Cecil Papers: November 1595, 16-30

Pages 458-481

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 5, 1594-1595. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.

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November 1595, 16–30

Lord Burghley to Mr. Ferrers, deputy governor of the Merchants Adventurers, and her Majesty's agent at Stode.
1595, Nov. 16. You shall receive herewith, signed by Sir Thomas Wilkes, a counter protest against Rolloffe Peterson, in answer of that which he secretly made in Stode the last of September, with an instruction shewing the manner how you shall put the same in execution; which instruction is in some sort amplified by his letter bearing the date hereof. This is only to let you understand that it is her Majesty's pleasure you follow in all points the directions of the said instruction, letter and counter protest sent unto you from Sir Thomas Wilkes, and that you restore to Peterson the three glass bodies, with the materials in them contained, sealed up as they came to your hands, receiving from him at the same instant the writing under her Majesty's signature, whereof a copy is sent unto you, and not otherwise. And forasmuch as her Majesty hath just cause to think that Robert Smith hath either lewdly or unadvisably proceeded in the service by him undertaken, and that thereby her Majesty's name and honour concerning the stay of delivery of these materials hath been brought in question, you shall therefore at his next coming unto you to Stode cause him to be arrested and by the next convenient mean of passage send him hither under sure guard to answer his doings.—From my house in the Strand, this 16th of November, 1595.
Endorsed :—“Dated 16 November '95, received 27 December, '95; answered last ditto.”
Signed. 1 p. (36. 10.)
Sir John Forster's Answer.
1595, Nov. 17. “The answer of Sir John Foster, knight, to the several articles delivered unto him by Sir William Bowes and others her Majesty's Commissioners, given 17th November in the 38th year of her Majesty's reign, by the right honourable the Earl of Huntingdon, her Majesty's Lieutenant and President in the North.”
To the first and second, they concern not him but the Commissioners. To the third, he saith there are presently taking of musters for viewing of the whole able horsemen, so that he referreth him to the books of mustering; and for taking the view of the footmen it hath not been accustomed to muster them, neither can he certainly tell the number of the footmen until muster be taken of them. To the fourth, he saith, for the decays of the tenants by the landlords, he referreth himself to a late enquiry or jury upon these matters, to find what was the cause of the decays; and for the decays made by the Scots he referreth himself to the rolls.
To the fifth, he saith that the bound of the Middle March towards the East March is to Helterborn, and thence to the head of Tynedale, and so to Kirsuppe foot extending towards the West March, and so containeth by estimation 36 miles or thereabouts from Helterborne. And to the rest of the article for depasturing cattle in English ground, he saith that there is a perfect order set down both for the poundage and for the forfeiture, as appeareth by the Commissioners' book delivered unto the Commissioners aforesaid by deed indented.
To the sixth, he saith that for all manner of spoils and attemptals committed from 1 September, 1586, until the 15 October until (sic) this present year, 1595, he referreth him unto the rolls delivered unto the Commissioners aforesaid; and for all other spoils from the 15th year of her Majesty's reign unto the said 1 September, he referreth to the rolls delivered to divers her Majesty's commissioners from time to time, at the requisition of the said commissioners appointed for that purpose, and all matters by them 'strooken by.'
To the seventh, he saith that for all complaints both upon the English and Scottish party the rolls have been called, and the parties that had cause of complaint have been called, and for want of vowers—which is the common course and law of the Borders—they could not get them filed, so that by reason thereof they were void; and such as had vowers had mutual redress and they that lacked vowers wanted redress, for want of vowers. And further, since the commission at Berwick [in] 1586, the Scots' warden will not intermeddle or make redress of any bill that was before that time.
To the eighth, he saith, that for the bills and complaints of these of Scotland he referreth himself to the rolls delivered to the Commissioners aforesaid.
To the ninth, he saith that for the bounds [bonds], when the parties have their bills delivered, they take the bonds of them themselves and in their own names and to their own uses; and where there is any matter in variance depending amongst parties they are to be tried at a Warden Court, and for the names of them that were underbound he referreth himself to the book of Indenture dated at Stawford, 1 September, 1586, and the Queen and Warden are discharged thereof.
To the tenth, he saith that by reason that the Warden of the opposite March hath not his people, viz. West Tevidale [Teviotdale] and Liddesdale, in such obedience as to make answer at the days of March, as justice requireth, he himself hath been enforced to give and take assurances to and with both the Laird of Buccleugh for Liddesdale, and the Laird of Farnihurst for West Teviotdale, which hath not been ordinary, but that the Warden of Scotland should answer for West Teviotdale and Liddesdale as the Warden of England answereth for Riddesdale and Tyndale; and that the taking of these assurances hath been for the quietness of the Borders, and that the Warden of Scotland hath refused to answer for Liddesdale and West Teviotdale or to make any way redress for them. Therefore his opinion is, that her Majesty's letters directed to the King of Scotland, that the Warden of the opposite March might be enforced to answer for West Teviotdale and Liddesdale, as the Warden of England doth for Tyndale and Riddesdale, is the only mean to redress these inconveniences. And further he saith that he knoweth no gentlemen of name that have made any agreements for blood or otherwise, but upon special license obtained to have conference with the parties with whom they have compounded, which he thinketh hath wrought great quietness upon the Borders.
To the eleventh, he saith that order is taken as appeareth by the indenture.
To the twelfth, he saith that for murders and bloods the Warden of the opposite March, being required to answer, hath refused to make redress, as being a thing pertaining only to the Princes to take order for; and that his opinion is that her Majesty might do well to move the King of Scotland that order might be taken to deliver a quick man for a dead, as there is a cow delivered for a cow, or an ox for an ox.
To the thirteenth, he saith that within these three years there hath been convicted of March treason Stephen, George, and Thomas Douglas, William Hall, Thomas Robson and Percival Arras, Scottishmen, Mark Brewes and Jock Dawe, Englishmen, who according to the laws of the Marches suffered for their several treasons. And Nicholas Welton, of Welton, Christopher Welton his uncle, Matthew Errington, late of Stoncrafte, Tristram Dod, of Sywood, Anthony Pott, of Carrick, Nicholas Hall, late of Rochester, John Hall his brother, Black William Rydley, stand outlawed.
To the fourteenth, he saith that the chiefest cause of disorder in this March is want of justice for matters concerning blood, being a thing supposed to appertain to the Princes only; the redress whereof he thinketh to be that remedy which he hath already mentioned in his answer to the tenth article.
Another great cause of disorder is the form of proceeding by vower, being the only cause of maintaining of perjury; which when an Englishman doth seek the same (i.e., justice) by vower, the Scots allege quarrels of deadly feud among themselves for the same; the remedy hereof is to spare file and deliver, which may be done by agreement of the Princes as it hath been done by the consent of the Wardens and the gentlemen of the country heretofore.
Delivered by Sir John Foster in the presence of William Bowes, F. Slingesby, Clement Colmore, and Henry Anderson.
Copy, certified by Jo. Ferne.
3 pp. (36. 11.)
Sir Edward Winter to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 18. Having written unto you heretofore touching the difference for the payment of the 100l. to my lord of Pembroke, and thereof as yet receiving no answer, I have once again presumed to remember you herein, beseeching you very humbly to let me know what you have already done in this business, because I understand his lordship means to complain against me for disobeying the order taken between us at the Council table, and purposes withal to proceed with his former cause of taking the office from me by force upon his only authority; which I am resolved in so honest and just a cause to withstand to my uttermost, until either by order from the Lords or by due course of law my patent be judged insufficient to carry the office I have so dearly paid fine for.—Lydney, 18th of November.
Holograph. Seal of arms. 1 p. (36. 14.)
Lord St. John to Dr. Tyndall, of Queen's College, Cambridge.
1595, Nov. 18. Denying a report that he gave Mr. Jones his consent to proceed in his suit for the reversion of St. Nycholas Court.—St. Bartholomew's, 18 Nov., 1595.
Signed. 1 p. (172. 96.)
Don Christoval to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 18/28. You have understood by my former letters the disposition of our affairs, and the hope and assurance we have that her Majesty's favour will not fail us, if you continue to us your assistance. And although I doubt not that according to your natural goodness you desire to accomplish the work you have so generously begun, yet because I can do nothing towards the disposition of any affairs till I have first understood her Majesty's pleasure, on whom we depend for everything and everywhere, and that on the other hand the time presses us so urgently that it is taking out of our hands the opportunity and the means we might have to do her good service, I most humbly entreat you to let us know her good pleasure, that we may carry out her commands as we are entirely disposed to do.—Paris, 28 November, 1595.
Holograph. French. Seal. 1½ pp. (36. 40.)
Hans Dyryckson to Pieter van Lore, merchant.
1595, Nov. 18/28. Has sent divers, whereof some require answer, but can hear nothing from him, therefore has little to say, being doubtful whether his former be come safe to hand. Has care nothing is done prejudicial to him without his knowledge. Those matters stand still as yet, neither will anything be pretended against him for a while : other bruits are fabulous. The Cardinal of Austria is at Turin with the Duke of Savoy, informing himself of all things in these parts. Besides, there passeth some secret matters betwixt them and the King's Ma[jesty] concerning the affairs of France. Is well assured of this by the means of them that know. This may cause him to stay in those parts longer than is expected. His neveues' lie still where they were; they would send a factor for his quarters but the passage is so dangerous they cannot pass, therefore they are fain to deal by letters, which they send by way of Camphire enclosed in one Wallis, a merchant of Antwerp, his letters.
Wrote formerly how the Bishop of Cassana was dead and that Father Parsons should be chosen as chief for the managing of all English affairs. If a peace be not made, as most men hope and some few greatly fear because the King [of France] is greatly inclined thereunto, the great merchant [King of Spain] is minded to send great store of factors in Ireland this next summer. He means by that means to get passage in Wales to buy 'frysses.' Shall find these things true if other crosses fall not out to hinder it. All men wonder what Sir Francis Drake will do; most are of opinion he attends the Indian fleet, which will arrive about the time he wrote of, if they fear not his being abroad; for Drake is much feared, and great dread is over all he will do no small mischief before his return. If he has any commodity in Ostend let it be transported, for Fontes [Fuentes] is minded the first commodious weather to have fling at it. For Hulst, he has nothing in it, therefore need care the less. The soldiers are now all dispersed to refresh themselves awhile until the opportunity doth serve. His parties are so buckled one against another in such order that they will utterly discredit themselves and cut one another's throat. The particularities would make him laugh, but it is a pastime to see it. The diamond and ruby is amongst them; he may think when they discredit one another what credit the judges will give them against him. Would write many things if he could hear from him and have some instructions. If he pleases to have the rest or most of the leaves he has sent in the singing book, thinks with great difficulty he could get them and other things.—Liege, 28 November, 1595.
Holograph. 1½ pp. (36. 38.)
Trinity College, Cambridge.
1595, Nov. 18. License to let parsonage lands for 20 years, notwithstanding the statute which permits but 10 years.—Westminster, 18 Nov., 1595.
Copy. Latin. 3 pp. (141. 169.)
Sir Horatio Palavicino to the Queen.
1595, Nov. 19. Acknowledges with gratitude her Majesty's favour to himself and his brothers. Begs for the payment which has been delayed for 30 months. His brothers have suffered much in Italy for the sake of Her Majesty, and the debt in question is the best part of their patrimony and the means of maintaining their house with dignity. Seeing the debt is based on the Great Seal of her Majesty and the public faith of her kingdom, trusts she will give such orders regarding its payment as shall seem good to her Highness. The bond of the city of London, “the first to-day in Europe,” is also to be considered that of all the citizens, to whose goods, lying in every foreign country, his brothers can have recourse for the preservation of their credit. As for himself, although his interest in the debt is not small, he is willing to submit himself entirely to her Majesty's pleasure. Begs her for the sake of his brothers, whose house in Italy more than any other adores the name of her Majesty, to refer the matter to some of the Lords of her Council, to deal with it as becomes her justice and greatness. Is the more impelled to ask this as he fears that otherwise his brothers will interfere with the goods of her subjects, and then he will incur her displeasure.—19 November, 1595.
Holograph. Italian. 1½ pp. (36. 15.)
Francis Cherry to Sir Robert Cecil.
1515, Nov. 20. Inasmuch as both I in my particular, as the whole Company and Associates Adventurers into Russia and other the north-east parts for the discovery of new trades, have been already furthered by your means, and do conceive you prone to aid such as seek the welfare of our country, imitating your right worthy father, now the most ancient person living of all the same Company, I thought it much behooful briefly to acquaint you with the present state of our Company; which in times past consisted of many persons to the number of 80, and some-whiles more, who traded with one entire and common stock; the which, by reason of many burdens, crosses, ill factors and interruptions borne upon so many small adventures, began to decline and in a manner surcease, and divers strangers (waiting opportunity of the Company's dissolving) sought to thrust themselves in. For the preventing whereof myself, having been brought up a long time in Russia, chiefly in the Emperor's Court, and by experience learned the depth of the trade, found out how it might be continued to the good of this realm, and advised with others some course to uphold and increase the same; whereon at my instigation twelve persons undertook the whole, whereof myself am one. There is yearly brought into this realm, and that without contradiction of any prince or potentate, tallow, wax, flax, train oils, buff hides, cow hides, cordage and hemp, and this present last year was there returned 9,000l. worth of cordage, which is two-thirds of the whole stock; whereas in times past there was not above 3,000l. sent hither in that ware, besides the goodness thereof being 6s. better in every 100 than any other. The most adventure is borne by myself and other young men, who do hazard largely, and in a manner depend and lay thereon all our substance, which we in nowise be able to forbear long, for that it is to be returned in commodities and trading to and fro. The late sum we received in part for our cordage taken for her Majesty's navy will scarcely serve to provide such other cordage as is given us in charge to furnish the next year; and the money behind for that already delivered is with the rest to be returned, else shall we not be able to set out our shipping, maintain our trade, and satisfy our creditors. So as I beseech you that the rest of the money unpaid for the cordage already delivered may be paid as speedily as conveniently may be, whereby the Company shall be encouraged to persevere in their trade and to bring in cordage in more abundance if need require.—From London, 20 November, 1595.
Holograph. 1½ pp. (36. 17.)
The Sieur de Mouy to —
1595, Nov. 21./Dec. 1. Apologises for being so long in writing. After the King, whose subject I am, there is no one to whom I am more bound than you. I have been distressed by a report that my nephew had offended you. Monsieur, the honour you did me in receiving him binds me to you for ever. Asks him to chastise his nephew, or send him back to the writer. I hoped to have crossed the sea to thank you for the honour you did me in taking him; but the King's service has always prevented me, taking me to Poitou when Mons. de Boullon passed towards you. At the Court, whither I am now going, I hope at least to find a gentleman to supply my place and let you know our state, and touching the matter you communicated to me by Mons. Hounton who died at Coucy. I remain the same man whom you honoured with a visit at this house, and who remembers his conversations with you formerly in your little chamber at Windsor.—Mouy, 1 Dec., new style.
French. Holograph. 2 pp. (172. 72.)
Foulke Grevyll to Sir Robert Cecil.
Asking whether he has sent to Mr. Wakring.—My lodging, this Saturday.
Endorsed :—“Readde” with a date which is lost in the binding.
Holograph. ½ p. (172. 98.)
Sir Charles Danvers to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595. Nov. 22. I am sorry that Lomeny hath been able to do me no more good in my suit, and that the comfort you can give me of the future success thereof is such, as unless a composition be made with my enemies, I am to look for no better, whereby the hope I derived from the clemency of her Majesty's disposition is almost turned into despair, seeing the power of my restitution placed in the hands of such carvers. I am therefore forced by urgent necessity to leave this chargeable place, which the hope of making a shorter end hath caused me hitherunto to endure, lest to the misery of banishment I add a greater by the ruin of my estate; which howsoever the world may be vainly persuaded, will not ere long be far from that period, unless by the alteration of my course of life I take order to preserve that little which God hath delivered from misfortune. And for that in this country, where the wars leave retired courses only unto the baser spirits, and where I am generally known, I cannot well leave to live as I do but with a touch unto my reputation, I am resolved to expect the end or continuance of the banishment where a privater life shall be no such reproach unto me. We have here news that the Spaniards make preparation to come unto the succour of this place; as soon as th'expectation of this service is past and this bearer returned out of England, I determine to pass unto Venice, and from thence, with the first good opportunity, satisfy my desire of seeing Constantinople. But this I write not unto my mother, who although she cannot have the presence of her sons to assist her widowhood, yet I think would not desire to have any of them so far off. If here or in any of those places or whereinsoever in the world I shall find myself, any service I can perform may be acceptable unto you, let your letters command me, to whom of all men living my love and affection hath given the greatest interest. Words without deeds are as obligations without seals, and therefore I will desist to use further protestations.
Sir, I heard that the last toys sent by Mr. Gorge did please you as toys; I gave orders at my departure from Paris to have others made of the like kind, which, if the workman do not greatly deceive me, will be ready for my man as he passeth that way to deliver unto you. If I know your mind, or if you would deliver it unto my man, I might peradventure by the next please you better.—From the Camp before La Fere, 22 November, 1595.
Holograph. Two seals. 1½ pp. (36. 19.)
Sir Charles Danvers to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 22. Is sure Essex has done his best in his cause, although it is unsuccessful and the cause transferred by the Queen to his enemies. Will await the time mentioned in Essex's letters with patience, but must do so in a less chargeable way or he will add ruin to banishment. Must, therefore, leave the wars and become a traveller.—The Camp beside La Fere, 22 Nov. 1595.
Holograph. 1½ pp. Two seals. (172. 99.)
Lord Cobham.
1595, Nov. 22. List of Lord Cobham's horses and geldings.
1 p. (145. 210.)
Captain Robert Dackam [Dacombe] to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 23. Sir Edward Norreys, the Governor, is departed for Holland, the 29th October. The Count Fontus hath summoned all the commanders of men of war in these parts to make their appearance at Brussels. It must be their counsels doth concern this place, the town being so much desired of the Spanish King. They daily continue their preparation in very secret manner, persuading some sort of men that upon continuance of a frost, they shall be able to do some exploit upon us; but I hope by careful watch to prevent any sudden action whatsoever. The Governor of Flushing hath sent unto our garrison, under the leading of Captain Hopton, 150 soldiers.—Ostend, 23 November, 1595.
Signed :—“Robert Dackam.” Seal. 2/3 p. (20. 83.)
Susan, Countess of Kent to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 23. My honourable good knight, hearing that my lord your father is not well, and this kinsman of mine, having been in Ireland and now upon occasion returned into England and having somewhat to deliver that may concern the State, coming to me to know to whom he might reveal it, I thought fittest to send him to you, praying you to pardon my boldness.—From my house in Barbican Street, this 23rd of November, 1595.
Holograph Seal. 1 p. (36. 20.)
M. de Lomenie to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 23/Dec. 3. Has at length arrived with the King and made his report. Thinks Mr. Edmonde will write fully. Is not charged with exceeding his commission, as some in England alleged, but rather with saying too little. “Puysque mon voyage n'a succede au contentement du Roy on se gardera d'y envoyer un aultre; et je seroys marry s'il faisoyt daventage que moy, veu que nul n'y sera despesché qui ayt l'ame plus candide ny qui desire plus l'unyon.” If it be true that the enemy is coming to attack them they are ready for him. Fears only “que nous soyons poussés a ce que nous ne voudryons et a ce que je vous dy; car les nouvelles que nous avons d'Italye nous en menassent.”—Camp before La Fere, 3 Dec. 1595.
Holograph. French. 1 p. (172. 104.)
The Archbishop of Canterbury to the Vice-Chancellor and Heads of the University of Cambridge.
1595, Nov. 24. Mr. Doctors Tyndall and Whitaker will signify unto you what is done in the matter for which they came hither. My earnest and hearty desire is to have the peace of the Church generally observed in all places, and especially in that University whereof I am a member. And for the better observance and nourishing of that peace, we have with some care and diligence drawn out and set down certain Propositions which we are persuaded to be true, and the copy whereof I send unto you enclosed; praying you to take care that nothing be publicly taught to the contrary; and that also, in teaching of them, that discretion and moderation be used that such as shall be in some point differing in judgment be not of purpose stung or justly grieved, and especially that no bitterness, contention, or personal reproofs or reproaches be used by any towards any. Which Propositions, nevertheless, must be so taken and used as our private judgments, thinking them to be true and correspondent to the doctrine taught in this Church of England, and established by the laws of the land, and not as laws and decrees. Touching Mr. Barrett, I persuade myself that you shall find him willing to perform that which is prescribed unto him, the rather if he be used courteously and without bitterness. And so being ready and willing to assist you in anything fit for the good government of that University, I commit you to the tuition of Almighty God.—From Lambeth, 24 November, 1595.
Copy. ¾ p. (36. 24.)
George Gilpin to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 24 I touched somewhat by my last how welcome the news were to these men whereby their agent was advertised her Majesty's favour to stay the urging of the desired restitution; which being since confirmed by her Highness's own letters and Mr. Bodley's declaration, they resolved to write an answer of thanks and shortly after to send deputies. As I am sure Mr. Bodley will now at large write to you, I shall the less need to be troublesome in that respect. And whereas he beseecheth you to be a means in the procuring of his license to return, the business he was sent about being for the time despatched, and that his presence may be requisite when the deputies shall be there, I am most humbly to entreat your favour that such business as may fall out to be furder done here for her Majesty's service may be committed to me, not doubting, under humble correction, but I shall be as able and will as faithfully discharge that duty this place requireth as another that might be sent; and thus much I know when Mr. Bodley shall be there he will affirm in my behalf, though for causes which you can conceive he writeth it not. And had it not been that my departure hence might have been or give some occasion of his longer stay here than he wisheth, I purposed to have made suit for leave to come over with the said deputies; and now in hope I shall be favoured by you do rest contented with whatsoever I shall be appointed unto, not doubting but my long service will at last by your mediation be considered of. Mr. Bodley sends over the copy of certain intercepted letters whereby the Spanish practices appear, and what fraud there lurketh under that plot of th'intended motion of peace. The discourse thereof, which of late was also intercepted, and the copy sent over, is understood to have been first written in Latin by Lipsius to a private friend of his, but [he] writes that the translator hath enlarged and altered the same, using more harsh and stricter terms; neither did he think that it would have been published or put in practice. We hear that the enemy gathered certain troops of men together, one in Brabant to enter the Bommelre Weert or th'Island of Willemstadt, if the frost had continued, and the other near Lingen to attempt upon Friesland. His Excellency will keep these parts and Count William the other, seconded by Sir Francis Vere, who is gone to his charge to be in readiness as occasion shall require. The garrison of Nimmeghen have surprised the town of Weerdt in the county of Horne, and there took the Count Hendrick van den Berghe, and brought him with divers other horsemen away prisoners, having spoiled the place and cut a company of the enemy's in pieces. Mons. Harroguieres, who is now here, telleth me that he hath and doth employ divers of his men to take Stanley or any other of the rebels and fugitives, a chief man amongst them having of late escaped very narrowly between Brussels and Halle (or Notre Dame de Hault), whither they used to go a pilgrimage, and doubts not but he shall ere long light upon some of them. I would be more earnest in the effecting of like services, but when the men employed are taken or come in trouble or lose their lives, I have not wherewithal to make their widows or friends amends.
I hear no more of Hull, but my friend that was prisoner at Antwerp, not without peril of life, is after much labour and great expenses got out and at liberty, having been chargeable unto him; and if I could light upon any good suit or get an increase of my entertainment, I would use some consideration towards him, for the man is very honest and deserveth favour.—Hague, 24 November, 1595.
Signed. 2 pp. (36. 25.)
Sir Walter Ralegh to the Privy Council.
1595, Nov. 25. In the letters which I received from your honours, bearing date the 15th of this November, it hath pleased you to order that mutual succour be given from the counties of Devon and Cornwall to each other by renforcing each with 4,000 men upon notice given from me to the Earl of Bath for the succour of Cornwall, and the like from his lordship to me for Devon. It is true that before this time we had not any warrant to send out of the counties under our charge any relief to the neighbour places invaded, for remedy whereof your lordships have gravely ordered this course of seconding each other. Notwithstanding, because I hold myself bound in duty to speak my knowledge of the state of Cornwall, wherewith it hath pleased her Majesty to put me in trust, a charge both for the greatness and grace far beyond any worth or desert of mine, I do presume to put you in mind, that according to my mean judgment it were more fit to supply Devon out of Somerset than from Cornwall, hoping that your honours will receive my reasons for the same as in discharge of my duty, and not that I dare to offer them in any other sort, being bound to obey and not to advtse. If there shall any descent be made by the enemy in either county by the way of surprise, and the enemy do but burn or sack and then depart, then can neither be relieved as aforesaid, because there will be no time given to unite the forces of the same shire where such attempt shall be offered, much less for the drawing in of any numbers from afar; and for any such enterprise where there is no purpose to hold and possess the places gotten, each shire with 4,000 men shall be able either to repel or resist the same. But if the enemy dispose himself to fortify any part in Cornwall, or to strengthen any neck of land of advantage, and thereby begin to drive us to a defensive war, then there is no country adjoineth to Cornwall but Devon from whence any speedy supply may be had to impeach the beginning of such a purpose. And if aught be attempted in Devon, of which Plymouth is most to be feared, having in one indraught two goodly harbours, as Cattwater and Aisshewater, then it is also very likely that the enemy will either assure Cornwall or seek utterly to waste it, because it is next his supplies both from Spain and Brittany, and hath divers ports and good roads to receive a fleet. Furthermore, may it please you to consider that Cornwall is stretched out all in length, and hath little breadth, the west parts whereof are little less than 80 miles from Plymouth, and between the one and the other the great river of Tamar which is not fordable in any place within 12 miles of Plymouth; and for 4,000 men to march over at Newbridge above Calstock, which is the nearest passage, the journey of one part of the succour will be of 100 miles and more or they come to the town of Plymouth, considering the coasting of the river on both sides. And for other passage there are but two ferries, one at Stonehouse, the other at Aishe, and those small boats of no receipt, and by which neither carriage, horse, victual, munition nor ought else fit to follow an army can be conveyed but in a very long time. Besides if there be an intent for Plymouth it is to be feared that the enemy will bring galleys with them as well to assure their landing as to command the river Tamar, and then all passages shall be taken away, but at Newbridge aforesaid, and yet the same may be also easily broken if the galleys once possess the said river. And if the enemy should land toward the east of Plymouth, as at Saltcombe, Slapton, Dartmouth, or Torbay, which I do now (sic) think is likely, then should also part of the succours of Cornwall march above 120 or 140 miles to the place attempted. Moreover, may it please you to consider that if 4,000 men should at any time be drawn out of Cornwall and the same known to the enemy, as it will be at the instant, I assure you that either 300 soldiers sent out of Brittany (which may be done in two tides), or returned in a galley or two from Plymouth, will be strength sufficient to endanger and destroy the whole shire, at least all the western parts, which ought most to be defended in respect of the good harbours therein. For there is no part of England so dangerously seated, so thinly manned, so little defenced, and so easily invaded, having the sea on both sides, which no other county of England hath, and is withal so narrow that if an enemy possess any of two or three straits neither can those of the west repair eastward nor those of the east westward. For between Mounts Bay and the sea entering within St. Ives it is but three miles and a half from sea to sea, without which there lieth a good part of the land to the west in form of a peninsula. Between Truro, which standeth on the first “founde” of the river of Falmouth, and St. Piran is but five miles overland passable, and the same also easily guarded, which is as much of Cornwall as the enemy should need, for within so much as lieth to the west of the two streyghts are the best ports, and are very sufficient to receive the great[est] fleet that ever swam, and containeth 27 miles of length very guardable, which in my simple judgment is every way more to be sought for by the enemy than Plymouth, at least if the same were so well understood by them, which is not unlikely. For the enemy taking Plymouth and not possessing Cornwall, there is then a whole country to the west of them and between them and their supplies; but possessing this part, they enjoy as good if not a better port than Plymouth, and there is then no land between them and Brittany or Spain; and if they have any purpose to make war with us at home and shall be able to drive us to a defensive, then is there no comparison between the one and the other; for which I could yield you many reasons but that I fear I am over tedious in these. The country eastward is also but narrow, there being but 8 miles between the river of Padstow and the bay of Trewardreth. Again, Cornwall hath not any one company of horse, either lance, light horse, petronell or pistol. Notwithstanding, if it shall please your honours to think it fit, there may be order given that all those companies which bound the river of Tamar or Saltash be ready to relieve Plymouth upon any sudden, because they may be soon past over if there were provision of better passage; but as yet there are but two ferries near Plymouth, the one at Stonehouse, the other at Aishe, as aforesaid, and two or three galleys will interrupt all transportation, because there is not any place strengthened to guard or assure any passage over the said river nearer than Newbridge, which is 12 miles above within the land.
Contrariwise, Somerset lieth to Devon in great breadth and is a country strongly formed, whereas the other is stretched all in length. Somersetshire is not divided from Devon by any river which is not fordable at all times and in all places, so as both horse, foot, carriage, victual and whatsoever may come in haste from thence to the succour of Devon. Cornwall hath Tamar nowhere passable near Plymouth; Somerset is seated from danger, having Devon towards the south, and on Severn side it hath no port capable of any ship of burden, and the indraught is long and dangerous, all the north coast of Devon and Cornwall lying between the waters of Somerset, which are Dunster, Minnett, and Bridgewater, into which small barks cannot arrive without precise observation of the tide. Cornwall is but an arm of land which stretcheth itself even to the bosom of the enemy and hath the best ports of England on the south, and better than any in Somerset on the north, and also between them and harm. Somerset is very rich and full of horse, as well for carriage as service, many wealthy gentlemen, and aboundeth in victual. Cornwall hath no horse of service, the country poor, few gentlemen, and those of mean living, and by reason that their riches consisteth in tin works, there is little corn, and less of all things else. For these respects I hope you will have favourable regard towards us, being notwithstanding ready to perform whatsoever it shall please her Majesty to determine or your lordships to command. And even so, craving pardon for my presumption herein, I humbly take my leave.—From Sherborn, this 25th of November, 1595.
Signed. 2¼ pp. (36. 26.)
Thomas Walmysley, Judge of the Common Pleas, to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 26. As to one John Neale, found guilty of murder at Exeter in Lent last at the general gaol delivery before the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Bench and myself, for the killing of John Harris. It is hard to call to memory the whole evidence then given. But I do remember that, upon the arraignment being before me, it appeared that before the coroner super visum corporis he was indicted but of manslaughter; and although upon his arraignment the father-in-law of the said Harris did urge the evidence which he did give upon his oath against Neale to prove that he killed Harris upon malice pretensed, it was given in evidence by one other, of whose indifferency there was no cause of suspicion, that they going upon a sudden to fight together, no old quarrel between them known, Harris said to Neale at the place where they did fight, “Make thyself ready, I will come upon thee.” Thereupon Neale did take his rapier, going a little way off, and Harris, having put off his doublet and his shoes, drew his weapon first and went towards Neale, Neale not coming towards him, and did give the first blow; and after some blows Neale did hurt Harris in the neck, and then they were parted. And afterwards Harris upon his death bed, as it was then credibly informed, did confess that he himself did seek the quarrel, and did forgive Neale. The jury, notwithstanding, found Neale guilty of murder. And for that it was informed that Neale was a stranger born in Scotland, and therefore suspected that the dealing against him was the harder, and for that doubt was conceived that the evidence did not sufficiently prove it to be murder, the said Neale was by us reprieved and not executed.—From Sergeants Inn, this 26th of November, 1595.
Signed. 1 p. (36. 28.)
Copy of the above. 2/3 p. (36. 29.)
The Privy Council to Mr. Thomas Ferrers, merchant, at Stode.
1595, Nov. 26. Her Majesty hath thought it requisite to send you herewith her letter, with all expedition, to be delivered by yourself to the King of Denmark, containing the request that the King do not suffer any his subjects' or confederates' ships to be sent and employed in the King of Spain's present intended hostility against this realm; and further, that he would furnish her Majesty, for the better defence and resistance of his proud attempts, with the supply of eight of his own greatest ships, to be employed with her Majesty's navy at her own cost and expense. The solicitation of answer to this letter is referred by her Majesty's direction to your diligence and good discretion. And having received answer by letter from the King, you may not fail to send it hither with expedition; or otherwise, not obtaining it yourself, to signify in writing what success you have had or what may be hoped for. So requiring you to have extraordinary care in this important service, we bid you heartily farewell.—From the Court at Whitehall, this 26th of November, 1595.
Endorsed :—“Dated 26th November; received 26th December, '95; answered last ditto, overland per post.”
Signed. ½ p. (36. 30.)
Thomas Bodley to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 26. May it please you to advertise her Majesty that the 18th of this month I received her gracious letter of the 4th with another to the States, which I presented unto them in their public meeting, and accomplished as much as I was otherwise enjoined by a verbal declaration. But Mr. Caron sent them word, about ten days before, that having had communication with my Lords, in case they would be ready with some succour of shipping against the Spanish preparation, her Majesty would let fall for a season her pursuit of reimbursement; whereat they joyed then exceedingly and reputed it expedient to impart the tidings out of hand to the provinces abroad, which was done with expedition, to meet with many dangers which it seemed they feared might grow upon the sudden, unless the people by some means were put in better heart. But now I am instructed by your letter that in this there was an error of too much haste in Mr. Caron before he had received her Highness' resolution. Having had some time of consultation upon the letter and my demands, they delivered me an answer full of thanks and acknowledgment of the grace that they received, which could never have come in a meeter season for their welfare. And touching that which was required, of the aid they were to yield of 30 ships of a certain burden, they made no further question but that when it had been moved to the States in particular, they would immediately take order that her Majesty should be served to her best contentation. But for defraying the auxiliary forces, they took it altogether in the selfsame nature with her former demands, which could be effected but by the generality, to whom they found it all the danger to notify that her Majesty will end her treaty with the country.
I have urged that the people might be won by their endeavours, that it was not a thing to be stood on, that the sum would be but small, yet esteemed great in regard of their willingness, and the manifold occasions that pressed her Highness, and the speeches that would go of this negotiation; to which they gave no other answer them heretofore, that they meant to examine the matter throughly, and do all they could to satisfy her Majesty. But I am persuaded they will never yield to anything if it be demanded as a debt already due by expiration of the treaty. For that is the place where they think they are wrung, and the people, they imagine, will by no means endure it. Under humble correction, I hold it wholly requisite to attend yet a while a fitter opportunity, which the state of things here and time must present, and hereafter to project some such proceeding as may come nearer to their liking and yet conclude the same effect with that which is required. They have secretly discoursed about sending some persons to give her Majesty more content than by their answer to me; and if it be resolved, it is like to be declared in their letter to her Majesty. To interpose my opinion without presumption, I should think such a message would make very much for the service of her Highness, for that in this case, when they cannot be persuaded to assent to her demand, both the sending of their deputies will seem more respective in the judgment of the world than their bare kind of writing, and it may be at their coming they will make some fruitful motion, or be won by good remonstrance to recommend here at home some special purpose of her Majesty. If neither happen, yet in these turbulent times, where the cause is so common between the two countries, her Highness cannot be but holpen by the counsel and presence of such persons as, I presume, they will depute. Where her Majesty maketh mention of Mr. Barnevelt's overture, I have moved him about it and debated it at length; but he putteth me in mind that the time is far other and their state more afflicted, and that they have been at the charge, since he and I talked, of 20,000l. disbursed to the French King's use, and at great expenses in the field, where they had not then their army, nor in three months after; and had perhaps, as he supposeth, if this plot had been accepted, remained still in garrison. Withal he doth maintain there is no possibility to induce the common sort to condescend to restitution by virtue of the contract, for that they will not understand it but as a matter of right and a just stipulation, and that it ought to be continued; for which they must be won by presenting unto them some other new treaty, with such conditions as need not charge her Majesty, and yet tie the country to those payments which her Majesty will require for her disbursements. Since my last coming hither I have found Mr. Barnevelt far out of temper, partly through the speeches of some of his colleagues which dislike his dealing, as if his overtures to me had been a motive to her Majesty, when she saw that of themselves they would yield to some good portion, to cast upon them a greater demand, wherewith they crush him, as he says, very often in their meetings; partly also he is grieved with somewhat written out of England, that all his dealing here with me was but dalliance to win time of her Majesty; which is also a touch to me in particular in respect of credulity or some other weakness, in that I could not see the practice. But for myself I could wish that the matter then proposed had come as well in some form which her Majesty could have liked, as it was clear that there was no dissimulation. For as for any abuse that Mr. Barnevelt could offer by means of the overture, it was so hard for him to do it, and so many must concur, and it had steeded him so little, as, if the circumstance of things in the nature of that cause, and in the form of this government, and in the manner of his proceeding here with me be duly weighed, I do not think any will stand in that opinion. It is advertised hither that the Administrator of Saxony, the Elector of Mayence, the Archbishop of Saltsburgh, and the rest that are elected to work the feat of pacification, has concluded to go in hand with that attempt about February next; which yet we think will be deferred till the coming of the Archduke, who, many men think, will be longer in coming, because they say he hath in Provence many irons in the fire, and is in hand with Casot, the consul of Marseilles, to deliver that town to the King of Spain. But, for the matter of pacification, this people is enabled by an excellent late token of God's goodness unto them to choke the enemy very soundly and dash that practice altogether. For there hath been very happily intercepted of late in the Mediterranean Sea a special packet of letters, written by the Marquis of Havrey and John Baptista Taxis to the King of Spain, and sent hither to the States by Mons. Desdiguieres. By that of Taxis is discovered a double falsehood in their meaning, both towards the Emperor and the States; and also, otherwise, his letter is full of fraudulent courses. They were written in cipher, and deciphered in such sort as I have sent you the transcript by Mons. de St. Aldegonde, and were by the States delivered me with an earnest request they might not be divulged but to her Majesty and my Lords, to the end in time convenient they may be produced to the best advantage of their purpose. Here is secret notice given that Count Hohenlo, who is now in Germany, doth employ all his means to the advancement of a peace, and is wholly busied among the Princes in matters prejudicial to this Union, all proceeding of dislike between him and Count Maurice. Moreover, it is reported he will meet the Prince of Orange in his way to these countries, and what his dealing may be is feared. It is undoubtedly here believed there will be a truce between Spain and France, at least for a year. We have also intelligence that the governor of Boulogne hath such doings of late with the Duke of Depernon as many see cause to doubt his loyalty, as they do the holding out of Calais, which is not well provided, as the common voice goeth; and sith we hear that De Fuentes maketh great preparation, it is suspected his design is to besiege it. The French King hath written to the States to know what kind of war they will make next year, whether offensive or defensive, that he may thereafter direct his own affairs. Their answer he desireth to receive by his ambassador, M. Buzanval, to whom he hath written to return with it, and give him information of their estate. I cannot yet perceive that the States can well determine what answer to make. The bruited preparations out of Spain are nothing so great as they did imagine. I am to sue very earnestly that her Majesty grant me licence to return. Before I went from home my Lord Treasurer promised to favour my petition, and I hope my lord of Essex will put his helping hand to it. If I might but have leisure to set some order in my state, which is many ways wracked to my very great detriment by my journeys, it would to me be all a matter to live at home or abroad, here or elsewhere, as her Majesty may think me fit to serve her turn.—From the Hague, 26 November, 1595.
Endorsed :—“Copy of my letter to Sir Robert Cecil, No. 26, '95, Bodley.”
Holograph, not signed. 6½ pp. (36. 32.) [Birch's Memorials, i. 331–334.]
Sir Walter Ralegh to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. [26]. I beseech you let us know whether we shall be travellers or tinkers, conquerors or crounes, for if the winter pass without making provision, there can be no victualling in the summer, and if it be now foreslowed, farewell Guiana for ever! Then must I determine to beg or run away; honour and gold, and all good, for ever hopeless. I do not hear how you like the white stone; I have sent for more of each; as soon as they come you shall have them. I have written this letter to the Lords in answer of that which I received about mutual supplies between Devon and Cornwall, a matter soon written but not possible to perform. Somerset may best relieve Devon, for if it be appointed to Dorset it is more and [than] need, for Dorset hath never a haven capable of any great ship, without which there is no fear of any descent. I beseech you let us hear somewhat as soon as you can.
P.S.—I have sent the letter unsealed; Hancock hath a seal of mine when you have perused it.
P.S.—I humbly pray you that your footman may deliver these two letters at Der[by] House.
Endorsed :—“Delivered at Shastbury one of the clock. Received this letter at v of the clock in the afternoon, the 26 day of November, '95, Sarum. Received at Andever at eight of the clock afternoon, and at Basingstoke at xi of clock at night. Hurtford Bridge, the 27th day of November at j of the night. Stanes, 8 a clock in the morning.”
Holograph. Two seals. ¾ p. (36. 44.)
M. de La Fontaine to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 26/Dec. 6. Has been in travail this week with the marriage of his daughter or would have announced the certainty that M. de Sanci is despatched hither, with “le cœur du Roi tout ouvert.” He was at Paris three weeks ago preparing for the journey, and sends forward my son who is now at Dieppe. Has had no letters since the report of M. de Lomenie, but thinks that, as the mission was resolved upon before, that would not alter the resolution. Has not announced it earlier, fearing to retard the sending of Mr. Hompton.—London, 6 Dec. 1595.
Signed. French. Seal. 1 p. (172. 105.)
Sir R. Sydney to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. 27. The day before yesterday came one of the messengers to Middelburgh who ordinarily go between that and Antwerp, an honest man and of good sufficiency. He reports that, being there, came out of the Castle with him an Englishman, well apparelled, who with great earnestness asked him what he had out of Zealand, and if there were not news there that the Queen was dead. The party answered him that there was no such thing. “Well then,” said the other, “if she be not dead she is very sick.” The messenger, going thence to the Postmaster's house, was in like manner asked by the clerk of the office, who sees to the putting to and fro of all letters. Hereof I thought to advertise your lordship, that although I trust in God, and my prayers be daily unto Him for it, that he doth and will preserve Her Majesty from such and all other mischief, yet will it not be amiss to look carefully that no wicked attempt be proposed : for certainly they would not with such confidence expect the event, but that they assume themselves to have laid good groundwork for the means unto it. God of his mercy, I trust, will grant her long life, since upon it depends not only the well doing of the realm of England, but generally of religion and the fortune of all Christendom.
There passed from Antwerp through Middelburgh a few days ago, as I am told, towards Rotterdam, seven or eight Jesuits, apparelled like gentlemen, no question with purpose to ship themselves there for England. If I understand more of it, and I will be as careful of it as may be, I will advertise your lordship. Out of Spain, here are sundry come, which do all confirm the greatness of the preparations in Spain. A Scottishman is lately come thence, who told these particulars to Colonel Steward, who is lately come out of Hungary, and he told them me : that in Italy have been prepared seventy great ships, whereof fifty eight be already arrived in Spain : that at Biscay are making ready sixty smaller ships, and as many at Lisbon, and that the rest of the fleet, which of all sorts will be 400, is providing in Andalusia and other countries of Spain. Among them shall be many small pinnaces to land men and go up rivers, and six galliasses as great and as royally furnished as ever the King of Spain had any. By others I hear of seven galliasses, but I cannot understand of any men of war, either levied in Spain or in Italy or Germany to go thither. It is said the Cardinal will bring 6 or 7000 men with him of Spaniards and Italians, and Colonel Steward told me, as he came through Cologne, he saw men taken up for the King of Spain, and that he understood there should be three regiments levied there. The Cardinal's coming down is stayed till towards the Spring; I saw written that he is dispensed withal for certain years from the Pope to lay off his churchly profession, and at the end of them to take it upon him again. Here and in Holland there [is] almost nothing talked of but of a peace, though truly I do not think the minds of these two provinces disposed unto it. Out of Germany, I received yesterday from a friend of mine there, that the deputies of the Empire for the pacification of these countries, which are the Archbishops of Mentz and “Hattsbourg.” the Dukes of Saxe and Newburg, and the towns of Nuremburg and Cologne, have had lately a day of meeting at Spires; but what was dealt in was kept so secret as nothing could be known; only there was given out by them that their servants should be despatched hitherwards in February next. The Princes of Germany are either “unsensible” of the danger which every hour draws nearer and nearer unto them, or many of them cast themselves headlong into bondage. Notwithstanding, I would think it fit that Her Majesty would send among them to awaken them a little, and perhaps some good would be done. For sure there are that are but little affected to the House of Austria, but some want counsel, some encouragement, to put any thing in hand. That which I heard of the King of Denmark's marriage with a daughter of Austria, I find, by Colonel Steward, is not so, but that there is a match in hand between him and the Elector of Brandenburg's daughter by his second wife, and that his coming to the Duke of Brunswick's was for that cause. There be many Princes in that quarter nearly united together, and all Protestants, and which seem will run on course together, and I think there might be such course taken, that some good might be gotten from them, though not all.
A speech is here among some that the great ships in Spain are provided to follow Sir Francis Drake, and the other to come into these parts of the world.—Flushing, 27 November, '95.
Holograph. 3 pp. (20. 86.)
William Stallenge to [Sir Robert Cecil].
1595, Nov. 27. Last night here arrived an English bark which departed from Teneriffe about 6 weeks past, where, as the master reporteth, there was certain news that her Majesty's flect arrived at the Grand Canaries about the beginning of October last, and presently the generals disembarked certain of their companies, intending to have landed between the town and the fort, which is about half a league distant; but by reason of contrary winds the sea went so high as that they could not come near the shore with any safety of themselves and furniture, so as they were constrained to return aboard, and pass to the Calms on the back side of the island, where they remained six days and watered at their pleasure, without attempting any further matter, and thence departed or voyage, only with the loss of ten men that straggled abroad in the country, whereof six were slain, and the other four were taken and examined by the Spaniards, but could not report any more of the generals' pretence than that they were bound for the Indies. Whiles they remained at the Canaries, the Spaniards despatched three carvels of aviso to the Indies, to wit, one from the Canaries, another from Teneriffe, and the third from Palma.—Plymouth, 27 November, 1595.
Holograph. ½ p. (36. 31.)
Lord Buckhurst and Lord Cobham to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 27. Having met here together about the service her Majesty did command us, considering the importance and weight of the matter concerning the lieutenant of the Tower and the placing of Sir Dru Drury in his room, we are to pray you to let her Majesty understand that we cannot without special warrant either remove the now lieutenant or place any other in his room. And therefore we must crave sufficient warrant in that behalf, the matter being extraordinary and of so great weight; and if we should begin to enter into examinations of the matters, and finding ground to proceed against him, omit it because we have no warrant, it might prejudice greatly the service. Therefore we have forborne to deal in the examination of the witnesses until you shall move her Majesty that we may receive order by warrant from her Majesty to remove and restrain the now lieutenant and place in his charge Sir Dru Drury, or such as her Majesty shall make choice of. For we are of opinion, although her Majesty's commandment is sufficient warrant for the restraining of Sir Michael Blount, yet how we may adventure to commit the charge of the Tower of London unto any person without her Majesty's special warrant in writing, we think it might have a dangerous consequence; neither do we think that any would undertake the charge in that sort, upon our bare words, without special warrant from her Majesty.—From the Blackfriars, 27 November, 1595.
Signed. 1½ pp. (36. 36.)
[Richard Fletcher] Bishop of London, to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 27. Being very desirious to have seen you this morning and satisfied you in some matters which it pleased you to mention to my good friend Mr. Michael Stanhope, I came this morning to your lodging, and understanding your departure to Richmond immediately after dinner, what time by reason of the commission at Lambeth I could not have time with you, I do very heartily pray you to think that there hath passed not one word—I may truly say thought—touching either the late deceased, or any other honourable person. Only, I not being made privy to the funeral nor satisfied for my fees due, being both keeper and repairer of the body of the church, did overnight charge my officer of the place to go to my Lady South' [Southampton] and acquaint her with the usage. I wrote also to her in as kind wise as I could. Proby came to me thereabout, and gave me his word for it, with whom there was not a word either of that or any other person. That morning early I was sent for to Lambeth, and was not at the church all the day, where it is said the words were uttered. But till I may speak with you I heartily pray you to think that whatsoever the malignant invention be, I have not either in word or thought uttered anything unfit for my person or duty towards any, especially towards you whom I love unfeignedly as any good friend your honour hath in England, both for your own sake and the kindness I have found from you, and so I do very earnestly desire you to be persuaded, whatsoever any malicious mouth shall at any time cast out against me. So soon as I can know your being again at home I will attend you farther.—From Lambeth, 27 November.
Holograph. 1 p. (36. 37.)
Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London to the Privy Council.
1595, Nov. 27. Sending their answer in the matter of Darcey's patent.
Signed by Stephen Slaney & others. (141. 351.)
The enclosure :—“Objections against Mr. Darcey's patent for making and selling of leather.”
1 p. (141. 350.)
The Queen to [Sir Michael Blount], Lieutenant of the Tower.
1595, Nov. 28. Dismissing him from his said office for his “lewd behaviour,” and commanding him to deliver up the keys to the person named by the Lord Treasurer, Lord Cobham, and Lord Buckhurst, or any two of them.
Endorsed :—“28 November, 1595.”
Draft in Cecil's hand. See S. P. Dom. Eliz. Vol. 254, no. 77, for another copy.
2/3 p. (36. 27.)
Nicholas Williamson to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. 28. His comfort in his manifold miseries has been that Cecil acknowledged their extremity and seemed to pity them : has lived hitherto in hopes to be relieved by him when somewhat disburdened of greater affairs, and now beseeches his help, seeing his imminent dangers and desperate desolation of all other succour or friends. Will ever live in due obedience and ready disposition to his will.—Tower, 28 November, 1595.
Countersigned :—“Mic. Blount,” [lieutenant of the Tower].
Holograph. ½ p. (36. 39.)
The Queen to Sir Dru Drury.
1595, Nov. 29. Having had former experience of your continued faith, duty, and good discretion, we have therefore made choice of you to take the care of our Tower of London during our pleasure, willing and commanding you to receive the keys of our said Tower, with all the further charge that shall be delivered you by the Lord Hunsdon, Lord Chamberlain of our household, the Lord Cobham and the Lord Buckhurst, whom we have authorised to deliver the same.
Endorsed :—“Copy of her Majesty's letter to the L. Treasurer, L. Chamberlain, Lord Cobham and L. Buckhurst, to displace Sir Michael Blunt, Lieutenant of the Tower, and to deliver the charge thereof to Sir Dru Drury. 29 Nov. 1595.”
Draft, corrected by Cecil. 1 p. (36. 41.)
Scottish Borders.
1595, Nov. 29. A paper headed, 29 Nov. 1595, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of 15 questions to be enquired into, touching the decay of the Middle March, beginning, “1. Whether of these certificates were more exactly taken.” The last three questions have been added later : they are :—“13. What spoils have been committed since the last certificate made in '93 until the 26th of this November? 14. What murders have been committed in the Middle Marches by the Scots since 10 Eliz.? 15. What decay has been since 10 Eliz. by the Scots taking prisoners to ransom?” Signed by H. Earl of Huntingdon.
II. Answers to the above, the first being, “We think the latter certificate of the musters was more exactly taken than the former.” Other answers are :—13. The spoils have been so many that they cannot suddenly be assessed. Could wish that a collection were made, by information of the parties grieved, now mostly absent, and returned to “your lordship” to show the Queen “the huge decays and losses sustained by the inhabitants of this Middle March, in these two last years, by Scotland.” 14. Have in an hour's time, among themselves, numbered 155 true and able subjects murdered in defence of their goods. 15. The greatness of the number taken (“which prisoners hath been also so extremely tortured and pinched, by thrusting hot irons into their legs and other parts of their body, and fettering them naked in the wilderness and deserts by chains of iron to trees, whereby they might be eaten up with midges and flies in summer, and in the winter perished with extreme cold : other some use to set them upon a crooked tree hanging over some deep water, sitting upon a sharp harrow, whereby the prisoner is enforced, either by moving to fall in the water and so to be drowned, or else sit still upon the harrow, pinched with extreme and continual pricking his flesh, which punishment is commonly termed, amongst themselves, 'Paytes Jockes meare,'” with sundry other unchristian devices to compel them to promise greater ransoms) compels them to ask respite to perfect their answer. Signed, Cuthbt. Collingwood : Henry Woddrington : Ro. Delavale : Willm. Fenwicke : Raphe Lawson : Ro. Claveringe : Roger Widdryngtun : Edward Gray : Robert Wodringtun : M. Erington : Herrey Delavale : Edward Charlton.
3 pp. (172. 100.)
Sir Walter Ralegh to the Lord Admiral.
[1595,] Nov. 30. I think your lordship hath understood by Watts that came lately out of Spain, that there will be a fleet sent after Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins. The man was curious to confess any particular to me, but I did ever guess it to be so. I think your lordship should do very honourably to cause a couple of small carvels or pinnaces to be dispatched with all haste with advice to them. The charge will be small to the Queen, and it may save all her ships and people in that action, for as sure as God lives, if the Spanish fleet arrive while the soldiers are overland, both the ships at anchor and those at Panama will be both lost; and they may yet be warned in time sufficient. I dare take on me to direct them to find them out by a sure and speedy course, but your lordship can do it better yourself, and therefore there needs nothing but the resolution, which God grant may be effected according to the greatness of the necessity. If any fleet go for Ireland and your lordship go not, I beseech you to enable me to the service, who would purchase her Majesty's favour with what labour or peril soever. If your lordship sent to Sir Francis it would be best done from hence, I mean from Weymouth or Plymouth, for a messenger may be with them from hence ere they can come about from London hither. I would also humbly pray you to get a resolution for our enterprise of Guiana, for if provision of victual be not made in the winter it cannot be done for this year. Her Majesty shall, by foreslowing it, lose the greatest assurance of good that ever was offered to any Christian prince; and your lordship doth find that it is the surest way to divert all attempts from home.—Sherborne, the last of November.
Holograph. 1 p. (36. 42.)
The Lambeth Articles.
1595, Nov. 30. Articles approved by Jno. Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fletcher, Bishop of London, and other theologians, at Lambeth, November 30, 1595.
1. Deus ab æterno prædestinavit quosdam ad vitam, et quosdam ad mortem reprobavit.
2. Causa movens aut efficiens prædestinacionis ad vitam non est prævisio fidei aut perseverantiæ aut bonorum operum aut ullius rei quæ insit in personis prædestinatis, sed sola voluntas beneplaciti Dei.
3. Prædestinatorum præfinitus et certus numerus est, qui nec augeri nec minui potest.
4. Qui non sunt prædestinati ad salutem, necessario propter peccata sua damnabuntur.
5. Vera, viva, justificans fides, et Spiritus Dei sanctificans, non extinguitur, non excidit, non evanescit in electis, aut finaliter aut totaliter.
6. Homo vere fidelis, id est, fide justificante præditus, certus est πληροφορια fidei de remissione peccatorum suorum, et de salute sempiterna sua per Christum.
7. Gratia salutaris non tribuitur, nec communicatur, nec conceditur universis hominibus, qua servari possunt, si voluerint.
8. Nemo potest venire ad Christum, nisi datum ei fuerit, et nisi Pater eum traxerit, et omnes homines non trahuntur a Patre ut veniant ad Filium.
9. Non est positum in arbitrio aut potestate uniuscujusque hominis servari.
Contemporary note in another hand.—“Whether Dr. Overall hath dealt against the 5. and 7. proposition, our University students do easily remember.”
Endorsed :—“A true copy of the propositions.”
1 p. (136. 37.) [Strype's Life of Whitgift, II., 280.]
John Gylles to “Mr. Thomas Mydleton, merchant, in London.”
1595, Nov. 30/Dec. 10. My last was of the 26 November, with one enclosed from your brother, and two days past I received this enclosed from him, wherewith he writes me that he is desirous to hear from you. As soon as I receive your letter I will see it safe conveyed unto him.
For news, here is little or none, only that for certain the Prince of Orange will be at Brussels within 10 or 12 days and before Christmas. He brings down with him 3,000 Spaniards, mingled with Italians, which is no sign of peace; his coming is strange. The Cardinal of Lisbon comes not in two or three months after him, but attends some end with Marseilles to bring it to the King of Spain, which by letters out of Germany is greatly doubted that the governor will for money and fair promises deliver it. The Count Fuentes is appointed to go for Italy as viceroy of Sicily, but departs not before the Cardinal be come. Here is great wars expected the next summer between these countries. Grave Maurice goes keep his court at Utrecht, and can hardly agree with the States. The soldiers of these parts run daily to the enemy for want of good payment; God grant better order! The King of France is said to be about La Fere, and hopes to have it; which some men account to be conditions between France and Spain to deliver over Cambray and La Fere, and no other expected than peace between them. Yet will Spain hardly depart from that which he hath in France, but would rather have more. Here is great fear that Calais will fall to the King of Spain's lot if he come before it, which is daily expected; for some of name in these parts have been in it, and find it weak and out of order, and if it be besieged there is no means to raise the siege. Such view is taken, and it seems they require the Borgonians for traffic sake, for they are poor; and how willing the King will part with it God knows, for he is past shame. Here are divers ships come out of Spain, and in them are come two Spaniards well appointed. One doth confess to be servant to Piedmontelle, and the other to the new Prince of Orange. They were bound for Antwerp, but are taken, and will be tried before they depart. Here is great mompeling [mumbling] among the strangers, and it is written from Calais and from Antwerp of some great trouble in the Court of England, and dare say that her Majesty's person should have some mishap, which God defend! and for His mercy's sake defend her from her bloody enemies which gape for it. Here go divers speeches which were not good to be true in these perilous days; we long for a post which these contrary winds keep back. Here comes in daily store of French wines, the best burdens at 25l. and 26l., and some at 20l. and 22l. the ton; the Rhenish wines fall very bad this year, which must be mended with French wines; for great quantity are sent to Dort of the white wines and of the sweetest to be brewed. Mr. Captot shall be married to a proper young maiden of Antwerp, old 20 years. She is Robert Toullemer's wife's daughter. He is 45 years and more old, and full of misery, that he cannot stir hand nor foot at this present, so full of gout. It is an unfit marriage, but money doth much. [P.S.] The Spaniards which went to succour La Fere are overthrown by the King of France and beaten, and will not come to any agreement but stand to his mercy. The news is come at this instant. The Prince of Orange is at Lutsenborgh and the 15th or 20th will be at Brussels. A ship coming from Malaga laden with fruit, is taken to Dunkirk, and of 20 men in her all slain saving 3; and was taken under Dover.—Middelboro, 10 December, 1595, new style.
Holograph. 1 p. (36. 69.)
Lord Cobham.
1595, Nov. 30. Materials to be bought to furnish my Lord [? Cobham's] horses and geldings, for service with saddles.
½ p. (145. 212.)
Cobham Hall.
1595, Nov. 30. Remembrance for Glyndefylld, at his coming to Cobham Hall. Relates to repairs, farm stock, woods, rents, &c.
2 pp. (145. 214.)
1595, Nov. 30. Account of Anthonie Poulett, of money employed upon the fortification of the Islet of St. Hellier :—21 Oct. 1594 to 30 Nov. 1595.
58 pp. (209. 5.)
Sir Edward Winter to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. Your honourable kind letter I have received with no small contentment, to find how it vouchsafes you to remember so poor a countryman as myself. I sent you of late some few pasties of red deer, such as the barrenness of this country and my unskilful woodmanship could yield. Hereafter, if ought be amiss in these, it shall be amended, since my wife hath promised her best cares herein, whom of late I have brought home to my house from her father's. I presume to send you 100l. which, by the Council's order, I was commanded to pay to my lord of Pembroke. I have herein written to my Lord Admiral, whatsoever you shall think fittest to be done by him or consented to by me, I will be most ready to obey your orders. Of what temper the man is your honour knows sufficiently. I am sore afraid of an unwelcome office to be cast upon [me] this year; I beseech you to keep me from it; I mean the shrievalty of this shire. I assure you it will be wonderfully to my hindrance many ways. But I will hope you will not forget me herein, nor despair of her Majesty's willingness in granting a matter so reasonable. Your Barbary falcon I received, which if I should praise very much, you would rather commend me for a courteous knight than a skilful falconer. But howsoever, I thank you for her, though I think she be dead or this. The tassell of a gosshawk had been fitter for our woodland country.
Holograph. 1½ pp. (36. 143.)
Sir Matthew Arundell to Sir Robert Cecil.
1595, Nov. My pen is seldom put to paper to men of your quality, yet neither proceeds it of disdain or unwillingness, but of ignorance to write and fear to offend, being a favour many times in these days for a man to interpret his own meaning. Such is my present need of your help that either I must be relieved or live an aged sickly life. My son who lately, by your mean, to my great cost, was licensed to go see the wars of Hungary, my end altogether to make him able for her Majesty's service and to remove him from his studious solitary life of Southampton House, I am given to understand that his wife, looking no further than to a desire of her husband's company, or at least a seeming thereunto, seeks his return by all means she may before the next spring's war be growen to end; neither regarding his reputation nor my great charge of setting him forth, drawing me into so great an interest debt as this bearer can inform you how low it hath brought me. I have not importuned you, I trust, at any time, nor for any person or matter, but if my love to yourself do not deserve this much of you, yet let the love poor W. Arundel bore you, besides the service that Thomas himself may hereafter do you, win so much from you that he may be someways employed for her Majesty's service for trial of his loyalty and wit, and to deliver him from the scandal that either he durst not tarry, or he undertook the journey to cosen his father of all his horses and 1,100l. By this your great favour you bind him to acknowledge you the author of his good, and offer me that contentment I can never deserve but with my poor prayer to Almighty God to comfort you in all your proceedings, as I shall be comforted with your favour towards my poor son.
Endorsed :—“November, 1595,” and by Cecil, “To make him answer.”
Holograph. 1½ pp. (36. 45.)
The Master and Fellows of Queen's College to the Queen.
1595, Nov. With regard to an ordinance of the Queen concerning the letting of College lands, praying that the first example of the violation of the laws be not made in their case.
Endorsed :—“1595, Nov.”
Latin. ½ p. (136. 35.)
Stansfield v. Bindon.
1595, Nov. Re Edmund Stansfield and Frances Viscountess Bindon, his wife, plaintiffs, and Thomas Viscount Bindon and Arthur Gorges, defendants.
Reasons why the writ of dower awarded to the escheator of Dorset should be cancelled and another awarded. Signed, Tho. Flemynge, Willm. Gibbes, Edward Phillipps, Lawrance Tanfeilde.
Endorsed :—“Nov. 1595.
1 p. (172. 94.)
M. de La Fontaine to the Earl of Essex.
1595, Nov. “Monseigneur, vous avez ici un extrait, non quant aux diverses occurrences (qui sont semblables a ce que vous en avez), mais des termes ou sont les affaires, selon le discours de Mons. de Villeroy, Quæstionis est, si je dois suivre son jugement en les supprimant. Je ne sçay a que est echappée cette parole de l'envoy de Monsieur de Sanci : mais je ne crains bien qu'elle est bien mal fondée, et neanmoins qu'elle vous servira de reponse pour gagner autant de temps. Mais j'ai tort de troubler si longtemps l'appareil de vos guerres theatriques. Ne vous ebahissez pas s'il prend envie a la France d'en faire echange avec celles qui lui sont si longuement sanglantes. Adieu.” Signed.
Endorsed :—“Nov. '95.”
Seal. 1 p. (172. 102.)
M. Compaygne to the Earl of Essex.
[1595, Nov.] I should be extremely glad to hear that you are coming to the aid of Calais. The Comte Saynt Pol will to-morrow be here at Boulogne, with 2,000 foot, to throw himself into Calais. When he knows you are so near he will doubtless send you his news. The King is still before La Fere. I send the numbers of the enemy and I think “que, syl vous plet, vous achamyne que lon leur fayra resevoyr houng afront.”
Undated. French. Holograph. Seal. 1 p. (172. 123.)