any time published in print; but the censures of those universities which approved both the divorce and marriage following, are to be seen originally, as I am informed, under their several “attentique” seals, in the Treasury of the Exchequer, where also the records of that whole negotiation are kept, and are worth the viewing. Of those that have derived their slanders out of Sanders De Schismate many are strangers, as you may perceive by the note of their names delivered by Dr. Bancroft, and some have not put their names to their libels, so that I can say little to that point as yet. Of Clemens VII. who gave sentence against the marriage, Bale writeth thus :—De isto Clemento in quodam commentario super articulis Magistrorum Parisientium legitur, quod fuerit nothus, veneficus, homicida, leno, simoniaccus, sodomita, perjurus, stuprator, raptor, geomanicus, sacrilegus et omnium scelerum artifex. And of his death he writeth thus, Aiunt morbo pediculari, qui morborum est turpissimus et infamis, interiisse Clementem Septimum : nonnulli veneno censent. Omphrius, a great papist, writeth thus of him : Natus est ex parum certa neque propalam legitima uxore. He saith further that he was created pope in a schism; et quod sacratos viros novis decimis onerarat, officiorum collegiis redditus averterat, gymnasii salaria doctoribus constituta subtraxerat, quod certis horreorum monopoliis magnum questum acquisiverat cum annonœ in urbe summa charitas esset. And of his death he writeth, quod longo et vario, difficilique morbo vexatus, rebus humanis excessit. Of Paulus III. who excommunicated K. Henry VIII., Bale writeth that he was magus, hariolus quod matrem et nepotem veneno sustulit, quod congressus fuit cum nepte, sorore, et filia. It is written of Hofmaister, an archpapist, that he was suddenly smitten by God's band and died miserably with horrible roaring and crying out. Quarlarus, a divinity reader in Louvain, died in desperation. Carion reporteth that Eckius dying used these as his last words : “In case the 4,000 guildens were ready, the matter were despatched,” which 4,000 guildens, as is supposed, should have been given to a bishop or a cardinal for an ecclesiastical living. Your lordship can best tell the ends of Cardinal Pole, Gardiner, Storie and others of the like sort.—Lambeth, 14 March, 1594.
[P.S.]. Harding, Dorman, Rastall, Sanders, Bristow, Greg, Marten, Allen, Campion, Marshall : these having written something against this State, are dead.
Holograph. 1½ pp. (25. 84.)
Examination of Ed. Williamson, brother to Nicholas.
1594/5, March 14. Explaining, first, the causes of the coming of the parties taken at his house, and, secondly, his communications with his brother, Nicholas Williamson, and with regard to his cousin, James Williamson.
Signed. Endorsed :—“14 March, 1594.” 1½ pp. (25. 93.)
Sir Richard Martyn, W. Waad and Richard Skevyngton to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 14. We have spent all this afternoon in examining all those parties that were found Williamson's house and find one cause of the repair of so many persons. This Williamson is a most notable broker to help young men to money upon all kind of wares upon excessive loss. We have thought good to discharge all the persons committed that gave us good account of their dealings, save Edmond and James Williamson, whose examinations we sent you by Mr. Leyghe. We made diligent search in Williamson's house, but find nothing but wares and bills of contract, and those persons whose names were enregistered in his book, are such as he helpeth with evil bargains.—Wood Street, 14 March, 1594.
Signed. 1 p. (25. 94.)
W. Waad to Sir Robert Cecil.
1594/5, March 14. Relative to Williamson and the searches made among his effects, nothing being found but household stuff. Franckeling that came away is forthcoming, and shall be brought before us this afternoon.—Wood Street, 14 March, 1594.
Signed. 1 p. (25. 95.)
Thomas Bodley to Lord Burghley.
1594/5, March 14. So long absence of the Deputies of Guelderland and Overyssel is greatly wondered at here, and till all the deputies be met, they can take no resolution upon my proposition. It is feared very much that some alteration of things at home hath stayed their coming, or at the least their present passage, by reason of the great inundations in sundry places of these Provinces, as the like was never seen, of the rivers and land waters, in the memory of any. For all the Bettue and Bommels Wert are overflown, and a great part of the country round about Utrecht and Amersfort, in so much as the very gates of the town of Amersfort, the suburbs of Vianen, and many dorpes and villages are carried clean away, and many people, to the number, it is thought, of 3,000 souls, are drowned. And the like is reported of the land about Cologne where the waters are risen higher by six foot than hath been hitherto known by any record, which is supposed to proceed of the great abundance of rain and snow that hath fallen in these and the upper countries, and of the long continuance of this boisterous wind at west, which hath forced the rivers to swell out of measure.
I find by conferring with some of the Scottish nation, that they are informed out of Scotland that Colonel Stuart is enjoined by some secret instruction to solicit the States for 1,000 foot and 500 horse, for six months, or rather for the loan of so much money as may serve for the levy of so many men, requesting three months' pay to be delivered out of hand; which is imparted to me by such persons of credit as I, in my conceit, have reason to believe it. Nevertheless the Colonel himself will not notify so much, not only to me, but as far as I perceive to none of the States; proposing all as yet in general terms, and referring to themselves to yield what succour they think best, which is thought to be done upon a hope that he hath that they of themselves will offer more than he hath in charge to press them unto. For mine own part, the more that I consider of his employment hither, and of the quality of his message, the more, methinks, it doth tend to some design to be disliked. For in proceeding with these Provinces, the King hath gone by such degrees to win upon their amity, as I fear somewhat else than this purposes pretended of joining in alliance and craving their assistance.
If your lordship call to mind in February last was two years, the States were moved by Stuart, being sent by the King, to entertain a reciprocal intelligence in all affairs that should concern the religion and weal of his and their countries, which was presently obtained. They were after sought unto to renew the ancient league that had been in former times between Scotland and them, whereunto they yielded by their Deputies at the time of the baptism of the young Prince. Now, thirdly, they are entreated to assist him with men or money, whereof the sum is so small, not amounting to 8,000l. sterling for three months, as he might very well presume that they would not refuse him. And when this shall be accorded, whether it be not to be thought that he hath yet an intention to gain some further footing in their line and affection, and to serve some other turns with their aid and support, as his occasions shall require, and as it will be very easy when the people of these countries are once engaged in his actions, I leave it as a motion to your lordship's wisdom.
The Colonel pretendeth that the state of the King must be presently relieved, and if it should be neglected by his friends and allies, it would engender, ere be long, some irreparable inconvenience both to him and them. And this he doth inculcate in every company where he cometh, with a fearful declaration of the wants of the King, and of the strength of his enemies, in so much as the States, by that I can gather, would willingly do for him, if my answer unto them, whereof your lordship had notice in one from me of 22nd of the last, do not stop their proceeding. For so the Colonel hath told me, that he thought the States' resolution would depend very much upon Her Highness' allowance, or only upon me; that if I would but signify that Her Highness would be pleased with their aiding of the King, there would be no stop, and he saw no just cause for me to be scrupulous, sith every man might see the extremity of the King, and that part of the benefit would redound unto Her Majesty, and all the burden of the aid upon the people of these provinces. I will not trouble your lordship with rehearsal of my answers and other speeches between us, but in effect they were to pray him to pardon my refusal, unless my warrant were better. “For,” said I, “to speak of matters roundly and familiarly between us, I may very well presume upon the reasons you allege, that Her Majesty would be willing to advance the King's desire, but yet it may be, perhaps, that she will so much mislike of his form of proceeding, as she would have the States made acquainted with her manifold endeavours to free the King of his troubles. Let it be, as you give out, that his state is reduced to points of extremity, whereof I know very little, either one way or other, though there be! that will avouch that both his peril is not a such, and that it might have been less, if he himself had listed. How can you report it here, but they will presently ask the question why, the King having so largely and so long tasted of Her Majesty's bounty, and the danger being nearer to England than to them, he should not rather, in this case, have recourse unto Her Highness, or, at the least, make her privy and request her advice before he sent to move the States? In your answer hereunto I know not how you will acquit yourself, but you must without offence give me leave to suspect that you will speak very little in Her Majesty's behalf, but rather secretly complain in the managing of your business that she hath not, nor will not do, the part of a neighbour, which may be so amplified in places where you come, as I doubt it may also tend to work some alienation in the hearts of this people from their devotion to Her Highness. And these are such suspicions, or causes of suspicions, as they force me to forbear, and not to meddle off or on, unless I had commission, and, therefore, only as before, I wish the States in these proposals to hold a sound correspondence by advising with Her Highness.”
As a man touched near and guilty, as it seemed, of some sinister dealing, whereof I hear too much, he made a frivolous reply, full of speeches at random, which not being worthy of your lordship's reading, I leave unrehearsed, very humbly beseeching, that if you think it expedient, I may know by your direction what course I must observe, when I speak in these affairs, to give Her Majesty good content.
I find by a letter written by the French King to M. Buzanval that he hath sent Her Majesty certain letters, intercepted, which were written in cipher by Father Gordon and another Scot to their correspondents in Spain, which the King had caused to be deciphered. Gordon is one that is often named in Crytton's Latin letter, which I sent your lordship last, and I should conjecture that the notice of such a matter, as he hath written into Spain, may easily lead to decipher the letters of Crytton in Latin; which if it be not done already, if your lordship thinketh fit to send me the copy of Gordon's letter and the others, I will do my best to discover that of Crytton, which I do very much presume, upon certain conjectures, contain important matter, as the conferring of some princely state or dignity or country upon some special person, upon whom the chief hope of these fugitives dependeth, wherein it also seemeth that certain great personages are nominated actors.
Endorsed : “Copy of my letter to my lord Treasurer. March 14, 1594.”
pp. (170. 118.)
Thomas Bodley to the Earl of Essex.
1594/5, March 14. That point being known and told me by divers, of the Colonel's secret charge, as touching the succour which he must require, albeit he himself doth conceal it altogether, I thought it convenient to signify so much unto my lord Treasurer, lest some other should prevent me, to whom perhaps in like manner the same intelligence might be given. For I find it is advertised by divers out of Scotland, and, namely, from Sir William Kerk and Mr. David Fowles to the lieger that is here, who this very day came of purpose to tell me that Stuart would communicate very little unto him, but bare him still in hand that he had very high matters committed unto him by secret instruction, 'and methinks,' said he, 'to draw some money from the States'; he would put them in head of I know not what policy, as if in their wisdom they were to take such a course as the King might acknowledge that whatsoever great good he shall attain unto hereafter cometh only of them and their assistance : and besides, he prattled much of the Queen of England, by way of extenuation of her princely beneficence towards the King, with many shifts and devices to bring his purpose to pass, in so much as he told him that if the King his master would be ruled by him, he should be able to bridle both the Queen and the States, and care for neither of both, but how he meant it should be done, he could not signify directly, unless it were by some accord with the forfeited lords. Moreover Stuart told him that he was right well assured that Her Majesty sent me hither to demand the reimbursement of her moneys, that it might be a bar to his request, wherein he made no doubt of obtaining his suit if I had not come or had not put it in their heads that it behoved them to deal with her Highness' advice; which was too great an indignity to the King his master that he should not use the aid of his friends, without the privity and liking of the Queen of England. And this the lieger hath told me with very special entreaty, because it touched him near, that I would know it and not reveal it where his name might come in question, being very desirous, as by his speeches I could gather, to accommodate every matter between Her Majesty and his master. Upon this and the rest that I have written to your lordship, bearing date the 2 and 4 of this month, I do long to understand very much from you how her Majesty is affected, and how she will enjoin me to tune my voice in this song.—From the Hague, March 14, 1594.
P.S.—Since the former was written I was told by a special friend, who spake it upon knowledge, that the King of Scots hath written a private letter to Mr. Barneveldt with his own hand. And I am fully persuaded he bath done the like to Mr. Brederode, Mr. Valke and others; with whom your lordship may consider what force the letters of that King will have among others, coming, as I assure myself they did, full freighted with fair words and kind promises. This art of writing to private persons here is very much used by the French King, and hath been one of his chiefest means to compass his demands, though now and then they be remembered with some better thing in hand, to quicken their affection.
Holograph. 3 pp. (170. 120.)
Lord Cobham to Sir Robert Cecil.
[1594/5,] March 15. This morning the post of Antwerp is come with a letter from Charlles d'Tassy, postmaster, to me, desiring me to write to the Governor of Calais to permit the ordinary post for Antwerp and London to pass and repass, as they were wont to do, after the proclamation of wars. In my poor opinion, if it might be obtained, her Majesty might often be advertised of the actions there.—From my house in London, 15 March.
Endorsed :—“1594.”
Signed. ½ p. (25. 85.)
Henry Billingsley and Richard Carmarthen to the Lord Treasurer.
1594/5, March 15. The masons are now beginning to lay their stones for Her Majesty's Wharf, but the wharf is so pestered both with carts and ships and boats, that they are not able to go forward with their work as they should, besides having already received great hurt. They request a letter to the wharfingers, commanding them to forbear (till the work be done) the receiving any more ships, hoys or boats, and to keep the great gates of the wharf shut.—Custom House, 15 March, 1594
Signed. ½ p. (25. 86.)