700. Declaration of DON BERNARDINO MENDOZA.
When the King dispatched Sir John Smith, your Majesty's
ambassador, he ordered me to come to this country and give you
an account of the state of things in the Low Countries. He has
understood that you will have heard from M. de Gastel, sent by
Don John, as well as from many private reports all that has
happened up to now in those provinces, both in respect of the
necessity under which Don John found himself of withdrawing
to the Castle of Namur and of the other things that have
happened there. There is no need to repeat them, for it is impossible
that you should not know how often the Estates were
required by the King and besought by Don John to make
peace, assuring them of the fulfilment of the agreement made
between his Highness and them, all which was insufficient to
persuade them to do what was so much to their advantage. They
increased their demands and pretensions every day to such a point
that not only could they not be granted, but even to hear them
would be offensive to anyone. Among others was one that your
Majesty should be comprehended in the treaty of peace, a thing
which would much scandalize the King did he not understand
that wicked men raised it in order to cast a shadow over his
amity and good brotherhood with you. If there were no other
cause for my coming here the King would have sent me for
this point only.
As your Majesty knows, about the same time the Estates got
possession of the Castle of Antwerp and committed many other
excesses directly contrary to what they had promised a few days
before. From which and their general mode of proceeding it is
clearly known that their intention has been not to desire quiet
nor to be content with his Majesty's gift of all that can be
In spite of what I have said the King, like a good Prince
desirous of the good and peace of those his states, never took any
steps towards war, but rather made always such provision as he
could to bring them to reason and persuade them to the repose
which it lay with them to procure. Not only, however, would
they not recognise his goodwill, but in return for it they had
recourse to calling in a foreign Prince, claiming to take him for
Governor without the knowledge of the King, as great an excess
of disrespect and audacity and as bad an example to other vassals
as can be conceived.
The King, seeing that kindness only hardened them and made
them more insolent, determined much against his will to take up
arms to aid the multitude of good vassals whom he had in those
countries and deliver them from the oppression in which the bad
Things being as I have said, on September 8 of last year those
of the Junta at Brussels, who call themselves the States-General,
wrote to the King, begging him to admit them to his grace,
they maintaining the Catholic religion and their obedience to him
as in the time of the Emperor his father. How benignly he
accepted this offer may be seen by a letter with which M. de Selles,
Lieutenant in the archers of his guard, was dispatched, to assure
the Estates that if they for their part would fulfil what they
offered there should be a cessation of arms and everything should
return to the tranquillity which he had always desired. Your
Majesty will see a copy of this letter, for the King's will is that
what is therein contained shall be firmly kept and accomplished,
and if no innovations are set on foot by the Estates (as they
always have been whenever he has conceded any of their requests),
the King regards all the causes for disquiet in those countries
as at an end, for I can affirm for certain that he has never claimed
from them anything beyond what the Emperor had, rather he
has endeavoured to maintain them in all things that could be
for the benefit of the inhabitants and for the increase of their
riches and prosperity.
Whence it will be clearly seen that the falsehoods invented
by the misguided and ill-intentioned of those countries, which
they have contrived to spread everywhere, to the effect that the
King's purpose was to oppress them and treat them otherwise
than the Emperor did, have been a piece of great wickedness.
And that the King's desire had always been to the contentment
of the Estates so far as was tolerable is plainly shown by
his actions, for having understood that they desired the withdrawal
of Don John he was willing to employ him elsewhere,
and would have done so if they would have kept the peace, so
that if there has been any delay it is their fault.
The King has wished to set these details before your Majesty,
to show you that he has left nothing undone to bring them to
reason and how he has had just cause to take up arms and
employ force, kindness and favours having been insufficient.
Yet he wishes to deal as a father with his subjects, and even
when using armed force against them he has never had any
intention of taking away their privileges nor of reducing them
to the form of a province, as some have wished to have it thought,
but only to bring them back to the obedience due to himself as
It should in like manner be understood that the King has
no wish to proceed with rigour if they will voluntarily acknowledge
their fault and seek for pardon, knowing that it will be granted
as willingly as on former occasions since the troubles in those
states. Their goods and their honours, of which some have so
justly been deprived, will be respected, and to show yet greater
clemency pardon is offered not only to those who have sought
it, but to those who have been in arms against the King.
This being so notorious, the King entreats your Majesty that
as a good sister and ally you will not allow aid of any kind
to be given to the rebels out of your kingdom, but on the
contrary will help him by giving any assistance that may be
sought by Don John in order to quell those states. You will know
better than I can represent it the advantage of this to yourself,
and no less the obligation it involves as a matter common to all
Princes in respect of the obedience which their vassals owe them ;
since the example of the King's subjects might unsettle your
Majesty's in a way to cause you trouble, as your prudence will
After I had been directed to give your Majesty this report of
the state of affairs came Thomas Wilkes with your letter containing
many details relative to the Low Countries and setting forth
the distress and danger in which they are and what you have
done to keep them in their obedience to the King. You think
that the whole remedy consists in recalling Don John, appointing
a more acceptable governor, receiving back into favour those who
have given offence, maintaining the privileges of the country and
observing the Edict of pacification. If this course does not bring
the Estates to peace your Majesty assures the King that you
will turn your arms against them and defend his authority, while
if this course is not followed you cannot avoid helping them.
The King holds it in high esteem, than you should have
written to advise him in this matter, but there is little to be said
on the subject, seeing that some time before receiving your letter
he had already taken order to the like effect, as you will see
by the letter which he sent by M. de Selles on December 20
to the Estates, assuring them that if they will observe the two
points laid down in his letter of September 8, to wit, the observance
of the Catholic religion and the obedience due to himself, as in
the time of the Emperor his father, arms will be laid down and
peace and quietness will ensue.
Similarly there is nothing fresh to be said touching a successor
to Don John, since the King has granted that long ago, and he
is surprised that when the Low Countries wrote they did not
advise your Majesty of it. He means to send a successor with
whom they can have no just cause for discontent.
And since it has been made clear that what Don John has
done by order of the King has been so well justified, he trusts
that if the Estates will not make peace your Majesty will, as
you have offered, turn your arms against them. But if—which
he does not believe—you wish notwithstanding to aid them,
whereat he will marvel greatly, as contrary to all reason and to
good amity, neither on that nor on any other account will he
abandon the course of chastising and bringing to obedience his
vassals who stand outside thereof, as all human and divine law
permits, and the state in which God has placed him requires.
Yet he hopes there will be no occasion for this, but that you
will be on his side or at any rate will give them no help,
open or secret, both for the causes herein alleged and for the
sake of the old treaties existing between your Majesty and himself.
Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson and marginal notes in Spanish
by him. Sp. 11 pp. [Spain I. 12.]
701. POULET to the SECRETARIES.
Please peruse the inclosed copy of a letter sent me by a very
honest and wise man ; and I pray you that it may be committed
to the fire when you have made your profit of it.
La Roche prepares to proceed in his voyage ; and to trust to
French promises may be dangerous. The Princes of the religion
and those of Rochelle have received many fair words from him,
yet they cease not to live in fear of him. His preparations are
not so great as is reported ; but such as they are, are doubtless
intended against Rochelle or Ireland. I expect more news from
those parts. Cabret, of whom you were informed by Mr. Wilks
and who is said to have been in England, follows this Court and
vaunts great things.
We stand here upon our guard on every side and nothing keeps
us from open actions, but that faith and fidelity are banished
out of this country and no man knows whom he can trust.
Yet the corruption is so great that there is no doubt it will
break out very shortly.
Those of the religion stand upon the terms mentioned in my
last letters, and will no doubt do all they can to live in peace,
to which they are so affected that some think a great opportunity
may be lost, which will hereafter be repented. Casaneufve is
come from the King of Navarre, with ample memorials, both for
his particular and for the general, the latter being worthy of a
Prince of great virtue. They do well to strike while the iron
is hot, and indeed now or never.
I have been desired to convey the inclosed letters to you, Mr.
Walsingham, safely and secretly, and therefore have not acquainted
this bearer with them.
It is certain that the King is levying forces throughout the
realm, and those of the religion cannot tell what to make of it,
fearing only lest the greatness of the house of Guise will abuse
the facility of their King and persuade him to renew the war ;
which is the more likely because in the absence of Monsieur
they are assured of being King themselves as long as the war
I heard four days ago from my old friend that [in cipher]
Monsieur would send him to England without delay.
It is written from Geneva that Charles Blackstone and Michael
Keyneon, said to be of Warwickshire, but dwelling in Ireland,
departed thence last September and repaired into Spain, where
they have negotiated to the prejudice of her Majesty, and returning
arrived at Bordeaux at the end of January and took ship for
The French Queen's sister has lately arrived, and now her
picture is sent to the Prince of Condé, and nothing is omitted
to further this marriage. The Churches have dissuaded it, and
it is certain that the Prince is not inclined that way. Yet his
answer has not been unworthy of this honourable offer, referring
himself to the advice of his best friends in personal conference.
It is thought certain that after Easter the King will go to
Rouen and thence to Britanny.
It is advertised in letters from Vienna of the 6th ult. that the
Emperor will not allow any levy to be made within the Empire
for the King of Spain without the assent of the Electors, and
has sent to them for their advice.
From Constantinople it is written that the Sophy has been
poisoned by his sister, who is now Protectrix both of the realm
and of the young Sophy, who is twelve years of age, and that
there is likelihood of great trouble there.
The Duke of Savoy's ambassador complains of the great wrong
done his master by the higher place being granted to the ambassador
of Florence. The Emperor feeds him with fair words,
yet the other side has great hope that no change will ensue.
The ambassador of Savoy has gone to Saxony to crave the favour
of the Elector.
Poland is greatly troubled, the Muscovite having assembled
a mighty army in the borders of Lithuania, and threatens to
enter Volhynia. The Tartars refuse their pension due 'by' the
Muscovites, and prepare great force against them.
The Turk also assembles forces in Wallachia in favour of the
'Vavioda,' who has been driven out by a Polish subject assisted
by the inhabitants there, so there is a great likelihood of troubles
in those parts.—Paris, 16 March 1577.
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France II. 24.]
K. d. L. x.
702. Instructions of Daniel Rogers, Envoy from the Queen
of England to the Estates-General of the Low Countries, containing
her resolution touching the aid which she is willing to give
them. Laid before the Estates on the 16th of March, 1878, at
[The instructions as given in No. 680, thrown into the form
of a discourse, in French ; in Rogers's own handwriting, and
endorsed by him as above.]
Endd. Fr. 4 pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 79.]
K. d. L. x.
703. DAVISON to LEICESTER.
I was in hopes that my long want of your letters would have
been recompensed with some agreeable news of your resolved
journey hither, to the relief of these countries, the profit of the
state and your own reputation. But from your letter delivered
to me by Mr. Rogers I find that the suspense has come to an
unwelcome solution, unwished, I am sure, by many who, foreseeing
the profit of the journey, would have been glad if it had gone
forward. I am not acquainted with the cause of the alteration ;
but I dare affirm upon the judgement of the wisest here, that if
her Majesty had proceeded roundly, she would not only have in
a few months settled an honourable peace in this country, but also
have gained for herself double security and honour. These
countries must have dwelt bound for ever to her for such a benefit,
and she would have removed an enemy who, if his affairs prosper
here, might be a dangerous neighbour both to her and her state ;
and she would be the means of great benefit not to these countries
only, but to the whole commonwealth of Christendom, which
if this war have its course is like to participate in the fire kindled
here. Then I am sorry on public grounds for this alteration, as
well as for your own honour in particular. Your reputation being
already great here could not but have been greatly increased
by so open a demonstration. But I will do my best to let it be
understood how much the matter has fallen out against your
desire, and to maintain the opinion which is here conceived of it.
[The rest in autograph.] Now as touching our news, the time
offers little that you will be glad to hear. The town of Nivelle,
of the siege of which I advertised you in my last, having sustained
two furious assaults, in which 400 or 500 of the enemy were slain,
capitulated last Wednesday, the defenders to depart unarmed to
their rapiers, such as are subjects to the King having sworn never
to bear arms against him or Don John, nor such as be strangers
within one . . . . but the enemy having contrary to the
capitulation slain certain hurt men . . . out of the town in
wagons, the captains and some others have protested by cartel sent
to Don John that they were discharged of their oaths, and not
bound to observe what he himself had broken.
Since the surrender of Nivelle we hear that the enemy has
seized Bins and Brain, towns of little importance. Some think
he will march further into Hainault, where he had intelligence
for the surprising of Mons by the practice of the bailiff d'Antwyn,
who with others of the faction was to have seized one of the
gates at an appointed hour and have let in certain companies
of the enemy ; but, the matter in good time discovered, the enemy
is prevented, and the traitor with divers of his partisans
Others think he will advance to 'Aelst,' a town important for
the passage into Flanders, which the bailiff of Vaux had conspired
to put into his hands, but the matter being discovered the
Gauntois sent some of their men under M. d'Aussy, who have
garrisoned the place, and having apprehended the bailiff have
condemned him, and it is thought given orders for his execution.
Having discovered the magistrates of Courtray in correspondence
with the enemy they have apprehended such as were suspected
and imprisoned them at Ghent and garrisoned the town.
Here they are 'redressing' their camp. About Brussels they
have 1,500 or 1,600 horsemen, and hope to draw soldiers from
the garrisons, supplying their place where necessary with burghers
and new levies.
From Germany we hear that the Duke of Brunswick is levying
4,000 men for the enemy ; but we hear nothing of the marching
of ours. The messenger sent to Duke Casimir is said to have
been taken by the enemy near 'Hoestrat' and detained, which
will be some hindrance to their affairs in Germany.
[On the same sheet is the beginning of a letter of same date
to the Secretaries.]
Draft, much damaged. 1½ pp. [Ibid. V. 80.]
704. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
On account of my yesterday's indisposition, which caused my
absence at Mendoza's audience, I can only deliver the substance
of his message by hearsay. In sum it was this : the King was
content to yield to the revocation of Don John, to appoint a new
governor satisfactory to them, and to allow them to enjoy their
ancient privileges, on condition of rendering him due obedience
and to continue in the Catholic religion. This considered in
general 'he carrieth a great show of towardliness of present
redress of the Low Country troubles, but when the anatomy shall
be made' and the particulars of the matter looked into, I fear
it will prove 'an offer of abuse' to gain time.
How things proceed in Scotland, you may perceive by the
enclosed, wherein good and timely advice is to be taken, and
therefore I wish your presence here.—Greenwich, 17 March 1577.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Spain I. 13.]
705. M. DE MONTDOUCET to the ESTATES.
It is two days since M. de la Fougère, whom my master sent
to the Prince of Orange to let him know his intention in offering
help, passed this place on his return. He communicated to me
your answer, pursuant to which I resolved to go to Cambray
and await the passports which you desire to have for the distinguished
persons whom you propose to send to his Highness. But
I have now received another dispatch from him with a letter
which he desires me to lay before you, and I have thought that
as so little remains of the time you have fixed for answering,
and that the roads are not very secure, and that my presence
with you is not necessary, it was expedient to send it to you.
This I do, with a copy of his letter to me, which I have taken
and shown to M. de Lovigny, the present bearer. Since the dispatch
in question will very well explain his Highness's good intentions
towards you, I shall do no good by any further declarations.
I will only say that if you judge the aid of so great a Prince
to be useful and honourable to you—as it is to give you a happy
end to your troubles—you will take a prompt resolution according
to the message you sent by M. de la Fougère. You ought to have
sufficient inducement in yourselves to take heed to a matter so
nearly touching you. Civil wars of such a nature as that which
you have justly undertaken, terminate only in the utter overthrow
of one side or the other. It will be a long business and you
had better take advantage of the aid of a powerful Prince ; and
I think you had better not delay to accept it unless you do not
wish any longer to rely upon it.
I shall await your answer here and act accordingly ; whether
it be to accompany the gentlemen whom you may send to his
Highness or, with your good favour, take my leave as I have
orders to do.—Mons, 17 March 1578.
Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl.
706. POULET to the QUEEN.
The copies inclosed will show the occasion of this dispatch.
The bearer is chosen because, being accustomed to deal in merchants'
causes, he is likely to pass without suspicion. He serves
for a guide to the other in this journey, but will not frequent
his company. The other has shown me all his letters and acquainted
me with his negotiations, which consist of three points ;
to excuse his master for a faulty past, to offer such conditions
of strait amity as your Majesty shall think reasonable, and to
assure you that his master refers himself wholly to you to direct
his doings at your pleasure. This good opportunity ought not
in my opinion to be lost ; it may serve to prevent many dangers,
and if rejected may procure new enemies. Desperation is a
dangerous weapon, and may bring forth dangerous effects. The
mean course is assured ; it cannot be hurtful, and may be profitable
at home and abroad. The means of reconciliation are so
many and so easy that this Prince can certainly make his peace
at his pleasure, and all men may be no less assured that this
peace will be the ruin of religion in France, with peril to the
professors of it in other countries.
Your Highness' faithful subjects are much comforted to see
that the course of God's providence tends so manifestly to the
preservation of your Majesty and the quiet of your realm, as the
reward justly due to you for your honourable, merciful, and just
government.—Paris, 19 March 1577.
Enclosing copies as below.
The DUKE OF ANJOU to POULET.
Knowing the integrity that is in you and remarking your
inclination towards what is for my advantage, I would think
of no better address than yours to write to the Queen your
mistress. My obligation to her is so great that I should think
myself greatly remiss if I did not seek to let her know how
greatly I desire to serve her. If I have not hitherto shown it
as she might wish, you know better than anyone the occasions
thereof. I pray you to represent them to the Queen and to
make my excuses to her for not sending a personage of quality,
desiring that this journey may be secret. Please favour my
dispatch as kindly as you have always embraced my private
cause.—Angers, 9 March, 1578.
M. DESBORDES to POULET.
You will hear from this bearer, whom my Lord is sending
to the Queen of England, the occasion of his journey, so I
will not repeat it. I would not, however, omit to write a word
on my own account to beg your credence for what this bearer
will say to you from him, and so further the faithful execution
of his charge, which does not at present need to be made manifest,
as I am sure it will not be under your prudent management,
by means of which I hope to see this negotiation brought to a
happy issue. His Highness is writing to the Queen, and the
bearer has orders to follow your advice in regard to the presentation
of the letter. I have asked him to tell you the news of
our Court.—Angers, 9 March, 1578.
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. 1¼ pp. and (Fr.) 1½ pp.
[France II. 25, 26.]
707. Minute of a dispatch to DAVISON.
Her Majesty having caused two procurations to be made out
and passed under the great seal, authorizing you and Mr. George
Gilpin to take up either in the Low Countries or in High
Germany the sum of 100,000l., for which she has granted her
bonds to the States, and to deliver bonds for the same, binding
her Majesty and her successors for its payment, and as there
are certain articles concluded between her and the Marquis of
Havrech on behalf of the States, which it is necessary for you
to be acquainted with, I send you those articles that you may
see that those things may be performed on their part which are
required. The procurations are for two sums, both for the better
concealment of the matter and also for the more convenient
taking up of the whole. If the whole sum cannot be got in
those parts, Gilpin may be dispatched into Germany with one,
to take up as much as cannot be obtained where you are.
Having received the sum and handed it to them you shall
forthwith take into your hands the States' bond for the indemnity
of her Majesty and send it over at once ; that she may send
you directions for the names of the several towns whose obligations
she is also to receive.
In order that you may be in no difficulty as to the form of
your own bond, which you are to give those of whom the sum
or any part of it is to be taken up, I have caused a draft to
be made out, needing nothing but engrossing, which you may
see done when it has been approved by the parties. You will
receive it herewith and two others with it, one from her Majesty
and one from the City of London, also to be approved or amended
by the parties, and returned for signature and sealing when
required to be delivered to them for their security.
Also her Majesty's letter authorizing you to deliver such sums
as you shall take up into the hands of the States or their deputies.
As to the interest, considering that the States themselves will
be careful to get it as reasonable as they can, I have the less
need to think of any direction for you in that behalf, but
may refer it to the States and their deputies.
And whereas in the first article of the treaty it is agreed that
the States shall on receipt of her Majesty's bond and that of the
City of London deliver their bonds into your hands, which has
now been altered so that they may wait until the same has been
performed on her Majesty's part, you are to declare to them that
seeing the letters of procuration, which her Majesty has given
you, together with another letter for delivery of the sum into
their hands do effectuate as much as was required by their
minister, you are nevertheless to receive of them their said bond
as truly and effectually as if the article had been altered by
addition of the words, 'her Majesty's letters of procuration,'
instead of 'her Majesty's bond,' as to make the alteration would
have been but deferring of their business.
Draft. Marginal notes by Walsingham. Endd. by L. Tomson :
M. to Mr. Davison for the money to be taken up by virtue of the
procurations of the 19th March 1577, dispatched the 20th by
Carenzoni and Captain Williams. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 86.]
708. Some additions to the above, in L. Tomson's writing :
It is not meant that you and your associate in the procuration
should deal with the leaders otherwise than to assign the
assurances. The deputies of the States are to take the whole of
the pains of the business on themselves, and you and your associate
are but to be assistants ; all to be done at the expense of the
States. ½ p. [Ibid. V. 86a.]
709. Full copy of the above dispatch in hand of L. Tomson.
3 pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.] (The copy of the procuration, in
Latin, 4 pp., is also in E.B.)
710. Instructions to COUNT ADOLF OF NEUENAHR, sent as
Envoy from ARCHDUKE MATTHIAS and the ESTATES
to the ELECTORS OF SAXONY and BRANDENBURG.
After discharging his commission to the Emperor he shall take
the first opportunity of presenting this to the Electors, and say
that our delay in sending greeting to them did not proceed from
carelessness, but from the hindrances arising from the difficult
circumstances of these countries.
He shall announce to them how the Estates of the Netherlands,
both spiritual and temporal, have chosen his Highness to be their
governor, with the assent of the people, rich and poor, in confidence
and hope that by him, as a real heir of the house of
Austria and near kinsman of the King of Spain, the said Netherlands
and the faithful obedient subjects there might be delivered
from the tyranny of Don John and his adherents and be maintained
in their former prosperity and their old privileges.
Further, that though his Highness has only with much hesitation
brought himself to take this government, he means in
administering it to further in every way the good of the Holy
Don John, contrary to law and to the pacification so wholesomely
made at Ghent and confirmed by the King, goes about
to inflict damage, burning, and murder on the loyal subjects,
so that the Netherlands are ruined and wretched, and the Holy
Empire is brought into danger, and thus we pray that you will
allow no troops to be levied for him in your electoral territories.—
Antwerp, 19 March 1578.
Copy. Endd. by Daniel Rogers. German. 4 pp. [Holl.
and Fl. V. 82.]
711. Substance of the instructions given to COUNT ADOLF OF
'NEWENARE,' sent to the EMPEROR from the ESTATES
of the LOW COUNTRIES 20 March 1577.
1. After presenting their humble service to signify the election
of the Archduke Matthias as governor by universal consent.
2. To relate the cause of his election, namely to be freed from
the tyranny of Don John and his like, and to be governed according
to the privileges which his predecessors have trodden under
3. To beseech his Majesty to approve the election, and as he
has often promised to embrace the cause of these countries, protesting
that they have nothing less in mind than the change
of master or religion.
4. To lay before him the peril that may redound to the Empire
in general as well as to the countries if his Majesty have not
a better regard to them.
5. To tell him the causes of their taking up arms for their
just defence and to deliver him a copy of their last justification,
with the answer to certain pamphlets published by Don John.
6. To beseech him to withdraw all such Almaines or Reiters
that are in service with the enemy, especially those at Campen,
Zwol, and Deventer.
7. To do the like with Polwiller that is at Ruremonde and to
put them to the ban of the Empire if they do not obey, and
to inhibit all others from entering the enemy's service.
8. To be a means to the King to ratify the election of the
Archduke, and to revoke Don John.
9. To grant license to levy 10,000 reiters and 9,000 footmen
within the Empire for service against Don John.
The Count has a similar mission to the Electors.
In Davison's writing. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 83.]
712. Another copy of the same. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 84.]
713. Another copy of the same. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 85.]
714. WALSINGHAM to DAVISON.
Your letter of the [8th] of March touching your opinion what
assistance you thought fit, in honour and safety, to be given to
the States, very gravely and substantially deduced, was imparted
to her Majesty, and greatly approved by her touching the manner,
but as for the matter she takes daily less taste thereof, especially
since the arrival of Don 'Bernardyn,' who has put us in a vain
hope of peace by her mediation. Such as are evil affected and
inclined to Spain take great hold thereof, to the grief of those
who are best devoted to her Majesty's service and foresee the
peril of her relying on so vain a hope. I fear the Marquis will
be coldly used and depart with very evil satisfaction.
In what broken state things stand in Scotland, you will perceive
by the enclosed occurrents.—Greenwich, 20 March.
P.S.—It is very important to her Majesty's service to have
this letter of the ambassador of Portugal deciphered with speed
[see No. 611]. Please therefore deal earnestly and speedily with
St. 'Alagondye' in that behalf. The cypher is so easy that it
requires no great trouble.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 87.]
K. d. L. x.
715. WILSON to DAVISON.
Do not take it amiss that I do not write as often as you
would have me. I have wanted either matter or time or have
been absent when any dispatch was made.
I was glad to read your late discourse, every word of which
her Majesty has heard by me and very well approved. So did
divers of the Council to whom I showed it. But I doubt, notwithstanding
the substantial reasons alleged by you, that little or
nothing will be done.
The King of Spain has sent Don Bernardino de Mendoza
hither, who would persuade us that if obedience is done to the
King and religion preserved, everything else will be granted
for the liberties of the countries and the revocation of Don John.
This he has not only said to our Sovereign, but has put down
in writing. Yet when I asked if he had authority to deal with
Don John for the cessation of arms, he answered that he had
not, and when I further sought to know if Don John would
himself, upon command from the King, cease from arms, if the
States would assure him that they would inviolably keep the
pacification of Ghent, he could not give me any answer. So I
fear his coming is only to gain time, and in time to work somewhat
here amongst the malcontents of this land.
The Marquis is come to London to-night, but how he will
speed I know not, because security has overmuch possessed in,
who have good cause to look well to our matters, if all reports
be true that are written hither.—From the Court 20 March 1577.
P.S.—The regent of Scotland is deposed and the King at
present governs by the advice of 24 Councillors.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. V. 88.]
Set down by
the Earl of
716. QUESTIONS to be 'moved' to DON BERNARDINO DE
1. Whether or not the King will be content that the Queen
should employ herself in compounding the differences.
2. Whether the King has directed Don Bernardino to deal
with Don John and the States for peace, as expressed in the
articles delivered by him to her Majesty.
3. Whether the King has directed Don John to proceed to
a pacification agreeably to the Perpetual Edict.
4. Whether Don John has any authority from the King to
accord a cessation of arms till the pacification is agreed to.
5. Whether the King has agreed that as soon as peace is made
all forces shall be disbanded on both sides.
6. Whether the King has directed Don John to retire as soon
as peace is made and the forces are discharged.
7. Whether Don Bernardino knows whom the King has appointed
to succeed to the government.
In writing of L. Tomson. Endd. with date by him. 1 p.
[Spain I. 14.]
717. Another copy of the same, with the answers :
1. I have no such direction.
2. I have no direction to deal with Don John or the Estates.
3, 4, 5, 6. I do not know what order Don John has on these
matters, for I have not been with him.
7. I do not know whom the King has named to succeed Don
John, but I am sure that he would have sent someone ere this,
upon Don John's request, if they had not constrained him to
take arms, and he means to send one acceptable to them.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 14a.]
718. Another copy of the questions, in French. Endd. 1 p.
[Ibid. I. 14b.]
719. Another copy of the questions in French, with the answers
in Spanish. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 14c.]
720. Another copy of the questions in French. Below is
written : To all these articles he answered he knew nothing.
Then follows :
The Lord Chamberlain delivered to the ambassador by way of
answer from her Majesty three 'parts' of matter following.
1. How carefully she had laboured to persuade those people
not to forsake their natural Prince nor diminish their obedience
due to him.
2. How, discovering the practice of the French to enter Holland
and Zealand to the assistance of the Prince of Orange, she did
on the King's behalf persuade the Prince not to entertain so
dangerous a practice and declared most gravely the great damage
that might came thereof, and likewise to the Comendador, then
Governor of the Low Countries.
3. How lovingly and sisterly she seeks peace for the King
and safety of his countries, for she plainly sees if he continue
these wars, the people must be driven to seek some assistance,
whereto France notably offers itself. And they, fearing the evil
success of their cause by those French forces, incessantly call on
us as their safest refuge, especially because the cause so nearly
touches ourselves. To conclude, because England may neither
suffer Spain nor France to tyrannize over those poor people and
countries, her Majesty has answered that unless the King will
make peace, she will (rather than France should) give what
succour she is able, protesting never to impatronise herself of
one town or foot of ground there, but only to restore the people
to their quiet, safety, and ancient liberties.
To this end, either to conclude a full peace with the King
or to assist the people, she has promised to send some person of
quality to Don John immediately.
In writing of L. Tomson. 1½ pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
720 bis. HODDESDON to BURGHLEY.
My lord, by Mr. Allen of the 11th of this month [sic], since
which has come into my hands the copy of a letter written from
Constantinople, Jan. 12, a copy of which I send you word for
word ; the rather that Barbary is included in the peace between
the Turk and the King of Spain, whereby it may appear that
Spain makes no preparation for Africa. The consideration
whereof I leave to your lordship.—Hamburg, 20 March 1577.
Occurrents.—From Constantinople, 12 Jan.
We first saw the new comet here on Nov. 10, seeming at first
very small. Certain sophies or astrologians of the Turks affirm
it to be a new star, which has shown itself but three times, the
first at the destruction of Sodom and Gomorra, the second when
Pharaoh perished in the Red Sea. Now the third time, forasmuch
as it is not red of colour as at the other times, but of much
'bleaker' and whiter colour, it signifies plenty and fruitfulness.
The Soldan Murat's astrologer, whom he called home from
'Helepo,' with his companion, a Jew of Thessalonia, affirm it
to signify wars with Africa and Persia ; and it seems that they
'fail not in all points,' since Ismael, the King of Persia, is dead,
and the commons divided concerning the succession ; whereby
the Turk claims to have his portion therein, and to end those
wars and controversies according to their custom, and already
a principal nobleman of Persia with many thousands has revolted
to the Turk.
Certain days ago arrived a Spanish ambassador, with five
persons, and conferred with Mahomet Basha articulos pacis to be
concluded between his King and the Soldan ; whereby it is plain
that Barbary will be included in the peace, and therefore to be
feared that the fire in the Low Countries will be re-kindled, and
Dutchland not escape scot free.
Mahomet Basha rejoices that the Archduke 'Matheus' is gone
to the Low Countries ; affirming it to be God's providence through
him to deliver the people from the Spaniards' tyranny. Yet his
'singular good hope' is that the Spaniards and Dutches will
together by the ears, to the end that the lords of Mullay [?]
as arbitrors may come to decide the matter and conclude the
peace. God grant it may take so good effect, for Spain has shed
much innocent blood, which God will not leave unrevenged.
The Soldan has licensed his Tartarians to rob and spoil and
burn in Poland as they best may. The Poles have made peace or
amity with the Tartars and Turks against us and the 'Muscoviter,'
and now they shall reap their reward.
— From Rome, 1 Feb.
The English Duke has returned from Cività Vecchia, and it is
said he will join with five Spanish galleys.
From Spain the news is that the Bishop of Toledo is deadly
sick. His bishopric, by consent of the Pope, must furnish 450,000
ducats to be employed against the Low Countries.
The Spaniards here confess that the 'stay' which was between
their King and the Turks will go forward, that each may carry
out his intentions, one against Persia, the other against the Low
The Great Duke of Florence has forbidden his subjects to wear
any weapon ; whence it is feared that some rebellion will ensue.
Emilio Mallotti last Sunday brought six 'stewdiants' of Sweden
before the Pope, who kissed his feet, and will study the Romish
At Genoa, 'Gewelliosalle' [qu. Giulio Salis] is tormented again
to confess the secret practice ; but Augustine 'Salie' has prolonged
the day of judgement.
— From Venice, the 7 Feb.
The ordinary letters from Lyons bring tidings that the Duke
of Humena [qu. du Maine] has started with 2,000 foot and 200
horse to the aid of Don John.
In the last letters from Constantinople, four Wallachians are
come from Persia, bringing news that the Sophia is dead ; wherefore
this year but 80 galleys will set out.
They write from Genoa that in Pizance [qu. Piacenza] there
is rebellion and troubles.
In this part of Germany, 'Hartick' Eric of Brunswick, or
'Hartick' Francis of Saxony are levying horse for Don John ;
it is thought to the number of 6,000.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Hanse Towns I. 34.]
721. REPLY of the ARCHDUKE and ESTATES to DANIEL
Having heard the proposal made by Mr. Rogers we regret that
the Queen does not intend to carry out literally the agreement
concluded with the Marquis of Havrech in regard to the promised
aid of 6,000 English. In the present necessity this aid would
have been more prompt and might have greatly aided the security
of the country by the prudence and valiancy of the Earl of
Leicester and other gentlemen of the English nation. Nevertheless,
considering the reasons for which it has pleased her Majesty
to alter the agreement and because we hope to get the same effect
from the offer now made, we humbly thank the Queen for her
assistance and hereby accept the 20,000l. in cash in lieu of the
6,000 English and the other 20,000l. in case we cannot promptly
obtain money on the obligations. We are also thankful to her
for having in her Christian care for these countries found a means
to increase the force to be brought by Duke Casimir. But since
by reason of the burdens laid upon the provinces, and the number
of reiters they have already levied, it is almost impossible for
them to entertain so many horse, they beg her Majesty to let
the Duke bring 4,000 horse and 5,000 foot, and we beg that
the money for the payment of his men may be delivered into
the hands of the Estates or paid to Casimir on their order,
they taking his receipt for the same. We beg her Majesty to
proceed as soon as possible to put her offer into effect, and
we on our side will in good faith carry out whatever is required
Copy. Endd. by Walsingham, with his mark. Wrongly dated,
in, a later hand, Jan. 1578. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl and Fl. V. 89.]
722. Another copy, 'the States' first answer to Daniel Rogers'
negotiation.' Marginal notes by L. Tomson. 1½ pp. [For. E.B.