Elizabeth: April 1578, 6 -10

Pages 600-612

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 12, 1577-78. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1901.

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April 1578, 6-10

April 6. 774. ROGERS to WALSINGHAM.
When I was ready to depart from 'Collen,' and had given my letter to Isaac Lewenhartz, factor there to the Prince of Orange and Duke Casimir, to be forwarded to you, I heard that letters were come from Don John to the Senate of 'Collyn,' complaining that they were 'bent' to lend money to the Estates. He assures them that the King will take it in evil part ; and because he wishes them well, to take a more sure way. But at present they seem more addicted to the Estates than to Don John, because they remember that six years ago the Duke of Alva entered into a practice to 'surprender' their city. As I came to 'Confluences,' I learnt that divers sorts of armour were there arrested, which had been bought and sent to the Spaniards. I marvel, after having talked with several colonels and rittmeisters, that I can learn no certainty of any levy of reiters for the Spaniards, except the 3,000 levied by the Duke of Brunswick ; which makes me think that he either little regards the reiters, or is afraid he will not find provender enough for more horsemen, or thinks that the negotiation for peace will take effect. The Duke of Brunswick has also authority to levy 6,000 'lansknights' for Don John, and Hannibal von Emps is gathering the like number for him. Count John of Nassau with the rest of the 'Wedderawish' Counts has hindered and still hinders the Duke of Brunswick's reiters, so that they are not yet past the Rhine. But I am much afraid that the Prince himself will be deceived, and that his reiters will not come as soon as he thought. He told me on March 15 that in three weeks he doubted not but he should have 5,000 reiters ; and I have learned to-day that the Count of Swartzenburche, of whom he makes most sure, is not yet certain of his rittmeisters, much less of his reiters. Wolmershausen, who is well thought of, is like to have the first thousand for the States ; this I hear from rittmeisters themselves. The Bishop of Wurtemberg comes to Worms within three days to be present at the Diet, and the Palsgrave will be there in person, minding to go by the Rhine to the baths of Ems on May 1. However, I heard yesterday that the Electors and princes are minded to meet at 'Rotteburche' in Franconia next month, to conclude what way they shall take to establish a peace in the Low Countries, and also to agree upon Corpus doctrinae made by Dr. Andreas. It is certain that the Duke of Saxony, the Marquis of Brandenburgh, Duke Julius of Brunswick, and the Duke of Wurtemberg will be there. The Landgrave was lately with the Duke of Saxony at 'Languesaltze' near Erfurt, to divert the Duke from publishing the Corpus, which some here call Porcus doctrinae. Before going to the Duke, he wrote him a large and very polite letter against this enterprise of Dr. Andreas, declaring why Luther's works were not to be taken pro normâ Doctrinae. I have no time to translate it ; but as Mr. Beale's Dutchman is near you I send it for him or some other to translate into Latin or English for you. Certain ministers have been taken at Mompelgard, and convicted of having given daily advertisements to the French King and the Duke of Guise, by which they betrayed them of the religion. Among them was one Jean Marion, who, as was proved by his intercepted letter, counselled the French King to send an embassy at once to the abovementioned prince, and complain of the seditious conspiracies of the Calvinists ; whom they were ready to condemn, and therefore the King had a goodly occasion offered him to hinder them from aiding Casimir against his kingdom henceforward. The Marquis of Anspach's wife, who was of the house of Brandenburg and daughter to the last Marquis of 'Cuistryne,' is lately deceased. I trust to send you a copy containing the horrible treason which this minister Marion has long committed, by revealing great secrets to the enemy. More forces come from Italy for Don John. They had great practices with the Duke of Savoy and the Duke of Guise against the town of Geneva, so that the town was in great danger of being taken on the 25th of last month, if they had not been advertised on the sudden and duly provided for their defence. The Duke of Guise was there in person with 18 ensigns for this purpose. This I wrote at my departure from Maguntia towards Keiserslautern, where Dr. Beutrich affirms that Duke Casimir is at present.—Mayence [sic], 6 April 1578. P.S.—Duke Richard, uncle to the Elector and Duke Casimir, aged 58, means next month to marry the Duke of Wurtemberg's sister, aged 28. Item, Duke John of Deuxponts will marry the Duke of Cleve's daughter, sister to the wife of his elder brother. Besides these, the King of Sweden's brother, Duke Charles, means to marry in Germany, and is making love to Duke Casimir's sister. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Germ. States I. 54.]
April 6. 775. ROGERS to WALSINGHAM.
After sealing my former letter, I met with Colonel 'Malbrowne,' who serves Duke Casimir, lately arrived from 'Lucemberg.' He affirms that Don John makes sure of having 11,000 reiters and 6,000 landsknechts at least. Duke Adolf of Holstein is levying 3,000, Duke Eric of Brunswick as many, Duke Francis of Lauenburg the same, and Otto Platt 2,000. Hannibal Emps levies two regiments of landsknechts and the Duke of Brunswick, they say, another two. This Duke is still in Lorraine, nor is it certain that he will be in person with his reiters, who went about to spoil Count John of Nassau's country. But the Landgrave and the Counts of Wetteraw, according to their league, have so armed their 'bowers' that they have hitherto valiantly hindered the reiters, so that they have been able to do no hurt to Count John. They say that the Emperor has agreed with his brothers, giving them yearly pensions, and retaining Austria, which was to have been divided, wholly for himself.—Mayence, 6 April, 1578. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 55.]
Our well beloved Patrick Solhelly, bishop of Moyenances [O'Hely, bishop of Mayo] and James Desmond de Guiraldes [James Fitzmorris] have represented to us that they entered into a charter-party with one Thomas Strubec of Le Croisic to take them and their people in a vessel of his from Lisbon in Portugal to Ireland, and that the said Strubec having sailed, kept them 18 days at sea, in company with other vessels from Le Croisic, and that finally they were forced by bad weather to put back to the coast of Galicia, and go ashore at Vigo to re-victual ; and that having put to sea again they were by storm cast back to Mougue [Qy. Mugia] in Spain, where the said deponents having landed, and seeing that Strubec was making difficulties about completing the voyage to Ireland, they brought an action and obtained an order against him to do so ; which as he would not obey they had him put in prison with those of his crew. Thereupon they broke prison, and about midnight went on board, and having cut the cables holding their anchors, departed and returned to Le Croisic, taking with them all the deponents' furniture, arms, clothing and provisions ; who had to follow to Britanny, not without great expense and personal hazard ; whereof information had been given to you, at the suit of deponents. Now, whereas we wish justice to be well and shortly done in this cause, our will is, and we command you by these presents, that having reviewed the enquiries made by you, which should be before you, you will proceed against the said Strubec, master mariner, and his sailors, constraining them by all means, even by imprisonment, to make restitution of the property belonging to the deponents, and pay their expenses with damages and interest, taking yourself cognizance of the matter so far as is needful.—Paris, 7 April, 1578. Copy, made by François Raffin and Pierre Belot, notaries to the King, in his Châtelet at Paris, April 23. Copy. Endd. : Copy of the King of France's letter to Rennes. Fr. 3 pp. [France II. 29.]
I have received yours of March 7, with a copy of her Majesty's letter, acording to which all things shall be done, to the satisfaction, as I hope, of all parties. The bullion remains by me entirely as received it, but the other coin, or chiefly the angels, I have passed into prince-dollars and others more fitetd for the Low Countries, which place I made full account it should be transported to, having heard from you to that effect. In this there can be no loss, for I have no money or coin by me ; but if the parties who will receive the money like angels better I can always and 'at a very sudden' translate it back again into angels. I think to lay the transport upon the coin, for that notwithstanding, it will 'answer a better rate' than the bullion. But for my own charges, though it has been chargeable to me, I will leave it to your good consideration. As yet I hear nothing of those who should receive the payment from me, but as soon as they come, they shall be dispatched and the copy of the acquittance sent to you with speed. Meantime please receive a copy of her Majesty's letter, which I take to be what you wrote for. If it is not the same I will accomplish further directions.—Hamburg, 8 April 1578. Occurrents on the other side.
— From Rome, 1 March.
The Queen of France having 'made means' for the election of new cardinals, this has been the occasion of many speeches ; and the Court of Rome is for divers causes not well content therewith, though the Pope is since resolved shortly to have the princes of Italy in remembrance, as also those who have well deserved in the Court, and the same promotion he can do no less than yield somewhat on behalf of the King of France. Last Tuesday the Palatine Laski came hither with 35 post horses. Having fallen from his horse, he keeps his bed. It is said he makes intercession through the nuncio Caligari to the Pope for the recovery of the Palatinate, which was taken from him because at the late election he was against the King. The new Bishop of Collen has lately sent the Lord of Durland as ambassador to the Pope for his confirmation, who it is thought will obtain it because he brought with him the election under the hands of the most part of the chapter. Also the 'Biverish' appeal did not take place. Two days ago came a post from Naples for Spain, from the Viceroy there. He gives out that the Viceroy's son is gone against the fugitives of Calabria, and that the Viceroy has had a Baron of Naples of the house of Canalanti beheaded, because he succoured the fugitives.
— From Venice, 7 March.
By letter from Constantinople of Feb. 1, the Persian war against the Turk is confirmed, and it is announced that the Persians have taken three cities from the Turks, of which 'Bagadet' is one. And although the Great Turk was willing to follow the war in person, his mother would not consent to proceed further than Aleppo, and he has therefore appointed Sinan and Mustafa his generals of the field. Whereupon Mustafa, with a great number of 'Gianitzaren and Spachi,' is manfully gone toward the frontier of Persia, Sinan following with many thousand horsemen. Pyati Pasha is departed this life, and it is thought that Ticada, who is governor, called Renegato, over the 'Gianitzaren,' will be appointed in his place General upon the Seas. The ambassador from the Emperor to the Great Turk has had very good audience, and has not only ratified the 8 years' peace, but was minded to bestow many rich presents on his Majesty. Ochialim daily solicits to have a great number of galleys for this year. Last Monday died our Duke Sebastian Veniero, after a short illness. He reigned 8 months and 19 days ; who will succeed him, time and the 41 electors will show.
— Hamburg, 10 April [sic].
The 'Muscoviter's' ambassador has had audience and answer of the Emperor himself, without interpreter, for the Slavon tongue and Russ language do not much differ. The ambassador had great entertainment, his charge borne so long as he was in the Emperor's dominions. At his departure a chain of gold was given him worth 1,000 florins, besides rich presents for the Prince, his master ; with answer, that at the next Parliament at Regensburg all matters shall be considered, and an ambassador sent to the Prince of Russia and Muscovy, to ratify all agreements. The ambassador is now gone to the King of Denmark. What he will do, time will try ; but the four holds which the Muscovite took from the King he still keeps. This last Frankfort visit, there was paid by the French to Duke Casimir 40,000 francs upon the old debt ; or, as some think, to the redemption of pawns or jewels. The King of Poland and the 'Muscoviter' have made peace for three years for their own dominions ; but as for Lyfland, they have left it to the strongest, and to him that can best keep what he can get. I have received a letter from Pisa in Italy, which I send herewith, as it somewhat agrees touching Stukely with my former occurrents ; whose attempts, if meant against his native country, God confound. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Hanse Towns I. 36.]
To the magistrates of the city of Bruges.
Fearing and not without cause the many dangers that may befall us in these perilous times from the unexpected visits of your searchers to our poor house by night, to which we have had to submit four times (besides the irruptions of your soldiers, indecent and intolerable to our poverty) at a time when we ought tranquilly to be rendering our due service to God ; considering moreover the monstrous tyranny already exercised towards those of our order in Ruremonde and elsewhere, our fear is not a little increased, lest we may admit persons pretending to be sent by you who will satisfy their thirst for our blood by butchering us. For what are we foreigners to expect from those who could not refrain from the murder of their own countrymen ; we who are threatened daily, and subjected to twofold hatred, that of the people of this country, and of our own merchants, mostly heretics, who have business here? With a view then to our own safety and the avoiding of so shocking a crime, which would cast upon your illustrious city the disgrace of shedding innocent blood, to cry to heaven for vengeance, I beseech you to inform us of the reason why you make such frequent and unseasonable perquisitions upon us ; whether they are due to the malice and false complaints of our enemies, wherewith they incite you against us, alleging that we keep concealed something unlawful or suspicious. That such tales proceed from their spite and malice you must have amply learned in your various examinations. But if the cause be the shelter which we have given to some of our nation, who being in exile for conscience' sake have sought our aid and counsel, I hope there is none of you who would disapprove or forbid such a work of piety ; for as they know nothing of your language and people, if they were to seek the aid of our heretic fellow-countrymen, these would not so much refuse it, as betray them and ruin them. As therefore—I hope we may say it without offence to any— we daily send away many of your people from our doors with food for the body, so we beg you not to be displeased if when exiles of our own nation crave our poor help in their straits we refresh not their bodies only, but their spirits. To deny it would seem to us an outrage to nature and charity. You may be assured that we shall not receive any of your people within our walls save such as come for the sake of entering our order. My last petition is that having duly considered what we have said, you will not only refuse a facile ear to those who incessantly vent the venom of their malice in such slanders against us, but if they suggest anything else to you which may seem worthy of credence, you will not at once yield it, but will send for me to plead our cause before you, or kindly delegate one of yourselves to examine into the truth of the matter in due time and place ; and will in your charity provide that for the future no violence may be done us by the heretics of our nation, who are always threatening to denounce us in England and fulminating other persecutions, and that we may not be suddenly attacked by other persons, set on by their soldiery or their own malice. Finally, though it would be a great grief to me in my old age to leave this city, where I have lived so long, if our presence is so grievous and suspicious to you that you can no longer endure it, we at least ask that you will grant us your counsel, aid, and protection in selling our house and furniture, paying the debts which we have incurred here, and transferring ourselves in safety to some other provinces, where we may serve God in more safety. For brevity and to save your time, I will recapitulate our case briefly.
Injuries recently done us.
1. On Thursday in Passion week more than a hundred soldiers invaded us, mercilessly devoured what was being got ready for our sustenance, and further carried off all that they could conveniently take. 2. For the three days following twelve soldiers, as they said by your appointment, were maintained at our charges, and spent their time day and night in drinking and burning logs in our house, to the disquieting of the whole community. 3. We have undergone four sudden and unreasonable searches at the hands of your police, to our great alarm, and at a time of night when we ought to have been engaged in divine service ; yet they could find nothing worthy of blame or suspicion. 4. Others have in like manner twice sought admittance, but we sent them away, though not without disturbance, believing them to be unauthorized.
What we have to fear.
1. That persons thirsting for our blood should be let in under pretence of your authority, and be able thus by craft to wreak their malice. 2. Our fears are increased by the murder of the Carthusians at Ruremonde, and other religious elsewhere ; and by the soldiers' threats. 3. English merchants threaten to denounce us in England, and daily say other spiteful things.
What we ask.
1. That you will tell us why we have been searched, and kindly abstain from it in future, both to avoid scandal among your fellow-citizens, who will either look on us as traitors, or suspect you of cruelty to foreigners and the poor of Christ ; and to avoid the crime of bloodshed, which might easily occur without your knowledge. 2. That access to our house may not be denied to our fellowcountrymen, if they come at due time and with just cause. 3. That if any charges are brought against us, you will hear us in reply. 4. That, if necessary, you will give us facilities for going in safety. (Signed) Maurice Chauncy, an official (such as he is) of the English Carthusians living in the street of St. Clare. Copy. Latin. 3¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. VI. 9.]
April 9. 779. WALSINGHAM to [POULET].
Her Majesty likes well your manner of proceeding with Masino Delbene, and wishes you in any matter that may concern her service to deal privately and as from yourself, as you shall think fit, either with Queen Mother or anyone else, though you have no special direction from her ; such trust she reposes in your fidelity, and so satisfied is she with your discreet manner of proceeding. You may let Masino Delbene understand that, touching the matter of which you spoke with him, giving your own opinion rather than upon any direction received from hence, you thought good to acquaint me with it before dealing any further, either with Queen Mother or any other public person, and left the imparting of it to her Majesty in my discretion, and that I both thought of the matter myself, and made it known to her, receiving this answer ; that in case the King, at the persuasion of his mother, would like to take any such course, she would be content, on understanding from them how he would like to proceed, to concur with him therein, and join the best means she has with his in furtherance of so good a purpose. It is a matter which she has long gone about herself, by sending messengers both to the king and to his governors in the Low Countries, to mediate a composition of these troubles, which she thinks, all things considered, most convenient for both sides ; which friendly course she still persists in, notwithstanding the small hope she can hitherto conceive, by any offices proceeding from the king and his ministers, of doing any good. She has again sent a servant of hers to Don John to mediate an abstinence of arms ; but he seems as yet in no way disposed to peace, being at present strongest in the field, otherwise than as he may be forced thereto by fear of assistance to be given them by the neighbouring princes. Therefore, if the king and Queen Mother like to join in this action, being (as has been well laid down by you), a matter of so great consequence to both crowns, it will be necessary for him not only with all expedition to dispatch some minister of his to persuade Don John to consent to an abstinence, but also to take order that such of his subjects as are already drawn into Don John's service be recalled, and others be restrained from joining that service ; commandment being also given that no victuals, munitions, or such like be transported out of the realm to Don John. Thus much her Majesty thinks good should be delivered to Masino or to Queen Mother, or to both, as you may think fit, in general terms, reserving the details of any negotiation in the matter to be set down by them ; by which course her Majesty may the more easily discover with what foot they march. As for the matter of Scotland, as he has 'held some purpose' with you in that behalf, her Majesty thinks it not amiss that you take some apt occasion to let him understand that she conceives so well of the King that she trusts he will not go about any innovation there, notwithstanding any reports that may be given out here to the contrary, which she will not easily be persuaded to believe. For her own part, she does not affect any superiority there more than ordinary, and with the care of a good neighbour to keep them in peace and amity one with another, for the quiet of the kingdom, and the better good of the young King, for whom she cares no less than if he had been her own son. Yet, notwithstanding, if the King should attempt any secret practice to breed disquiet in that country, with intention to trouble her state, you may let fall by way of discourse that her Majesty is not without very good means to measure the like to him within his own realm, to keep him occupied from troubling others. In like manner it will not be amiss to let fall to Queen Mother that to affect the alliance of Scotland cannot be of so great hope of advantage to their crown as the jealousy likely to grow thereby may hurt the sound amity her Majesty has always intended and kept with her sons and her, and which will on her part be still entertained, if according to treaties the realm of Scotland be continued in the state it is, without any alteration or change sought therein by the King and his ministers. Which amity she and the King her son should likewise be more willing to entertain, because it fares not now with these two kingdoms as formerly, when the interest we had in the realm of France, being possessed of divers plans within it, and the troubles that ensued thereby, caused the former Kings to seek to divert the course of English attempts there, by causing us to be occupied at home. Which kind of dealings being utterly extinguished, as the only cause of those former dissensions, the effect should not in this age be revived and put in practice ; the whole isle together being likely to serve that kingdom to good purpose, for the preservation of their peace and greatness against the insolent ambition and tyranny of a new potent prince lately 'start' up, to the common peril of both realms, if the plot devised may be put in operation, by reducing the Low Countries to an absolute government.—Greenwich, 9 April, 1578. Copy. 3½ pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
April 9.
K. d. L. x. 404.
The father of the bearer, Mr. Marsh, at the beginning of the troubles, disbursed a 'piece' of money, for an enterprise to be undertaken for the service of the Prince and the countries of Holland and Zealand ; which took so good effect that they obtained their purpose to the great disadvantage of the enemy. Since then Mr. Marsh could never recover his money, and has sustained some loss by the arrest of certain goods of his in Bruges ; and is now suing for both. His cause is reasonable, the man as you know honest, and a great favourer of the common cause to the utmost of his power. He has asked me to commend his cause to you ; and I desire you to show him what pleasure you can, and let him know that I recommended it to you, and that it has been carefully solicited by you.—Greenwich, 9 April 1578. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. VI. 10.]
Whereas certain of our Councillors have set forth to us in the name of the English merchants trading in our dominions that their goods have been arrested by captains and others, our officers, and detained until money has been extorted from them, on the ground that they were not at liberty to travel and trade in our realm ; and petition has been made that we would take steps to protect them ; now we, having ascertained that no law of the kind ever existed in our realm, and it being manifest that those who molest the English injure the public convenience, and bring our name and that of the Polish nation into sinister suspicion among foreigners, cannot but blame those persons, and take steps to check their cupidity and make the English secure in future. We therefore forbid all persons henceforth in any way to molest English merchants travelling and trading in our dominions ; and order that they be permitted to come and go, expose their goods for sale in the markets, buy others and take them where they wish, as may please them, unmolested of any man. And those who act otherwise will incur our most severe displeasure.—Warsaw, 9 April 1578. Signed : Stephanus Rex. Seal. On back, signature, Matthias Bech, and a later endorsement. Latin, broad sheet. [Poland I. 1.]
782. Later copy of the above (Sir J. Williamson). [Ibid. I. 1a.]
783. Another later copy. [Ibid. I. 1 b.]
April 10. 784. HODDESDON to BURGHLEY.
'Laus Deo,' Hamburg, 10 April 1578.—In my last, of March 31, I advertised according to the bruits going here [summary of that letter]. I have since received orders from Mr. Secretary Walsingham for the payment of the sum remaining by me to Duke C., which shall be done accordingly at the coming hither of his appointed, of whom as yet I have not heard. Remaining information and occurrents identical with those to Walsingham, No. 777. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Hanse Towns I. 37.]
April 10. 785. MESSAGE from the QUEEN OF ENGLAND to DUKE CASIMIR, containing her intention as to the aid which she offers to the ESTATES of the LOW COUNTRIES by his means ; laid before him by Daniel Rogers at Kaiserlautern, 10 April 1578. The Queen having been amply informed both by my report to her, and by the declaration of Dr. Beutrich your Councillor, of your Highness's amiable offices and virtuous deportment towards her, has sent me back to these parts to make known to you her reciprocal affection, and to explain her intuition touching a means of aiding those of the Low Countries, in case you find that way agreeable. As touching the other matter dealt with in my negotiations of last year, it will hardly be necessary to repeat it, Dr. Beutrich being able to inform you of the purport of his frequent and confidential conversations with her Majesty. Kindly therefore hear how her Majesty has sent me to testify how much she feels herself constrained to seek out all means in her power to requite the honour which you have done her, and to assure you that she concurs in wishing the welfare of those countries. So it is, that at the instance of the States, through the Marquis of Havrech, the Queen had granted them a support of 6,000 soldiers, who were preparing to embark so soon as her Majesty should be informed of the need for them. At this juncture she heard from divers quarters that certain of the Estates and provinces did not approve the coming of Englishmen into the Low Countries ; and that the King of France was resolved to employ the greater part of his force upon those countries if her Majesty sent 6,000 of her subjects there, being assured that her intention was to make herself mistress of some of the provinces. At the same time she received news of certain practices on foot against her own state ; to obviate which in time, it was necessary that she should retain her forces for her own service ; by no means however intending to desert her friends or leave them unaided. Her Majesty has therefore thought of your Highness's resources, seeing the desire you have to aid the oppressed, so far as your means allow. Dr. Beutrich has explained to her the conditions suggested to you by the States, which he was persuaded would not be accepted, both on account of your personal safety and for other considerations ; the Estates having offered only 6,000 men in all. If then your Highness is still of the same mind, and still wishes to aid those in extremity at the request of her Majesty, whom you protest you honour, she requests you to take the charge of 6,000 Swiss and 5,000 reiters, a number she thinks suitable as well to your dignity, of which she is as careful as of her own honour, as to obviate danger to your person such as might be fatal not only to their state, but to the common cause. If this is agreeable to you, her Majesty bids me deliver to you a letter, in virtue of which you will receive 20,000l. from the person to whom it is addressed ; promising further to put you into possession, by the hands of the Estates, of another 20,000l. on the day of muster. If they are unable to furnish it, she will do so herself. And in order that the Estates may more readily accept her offer, she bade me wait on the Archduke Matthias, now governor of the country, and to treat with the Prince of Orange and the States-General, all of whom have with one accord approved the means in question, and greatly desire that you will accept the conditions, and hasten with your forces to the relief of their necessity. This is the sum of what I have said to your Highness by word of mouth, on the matter of which I am charged to treat. Draft. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Germ. States I. 56.]