Elizabeth: October 1577, 1-5

Pages 218-231

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 12, 1577-78. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1901.

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October 1577, 1-5

Oct. 1. 286. DUKE CASIMIR to the FRENCH KING.
By my last reply to your Majesty's letter as to the distribution of the rings and jewels which I have in my hands as security for part of your debt to me and the troops that followed me on my second journey, I informed you that the only means to defer such distribution was to provide money at this Frankfort fair, at which my colonels and rittmeisters, with divers lords and gentlemen, were to be and are present. Now whereas the sum paid there in no way approaches what you promised, and is, indeed, in many cases, insufficient to meet the expense of going and returning, and we hear that you have ordered the Duke of Lorraine not to supply any, and what has hitherto been sent has been distributed in small portions, so that it is spent and wasted in reaching the receivers, and lastly, as experience has shown us au doigt et à l'œil, that neither a king's word, nor obligations signed and sealed, nor other promise, has taken effect as the obligations which I have with me undertake to do ; these and other reasons have induced the majority of my soldiers urgently to demand that they [the rings] shall be at once distributed, and the hostages sent one into Prussia, the other into Pomerania ; since they think and say that the good treatment they receive where they are makes people careless in regard to them. It is the fact that having more regard for the reputation of the French Crown, which would be greatly impaired by the distribution, hitherto unheard-of, of such articles, than for anything else, I have, by using all kinds of persuasions, succeeded so far in postponing that distribution ; but on the condition definitely agreed on by all, that unless between this and Christmas your Majesty gives notice, with security, that a good large sum, corresponding to the greater part of your last obligation, will be forthcoming at the next Frankfort fair, to be held before Easter, the rings will be distributed without regard either to reputation or to displeasure, such being the just and equitable course. This is what the officers in their name and that of the men have asked me to write to you, and give you timely notice of, so that if you care about the matter you may take such order as will prevent us from distributing the rings and sending away the hostages. The like I have given the Emperor to understand ; who having done me the honour to write me word of the negotiations of your agent, Dietz de Schomberg, with him concerning me, and having myself received advertisement thereof from the chief princes of Germany, I would not fail, with a solid foundation of truth, so to purge myself of the calumnies of the said agent, and show how small a bond there was in your word, signed and sealed, that, as I hope, his Majesty and all the Princes of the Empire, ay, all men to whom these may come, will be satisfied therewith. I can assure you, on the faith of a prince, that after the last peace, which the Queen Mother desired me to sign, where I thought that all was being done in good faith, you had in these parts no one more devoted than myself to your service and the maintenance of your reputation, until the day when I perceived clearly with what foot you had been walking. And whereas from the first, even before I left France, divers contraventions were to be heard of and seen, and practices to overthrow the peace, such was my respect for your word and oath that I attributed them to those about you, who have up to now troubled your realm, that they might the better fish in troubled waters, until I was certainly advertised of these confederations and holy leagues which were being made under your authority ; whereof, apart from the injury to your Crown, it has come about that we have not received what you promised us, although your obligation states that no troubles shall hinder its effect. To say that you were constrained by force of arms to make peace and grant us all that great sum too much touches your reputation and that of your army, which in numbers exceeded mine. All which in my own name and at the request of my soldiers.—Oppenheim, 1st Oct. 1577. Copy, sent by Daniel Rogers and endorsed by him. Fr. 1½ pp. [Germ. States I. 24.]
Oct. 2. 287. DUKE CASIMIR to the FRENCH KING.
I have received your letter by Braillon, and have replied that it is no use reckoning without paying ; and that looking to the way in which default has been made in the payment of the secured [liquide] sums, it can be pretty well conjectured what we may expect in the case of the unsecured. For which cause my officers and men have requested me to write to you as in the letter herewith, begging you to take such order in regard to the contents of it that some other result may be seen at Strasburg fair ; if your Majesty wishes me to save the rings, which this time I have assuredly had difficulty in doing. As for the general, the colonels, and the rittmeisters who are by now in their own homes, I will send them your letter, feeling sure that they are so far of my opinion, that on this errand alone there would have been no need to send, even after Frankfort fair. For as regards the intermission of the payments, there can be no doubt that the failure arises from the breach of the last peace ; which will yet cause you an infinity of other troubles in your realm, from which you will not disentangle yourself as long as you live. There is no remedy but voluntarily to grant your subjects the peace which I helped to make. In this way you will efface the ill effects which have supervened from the breach of it.—Neustadt, 2 Oct. 1577. Copy, qy. by La Personne. Endd. by Rogers. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. 25.]
Oct. 2. 288. DUKE CASIMIR to the QUEEN.
I was on the point of going away from this place when your ambassador, Mr. Beale ["le Sieur de Belus"] arrived. Hearing from him that he was anxious to complete the journey which, by your command, he was making to various princes of the Empire, I thought it well to dispatch his business here, lest if I brought him with me I might take him further out of his road. I thank you for communicating with me on matters which concern the quiet of all Christendom. As long as I live I shall feel bound to serve your Majesty with all the means that God has given me. It is highly praiseworthy in you to be so bent on maintaining peace among those who call on the same God, and it seems to me that we Germans are infinitely indebted to you, for you seem to care more to preserve us than we do ourselves. Mr. Beale has done wisely in wishing to address himself first to my brother, the Elector Palatine. By his answer we pretty well understand what will be that of the more part of the other princes to whom Mr. Beale goes ; and we must remedy it so as to do as little harm as possible. We hope to do something through our cousins George Frederic Margrave of Brandenburg and William Landgrave of Hesse, and if possible prevent the doctrine of our Churches from being condemned. For myself, you will not doubt that I shall do all in my power, since I am the person chiefly attacked, on account of my having published the confession of faith which my father, the Elector, of happy memory, inserted in his will, and having added that it contains the doctrine on which is founded my hope of salvation. You will understand my feeling in this matter, by the meeting which took place here, at my instance, of good and learned men from divers nations, sent to consider how the dissensions among our Churches could be laid to sleep. Their conclusion was that request should be addressed in their name to the chief princes of Germany who follow the Augsburg Confession, tending to the same end as does Mr. Beale's charge from your Majesty ; as I believe you will have heard from Mr. Rogers. May God look with pity on His afflicted Church, and make use both of the representations of your ambassadors and of the aforesaid assembly to prevent the condemnation of our doctrine ; which will be the cause of great evils if it takes place. For we shall be compelled to maintain our innocence, that the consciences of the weak may not be troubled by such condemnations. As for what Mr. Beale has proposed touching the matter of the league, only three days ago I wrote to your Majesty on that point, and doubt not that Mr. Rogers has given you ample advertisement. —Neustadt, 2 Oct. 1577. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. Fr. 2½ pp. [Ibid. 26.]
Oct. 2. 289. DON JOHN to the ESTATES.
Your latest dispatch, brought by the Bishop of Bruges and M. de Willerval, following on so many other unreasonable demands, makes it plain that so far from maintaining the Catholic Religion and due obedience, your object is to find opportunity for bringing both to nought, and leaving his Majesty nothing but a titular authority in the country, by setting up a council in which most votes will decide. Also you have called in the Prince of Orange, whom we doubt his Majesty will not be able to digest in any sort (ne saura gouster aulcunement), all the less for the preceding demolition of his castles without letting him know, and a number of other indignities such as princes of his rank are not apt to suffer gladly. Wherefore we are resolved to tell him of these, being a matter of such importance to him ; and meanwhile, as I see you to be so inconsiderate, that, without respect to the post which I hold over you, you show yourselves disaffected to the point of compassing hostilities against us, as we see daily, we are departing for Luxembourg, in order from thence to carry on the government, in pursuance of the charge laid on us, and there to await his Majesty's further orders. From whence if you obey us, you will be doing your bounden duty, according to the obligation which you have to your natural Prince, who has never given you the smallest reason for acting otherwise, but has, in the excess of his goodness, bestowed upon you favours so notable that you ought always to be his very humble and very obedient servants and vassals.—Namur, 2 Oct. 1577. (Signed) Jehan. (Countersigned) Berty. Copy. Add. to Mr. Secretary Walsingham. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 1.]
Oct. 2. 290. Another copy. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 2.]
Oct. 3.
K. d. L. ix. 556.
You see by my master's of what importance the matter is ; I could wish the whole body were so sound that you could deal with them all as you would. But because a great part of them are, as you know, pontificii, a more wary walking you see is needful. The surest way is to deal first with the Prince, who can and will show you the best direction both for the hope of the assurance itself, and for 'such persons as with whom' you may safely deal in this behalf. If the matter should be indifferently communicated to all the States, they might haply make some ungracious combination, either with such Catholics as are there, or with the Spaniard abroad, and so make peace at their own pleasure and leave her Majesty in the briars. It were not amiss if you could think of some better way of assurance for her Majesty, and subjects, that might be of greater consequence to the King, and further benefit to her Majesty. What if she might be assured of some of those provinces, to be yielded into her hands, if the King take that 'course of arrest' ? Holland and Zealand would serve very well, and they themselves not in worse case, and her Majesty and subjects fully contented, and the King so encountered withal as he was not since the first time he had the government over one man. If you could find some means that the Prince might insinuate so much, that such an offer might be made, it were better for all parties ; for of the Spanish courtoise I doubt nothing, and it is not unlikely that the King of France and he be entered already into such combination. The French begins prettily already, he has stayed forty or fifty sail of ours, and used her Majesty's subjects in them very evil. What the end of it will be you shall understand by the next. If the King of Spain, upon intelligence that any 'secours' is intended from hence for his rebels, as he terms them—as princes' matters are never kept so secret but they are quickly made known— should fall to stay any of our ships that are there already, and are now on the journey, as Lansac under the French King has done, they would say prettily to us, to beat us with our own rods. And I cannot be persuaded that having so good opportunity upon so good occasion as he imagines this to be, he will forsake to take the advantage and make her Majesty taste of his good meaning toward her. It will not be long ere this fire that has lain so long smothering under the ashes will break out into an open flame, and therefore it is not amiss for both parties to take all the advantages they can. He will do so ; let us then provide for ourselves the best we can. The matter of the merchants' goods is uncertain ; but whether it be counter-available or no to ours there, I know not, but rather think the contrary. But if it is, a great part will, no doubt, be withdrawn upon this intelligence. There is no assurance so good as terra firma where you may plant your foot to annoy your enemy more and profit yourself. Much passed between his honour and me, and he was pleased I should impart so much to you. You can guess hereby what I mean. I leave the rest to your good conduct, who, I am sure, is no less careful for her Majesty than the matter is of weight. The Lord Jesus bless you with wisdom and all good direction, to the perfecting of your service, and the benefit of his children. And use me, I pray you, as your poor friend, wherein you shall have occasion to employ me.—From the Court at Windsor, Oct. 3, 1577. Add. Endd. : From Jemes [sic] Thomson. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. III. 3.]
Ca. Oct. 3.
K. d. L. ix. 553.
About 14 or 15 days since I wrote to your Lordship. You may have understood what has happened in the meantime, from Mr. Secretary. It is so long since I had any letter from you that I know not whether to impute it to any private offence conceived against myself or to the uncertain proceeding of our public business. For the first I would be loath to offer you the least cause ; and for the second, though her Majesty has so long suspended her resolutions as has greatly hindered affairs here, yet when she shall by the Marquis understand the general state of these countries, I hope she will take such a resolution as shall be most necessary for them and profitable for herself. Draft. Unfinished. Endd ½ p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 4.]
Oct. 3.
K. d. L. ix. 554.
This after dinner, going up to visit his Excellency, I found M. de Famars newly arrived from our Court, by whom I received your letter, with news as comfortable in my own particular, as in public respects acceptable to his Excellency, coming so happily as it did to confront the news of his Alteze, his indisposition to peace now made clear to all the world. The opinion of the wisest was ever that all these treaties and delays on his part, tended only to gain time to make himself stronger, and in the meantime to impeach their 'exploiting' of anything against him and to bring his intelligence at home and abroad to some perfection ; which having now, as it seems, effected, he declares himself more openly. For instead of according the last articles he has returned the commissioners desperate of peace and 'doubtless' of war, which at his departure from them [he] bade them look for ; a disposition which the copy of his letter to the States may sufficiently bewray. He is himself now retired to Luxembourg, leaving a strong garrison at Namur, and the guard of the castle reinforced with 400 Spaniards newly arrived. So that the States, now seeing manifestly what to trust unto, and sorry they have suffered themselves to be so long abused, have finally resolved to practise an extreme remedy ; but with so much the better courage do they resolve herein as they find her Majesty inclined to favour their cause. I find the Prince the most desirous man in the world of your Lordship's coming over, and it is the string he daily harps on ; but as one careful above all men of your welfare, he has considered and discoursed with me at large of all the difficulties, one of the greatest whereof might be your long absence from Court, knowing how by your credit and presence there all their causes have the better speed. Howbeit, to come over and remain for a while to set all things in good order, and to bring with you some such qualified person as, in case you should be revoked, might be fit to take charge, he thought would greatly advance their cause (for he makes a great doubt that her Majesty will not long suffer your Lordship on this side, subject to the perils and incommodities of war). In fine, we fell to speak of persons to supply your room, to which I named my good Lord of Warwick, your brother, or if that might not be, Mr. Philip Sidney, both men so agreeable to his Excellency as in a world I would not have made a choice to his better contentment ; but he would have all referred to your own direction. Upon this point we resolved that as he had begun, so would he daily insist upon the calling of your Lordship, as well to satisfy his desire to see and honour you in person, as for the commonwealth's sake, which he is out of doubt shall singularly be relieved by your transportation. The same point also I much stand upon, persuading them in no wise to neglect such an opportunity, which they should so much the rather apprehend, seeing their enemy at their doors, assisted by so mighty an enemy as the French lying under their nose, ready every minute to assail them, wishing them to consider the peril of delays and loss of opportunities, especially in welfare [? warfare], wherein the beginning of things are chiefly to be met withal, and wherein one little advantage lost doth oftentimes overthrow a whole cause ; which I proved unto them by divers late examples, confirming them both in opinion and in desire of your Lordship's coming. You would hardly believe how much the Marquis's letters, importing both his great good intreaty and success, comforted them here, who, I assure you, were half at their wits' end, especially for money ; wherein their present lack is such as if it be not all the sooner remedied, might breed such a confusion as would put their matters in hazard. Within two or three days we shall see what may be done here upon the bonds to spare her Majesty's coffers, wherein I doubt the difficulty will be great. I am in hope very shortly to send you an Anatomy of the Spanish practices against us, to the full information of her Majesty, in respect of their meaning and affections ; [al. We are about the discovery and ripping open of the very bowels of the Spanish drifts against us, the model whereof was laid heretofore, and is now like to be built on ; wherein I hope with the next your Lordship shall have fully to confirm her Majesty and yourself ;] some generalities whereof I have understood of his Excellency, who is diligently occupied in the ripping open thereof. And because I mean to return Whitechurch very shortly, I will not now trouble you with a longer letter.—Brussels, 3 Oct. 1577. P.S.—I send you the justification of the States, the first I could recover [al. the first copy that is come to my hand], wherein you shall see the truth, not undisguised [sic ; al. nakedly and not disguised] as it is in that of his Altèze. Draft. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. III. 5.]
[Oct. 3.]
K. d. L. x. 90.
294. Another draft of the same letter, with slight differences, the more conspicuous of which are indicated above. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. III. 6.]
Oct. 4.
K. d. L. ix. 559.
The commissioners to his Highness are again returned, with such fruit as was ever expected of their journeys, he having now clearly manifested his indisposition to peace, as the enclosed copy of his last letter to the Estates will show you. He has retired to Luxembourg, leaving Namur strongly guarded, as well as the other places he holds, so that there remains no hope of peace than such as the issue of a war will bring forth ; which there is no doubt will be bloody and desperate. But the arrival of the Prince, who carries himself so wisely as to overcome his greatest enemies, and her Majesty's inclination to favour their cause, puts them in good hope that his Highness will repent of renewing their troubles. They are now occupied in making a Council of the Estates to govern, wherein if they follow his Excellency's advice, they shall not fall into the errors which are yet daily committed. Certain principal men among them are appointed to draw the instructions. To-morrow they 'go in hand' with the matter of money, about the recovery whereof I doubt there will be difficulty ; but I make no question of their doing their uttermost. Truly, my Lord, they had no news these twelve months that more comforted them, as they were in hard terms, having to content a company of mutinous soldiers, whose daily disorders growing of want of pay cannot but breed great confusion. I hope this favour extended so seasonably shall breed as great thankfulness in them, as surety to ourselves. The Prince is about the discovery of the whole plot laid in Spain against our State, which will be a thing of no small moment. He has imparted some generalities thereof to me, and has promised to deliver to me the authentic proofs and originals.—Brussels, 4 Oct. 1577. P.S.—You shall receive herewith the justification of the States much more just than that of his Altèze. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 7.]
296. Draft of the above letter. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 8.]
Oct. 4. 297. [DAVISON] to WALSINGHAM.
Same news as in the last two letters. So that all hope of peace is now taken away, and both sides are resolved to fall to their last and extremest remedy, which they do here resolve with so much the better courage and hope in that they find her Majesty so graciously inclined to favour their just cause ; the news whereof by M. de Famars came so happily to confront the report of the Commissioners' success, that the one did not so much dismay them as the other did relieve them. They go to-morrow in hand to try what may be done upon the bonds here, to spare, if it may be, her Majesty's coffers. For the calling over my Lord Leicester, the Prince has marvellous good opinion, and I am sure will go forward with it all that he may. I wonder there should be any difficulty made by her Majesty to discover herself in this cause which so nearly touches her, having seen so many proofs of the ill-meaning of Spain against her. But all that she has seen in that respect is, as I hear, nothing in respect of what is here in discovering. You can judge how much it behoves to look to France, whose nearly concluded peace has no other scope but to convert their fury on their neighbours ; but the causing and diligent entertaining of good intelligence among them will fall out happily to prevent their malice. But her Majesty must not be sparing in trifles, if she will set surely and avoid the expense of much ; but hereof under correction. You shall hear more by Whitechurch in two or three days.—Brussels, 4 Oct. 1577. Draft. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 9.]
Oct. 4.
K. d. L. ix. 562.
Same news as to Don John's movements. Whilst the Commissioners were with him, M. de Vers, nephew and lieutenant to M. Champagny, passed over the Maes with his regiment, and went up as far as Carpen, to keep the passage between the country of Luxembourg and Ruremonde, where Polweiler lies. There encountering with certain companies of Dutches, 'Burgynois,' and Spaniards, to the number of 3,000, they not exceeding 1,200, made a hot skirmish with them, but in fine retired in the best sort he could for the safeguard of his companies, of whom he lost between 2 and 300, with 4 of his captains and all their baggage. And about the same time one Mornow, a captain of light horsemen, appointed to attend upon them, was in another part environed where he lay not far off, and his men defeated, and himself shot through the shoulder. Breda is not yet yielded, having agreed to all articles save the delivery of their Colonel Frundsberg, for whom the Prince specially insists. The Count of "Hollock" lying before the town has orders to conclude with them. One Captain Cornellys, a Scot, attempting to have made a trench hard under the wall on Monday night last, was, with three or four of his company, slain under the walls. It is constantly reported that Count Charles de Mansfeld is arrived in Luxembourg with 1,200 horse to the aid of his Alteze. The speech is hot of the preparation of the Duke of Lorraine to assist his Highness with 6,000 men. Escovedo is newly arrived at Luxembourg out of Spain, with full resolution from his Catholic Majesty. There is come by way of exchange from Lyons 400,000 crowns wherewith to begin the wars. The Baron d'Aubigny is departed towards the French Court, to dissuade the King from assisting his Highness.—Brussels, 4 Oct. 1577. P.S.—Even now I hear that Breda is yielded, with Colonel Frundsberg, into the hands of the Prince. The conditions are that they shall have three months' pay, two to be in present money and the third in cloth. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 10.]
299. Draft of part of the above letter. [Holl. and Fland. III. 11.]
Oct. 4.
K. d. L. ix. 555.
I return the news from the Low Countries, and thank you for communicating it to me. By the first mail we shall, no doubt, hear further. I hope that the presence of the Prince of Orange will make it possible to carry things on with more security, but we must be on our guard. I think this business of Marienburg is a fresh stratagem, and that the Count of Mansfeld's action is a clear sign of some resolution against us. If I have any information, I will not fail to impart it to you.—Windsor, Oct. 4, 1577. (Signed), Charles Phillippes de Croy. Add. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 12.]
Oct. 4. 301. The EMPEROR to DON JOHN.
Illustrious Uncle,
We would not have you ignorant that our beloved brother Matthias last night took steps to have the gate of this city opened to him, and departed hence. But whereas he planned this without our knowledge and consent, nor had we any suspicion that he would allow himself to be led into this, or pay more heed to others than to us, we have learnt his intention with great grief of mind and distress, and have considered it our first duty to send out some both of our and his chief officers to places whither he may have betaken himself, and if possible recall him, and also to use all efforts with the electors and others that he may be stayed from his purposed journey and led to return. But although nothing will make us doubt of his obedience toward us, we were unwilling to refrain from informing you ['eum' in the Latin ; but obviously by an error. French has 'vous'] of this distressing intelligence. Anything further that we hear we will not fail to signify to you. —Vienna, Oct. 4, 1577, in the second year of our Roman reign, the sixth of our Hungarian, the third of our Bohemian. (Signed) Rudolph. (Countersigned) P. Obernburger. Copy. Endd. Latin. ½ p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 13.]
302. Another copy of the above. Endd. in Latin by Burghley. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 14.]
303. Translation of the above into German. [At the end : "This copy collated with the original writing of his Majesty, and found to agree word for word by me (signed) Lo. Gantzenmuller."] Copy. German. 2½ pp. [Germ. States I. 27.]
304. Translation of the same, including the note at end, from German into French, made for Davison. Endd. [Qy.] by Fornari. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. III. 15.]
By Duke Casimir's appointment, I arrived at 'Franckendale' on the 30th ult., but did not find him there. He had for certain urgent affairs left Oppenheim, where he had dealt with his colonels, for 'Keyser's Lauther,' and did not come to Neustadt till the 27th, where the citizens were all in arms to receive him with such honour as they could then show him. I spoke with him on the 28th, and reminded him of the reasons for which her Majesty had sent me to him : that I had had two matters specially commended to my charge to negotiate with him ; namely, as to the league which her Majesty proposed to make with such princes of Germany as professed the reformed religion, and as to his expedition into France for the relief of the Churches there. For the first, I declared he had answered me that he would take his journey to the Landgrave of Hesse, with whom should be present at the same time others of the Counts of 'Westervalt' and 'Wederawe,' to further the said league ; and for his journey into France I said he had 'remitted' me to the time of Frankfort market, when his Colonels were to meet him at Oppenheim, where he minded to persuade them and do his best for a new journey into France. I told him I had written of these things to England a month ago, and lately since our return from the Landgrave, and had advertised her Majesty touching what was done at 'Emps' about the league. The time required that she should now know his resolution touching his expedition into France, for the extremity of the Churches was such that if they were not aided in time they were like utterly to be ruined. He answered he remembered very well for what causes I was sent to him ; and that as they were of great consequence, he had been careful to conduct the affairs according to her Majesty's project. He said I had seen what he had done with the Landgrave touching the league, and he trusted if the condemnations of the Lutherans were hindered as the Landgrave advised, that the league would have good success. Touching his expedition into France, he affirmed he had dealt earnestly with his Colonels and 'Ruytmasters' at Oppenheim to persuade them to enter France again with him, using all the persuasions that could be invented ; but had found greater difficulties in them than he had looked for ; which he said happened because large promises had been made them before when they were invited to take their journeys into France which never were observed. They had therefore given him a final answer that they would not return with him into France unless they might have 12 'guildrens' as Anrittqelt, and receive half a month's pay in advance, and the other half at the muster-place ; besides an allowance of two months' pay. Wherefore seeing he was most ready to do her Majesty's pleasure, and desires nothing so much as to succour the afflicted Churches of France, he told me that he had written to certain princes and noblemen, who had of late offered him their services. He gave me their names in writing ; they were these : Joachim Ernest, Duke of Anhalt, who offers 3,000 reiters ; Francis, Duke of Lauenburg, who has promised to bring 2,000, besides the presence of one of his brothers. Adolph, Count of 'Newenar,' will make 2,000 reiters, besides 2,000 footmen, Walloons, Flemings, and of Liège. Furthermore, many noblemen have promised to accompany him, as Casimir, Duke of 'Pomerland,' one of the Dukes of Deuxponts, and the Count of Mompelgarte [Montbéliard], heir to the Duke of Wirtemberg. He told me he also understood that Count 'Volrat, of Mansfielde,' would gladly march with him ; and affirmed that he had written to the above-mentioned as to the conditions on which he would have their assistance, and that he trusted to have an answer within 20 days. Meanwhile he desired that her Majesty would not only advance the money promised, but would increase it, for he was not minded to enter France again without 10,000 reiters and 12,000 Switzers, besides Walloons and Frenchmen, of whom he was assured. He did not doubt that those with whom he had dealt would be entertained with 10 guldens for their Anrittgelt, and a month's pay ; which, he said, if he had had ready, he might have persuaded his old colonels to march at once with him. He added that he had the day before written to the Prince of Orange, to require the States to send him what they had promised for the levying of reiters for their use ; by which means he trusted to enter France with least mistrust of the King. I replied that I was much afraid lest the loss of time would ruin the estate of those that were afflicted in France, that his long delay might make the King of Navarre and the Prince of Condé subscribe to a peace, whereby her Majesty might be frustrated of the relief to be expected from his journey into France, and perhaps change her determination for the aid she had promised. He answered that for executing great designs suitable means were necessary ; and that so well addicted was he to performing her Majesty's pleasure that he would venture as much money of his own as he had offered him. Here he began to complain of the covetousness of the reiters, who being of all parts desired and sought for, demanded unreasonable stipends. In like manner he answered M. de la Persona, 'Argentluy,' and the agents of Languedoc. He also opened to me at large why he ought to go warily, for that he would not trust the King of Navarre, because of 'machiavilliards' which were about him ; that the Churches of Languedoc and Dauphiné were also much afraid of the practices of those who ruled the King, wherefore he could not feel sure that he would do any good by this expedition into France, unless he provided for all inconveniences which might happen by the King of Navarre's sinister practices ; that he had great reasons for mistrusting him, and was not alone in this opinion. With this he shewed me such letters as he had received of late from the said King, by which he gave the Duke to understand that unless he were sure to have aid from him shortly, he would make peace at once with the French King. This resolution the Duke greatly misliked ; for he ought not (as he said) to arrogate so much to himself upon the reformed Churches as to make peace without their advice. He said that if he returned into France, he would take care that neither the King of Navarre nor the Prince of Condé should make peace without his agreement. M. Argentlieu and M. de la Persona have promised that they will be ruled by him ; item, that the Prince will follow his directions ; and the agents of Languedoc like so well the Duke's counsel and 'platform,' that they would rather be ruled by him than by any princes in France. Indeed they are so afraid of those by whom their princes are ruled, that if Casimir would swear to be their defender, they would acknowledge him for their chief lord and sovereign. By reason of the Duke's answers, given partly to me and partly to the French 'solicitors,' they have met several times, and concluded that the agents of Languedoc should return home, and try to get for the Duke the aid they have promised, to wit, 50,000 crowns from Languedoc and 10,000 from Dauphiné, which they tell me they do not doubt to be able shortly to bring into Germany ; while M. Argentlieu returns towards the Low Countries, where he intends to try to engage the King of Navarre's and Prince of Condé's goods in Flanders, trusting by reason of the Prince of Orange's present credit in the Low Countries to conduct this matter to some effect. La Persona is gone through the midst of France disguised, towards the King of Navarre, to persuade him to alienate from his presence M. de Foix, who has been with him for eight months, as also such evil members as make the Churches think not well of the King. Meanwhile they have 'peetifully' besought me to desire her Majesty to continue her succour to them, and rather increase the sum promised than diminish it. They have heard rumours of the peace being made in France, which they think ought not to hinder their work ; for they are persuaded that if the King does make peace, it is but in order that he may have leisure to be busy with the affairs of the Low Countries, and that before the winter is ended, the treachery of the peace will break forth to their destruction. The agents of Languedoc wished me to desire her Majesty when writing to the King of Navarre or the Prince of Condé to be so good as to admonish them to do all things by common consent of the Churches, and not to make a peace or resolve of weighty affairs without their agreement. Before they departed, they also asked me to beseech her Majesty to give me further authority to deal with the Count of Mansfield, or Duke George Hanns of Petitpiere, in case Duke Casimir should not be ready to march into France. They persuade themselves that they might the sooner make him march if he perceived they were dealing with others. If they had not used this policy in the last journey into France, Duke Casimir would not have been as ready as he was ; as Mr. Wilkes, who was then employed here, can further declare. Item, they would be glad if her Majesty gave me some commission to see that the money which she is minded to lend them was bestowed for their use, for of the last money sent to the Duke Casimir a great part came not to their use. They have already learned from Count Volrat of Mansfield that he is willing to march into France ; and for the Duke of Petitpiere (who supped with Duke Casimir, as I likewise did), the 2nd of this month, at Neustadt, he sent M. de Buy to La Persona and Argentluy the morning following, offering them his services and assuring them that he lately talked with Duke Casimir's colonels at Frankfort, and if they would contract with him they should find him ready and the colonels as well, who have all promised to follow him when and where he marched. He has 50,000 florins a year, which he is content to mortgage for this expedition into France. He is a man of stature, and speaketh good French, as likewise Latin ; but Casimir is the fittest man they may find for a prince in Germany, of whose skill, faithfulness, or valiantness they have had good proofs. I find him ready enough, if he were further informed of her Majesty's resolution. The Emperor lately wrote to him again touching Dietz Schonberche's negotiation, directed against him in favour of the French King ; and likewise caused the Duke of Saxony to write to his son-in-law, Casimir, to stop his journey into France ; but he is resolved to march if he can obtain convenient means, viz., Anrittgelt and the first month's pay, which would amount to 240,000 crowns. As for the Low Countries, he means to use Philip, Duke of Brunswick, who has offered his service. For the rest, he has provided, so as to be ready to march in a month. Wherefore he would especially know what her Majesty has decided upon the dispatch which I sent from Neustadt on Aug. 25, by your man Dransfielde. If the peace were made in France, and she meant to deal with the Low Countries, as he has understood by the sending of the Marquis de Havrech into England, he desires to know whether he may do her any service that way. There arrived here the first of this month M. Braillon, sent from the French King with a letter to Duke Casimir, by which the King answers his letter, a copy of which I sent you on the 11th ult., when I sent my negotiation with the Elector Palatine. This Braillon's message seems to be invented by the King, only to learn how ready the Duke is with his army, and to hinder the jewels from being "distracted," which thing the Duke obtained of his colonels at Oppenheim. The Duke sent him away with his answer the day after he arrived ; as you may perceive by the copies of these letters which I send. As he departed from the Duke he saw Mr. Beale, who had heard nothing of his arrival, come to the Duke. The Duke had thought to have gone that day to Kaiserslautern, but stayed at Neustadt to answer Mr. Beale, which made this Braillon suspect that the Queen was dealing with the Duke for his journey into France ; as M. de Buy came and told M. de la Persona. He made no mention of a peace, although about the same time the Governor of Metz wrote to the Duke as though the peace were made, and the Duke of Guise caused the like reports to be spread at Frankfort. Duke Casimir is minded, as the Queen has now sent thrice to him in half a year, to send Dr. Beutrich his counsellor to England ; but at present he is at Mompelgart, where his wife is extremely sick, and he very ill at ease. The Duke was minded to have sent Count Ludwicke of Witgenstein, but he must stay at 'Coollen' to hinder the Duke of Bavire's son's election. The Spaniards are returning by Basile and Loraine, by 6 and 12 at once, and Italians follow ; as you may understand by certain news which I send herewith, written from Taurin, out of Savoy to Duke Casimir. Though the Bishop of Collen resigned his Electorship on the 13th ult., there is no news yet of a new Elector. The Chapter is bound in six weeks after the death or resignation of a Bishop to choose another, so we shall shortly hear of one. As I mean to advertise you more fully in my letter annexed, there was lately here Christophorus Thretius, a Polonian, and well learned, who was in Poland last month. He told me the state of the war between the King and them of "Danswicke," which you will best gather from their letters to the King and the answer which the King's councillors returned to them. It appears that the house of Austria has brought them into this extremity, and that the King is likely to prevail over them, and afterwards dispose of their privileges as he shall see good. The King's revenues consist only of 600,000 florins a year ; but in time of war or necessity the states contribute as occasion shall require. Among other things, this Thretius told me that they of Danswicke gave out that they were assured of aid from England, which "brute" he trusted to be false. I fear while I study to write of all things to be tedious to you, wherefore I will here make an end. Franckendall, Coloniâ Belgicâ, 5th Oct. 1577. Add. Endd. by Walsingham, and marginal notes made by L. Tomson. 6½ pp. [Germ. States I. 28.]