K. d. L. ix.
47. ROGERS to WALSINGHAM.
The Prince sent for me as I was leaving Enckhuyzen to impart
the contents of letters just received from Brussels, signed by
Count Egmont, M. d'Aussy, [Count Bossu, erased], the Count of
Hautkerke, M. de Hèze, and one of the Hornes, Baron Merode,
and Beersel ; as also letters from Sainte-Aldegonde. They thank
the Prince for imparting to them the intercepted letters, and say
that since that, Don John has taken Namur and placed M. de
Floyon's regiment in the town and castle. Through M. de
Hierges he had likewise obtained Charlemont and Philippeville,
towns built and named by the Prince of Orange for the Emperor.
Don John had written to the Estates that he understood they were
planning to imprison him, and had taken these towns for his
safety. They had answered that he had no cause to suspect any
such thing, and wished him to return at once to Brussels. Meanwhile
the Lords abovenamed counsel the Prince to surprendre the
town of Amsterdam, and to assure himself of the said place, and
other towns, as Bois-le-duc and Breda, where the Allemans were
in garrison. In Sainte-Aldegonde's letter was contained his negotiation
with the above-named ; also how he was with Champagny
until three in the morning ; that the gates of Brussels were now
guarded ; that he had conferred with the Count of Lalaing, M.
de Montigny, M. de Capres, and Fresin. He said that Don John
had failed to intercept Maestricht, which he had thought to have
done by the help of the Duke of Aerschot, who with his brother
is now with Don John. His son, the Prince of Chimay, was gone
towards Antwerp, to secure the castle and town, and the Estates
had sent thither to win the captains. They had sent to Mechlin
to make sure of Goignies and La Motte. The Count of Lalaing
came to the Queen of Navarre to conduct her through his government,
thinking afterwards to go to Don John ; but she counselled
him to retire to his guard, for she would be loth that any mishap
should happen to him while he was conducting her.
He also wrote to the Prince to think how he might be master
of Bergen ; and that M. de Billy and Mondragon were returned
to Don John, and that the Count of Mansfeld was not far from
him ; that M. de Ville was yet at Mechlin, to whom the Estates
had sent to dissuade him from going to Don John, but to return
to his government of Friesland. The Prince told me that if
they would follow his advice, they would forthwith go and beseige
Don John in Namur ; that they are foully deceived who think
that the town is strong. He understands that Barlaymont is gone
to the Spaw. Aldegonde counsels the Prince to come to Gertruydenbourg ;
and so is minded. The Prince opened this news
to the Burgomaster of Enckhuyzen, who answered that seeing
the enemy had begun the play, it might please his Excellency to
give them leave to take the town of Amsterdam. In same, I
perceive that the war is begun again, to the benefit, as I judge,
I am sorry that M. de Famars is compelled to stay so long for
the wind. Some of my letters were ready long ago, which I now
think to send by land.—Enckhuyzen, 26 July 1577.
P.S.—The Prince thinks good to dispatch M. Taffin to the
noblemen who wrote, and counsel them to look well to Maestricht
and to see if they can reduce the town of Antwerp with the castle.
If there is no hope of getting the castle, then to divide the town
from the castle by a trench ; and because they owe as good as
six millions to the Allemans, to employ the said sum in driving
them out of the country. Would wish money for 3,000 reiters,
for which he would send the Count of Hohenlohe into Germany.
If Don John make a levy of reiters, they should raise 3,000 more.
Add. Endd. : The breaking out of the matter between the
Estates and Don John. The advice given the Prince from the
nobility at Brussels. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. I. 18.]
48. The ESTATES to DON JOHN.
MM. de Goingnies and de la Motte have reported to us the
answer of the Germans, who appear to have no intention of
complying with the orders of your Highness. We beg you to join
with us in making them submit, or they will go on tormenting
the towns. We cannot refrain from further representing to your
Highness that the people are much disturbed by your retreat to
Namur, and we fear that things may soon come to pass difficult
of remedy, for which we should be sorry. We beg your Highness
to apply a remedy soon, by the ways and means which we have
represented through our deputies. For we shall be too bitterly
displeased if after all we have endured for the maintenance of
our holy religion we should for no cause fall back again into the
miseries which we otherwise foresee. A rumour is current that
your Highness is massing soldiers round Namur, which would be
the cause of yet further disturbance ; and we humbly pray you
to withdraw them, considering how your reputation will be affected
if after all you have done to promote the public peace you allow
things to fall back into a new and great combustion.—Brussels,
26 July 1577. (Signed) Cornelius Weellemans.
Copy. Probably enclosure in the last. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl.
and Fland. I. 19.]
and following days.
K. d. L. ix.
49. ADVICES from the Low COUNTRIES.
[Headed : From Bruxelles the 26 July 1577.]
On the 25th of this month Don John seized the castle of Namur,
pretending that he received letters that certain people conspired
to kill him, and therefore that he had entered the castle for his
own safety. This he wrote to the Estates at Brussels. Also he
seized Charlemont and Philippeville.
The 22nd of the same month, a courier arrived from Spain with
letters that caused him to break off the supper which he had
prepared for the Queen of Navarre without the city, and deferred
it to the next day. The manner of the taking of the castle was
this ; on the 24, under pretext of hunting, he passed along the
castle, when he alighted from his horse to see it. When he was
within, with the Duke of Aerschot and his train, he seized upon
the place with his Spaniards, and called to all about him with
these words : "As many of you as love Catholic Romish religion
and are faithful servants to the King my master and have care
of my life, follow me!"
On receiving intelligence of this seizure from Count Rassinghien
the Estates sent posts into all quarters to assure the towns
to their devotion. In like manner letters were sent to the Prince
of Orange willing him to seize all the places in Holland of whose
fidelity he may doubt ; and like letters to Count Lalaing as to
the places in his government, and to beware lest he be surprised.
Upon receipt of these Count Lalaing summoned the magistrates
of Mons, and asked what part they would take. They said they
would follow the States. The like was done in Valenciennes and
other places of his government, where he received the like answer.
On the 27th, the noblemen and gentlemen assembled in Brussels
to make a new league ; when they swore to risk their lives and
goods for the defence of their country and observation of their
ancient privileges and to cleave fast together.
Don John has distributed the Almains about the country in
fortresses to the number of ten or twelve thousand. He has
besides, the regiments of Hierges, Floyon, and Meghem, and
others which he can quickly get from Burgundy with the Baron
of 'Chevereux' and 'D. Gastray' to levy for him. It is reported
also that he has 4,000 horsemen ready in Germany, and within
five weeks he can have the Spaniards and Italians back. It is
said there is some intelligence between him and the Duke of
Guise, who is suddenly come into Champagne, and levying men
under colour of Casimir coming into France.
The Duke of Aerschot's son, who is governor of the citadel of
Antwerp, arrived in Brussels on the 27th to offer his service to
the States. Montigny departed the same night to the Duke's
government by Maestricht, to keep them devoted to the States.
The Viscount of Ghent has not as yet been to Don John to
report of his legation into England, nor has he been with the
Estates. On the same 27th the Estates sent the Abbot of Marolles
and Archdeacon Busche [i.e., Bucho ab Ayta] to Don John to
understand what he meant by his actions. He sent them back
with the answer that he would send his own counsellors to inform
them. The States have also sent to the Duke of Aerschot and
Hierges, and others who signed the league, to repair at once to
Brussels, otherwise they shall be proclaimed traitors and rebels,
and their goods shall be confiscate.
It is said that M. de Treslong who is the Duke's lieutenant in
the castle of Antwerp is sworn to Don John ; and that Don John
is fortifying the castle of Namur.
On the 28th the gates of Antwerp were shut about 2 in the
afternoon, and the Almains were all in arms.
Endd., and in another hand, D. Wilson, 1577. 2½ pp. [Holl.
and Fland. I. 20.]
50. Offers of the ESTATES to the GERMANS in respect of their
1. They will furnish two months' pay in cash and one in cloth,
and if the Germans will not agree, they humbly beg his Highness
to assist them with his own and his Majesty's credit to raise
another month's money and the same of cloth.
2. In case of acceptance, to have a prompt calculation made
of what is due to them under the pacification.
3. When ascertained, the sum due shall be paid in three yearly
4. The Estates shall give as security their collective and
personal obligations, his Highness intervening in the name of the
5. The Estates do not understand that the companies with whom
they have already an agreement are comprised in this treaty.
6. Being agreed upon the above points they may disband the
companies at their convenience, as fast as they furnish the money
as offered above.
7. And if any notable difficulties shall present themselves, they
shall be referred to such arbitrators as may be agreed upon.
8. They request that the German colonels and soldiers will
agree at once upon each article (for it is all they can do) ; and if
more is demanded, they cannot furnish it.
[ANSWER of the GERMAN COLONELS.]
After professing full obedience and devotion, as shown by their
past conduct, to the King and his Highness, they point out that
the representations now made are the same as the offers made
recently at Antwerp to them by the deputies, which their people
were much dismayed and grieved to hear ; great discontent being
thereby caused. Wherefore the colonels cannot lay this offer
before their people, for fear of disorders, from which his Majesty
and the country might receive "grand dommage et intérêt."
However, in order that his Highness and all men may perceive
that they wish nothing but the repose, union, and peace of the
countries, and are, as God knows, willing to bring this matter to a
good result, the colonels—although it is contrary to the ancient
custom till now observed among the High Germans—agree that if
his Highness will order some one of the king's ordinary contadores
at Antwerp to write to the captains of the regiments that they may
send commissioners to settle what is due, and will then cause the
Emperor's commissioners to arrange with the men about payment,
they for their part will not fail to do what they can to help
[The DEPUTIES' Reply.]
The Deputies having recently treated at Antwerp with Colonels
Frundsberg and Fugger, reported as favourably as possible to his
Highness and to the Estates. But as owing to the necessities
with which they are at present overwhelmed they cannot possibly
furnish more, they must adhere to the offers made at Antwerp.
Still as his Highness was here to satisfy the demands of the
colonels, the Estates wished their deputies to wait on him, that
by his intervention they might once more ask the colonels to
accept their offer of two months in money and one in cloth, with
instalments and security as mentioned, and to persuade their
officers and men to agree.
And pursuant to this, to arrange quickly for the payment and
disbanding ; any difficulties which may arise being settled by the
intervention of his Highness and the Emperor's ambassador.
[Then follows an abstract, rather fuller, of the same, or a similar,
negotiation ; probably that at Antwerp, referred to above.]
[What the IMPERIAL COMMISSIONERS said.]
The Imperial Commissioners do not doubt that his Highness
and the Estates will remember the diligence which they have used
throughout the negotiations, and how since the conclusion of
peace they have been instant with the Estates for the disbanding
of the German troops ; or how at the request of both parties they
went to Antwerp to treat amicably with the colonels in presence
of the deputies from the Estates ; and when this came to nothing,
they began another negotiation at this town of Mechlin, in
presence of his Highness and the deputies, on which occasion the
Estates declared their final resolution to give the Germans three
months' pay in cash and one in cloth ; and anything else that may
be due when the accounts are liquidated, they will pay by three
consecutive yearly instalments ; and that is all that is in their
power to do. This being announced both verbally and in writing
by his Highness to the colonels, they prayed him forasmuch as
they were not really masters of their soldiers, that a deputation
might be sent from the 4 ensigns then at Antwerp, to hear the
resolution from the Imperial Commissioners ; which to his
Highness and the Commissioners appeared feasible. On their
appearance the Commissioners pointed out the dangers of refusing
the offer, and that it was resolved to satisfy them in all reason
and equity, the only matter to be settled being the payment by
instalments, so that they might leave the country in goodwill
and amity. The arrangement will not only be to their advantage,
as the money will be as it were in a savings bank for them, but
will enhance their credit with his Majesty and the Feudatories
of the Empire.
The deputation replied that they had no powers to conclude,
and could only report to their comrades and take their opinion.
This was handed to the Commissioners in writing this morning.
Having read it, they replied that they had hoped for another and
discreeter answer ; nevertheless they would make it known in the
proper quarter. Therewith they summoned the colonels, and
having read to them the soldiers' answer, advised them urgently
to think of some way in which the burden might be discharged ;
since they all knew too well that the Estates could not at present
pay in full. The Colonels said that they had already pointed
this out, but their men would not listen, and they could not
answer for their own lives if they were to propose it at a meeting.
The best way would be to calculate the sum due in the usual way,
and agree upon some reasonable mode of payment.
The Commissioners, therefore, seeing that the common soldier
will not depart until his accounts are passed and settled, and that
their representations have had no effect, think it best to offer
their advice to his Highness and the Estates, hoping it will be
They would have both parties to consider that it would be
cheaper to pay the Germans than to turn them out by force. The
result would be uncertain, and even if the Estates got the better,
it would not be to their credit, seeing that by the treaty of peace
they are bound to give the Germans the balance of their pay.
Again, if the Germans are forced to leave the country without
their pay they will undoubtedly seek to revenge themselves out
of the merchants and traders, which will greatly interfere with
the trade of the Low Countries, whereby not only the inhabitants,
but also Italians, Spaniards, and others will suffer hurt, being
liable to be imprisoned and stopped in all ways ; and do what they
may against such enterprises, traffic and commerce will cease,
and the injury to the Low Countries will be irreparable.
Moreover, in the event of future wars in the Low Countries or
elsewhere, it will be impossible to get Germans to serve. The
way in which they have been treated will not be forgotten, and
will bring the Low Countries into disrepute. They will be
considered to have violated the public peace of the Empire, after
having accepted it.
The Commissioners therefore make no doubt but that his
Highness and the Estates will well and carefully weigh all these
circumstances of peril, and by mature consideration prevent their
coming to extremities.
And although it is not the duty of the Commissioners to
prescribe to his Highness or the Estates, they cannot omit to
express to them, under correction, their simple and insignificant
opinion ; to wit, that his Highness and the Estates should enter
into negotiations with the Germans in pursuance of the terms
of the treaty, and when the Germans are agreed upon their
demands, and the Estates upon their exceptions and counterclaims,
all doubts that may arise being settled by persons deputed ad hoc,
afterward may be discussed all matters relating to abatement or
deduction, mode and plan of payment, and security for balance
unpaid. If it be said that this will delay the departure of the
soldiers, the Commissioners understand it to be the intention of
the Estates that even if they are content to take the four months'
offered, they are not obliged to leave the country till the accounts
are passed and closed. If the Estates think differently (of which
the Germans have some fear) it should be considered that the
Germans will then have no light motives for their refusal.
When the accounts are finished it will be possible to treat of
ways and means ; and the Commissioners would suggest the
following way as practicable. Let the Estates place in the hands
of the colonels a sum equal to four months' pay, and the same
every two months ; for the balance agreeing with the officers and
principal men as to payment by instalments. Expense will be
saved if the regiments are disbanded one after another, and even
by a few companies at a time. In the opinion of the Commissioners
these are the most expedient and practicable means.
Another would be that after the closing of the accounts, the sum
due should be divided into three parts, of which one should be
paid at once, either in a lump sum, or distributed, as may be
usual, and the others in instalments. Again, there might be a
payment of six months in money and three in cloth ; and the rest
in instalments as before.
For the present it seems unadvisable to enter into disputes with
the German soldiers with regard to their misconduct or faults.
It can do the Estates no good, but would tend to their discredit,
and cause ill-feeling and disorders. The one thing to be kept
in view is peace and quietness, that the country may recover its
old prosperity and repair its losses.
And seeing that the Low Countries are exhausted by their long
wars, as the Commissioners know and lament, and the Estates
cannot be held to what is impossible, yet looking to the dangers
specified above, it will be better to choose the less of two evils,
and try to reduce the impossible to possibility, by a poll-tax or
otherwise. Of this the Estates have no doubt thought ; and the
Commissioners, while they would not dream of dictating to the
Estates, think this would be highly expedient.
As then no one can be obliged ex consilio, especially when it
is fraudulent, the Commissioners do not doubt that his Highness
and the Estates will take their advice in good part, as proceeding
from sincere affection, and from their desire for the repose of the
country and maintenance of religion.
Copy. Fr. 22 pp. Endd. : About the licencing of the
Allemans and their refuse. [Holl. and Fland. I. 21.]
51. DON JOHN to the ESTATES.
Expression of "good and sincere intention" to maintain the
pacification.—Castle of Namur, July 26. (Signed) Jehan, (countersigned)
Copy. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. I. 22.]
52. Report of the proceedings between DON JOHN and the
DEPUTIES from the ESTATES.
The deputies reached Namur at 11, and handed their letters
to the Duke of Aerschot and other noblemen there present, who
replied that they would show themselves good patriots, and use
their efforts in the cause of unity and pacification.
After dinner the deputies had audience of his Highness. They
represented to him the astonishment caused by his withdrawal to
Namur, a sign of distrust for which he could have no occasion.
With regard to the anonymous letters of which he had sent copies
to the Estates, they would like to know the authors of them, that
they might inflict exemplary punishment. They themselves
meddled with nothing save in public assembly ; but if his Highness
had heard anything from private sources prejudicial to the
service of God, King, or country, on being informed of it by him,
they would take steps to repress all such abuses. His Highness
may safely confide in the Estates, who think it more than necessary
that he should be present among them. They promise to
give him good security on their own honour, goods, and lives.
His Highness, in reply, said that he had acted in all sincerity,
and at this time it only remained for the Estates to fulfil their
part. Although they were acting in good faith, the result did not
come about as speedily as the necessity of the time required. In
spite of their declarations of good affection towards God, King,
and country, secret practices, dangerous to his honour and life,
were going on among certain individuals. He was now governor,
and the Estates should take it in good part that he had assured his
person betimes. He would tell them more about these matters
through the Abbot of Marolles and M. de Brusse, and some others
of his Council. On the morrow towards six o'clock, after dinner,
he would dispatch the Archdeacon of Ypres to convey the above
information, and assure them that as regarded his withdrawal, he
had no malice or hidden feigning. He had no intention of doing
anything contrary to his promise, but would, in conjunction with
the Estates, seek the peace of the country, re-establish the
privileges, maintain the pacification. For this he required the
assistance of the Estates, and wished them, pending other
measures, to call on the magistrates of Brussels to keep the citizens
in good behaviour, without any innovation or admitting a
garrison ; in which case his Highness says that he will not return
Copy. Fr. 3½ pp. [Holl. and Fland. I. 23.]
53. The ESTATES to DON JOHN.
Your Highness's letter brought this morning by the Archdeacon
of Ypres has rejoiced us. We hope you will turn aside
the disturbers of the public peace. We hear this morning that
the Germans of Cornelis Vanden Ende will not be content with
the six pattars per head of daily pay which we offered. We have
therefore prayed the Duke of Aerschot to use his good offices to
induce your Highness to decide shortly in regard to our letters of
yesterday, as well as those herewith.—Brussels, 27 July 1577.
(Signed) Cornelius Weellemans.
Copy. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 24.]
54. DON JOHN to the ESTATES.
I am surprised to hear that an unfavourable interpretation has
been put by some on what I have done with a view to my personal
safety. I can assure you in all truth that from the moment that
ways and means have been found to appease the troubles of the
country, I have no wish or intention beyond rendering to God
that which pertains to Him, and to his Majesty that which is
his due ; whereto all my words and actions bear witness. I have
tried to proceed in the way of kindness. I have, as you
desired, sent away all foreigners ; I have put the fortresses
in the hands of the natural-born subjects, restored the privileges
which you said had been taken away, and lived among you as a
true patriot, studious of the general honour and tranquillity.
Towards the Prince of Orange, moreover, and those of Holland
and Zealand I have acted as you are aware, in order to reunite
all in one flock, devoted and obedient to his Majesty ; hoping
that for the rest provision would be made by the assembling of
the States-General. But certain spirits, evil-disposed toward the
public tranquillity, have not ceased to sow their tares, and by
lying inventions to trouble the subjects, hinder the good I would
have done, and prevent the poor weary people from enjoying the
benefits of the peace. They have taken into their own hands
the fortresses entrusted to them to hold for his Majesty, which
they are fortifying without recognising him. They have set their
foot on the strong places in Brabant and Flanders, fortifying
Nieucastel, and withholding Nieuport, places given by you as
security for the payment of their people, whom you have nevertheless
paid. Not content with 13 or 14 fortresses handed over
by you, they complain that Amsterdam also is not given up to
them, without action to satisfy the loyal citizens who have suffered
so much for their religion, upon the three points demanded by
them, which yourselves have held just and reasonable. They
wish to do the same at Utrecht, to which they have no right.
Nevertheless many favour them openly, to the prejudice of the
king, and even of religion, seeing that those of Holland and
Zealand have nothing so much at heart as to exterminate it and
destroy it root and branch, and have their agents among you
every day, doing all these bad offices without check or reprehension,
serving only to spread distrust ; saying even that while I
am without guard, and in the power of others, it were right to
secure my person. They complain that nothing has been done
to carry the peace into effect, whereas much more has been done
on his Majesty's side and yours, than was obligatory, while "he
and his" on the contrary have notoriously done little or nothing
of what they promised. Everyone knows what various indignities
I have allowed myself to undergo every day since I was received
as governor, thinking that my patience might prevail. But I
have proved that it is of no use. The disturbers of the peace
have abused it to the point of making an attempt on my person,
at a time when I expected nothing so little as such temerity. I
entered on my government peacefully, and immediately sent to
inform you of it, and of my sincere intention to maintain the
treaties and pacification. I asked for nothing but the preservation
of the ancient Catholic religion under which the king and
his predecessors were sworn as lords of the country ; and therewith
for the obedience due by divine and human right alike to his
Majesty, and not in word only (for all that is done is pretended
to be in his Majesty's service), but in act, as before the troubles.
The past is forgotten, not only what was done before the
pacification, but since, whether by communities or private persons ;
and this I promise to all whom it may concern in all places. To
which end I intend to be obeyed, in all that I may justly command
for the service of his Majesty ; and I will that those who in future
do wrong shall be punished according to the customs of the
country, since not only no commonwealth or state, but no single
household can be governed without obedience to a head. I declare
to you that I do not wish to change anything, only I intend the
king's commandment to be obeyed, agreeably to the pacification ;
and I am sure you wish the same. There is therefore no need to
be surprised if I have betaken myself to this place, using the
authority given me by the king. My intention is to stay there
until I know your determination, and until my demands and
intentions are effected. I know well that some evil-affected
persons would give you advice which will not tend to peace nor
to the good of the country ; but I think that the wise-prudent
will not allow things to come to their past state through the
indiscretion and malice of certain perverse ministers. I am
determined to follow the way of gentleness and expediency rather
than any other ; hoping that no occasion will arise to make an
act otherwise to maintain the obedience due to God and the
king and the authority of my office. I always have done and
always shall do what I have promised. In conclusion I pray you
to take what I have said in as good part as I have always shown
my desire to maintain the pacification.—Namur, 27 July 1577.
(Signed) Jehan, (countersigned) Berty.
Copy. Fr. 5½ pp. [Holl. and Fland. I. 25.]
55. DON JOHN to the ESTATES.
Having heard the matters upon which your deputies the Abbot
of Marolles, the Archdeacon of Ypres, and M. de Brusse have
come to treat with me, it has seemed good to me to send Baron
de Rassenghien and M. de Grobbendonck to you, to declare to
you my demands ; which are only the real effecting of what you
have solemnly promised, besides that you are constrained thereto
by nature, who caused you to be born subjects to the King, my
lord. The above mentioned gentlemen will declare this to you
more at large, wherein I crave your credence for them ; and will
show you how your duty and reason prescribe. For my part I
shall never depart from it.—Namur, 27 July. (Signed) Jehan,
(countersigned) Berty. "Received, July 29."
Copy. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. I. 26.]
56. "Mr. Davison's dispatch into the Low Countries to live as
agent there, sent from the Court at Richmond the 3rd of August,
after news of the beginning of the troubles again, which began
the 25th of July." (In the margin. On the page are :)
(a.) The QUEEN to DON JOHN.
Wishing to maintain good intelligence with the princes our
neighbours, especial with the Catholic King and the house of
Burgundy, we have sent the bearer, Mr. William Davison, to you
to reside with you as our agent, and negotiate from time to time
upon matters concerning ourselves and our subjects.—Richmond,
27 July 1577.
(b.) The QUEEN to the ESTATES GENERAL.
[To the same effect, adding] To use all diligence with our cousin
Don John and you, to the end that the pacification recently made
may take so deep root that no storm may be able to shake it.
Copies. Fr. 1 p. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
57. [THE ESTATES] to DON JOHN.
We hear this evening from Antwerp that M. de Treslong
has stated to the magistrates that he has your Highness' orders
to unite with the Germans, and to bring the companies of Cornelius
Van den Ende into the city. The town is much alarmed both on
account of the outrages committed by them, and also because there
is no use in bringing them in ; rather it would be well to send
out those who are there already. We do not believe your Highness
would order anything which might have such bad results,
and as M. de Champagny's regiment is on the way, we have
written to Van den Ende's companies to stay where they are till
further orders. We pray your Highness to take this in good part,
and to send similar orders to the soldiers in other places. All we
wish is that no further disorder may be kindled. We also pray
your Highness to order the Germans at Bergen-op-Zoom and elsewhere
not to commit outrages upon the inhabitants where they are
garrisoned.—Brussels, 28 July 1577.
Copy. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. I. 27.]
58. POULET to BURGHLEY.
Encloses copy of letter to Walsingham.
Add. Endd. 8 lines. [France I. 8.]
Copy referred to—not dated.
Monsieur arrived here the 19th of this month, and was received
by the King, the Duke of Guise, etc. I had an audience of him
on the 22nd, and after apologising for any delay in visiting him,
and speaking of the sincere amity between the Queen and him,
and of the service he had done of late unto his brother, I said
that in my opinion the principal service was yet behind, and this
was to procure a good peace between the King and his subjects.
No man could tell if God had not appointed that this crown should
fall on his head, that then he should find that the towns he has
sacked and spoiled are his towns, the people he has killed are
his subjects, the money he has spent and consumed is his treasure,
that the countries which he wasted and forsaken are parcel of
his kingdom, and finally that the whole burden of all these
miseries and calamities will light on his shoulders.
Monsieur replied kindly, assuring me that the King his brother
and the Queen his mother were well affected to peace, and that
his utmost endeavour should not want to procure it.
The Duke of Nevers is at Limoges, his army consisting of 800
"lanceknights," 500 French harquebusiers, and some small troops
of horsemen. It was intended that he should have besieged Brive
la Gaillarde and Usarche, and those of Limoges and their neighbours
offered 40,000 francs ; which being solicited by the Duke
and adopted by the King, it is now said that the Duke repents of
M. Lansac came from the King's chamber into the base court
the 23rd of this month and said openly that he was desired by
the King to signify to such of his nobility as desired to break a
spear for the honour of their master and love of their country that
they should do well to resort to the Duke of Mayne, where they
should find the Prince of Condé in the field ready to receive them.
With the help of the Swisses the Duke assures himself to take
Brouage at the next assault. The Swisses departed from here
the 10th of this month, so you may perceive by their slow marching
how the world goes in those parts.
It is thought that the Duke of Mayne will raise his siege before
the end of this month, and that the sudden departure of the Duke
of Guise toward Champagne on the 22nd was not so much on
account of the reiten as to give his brother an excuse for retiring
as if he were hard pressed by them. The Duke of Mayne seems
to be in distress, as the Duke of Mercure has been sent to his
help with as many gentlemen as can be induced to leave this
It is thought the King will shortly return to Paris.
Damville is said to use such cruelty in Languedoc that he is
becoming odious even to his own party, and fears nothing more
than the peace.
Endd. 3 pp. [France, I. 9.]
K. d. L. ix.
59. THOMAS BRUNE to BURGHLEY.
Since my last, which was about the 16th, I have been so sharply
dealt with by my creditors, whom I want means to content, by
reason of my losses at Antwerp, that I am constrained to seek
some place to be free in, and so am come to this town, where I
am informed that between the 23rd, 24th, and 25th days of this
month, Don John having practised with the Duke of Aerschot,
M. de Havré, M. de Berlaymont and his sons, hath possessed
himself of the castle of Charlemont and of the town and castle
of Namur ; and to Namur got the most of the nobility of these
countries, and under colour to meet the Queen of Navarre and
banquet her, intended to have put the said nobility to the sword,
and after the banquet called them into the castle, which they
misliking, took horse and came in all haste to Brussels. The
abovenamed remained with him at Namur. Upon which dealings
the States have sent a messenger to summon him to Brussels, and
for his answer the said messenger is to stay but four days.—Bruges,
29 July 1577.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fland. I. 28.]
60. The ESTATES to DON JOHN.
We have received your Highness' letter of the 27th, and after
considering the articles presented to us have added our own
opinion. We are much distressed by the difficulties therein set
forth, and still more by the hindrance which this recent withdrawal
to the castle of Namur puts in the way of the mutual fulfilment
of the articles of the pacification. It is a great regret to us that
this has not sooner been achieved, on account of the mischief
done to our Catholic Religion. It appears that worse consequences
still will follow if the present trouble is not soon appeased. The
only means that we can see of remedying it is the exposure of
the authors of these informations. We desire nothing so much
as to obey the just and equitable commands of your Highness,
and to have all delinquents chastised, as you will see if you will
give up the informers aforesaid. We have no knowledge of having
disobeyed or contravened any of your Highness' commands ; and
we shall be right joyful if you will maintain the pacification at
all points, and proceed towards us by the way of kindness.—
Brussels, the last but one of July 1577.
P.S. Since writing this we have deputed the Count of Bossu,
M. de Brus and M. Adolf de Meetkerke to wait on your Highness
to assure you of our sincere intentions, and to set forth some points
serving to the redress of present affairs.
Copy. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. I. 29.]
The QUEEN to DUKE CASIMIR.
61. A Dispatch sent to Daniel Rogers by Roger Dransfyld.
La Personne, passing by us on his mission to your Excellency,
talked with us of certain important matters. These matters
seemed to touch the amity between us, and as we wished your
advice upon them, we have thought good to communicate them
to you by Daniel Rogers, beseeching you to have full confidence
that whatever he accepts and promises we shall ratify and agree
to.—Richmond, July 20.
Convention between the Queen and Duke John Casimir concerning
a certain sum of money, of which the said Duke requires a loan.
1. The Queen is pleased to lend the Duke the sum of £20,000
sterling, the security to be given by him to Daniel Rogers. The
same to be given to him or his attorney at Christmas next, in the
city of Hamburg.
2. The Duke shall bear all costs of exchange or risks of
carriage, as well as the bearer's expenses.
3. He is not to accept the money, unless he can testify that
his chances of success in his undertaking are good.
4. He is to use all diligence and dispatch in the expedition
he is preparing, observing the moment of time and opportunity,
and to guard against delays connected with commissaries and
5. On receiving the money he shall give obligations in due
form for its repayment.
6. He shall promise that in the said obligations and in any
contracts made between him and the French princes, no mention
whatever shall be made of her Majesty, but that everything
between him and those princes shall be managed as though she
had never known anything about it.
7. The troops of the Duke are not to leave France without the
Queen's consent in writing, until the money be repaid.
8. The Duke shall enter into no negotiations for peace with
the King or the Papists, until he has her Majesty's explicit consent
[Thus far in Latin.]
Instructions sent to D. Rogers, being in Germany with Duke
Casimir, from Richmond the 30th July.
You shall inform the Duke that we, being informed by La
Personne in what danger the King of Navarre and the Prince
of Condé are, and that without relief their case is likely to grow
desperate, are content to lend him £20,000 toward the levying
of an army. And because the said sum cannot be so conveniently
made over thither from us, but it will be noised to the world,
which will be a matter that will hinder the cause itself, and also
sound greatly to our dishonour in respect of the amity and league
we have with the French King, we shall desire him to take it
up upon his own credit, assuring him that by Christmas next the
sum shall be delivered to such as he shall depute for the purpose
in the town of Hamburgh. For your better direction you shall
receive from our Secretaries certain articles which Casimir shall
sign and seal on the conditions we think meet before the delivery
of the said sum. In case he alleges that he cannot take up any
such sum on his own credit without great hindrance to the cause
by the loss of time required, if it shall appear to you that his
credit will not serve to take up the sum, you shall let him understand
we are content he shall receive it in September. But of
this we expressly command you to make no signification to him
but upon reasons of extreme necessity.
Lastly, you shall declare to him how necessary we find it for him
to be accompanied by a man of birth and skill, fit to succeed him in
case either by sickness or the sword (which God forbid) he should
be taken away. You may remind him of what befell the Duke of
Biponte, and how the whole cause had been in peril had he not had
a Count "Mandesfield" to supply his place. Besides, to have the
assistance of a man of skill cannot but be a great furtherance of his
enterprise, whether he live or die.
Copy. 3 pp. [For. E. B. Misc. II.]
62. Draft of the above convention in L. Tomson's writing.
Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Germ. States I. 2.]
63. Original of the above instructions (No. 61), last par. added
by Walsingham, endorsed in Daniel Rogers' hand : Reddita
Neostadii...Augusti anno Dni 1577, quo die Dux Casimirus me ad
prandium invitavit. D.R. 2 pp. [Germ. States I. 3.]
64. WALSINGHAM to the REGENT OF SCOTLAND.
Though the contents of your letter touching the order to be
taken in the West Marches under the command of Lord Scrope,
as also the excesses committed by the Fenwicks and Shaftons upon
certain subjects of Scotland, and the redress of piracies, are to
receive answer shortly, I thought it not amiss to acquaint you
how I find her Majesty inclined thereto. Touching the placing
of the garrison of Berwick in the West borders, her Majesty likes
it very well. Touching the support, I trust one will be content
to satisfy you ; though you can think that these affairs of the
Low Countries and France, whose cause and defence her Majesty
is not minded to abandon, draw no small treasure out of her coffers.
I am advertised these troubles begin to break out again. Don
John having seized Namur, and other towns, combining with the
Duke of Aerschot to destroy the States which resist.
Touching the disorder committed by the Fenwicks and Shaftons,
her Majesty will see that they are punished according to their
deserts, if they may be apprehended. For the matter of piracies
there needs only effectual execution of the order which is taken,
which is as good as could be desired, her Majesty having sent
three of her ships to scour the seas ; and hath given most strict
commission for the examination of all such as victual them or
give them any means of support, minding that the fines which
shall be levied upon them shall be employed to the answering
of the losses which the subjects of that realm have sustained by
her Majesty's subjects being pirates. But this commission stays
somewhat in execution this summer time, by reason that the
learned in the law are employed in their circuits, for the execution
of justice, at whose return, which will be about the beginning of
winter, it shall be furthered by all the means it may : and especially
there shall be care had for the satisfying of Mr. John
How the fire is newly broken out in Flanders, you may perceive
by the enclosed occurrents. It may please you therefore to stay
such of that [the Scotch] nation as lately served in Holland, who
as I am informed are otherwise minded to repair to the service
of the town of "Danske," for unless the matter be speedily compounded,
their cause requires speedy relief.—Richmond, 3 Aug.
Copy. 1⅓ p. [For. E. B. Misc. II.]
65. RESOLUTIONS on the seven points propounded on behalf of
HIS HIGHNESS by MM. DE RASSENGHIEN and GROBBENDONCK.
Having heard the verbal report brought by their own deputies,
the Prelate of Marolles and M. de Brus, and seen his Highness's
letter of the 27th instant, the Estates as before protest their desire
to live and die in the Roman Catholic religion, and in due obedience
to his Highness as the King's lieutenant in these parts. At
the same time they represent that their sudden withdrawal without
warning to a fortress is calculated to produce great distrust, and
again request his Highness to declare whom he suspects, that the
Estates may punish them in exemplary fashion. They will proceed
with no less promptitude than they did in the case of MM.
de Bonnivet and Berangeville on the sole report of Ottavio
Gonzaga on behalf of his Highness, and in which nothing was
proved, though it were contrary to the rights and usages of
Brabant ; in order that private faults may not be charged to the
generality, or that if it should prove a calumny, the informers
may be punished in like manner.
1. Although his Highness ought to have no suspicion of the
Estates, as they have not given him the least cause for any, but
have shown the love and affection which is the surest guard a
Prince can have, and all that his predecessors, Princes and
Princesses of the blood, have had, while any larger guard may
engender fear or distrust, yet to take away all occasion of similar
impression, they are willing to increase his ordinary guard of
archers and halberdiers by 300 harquebusiers on foot, natives of
the country, to be agreed upon by his Highness and the Estates,
on condition that he will choose to command them one of the
following : Count de Boussu, Baron de Montigny, M. de Cruningen,
Willerval, or de Noyelles-Stade ; such commander to select captains
and lieutenants to be approved in like manner, and with the
soldiers to swear to defend his Highness against all persons, and
to maintain the pacification of Ghent and the perpetual edict.
2. As soon as the towns are free from their garrisons there will
be no need of governors.
3. This appears reasonable if sincerely carried out, and if
nothing is attempted derogating from the pacification and the
union of the States.
4. This the Estates also find highly reasonable, nor do they
think the contrary has ever been the practice. Always understanding
that the privileges be soundly and unanimously interpreted.
5. It has been the immemorial custom of the Estates to admit
to their meeting ecclesiastics, nobles, deputies of the towns and
castellans of the provinces, thereto delegated. It is not possible
to give a list of these deputies, as they are continually changing.
Nor do the Estates think they have given any legitimate cause
for suspicion regarding them.
6. Considering that the pacification was solemnly sworn, his
Imperial Majesty and the Prince-Bishop of Liége intervening, the
Estates in pursuance of his Highness's letters from Mechlin of
July 15, accept all that seems yet needed to fulfil it on either side.
If the Prince of Orange, after due notice given, makes default,
each one will with one accord do his best to have the pacification
observed in all points.
7. The sole desire of the Estates having always been to be
restored to their ancient tranquillity in obedience to the King,
they beseech his Highness to leave the castle of Namur and rejoin
them as soon as possible, to send away the Germans, that the
Estates may meet to take steps for the execution of the remainder
of the pacification, and for the abatement of the scandal and bad
examples which the Germans have so long disseminated to the
prejudice of our religion. And as from Escovedo's intercepted
letters have been discovered the stealthy counsels and evil impressions
given by foreigners ill-disposed towards the welfare of these
countries, may it please his Highness to dismiss all those who
are justly suspected, and to fill his household with noblemen,
natives of those parts.—Brussels, 30 July 1577.
Copy. Fr. 7 pp. [Holl. and Fland. I. 30.]
66. QUEEN ELIZABETH to the QUEEN OF SPAIN.
We have written to the most serene Prince, our brother, that
he would extend his royal favour to Richard Grafton, an Englishman,
who has lived these twenty years with his wife, a Spanish
lady, in the Canary Islands, and served faithfully in all that
touches your Majesty's service. Having been despoiled of all his
property by your Majesty's Flemish rebels, he wishes for some
aid or employment, that he may be able to live with his wife and
children in the Canary Islands aforesaid. As we are confident
that your Majesty's intercession with the King will do much to
further this cause, we write this to assist you. The man's only
fault is the malignity of fortune.—Greenwich, 31 July 1577.
Endd.: Copia de la carta de la reina de Anglaterra para la
reyna nra señora. Sp. 1½ pp. [Spain I. 3.]
67. Copy of certain portions of a treaty of 1490 relating to the
Ireland fisheries. [Probably one of those made in pursuance
of the order of July 19.] Latin. 1¼ p.
Also : Extract from another treaty of 1499. In a later hand.
A summary of the League made between King Henry VII. and
John, King of Denmark, containing (a) Articles touching trafique,
(b) Articles of amity. [Apparently made for Walsingham's use.]
An abstract, apparently independent, of the same "League," in
a much later hand. 2 pp. [Denmark I. 1a, b, c, d.
68. LA PERSONNE'S NEGOTIATIONS.
Being at Rochelle M. de la Personne communicated to the Prince
of Condé his instructions from Duke Casimir and from her Majesty,
sending information of the same to the King of Navarre. Both
undertake to conclude no peace, under whatever inducement, without
Her Majesty's consent.
The princes and their party are in good heart for continuing the
war. Turenne has entered Périgueux with 1,500 harquebusiers
and is ready to stand a siege.
They recognise that the King's superior strength in the country
will cut off supplies from their towns, and the only remedy they see
is the prompt arrival of a strong body of German cavalry and Swiss
infantry and landsknechts to divert his forces. This their own
means are insufficient to raise, all the more that they have had to
equip a fleet to check Lansac, and must raise another to save
Brouage. Languedoc alone has not vet been attacked, and it is
easier to get funds from thence since Marshal Damville has ceased
to command, because he drew a large income from it, and many
malversations were committed under his authority.
They therefore beg her Majesty to aid them with a sum of
100,000 crowns. It is better to make one good effort than do things
Duke Casimir's plan is to invade in such strength as to be sure of
beating the enemy, and not to depart till peace is made. As soon as
he shall appear on the frontier, it is intended to raise a force on the
hither side [i.e. right bank] of Loire and Seine, also in Lorraine and
the district of Liège, and make war in the neighbourhood of Paris
and the surrounding provinces, which, having felt none of the inconveniences
of war, have by their leagues been the cause of its
renewal, and are most devoted to the house of Guise. If these can
be made useless to the King all France will be so.
As soon as the German army has entered, the King of Navarre
and the rest will march to meet him, which the King's armies will
not be able to hinder. It had better on all accounts arrive not later
than towards the end of August, in time to prevent the use of the
new season's produce for victualling of the towns "and especially
Paris, in order to constrain the Parisians which is a timid people"
to come to terms.
Endd. : July 1577. The substance of La Persona's message ;
and lower, apparently in L. Cave's hand : La Persona his negotiations.
Fr. 1½ pp. [La Personne's credentials are dated July
12.] Walsingham's mark [Walsingham's mark] in several places. [France I. 10.]
69. THE HEADS OF HIS MESSAGE THAT IS TO GO INTO FLANDERS.
To have the former instructions, drawn for him that was to be sent
to the Commendator.
To know from the present Government what authority the said
Commendator had to hearken unto the Queen touching the pacification,
since both from the answer given by the King to Cobham and
from the letters delivered by Champagny, she understood that he
had commission to deal with such matters as were propounded by
Cobham, including that point of the pacification.
To require "a present abstinence of arms" ; for her Majesty perceives
that unless this is conceded the Prince and Estates mean to
throw themselves under the protection of France.
To lay before the Government the likelihood of this and the
danger consequent on it.
If they do not concede this, her Majesty does not see how they
can justify the refusal to the King, the likelihood of the French
getting a footing in Holland and Zealand being so apparent.
If the said parties are not stayed from dealing with France, her
Majesty will be compelled for her own safety to take a course which
she would not willingly take under necessity.
Draft in Walsingham's hand. Endd. : The heads of Mr. Davison's
message, and below : Void ; for he was dispatched with other
instructions. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fland. II. 2.]