211. DANIEL ROGERS to WALSINGHAM.
Duke Casimir returned from the Elector the 28th of last month,
and on the 29th gave me his advice how I should deal with the
Elector. On the 30th I departed towards Heidelberg, as the
Elector had finished hunting, and was gone thither. I had audience
the first of this month a whole hour long, when, having heard me
and consulted with his councillors, who all heard what I said, he
answered me by Dr. Rastorsus, the Vice-Chancellor, that since I
had come from her Majesty and had proposed matters of consequence,
he desired me to put in writing all such things as I had
said and done ; which he said he required that he might the better
weigh all things justly, and give her Majesty a due answer. With
that, he took me with him to dinner. After dinner, I declared to
him that I would take leave of his Excellency, and go to the inn
to satisfy his request ; which he would not suffer, he said, before
he had heard such things as I proposed. He had ordained my
lodging in the Court, and in one of Otto the Palsgrave's buildings.
In that I was with him for four days, received as honourably as he
could receive an Emperor's ambassador. I repeat not what I said
to him, for I send it herewith, in writing, with his answer, which
he gave me in Dutch, for he said I spoke good Dutch, yet his letter
to her Majesty is in Latin. I had occasion to deal with him in two
matters. Doctor Ehening desired me to 'travel' earnestly with
him in shewing the dangers in which the professors of religion
were, which I did so diligently that he was astonished at it, for
he seemed to know nothing of the practices abroad. I promised
his Excellency that I would send him some of the leagues made
in France among the Papists against the Religion, and I sent him
three copies printed. Before my departure he seemed to be persuaded
that it were good both he and others entered into a league
defensive with her Majesty for the protection of the Gospel. The
other point was touching the articles of the league and project
which I received from your honour ; wherein I did not . . . .
Duke Casimir's counsel, neither as I had proposed to do with
myself ; as you may guess by the clause which is in the end of my
writing, which I added expressly to the intent I might have access
to him afterwards if the Landgrave and Duke Casimir should
counsel me to go unto him about the said project. The reasons
which moved me to shew him the project were these : he was persuaded
that her Majesty had made a league with Duke Casimir,
the Landgrave, Prince of Orange, and others, against Lutheranism ;
wherefore to take this persuasion from him it was necessary
to show him that her Majesty rather meant to unite the Lutherans
and the above-named princes than to attempt anything to their
prejudice. Also, seeing he was persuaded that the Papists had
practices in hand against them of the Religion, I made bold to
shew him ten articles, that he might conceive how easy it were to
make a counter league against them. One of his council would
not be persuaded but that there was a league between her Majesty
and the above-mentioned, and Duke Richard, his uncle, showed
me a copy of league made between the above-mentioned, which I
send herewith. I declared to them the absurdity of the said
league, and assured them that it was the invention of some idle
head only. Duke Richard talked much with me, how that he had
formerly talked with Dr. Monting for a stipend which he should
have had of her Majesty for service that he should have done at
such time as she might have war with any, for that he has certain
Reiters and Rittmeisters at his 'devotion' ; and if he thought well
he would rather be bound to her than to others whom he was
required to serve. I said that her Majesty should know of his
offer, and that she wished me to communicate somewhat to the
Elector of a matter which, if it might take effect, he might assure
himself that her Majesty would employ him ; meaning that he
might be one of the Colonels for the defence of the league. Duke
Casimir thinks well of what I have done with his brother, and
especially Dr. Ehening. To-morrow, I travel towards 'Empson,'
where the Landgrave is as yet in the baths ; M. Languet travels
with me . . . . Casimir . . . intent [?] to be there the
14th of this month, wherefore we mean to depart from hence to-morrow.
Duke Casimir has taken his Switzers from Neustadt,
and sent them to 'Caysar's Lowther,' because of the Duke of
Guise, who is said to be with 3,000 harquebuziers about Metz.
The 'Convent' of 'Wyeburche,' where the circle of Rhine was to
assemble, and began the 2nd of this month, is now ended, and
that the sooner, because of Duke Casimir, who went thither himself.
The French had dealt with some of the circle, to the intent
they should complain of Duke Casimir, as that the French King
threatened them with war, because he had twice spoiled his
country hostilely ; but the Duke prevented the matter. They
have decided upon contribution to be given in case the French
should go about to attempt anything upon the Circle ; and have
written very sharply to all Colonels and Rittmeisters in no case to
serve the French King, and now they are come here, to cause those
assembled here to write to the Colonels in like manner. I have
much to write touching the second point committed to my charge,
of which I will write with the first. Meanwhile I thought good
to send these few things.
There is great bruit here, and letters out of Italy and from
Lyons, as also from Antwerp, that the King of Spain is dead, and
that he died the 1st of August.
The same day I came to the Palsgrave departed Barbisdorf,
sent to the Elector from the Elector of Saxony, touching the subscribing
to the new divines' book ; who have given to the Electors
of Saxony and Brandenburg such counsel as the Pope never would
invent worse for the oppressing of the Calvinists. I send it herewith.
It is thought that the 26th of next month there will be a
Diet at Naumburg of the princes themselves. The Prince of
Orange and the Landgrave advise that her Majesty send some
honourable ambassage thither to hinder this secret practice of these
Lutherans which there will break out. I think if such a one as
Randolph were sent, he should be . . . . . . that matter.
If any be sent, your honour might consider whether it were
good I should be joined in commission, or have some charge with
him which I write, for that it were now time for to further me
and to win credit. I beseech your honour not to think amiss of
this my boldness.—Frankfort, 11 Sept. 1577.
Add. Endd. by Walsingham. 3¼ pp. Slightly damaged.
[Germ. States I. 18.]
212. LAURENCE TOMSON to [DAVISON].
By my master's letter you will see what state France stands in ;
all will, no doubt, bend wholly upon you there, and against you.
They are also about a practice in Scotland, which will breed to
a foul sore if it be not prevented. One Mollins is acting there to
make a division for the maintenance of the old amity with France,
which is like to have good furtherance. There is another practice,
to have the King take upon him the government. This is much
laboured, and it is thought will do the harm you may conceive.
What it may tend to it is not hard to see, though some that profess
the religion are very forward in it. Such force have private griefs
in men's hearts ; they cause forgetfulness often of our own weal.
This shall suffice to give you a taste of evil days approaching.
—Oatlands, 14 Sept. 1577.
Address and endorsement lost. ½ p. [Holl. and Fland. II.
213. DANIEL ROGERS' answer to his letter sent from "Newstat,"
received the 14th of September.
The 14th of Sept. Roger Dransfyld returned with answer from
D. Rogers touching his negotiation with Duke Casimir, which
consisted principally in two points, the declaration of Duke
Casimir's readiness to seek by all the best means he could to work
the league ; and to set forward into France to the relief of the
Churches there, so soon as he had means to furnish the "Enreight
gelt" and one month's pay. As for the assembly intended at
Magdeburg, it was broken off.
Copy. 8 lines. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
K. d. L. IX.
214. DAVISON to WALSINGHAM.
The proceedings of these men are so strange that I cannot tell
what in the world to make of them ; if they be not wilfully blind
they cannot but see the great peril which hangs over their heads by
losing time in treating with him from whom they can expect no
good. Grobbendonck returned from him last night with the
articles and letters which I send herewith, all tending to no other
end but to hinder the coming of the Prince, a practice growing
from ill passion here, and to spend the time in delays while his
friends are preparing. And yet some dangerous instruments persuade
the continuance of communication with him.
And surely, sir, they may persuade what they list, and he may
perhaps be brought to keep touch in some small things to gain the
more trust in greater, that he may afterwards abuse them with his
greater advantage ; but I see no reason to look for any peace, save
such as shall be the seed of a more pernicious and dangerous war.
And though the King should put up with the expulsion of the
Spaniards, the plots (as he is informed) against his brother, the
taking arms against him, the imprisoning of his officers, the dismissal
of his garrisons, the rasing of the castles without his assent,
the confederacy with the Prince, their intelligence in France,
England, and other places, together with a number of other indignities
he reckons to have received—a thing that cannot sink into
my belief ; yet would Don John rather hazard, and try his uttermost
fortune, such is his cruel revenging and insolent nature, than
depart with that note of dishonour as to be expelled and chased out
of his government by a sort of drunken Flemings ; hoping as he
does by the spoil of this country to make a way to greater things
which he has already embraced in imagination. So there appears
neither hope of peace nor assurance of peace if they had it, but
likelihoods or rather certain arguments of a sharp and merciless
war ; the plot whereof long since laid was in May last renewed
at Isburg [draft : Asbourge] between the commissioners of the
Pope, the Emperor, the Kings of Spain, France, Portugal, and
divers others, who as they are enemies to all that profess our religion,
so there is no doubt that the chief end of their conspiracy tends to
the overthrow of her Majesty's state, partly for religion and partly
for malice and revenge. How much, therefore, it shall import her
Majesty to look about her and carefully to entertain her intelligence
in France to apprehend the advantage of the troubles here, to
look to the state of Scotland, and by all good means to assure herself
of the Prince and States of Holland and Zealand I leave
to your judgement. You can foresee the peril in omitting and
necessity in apprehending of these opportunities, of which in my
opinion none is of greater moment than the latter. For the rest
of the country, unless the Prince have the direction, all is likely to
go to havoc among them, so distracted are they in opinion ; and
therefore while the world wish her Majesty to lend a favourable
ear to the Marquis in this negotiation, I could wish that it might
be with the condition that they should commend the government
to him ; and that assistance her Majesty shall incline to give them
might be as well of men as money, and not of the one without the
In the mean time I have done the best for the Prince here that
I could, with Count Lalaing, Baron d'Aubigny, and others, who
have all assured me that they are resolute in that behalf, and look
for him shortly amongst them, though he shall come ere he be
welcome to some of them. To-morrow I ride towards Gertruydenberg,
where I think to find him and the commissioners, who are
all good patriots.—Brussels, 15 Sept. 1577.
P.S.—The French Ambassador has been with the Prince of
Orange to renew his old practice for Monsieur, as he has also done
with Count Lalaing and others ; which is the reason why I rather
take my present journey to undermine that practice there.
If her Majesty will have any good fruits of the favour she shall
bestow, it must, in my opinion, be done with the condition above
touched ; else I doubt of the sequel.
Add. Endd. (by Laurence Tomson). 2 pp. Passages in italics
are in cipher. [Holl. and Fland. II. 92.]
Draft of the above. 1½ pp. [Ibid. II. 92A.]
216. ARTICLES OF PACIFICATION sent from his HIGHNESS to the
ESTATES GENERAL by M. DE GROBBENDONCK on Sept. 11,
1577, with the reply of the Estates, given at Brussels on
the 15th of the same month.
The treaty of pacification and the perpetual edict shall remain
in full force, and everything done contrary to them shall be
quashed and forgotten.
A perpetual amnesty shall be decreed on both sides for whatever
may have been done since the bginning of the late discontent.
The Estates agree to these two articles, with the limitations
To set this pacification on foot at once, his Highness is willing
promptly to put the town and Castle of Namur into the hands of
those who were governing it when he came.
Accepted by the Estates on the understanding that the said
town and castle be promptly placed in the hands of M. de
Froymont ; no one being substituted for him without the
consent of the Estates.
The same as regards Charlemont and Marienbourg.
See reply to Article XI.
His Highness agrees to discharge the Germans at once, on their
satisfaction by the Estates.
The Germans shall be paid up to July 24, according to the
terms agreed upon at Mechlin ; except those with whom
arrangements have since been made at the surrender of
Bergen-op-Zoom, Stemberghe, Tholen, etc. They shall be
paid as agreed, not including those who were disbanded before
the reception of his Highness, such as those who were at
Valenciennes, Tournay, and the like. The Estates do not
intend to be under any obligation to the men of Cornelis van
Eynden and those who were at the sack of Antwerp, Maestricht,
and elsewhere, being punishable under Art. 7 of the
All troops, infantry and cavalry, to be discharged on both sides,
whether retained on half-pay or otherwise since the last troubles.
List to be given.
The Estates expect his Highness to dismiss all troops maintained
by him since his coming, and to surrender Charlemont
and Marienbourg, and they will dismiss theirs. But all the
Germans must be out of the country before they can disarm
entirely. For security against German and French, and for
other good and considerable reasons, they will keep six regiments
and 1,000 horse till such time as the land is quiet and
secure. Lists can be dispensed with, provided the thing is
Other soldiers, not forming part of the ordinary garrisons, and
serving before the late troubles, shall be distributed in garrison
and disbanded when the Germans are gone.
Soldiers retained by the Estates shall be distributed at
their discretion, and for the greater relief of the people.
His Highness will order the Governors of the provinces to let
no foreign soldiers enter, and the Estates on their part shall do
what is necessary to the same effect.
It is hoped that his Highness will be pleased to send the
necessary dispatches, especially to the Governors of Burgundy
and Luxembourg ; and the Estates for their part offer to do
All acts of hostility and seizures of persons and goods to cease
As soon as ever his Highness has left Namur. all hostilities
on either side will cease.
M. de Treslong, Colonel Charles Fugger, and all other persons
of whatever quality and for whatever reason detained on either
side to be at once set at liberty ; and all property seized, detained,
or marked, to be restored ; and everyone replaced in the positions,
offices, and rights held by him before the late troubles, to enjoy
them freely and peaceably.
As soon as his Highness has restored the town and castle
of Namur, as aforesaid, all prisoners shall be placed in the
hands of the Prince and the 32 crafts of Liége ; to be set free
absolutely when the towns of Charlemont, Marienbourg,
Bouvignes, and Château Thierri have also been restored.
Property, so far as it is in existence and not alienated, shall
be returned at the same time. But as for offices, &c., it is
not convenient that they should be restored at once. The
Estates will decide this on their general assembly, together
with all other claims mentioned in this article.
When the prisoners are set free, sequestrated property restored,
and the newly levied troops disbanded, his Highness will at once
deliver Charlemont and Marienbourg.
The towns above-mentioned having been placed in the hands
of the Estates, to put Governors and soldiers in them for his
Majesty's service, and his Highness's troops dismissed, the
Estates will comply with this article, as they have declared
above, under Articles VI. and X.
Before the Germans and other troops leave Breda, Bois-le-duc,
Roermonde, Grave, Deventer, Campeu, and other towns, the magistrates
and citizens of the towns which they are leaving shall make
oath that they will receive no other garrison without the knowledge
of his Highness and the advice of the Estates ; also to maintain
the Catholic religion and the obedience due to the King.
The same shall be done in the towns where there formerly was
a garrison, though it may have gone out, such as Brussels, Antwerp,
Bergen, Tholen, &c.
The Estates will agree to these articles, provided that his
Highness will previously make the Germans leave the towns
in question. And then all good order shall be taken in pursuance
of the pacification.
His Highness would think it well that the people both in the
towns and in the country shall at once be made quietly to return
to their former occupation, and abandon the exercise of arms.
Every province will give the necessary orders for itself.
With regard to his Highness's place of residence, while awaiting
the good pleasure of his Majesty, he will retire to Luxembourg
and thence govern these countries as the Estates have requested ;
promising meanwhile to use all efforts with his Majesty to bring
this negotiation to a conclusion as soon as possible.
It is hoped that his Highness will be pleased to withdraw
from Namur at once, and use his efforts with his Majesty that
the country may, as soon as possible, have another Governor
of the blood royal.
Both sides to renounce all leagues and confederations which they
may have entered into since the last troubles.
The Estates agree.
And if any difficulty, or matter calling for settlement, arise in
connection with this or former documents, his Highness will
depute commissioners, as soon as the Estates have named theirs,
to hear and execute anything left over ; and this agreement shall
be confirmed by oath on both sides.—Done at Namur, Sept. 11,
The Estates find this article reasonable, and that the
whole be confirmed by a solemn oath on either side,
upon the holy Gospels ; and they humbly beg his
Highness to obtain the King's acceptance of this agreement
within three months.—Done at Brussels, Sept. 15,
Copy. Endd. in French. Marginal notes in the hand of
Laurence Tomson. Fr. 6 pp. [Holl. and Fland. II. 94.]
Another copy. Endd. in French. Fr. 8 pp. [Ibid. II.
K. d. L. IX.
218. DAVISON TO WALSINGHAM.
Since the departure of the commissioners, Count Egmont, M.
de Hèze and the rest to the Prince there is no news of their
success. The Prince's resolution is thought to stay upon the
assembly of the Estates of Holland and Zealand.
M. de Grobbendonck returned on Friday night from Don John,
but with such an answer as does not satisfy the expectation of the
Estates consisting of a 'company of captious articles.'
Baron d'Aubigny and M. de Willerval are dispatched to the
French King ; so far as I can learn, only to hinder the enterprise
of the Duke of Guise, who will be ready to march, as the
advice is here, the 20th of this present.
The mutiny of the companies of Maria Corduina and others, of
which I wrote, is now appeased.
Part of the Estates' forces left Gemblours, as I hear about
30 ensigns of foot and 400 horse ; sent towards Maestricht to
meet some ensigns of Dutches commanded by Megham, going,
some think, to succour the Almains in Bois-le-Duc and Breda
Others doubt it to be a device to divide the forces of the Estates.
The Estates have entertained the Count of Lumey with one
regiment of foot and 50 horse, and mean to give him future
charge ; which they do the rather to bridle their enemy the
Bishop of Liége whom he deadly hateth.
The coming of the Duke of Brunswick and the succour of the
Archbishop of Cologne, who furnishes 2,000 horse, and the like
of the Bishop of 'Treerer' and others is daily expected, which
will be such a number as those men are not provided to meet.
The return of the Spaniards, with others arrived at Genoa
and other great forces out of Italy has been confirmed by the
two last posts thence.
The Dutches of Bois-le-Duc hold out, and every day make
sallies on their enemies. They are not wont to be so valiant,
nor could have stood thus long, but that they are in great hope
of succour. They have dismissed all the burghers and got their
chief wealth into their hands.
The two Hamiltons and one Jamy Shaw, Scots, arrived last
week at Namur out of Spain, by whom his Highness hath received
such news as seems much to content him. In sum, there is
nothing to be expected here but troubles, whatever speech of
peace there be. And if the Prince come not all the sooner,
things will go hardly.
The particulars of what Grobbendonck brought touching his
last negotiation, and of such posts as we have out of Italy, you
may see by copies I send.—Brussels, 15 September, 1577.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. II. 96.]
Draft of the above. 1 p. [Ibid. II. 97.]
K. d. L. IX.
220. DAVISON to LEICESTER.
You may see what answer M. de Grobbendonck has brought
from Don John by the articles which I herewith send you, all
tending to no end but to hinder the Prince's coming, and entertain
them with delays till his own forces are ready. Here is
no appearance but of troubles greater than the country hath yet
tasted of. If the government be not committed to the Prince
(upon which condition her Majesty may do well to assist them),
all will to havoc ; for of a multitude so different there is no good
to be hoped, nor without the Prince's undertaking of the cause
do I see how her Majesty can safely bestow her favour. I am
even now ready to take my horse to go to him at Gertruydenberg.
[Other information identical with the last letter.]
Draft. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. II. 98.]
Another copy of the Estates' answer only, to articles presented
on behalf of Don John [No. 218].
Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fland. II. 99.]
222. THE ESTATES to DON JOHN.
We have considered the last articles which your Highness has
sent by M. de Grobbendonck, and after mature deliberation conceived
our final intentions, approaching so near what your Highness
offers that no further difficulty ought to occur. Wherefore
seeing that the safety and quietness of this country is in your
hands, we beseech you will promptly agree with them, and shew
by effect what you so often have declared, how much you have
at heart the re-establishment of the Catholic religion, and the
obedience due to her Majesty. Your Highness may be assured
that we shall not fail in what we have promised, and are bound
to do in discharge of an oath of fidelity, as will be better declared
to you by the Bishop of Bruges, perpetual Chancellor of Flanders,
and M. de Willerval, whom we have deputed to set out with M.
de Grobbendonck toward your Highness.—Brussels, 15 September,
Copy. Endd, in French. 1 p. [Ibid. II. 100.]
223. INSTRUCTIONS given to the BISHOP OF BRUGES, M. DE
WILLERVAL, and M. DE GROBBENDONCK.
They will present the resolutions of the Estates on the last
offers of his Highness, begging him to agree to them at once,
and pointing out the perils of further delay.
If his Highness alleges new difficulties, and proposes to appoint
commissioners to solve them, they will assure him that the
Estates have no intention of going on with further communications
and disputes, if his Highness will show by his actions
that he is bonâ fide aiming at the tranquillity of the country ;
Of which we can by no means be persuaded if he does not give
up the places he has seized.
Seeing also that if he is proceeding in good faith he ought
to make no difficulties, since there is no fear that the
Estates will not keep their promises ; and these resolutions are
so reasonable and so based on the present state of affairs in the
country, that they ought not to be rejected, but approved, as
we hope they are by all neutral persons of sound judgement.
Insomuch that it may be said that his Highness, having all
the points at issue in his own hands, and not accommodating himself
to reason, will be rightly blamed for any inconveniences that
may ensue ;
Which he ought to think well about, and decide aright.
If his Highness says anything about the Estates' intention
of keeping 6 regiments and 1,000 horse, they may reply that it is for
no ulterior reason, but for the guard of the country until it is
restored to peace, rid of the Germans, and secured against the
French, which he must himself desire,
Inasmuch as he can have no such security of the French,
whatever they may have promised, that seeing themselves
frustrated of that at which, under cover of serving him, they
were aiming, they will fail to attempt or to prepare some trap
if they find the country unprovided.
Again, it being stipulated in the pacification that the Estates
shall not be bound to disarm until the Germans are withdrawn,
no objection ought to be raised to their retaining their troops,
who are not half as many as the Germans ;
All the more so, that by the pacification the Estates may retain
all their troops, many more than 6 regiments and 1,000 horse.
For it is notorious that before the late discontent they had at
their charges the regiments of the Duke of Aerschot, the Count
of Egmont, MM. de Champagny, de Hierges, de Meghem, de
Hèze, de Beersel, de Floyon, de la Margelle, du Cherf, and had
disbanded them, and that they were also allowed to retain those
of the Count of Rœulx, the Count of Boussu, those of Flanders,
Artois, Hainault, Lille, Douay and Orchies, Namur ; coming to
a much greater number.
They assure his Highness that by expressly retaining those
mentioned, they mean to relieve themselves of the rest, and they
tell his Highness so, that he may not hereafter impute to them
any concealed purpose or breach of their promise.
Finally the deputies will do all in their power to satisfy his
Highness and cause him really to carry out what he has offered.
—Brussels, 15 September 1577.
Copy. Endd. in French in Davison's hand. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl.
and Fland. II., 101.]