K. d. L. x. 833.
263. FREMYN to DAVISON.
I wrote to you a few days ago touching matters at this camp. On
the 20th Nivelles capitulated to the Count of Bossu ; termslives
and baggage to be safe, and not to bear arms against the States for
three months. The governor for Don John was called M. de
Lenoncourt, a gentleman of Lorraine. He had 5 companies, all
from Lorraine and Upper Burgundy. Don John had promised to
bring him aid within 24 hours if he was besieged ; which he did not
do in three days, or to Genappe either. This morning Lenoncourt
and his people leave Nivelles and retire to Namur. A good escort
is given them that no displeasure may be done them, and that
the promise made to them may be kept. I think that on leaving
this we shall go to besiege Louvain and take all the little places
round about, and all that the enemy holds this side the Meuse, and
by the same means try to draw him from his stronghold to action
in the open country of Louvain, if the plans are not changed. We
lost some 20 men before Nivelles, and some wounded. Our army is
in great need for want of money. Sickness and famine abound and
breed discontent, which will ultimately cause disorders. The
French are dwindling very much, some going to join Monsieur's
forces, some through death. Affairs here continue to drag along. For
the rest, the enemy gives no alarms to our camp, neither in rear,
nor in flank, nor in front ; no more than if he were not there,
which is a terrible thing. In all his small places he has not left a
single Spaniard, only Lorrainers, Burgundians, and Germans. At
Tournay Baron de Chevreaux commands, with one regiment.
Yesterday a number of cavalry and infantry went from our camp
towards Brussels to convoy the artillery which Count Bossu has
required for the camp. Nothing more at present.From the camp
at Nivelles, 21 Sep. 1578. (Signed) C. Fremyn.
P.S.If my Lord of Walsingham is still there, I humbly kiss
Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 31.]
K. d. L. x. 834.
264. DUKE CASIMIR to the AMBASSADORS.
I have received your letter by Mr Mildmay, and thank you for
your wish to have news of my convalescence. I am pretty well at
present, thank God, having got rid of the flux which tormented me ;
but it has somewhat lowered my strength, and by the doctor's
advice I cannot leave this place till I have further recruited it. I
wish to tell you that I am surrounded with difficulties more and
more, and am left meanwhile without effectual assistance from anyone.
If it were a personal matter only, I should not mind, but
having such a train of distinguished gentlemen ill-entertained, and
justly discontented at receiving no satisfaction but words and unfulfilled
promises, I assure you that I am in a difficulty, and, seeing
no other remedy, am resolved, after setting out to the Estates in
detail how unworthily I have been treated, to disentangle myself
before things grow worse, and to return whence I came. The rest
may go as it shall please God to dispose. I shall not fail to impart
my remonstrance to you, and to advertise thereof her Majesty and
all others whom it may concern.Brussels, 22 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson : from Casimir. Fr. 1 pp. [Ibid.
K. d. L. x. 836
copy and a
265. The ESTATES to the AMBASSADORS.
The Estates-General having often represented to the Queen's
ambassadors the necessity they are in for the furnishing of their
army, soldiers being very liable to mutiny and commit outrages if
the pay due to them is not forthcoming at the proper time, and the
ambassadors having similarly held out hopes that her Majesty would
have such regard to the relief of these countries as their need
required, wherewith the said Estates were content, and much obliged
to her Majesty, seeing she had made it evident by the powers given
to her agent Mr Davison for 100,000, hoped that she would be
pleased to listen to their oft-repeated request in so urgent necessity.
But since it has otherwise fallen out, rather as they think through
the practices of some who are ill-affected than by her Majesty's
proper motion who has always shown herself kind and well-disposed
to succour the afflicted, and her Majesty having of late shown herself
so close [serre] that in default of the repayment of the
25,000 due out of the first moneys raised by virtue of the said
powers she has made difficulties about the delivery of her obligations
to the merchants who had contracted with the States, unless a large
quantity of jewels and plate were deposited in her hands, whereby
affairs have been greatly delayed and inconveniences have occurred
very prejudicial to the state of the army ;the Estates have again
represented strongly to the ambassadors how much these delays of
her Majesty's affected them, and begged them, being sufficiently
informed of the state of affairs here, to get ready to return to her
Majesty, so that being sincerely and truly informed by them of the
state of affairs she might be pleased to resolve briefly and categorically
if the States might henceforth depend on her favour, or if
being deserted by her they might provide themselves with other
means which are close to their hand, and would have been already
taken were it not that they prefer the partnership of the Queen and
of England to that of any other, so much is she honoured and
respected by these countries.
Hoping to receive by the ambassadors' means a favourable
answer, which the ambassadors have promised to promote to the
best of their power, they are content to sign these articles.
Copy, or abstract, in writing of L. Tomson. Fr. 1 pp. [Holl.
and Fl. IX. 33.]
266. BACQUEVILLE to WALSINGHAM.
After thanking you for writing to me, I may say that, inasmuch
as my master has not yet received the articles which I thought you
had we have sent to ask for them from persons who we think have
them. I was of opinion that you should return to the Queen because
I know that you can do his Highness infinite good services, whereof
he is writing to you. I entreat you to do so ; it is what he most
desires. In this and in all else he is assured that you will be his
friend ; the proofs you have given in your letters to the Queen at
Norwich, which I have recited to him, have made him thoroughly
acquainted with your goodwill, which I am sure he will so honourably
requite that you will have no cause to hold him ungrateful.
Meanwhile I may tell you that he will use all the diligence he can
to bring this negotiation to a happy end ; which I for my part desire
above everything, for the good and tranquillity which I am sure it
will bring them both, and which they will give to many who need
it. This being a matter towards which you can do much I entreat
you to bear a hand therein ; which I believe you will do as a work
both useful and holy.Mons, 23 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. IX. 34.]
K. d. L. x. 837.
267. PIETRO BIZARRI to BURGHLEY.
I pray you to take in good part my long silence, and to be assured
that I always retain a lively memory of the service and reverence
which I owe to her Majesty 'and the most sacred Crown of the
most unconquered realm of England,' and equally of my obligations
to your Lordship for the endless courtesies you have shown
me all the many years that I have known you. So may it please the
Divine Majesty that I may in some degree show myself grateful.
Meantime having nothing wherein it is permitted to me by the
most benign stars to display with any clear testimony how much I
revere your honoured name, save that with my feeble wit, as in the
works I have previously published, especially the work printed at
Basle, De Cyprio et Pannonico bello, I have testified my debt to you,
so in my labour of the last three or four years, Annals of the
Republic of Genoa, now printing at Antwerp by Mr Christopher
Plantin, the king's printer, I have testified my humble service to
her Majesty. May God give me grace that I may be able to show
myself grateful to her, and yourself, and England in a matter of
greater moment, that I may not die ungrateful for the benefits I
daily receive from her munificence.
I send no information as to the state of these countries, being
certain that you are fully advertised by the ambassadors.Antwerp,
23 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. Ital. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 35.]
268. [WILSON ?] to JUNIUS.
The day before Daniel Rogers returned from London to the Court,
the Queen read the letters written to her by various persons which
you had sent on the 13th inst. I afterwards handed her the two
from Duke Casimir and your colleague Beutrich which you gave me
to bring. I also declared to her what Rogers told me from you about
the disturbed state of the Low Countries and the Duke's.
First I thank you for the good opinion you have conceived of me.
I am in truth as devoted as any man to Duke Casimir, and your
worship's most obsequious. As regards the Queen, however, all
Europe I think knows well how she has long studied to remove the
troubles of the republic. With no ambitious motives nor spur of
private advantage, she has at great cost striven to confirm friendship
between the princes her neighbours who are at variance ; and
above others she especially favours Duke Casimir. But there are
two things, my Junius, which specially vex her. First, she is greatly
annoyed that none of all the princes of Europe who profess the
reformed Religion should have seriously exerted himself to help the
republic, and is grieved to find herself alone in going to any expense
to heal its calamities. Secondly, she complains that fresh aids are
required of her under the plea of a promise. She affirms that she
has liberally performed her promises to the people of the Low
Countries ; and so indeed it is. For when she understood that
the States were in treaty with Duke Casimir for succour she was
so pleased that on being solicited by them for a loan she readily
promised them 20,000, which sum for Casimir's own sake she
desired might be handed to him. And when she learned from Dr
Beutrich that another 20,000 was wanted for the first month's pay,
she pleaded on his behalf with the States that they would send
another 20,000 on the day of muster ; and undertook, if they were
in straits and could not raise that sum on the obligation which she
then sent them, in order that they might have Casimir's aid, to supply
that second 20,000, to all which promises she has stood, not to
mention the other sums granted by her. What province in Europe
was so helpful to them in their trouble? Having shown herself such
towards the States and Duke Casimir, her Majesty is surprised that
fresh sums of money should be demanded. For if after the return
of Rogers from Germany she promised all friendship and favour to
Duke Casimir she did not therefore deem herself bound to lavish
fresh sums out of her treasury which she may justly use for her
own purposes and those of her realm. Duke Casimir does not know
at what cost she purchased the tranquillity of Scotland which was
much disturbed last month ; if he did, he would declare that she
had acted liberally towards the States.
Yet she will not leave him destitute of her favour, being devoted
as she is to his renown. She hopes rather that he will so deal with
the States that they will discharge the pay due to him ; for she has
many weighty reasons for not spending any more treasure at
present. She trusts also that the States will with the Duke take
such measures that he will have less need of English subsidies.
From the Court, 24 Sep. 1578.
Draft in writing of Daniel Rogers and endd. by him. Latin. 2 pp.
[Holl. and Fl. IX. 36.]
K. d L. x. 840.
269. The AMBASSADORS to the PRIVY COUNCIL.
We have with great difficulty induced the States, upon the hope
we have put them in of the continuance of her Majesty's assistance
when she is thoroughly informed at our return of the state of their
affairs, to accept of her order touching the delivery of the bonds ;
having to that purpose accorded the articles propounded, as may
appear from the postils we send herewith. As we could not judge
of the true value of the jewels, or whether they would countervail
the sums for which her Majesty gives her bonds, nor could well
trust the report of jewellers here, being inhabitants of this town, we
have thought right to stay such money as was payable to Spinola
till her Majesty's further pleasure be known ; being the sum of
8,000 or so, saving that we let the States retain 18,000 florins
payable by Spinola, to redeem part of the jewels engaged, receiving
in lieu of it, besides those jewels that were shown us first, certain
other jewels, estimated to be worth 250,000 florins at least. We
have also induced the States to give their general bonds for satisfying
Spinola at the dates contained in her Majesty's bonds. And
though she seems to make no account of the general bond of the
States, yet to those who know the wealth of this country, their great
traffic by sea, and the means she has at all times to obtain satisfaction,
when by sending out a ship or two she may bring to her
ports a fleet belonging to this country which will countervail thrice
over the value of the debt, there is no doubt of repayment.
They have desired us to be suitors on their behalf to her Majesty
that she will vouchsafe, for the relief of their necessity, having to
give their soldiers a month's pay at the beginning of next month,
to let them have the above-mentioned sum of 8,000 ; which we
have given order that Mr Davison should keep in his hands till her
pleasure is known, to which we pray that answer may be sent with
expedition. Unless she agrees to it, I do not see how Duke Casimir
can be satisfied according to her last letters ; in which she appointed
that the money still in Spinola's hands should be paid to him.
And since she may be offended that the answer to her last has been
so long deferred, please let her understand that the States have not
without great difficulty been brought to yield to the articles (being
not a little grieved that her Majesty should deal so 'straynably'
with them) and therefore took ten days' deliberation before giving
their assent.Antwerp, 24 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. 1 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 37.]
K. d. L. x. 843.
270. WALSINGHAM to WILSON.
I thought it well in this private letter to tell you a little
concerning the last dispatch we received from her Majesty for
dealing with the States for a cessation of arms or diminution of
their forces. Though we knew it would be ungrateful to them, we
have proceeded so far as to deliver her advice both in speech and
writing, desiring their answer in like sort. What it may be you
shall know by the next. As for this present answer to the former
conditions for the delivery of the bonds, if her Majesty or my
Lords mislike them, I pray you stay such conceptions as may be
gathered of them till our return, when I trust we shall fully satisfy
them.Antwerp, 24 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. p. [Ibid. IX. 38.]
K. d. L. x. 842.
271. COBHAM to BURGHLEY.
I heard nothing from you or of our recall, by the last courier ;
I must pray you to put a helping hand that my colleague and I
may take our leave, and he if occasion go to Monsieur and so both
of us meet at Dunkirk to be embarked for England. We remain
here unprofitable servants to her Majesty and to ourselves great
hindrances. You would hardly believe what our daily expenses are.
Monsieur has sent here one 'de Sellys' to promise Duke Casimir
his pension and his living in France : he hearkens to it, having
small hope of being relieved by her Majesty.
The States have recovered three castles ; one called Bradt [?]
by force, Terce [?] and Gynypre [Genappe] which is not a league
from Nivelles, by composition. Now they mean to besiege Nivelles.
De Sellis has laboured that his master might have two of his
assisting in council with the States, and likewise to have two of
theirs to be present at all his consultations. By this you see what
Count 'Alleyne' [Lalaing] by some good means is 'wrought' to
write to the States and Prince acknowledging his error, and
promising hereafter to be a good 'patriota.' Don John has returned
very nearly to Namur awaiting reinforcements from Germany.
There is much talk here of the overthrow of the King of Portugal
in Barbary, confirmed to-day by divers letters.
We are doing our best to bring the States to 'condescend' to
her Majesty's requests and are not without hope of bringing it to
I send you the 'platt' of the camp where the great skirmish was.
If you are not satisfied the bearer can do it, for he saw the place
and drew it. I have also informed him of the way the camp has
marched to Nivelles that he may show it you by a particular 'card'
of Brabant, which I also send.
I saw to-day a letter from Aquisgrane, that Count Hannibal,
Pollweiler and Fronsberg are coming to Don John with forces, and
are this side of Trier, so that it is thought upon this new supply of
forces he will 'come abroad.' The treaty of peace being put into
the Emperor's hands is likely to grow to length. Letters from Spain
and Italy do not mention the departure from Spain of the Duke of
Terranova. It is greatly suspected here that it was only to gain
time, as a matter greatly to the prejudice of the States.
Most of the towns in Flanders and Brabant have, by the general
assent of the States, open preaching. It is thought the rest of the
provinces will do the like.
By the packing and piecing of this letter with divers things of
divers natures, you may judge that it was not framed all at one
time. It was begun a nine days ago, looking every day for the
States' answer to her Majesty's articles sent with the bonds by Mr
Sommers. It was not possible to get an answer from them before
now, such is their business and care to provide money for the
month's pay. Duke Casimir, upon some 'looseness of body,' is
come to Brussels, there to 'streynge' himself. Meantime his
reiters grow froward and will not march for lack of 'nayghtgellthe' ;
a great hindrance to the States, for on the taking of Nivelles they
meant to have gone and sought Don John. You see what confusion
lack of money brings. I send you the book of the general moyennes
now granted for 10 months, and the treaty with Monsieur newly
pointed, with the States' and his protestation.
I am much beholden to you for your special care had of me in
this negotiation, in which no will is lacking in us to bring it to a
successful issue. Diffidence is so great between them that it will
hardly be moved. Her Majesty need not fear Monsieur's greatness
if she will continue her wonted favour towards the States. He has
ministers here at present for the delivery of those three towns. He
does but laterem lavare ; he will have no towns but those he wins by
force. His bands are now laying siege to 'Bynghes' [Binche].
Antwerp, 24 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 39.]
K. d. L. x. 844.
272. FREMYN to DAVISON.
The army is about marching in the direction of Binche to join
Monsieur's forces and take that place, if not already taken, for
Monsieur has sent his whole force there, besides artillery, which
was to batter yesterday. M. de la Noue left this camp yesterday to
visit Monsieur and returned yesterday at 4 p.m. with letters from
him to Count Bossu. La Noue says that Monsieur has 10,000 of
the smartest infantry he ever saw, among them 3,000 gilt morions,
When our army has joined with Monsieur's we make straight for
Namur ; inasmuch as it is found that the sooner you employ an
army the more you get out of it, especially in the case of Frenchmen.
Don John is reported to be fortifying himself near Namur,
with great intrenchments, and calling in all his useless garrisons.
He has abandoned Gemblour, as we hear.
Yesterday Duke Casimir's colonels decided not to leave this till
they were paid, and to that effect sent Count Mansfeldt to M. de
Bonnecourt to know if he would not do the like, and all the other
French. M. de Bonnecourt replied that he would not do it, and
did not wish to join them in falling out (se dtendre d'avec eux)
inasmuch as they were marching under one master. The other
three French colonels were gone to Brussels to Duke Casimir before
this happened. We are captains no longer, unless of marauders
and robbers, for lack of pay ; and MM. les Etats are the cause. At
the end of this month we shall have to renew our oath ; for my
part, I do not want to be the commander of people who are forced
to thieve and to live without discipline. We are full of disorder
and confusion. Count Egmont's regiment remains in garrison at
Nivelles ; I mean four ensigns of his. In the last month we have
lost, by disease or in plundering, of French, English, Scots and
others more than 4,000 men.Nivelles, 24 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 40.]
273. The Senate of Hamburgh hears from the Aldermen and
Council of the Hanse merchants in London that its reply of
20 June, 1578, to the Commissioners then in Hamburgh has
been somewhat misunderstood by the Merchants Adventurers,
as inconsistent with the letters addressed in the year
seventy-eight by the cities of the Teutonic Hanse, and by
the Senate itself, to the Queen. The Senate therefore
declares that it wishes, its answer to be understood according
to the tenor of those letters, in which was inserted the fourth
Article of the agreement of Utrecht, and that it never wished or
intended anything else.24 Sep. 1578. Signed on behalf of the
Senate of Hamburgh, John Niebur, secretary. Certified a true
copy, Fr. Morus.
Copy. Endd. : A letter from the Stedes. Latin, 1 p. [Hanse
Towns, I. 47.]
Enclosed in the above : A copy of the 4th Article of the agreement
Endd. : Copy of matters recd. from Hamburgh touching the
Hanse in Latin ; and in Burghley's hand : Copia 4 Articuli Tractatus
Trajectensis, Ed. 4. Latin. 1 pp. [Ibid. I. 47e.]
274. Another copy of the above letter, with translation.
Endd. p. & p. [Ibid. I. 48.]
275. "A memorial of that hath happened in the River
What we have at present notable and lamentable in this city is
that this day, Thursday, Sep. 25, at one o'clock at night, a ship was
set on fire in the river, and having broken loose, set on fire all the
other ships she met with ; so that with no means of helping them,
16 or 17 very good ships and hulks, and 6 or 7 carvells were burnt,
22 or 23 vessels in all, a thing very lamentable and never seen before.
Most of them were among those that had recently come from New
Spain. I, as an eyewitness, saw them burn ; for hearing the noise
in the streets, I 'rysse' up, the city being as bright as day with the
light from the river. And if they had not broken the bridge, that
the ships which were on fire might pass through (for it was then
'flowing water') and had not used great diligence, not one ship had
been left unburnt in all the river. I saw myself a ship 'remedied'
which seemed very hell itself, and was driving towards the Triana
side, where if she had set one ship on fire, not one would have
remained unburnt of a great number that were there, just as none
escaped that were on the other side. It is said that the hulks alone
of these ships were worth 60,000 ducats, and that the whole loss
will come to above 120,000.
p. [Spain I. 16.]
K. d. L. x. 845.
276. DAVISON to [? WILSON].
I did not accompany Captain Cockburne with my private letter to
you, because I had little to write by him, having only a day or two
before his dispatch advised you of what had occurred. Since then
the camp of the States advanced from Kempenbout to Waveren,
where by reason of a discontent among Duke Casimir's reiters for want
of their 'naughelt' they stayed five or six days without attempting
anything of importance, save that in the meantime they recovered
the castle of Genappe by composition and another 'house' of
strength thereabouts by assault. Going thence to Nivelles, which
had in it not more than 4 or 5 companies of Burgundians under
M. de Lenoncourt, a Lorrainer, it was surrendered last Saturday on
condition that they should depart their lives and goods saved, taking
oath not to serve against the States for three months. They now
seem in mind to attempt Louvain, both to clear the country behind
them, and to try if by that means they may 'train' the enemy to
battle. He is said to be encamped upon the hill hard by Namur,
awaiting succour out of Germany to the number of 3,000 reiters
under the Duke of Lauenburg, and three regiments of lansquenets
levied by Pollweiler, part of whom are said to be already in Luxembourg,
beside certain horse and foot which he expects from
Burgundy. Till these arrive it is thought he will not risk a battle
unless compelled, or at some great advantage.
The Duke of Alenon's troops are now assembled at the siege of
'Bins,' whither the States have sent them some artillery and
powder to batter it ; which dispatched they think to join the rest of
the camp. His ministers here meanwhile find great fault that the
towns promised are not delivered ; but as they of Landrecies and
Quesnoy still persist in an obstinate refusal to accept them, I see
not how they can obtain their satisfaction, the people being
generally out of taste with that nation and such as favour their
party ; as may appear by Count Lalaing, who coming a few days
since to Valenciennes was apprehended by the burghers. Contrary
to a custom strictly observed there he entered the town with
50 or 60 horse, without any warning given by him that is appointed
to signify the approach of any horsemen by 'knolling' of a bell.
After much difficulty and intercession of the magistrates he was released
in a few days and returned to Mons, retaining the greater
heartburning against those of Valenciennes because besides this
treatment of him they had obtained from the States power to have
a separate governor ; which office is conferred on M. de Noyelles, a
gentleman of good account in Flanders.
In Luxembourg certain companies of French, 'set a-work' by the
Duchess of Bouillon but said to belong to Monsieur have surprised
the castle of Saney pertaining to one M. de Naves, Don John's
commissaire de vivres, where they found much corn and wine.
There is a bruit of some levy in Champagne, to what end
is in doubt.
At Gravelines the garrison has been increased with two or three
companies of Albanese and some infantry, among whom divers of
our nation are serving ; with intent to begin a camp or to attach
that part of Flanders, or else to force the States to keep a greater
garrison thereabouts and so deprive them of a great part of the contribution
from that province.
The toleration of religion is at last accorded by the States
permitting the exercise of it in every town where there are 100
householders to demand it. It now begins to be embraced all the
country over, except among the Henuyers and Artesians, who cannot
yet digest it. At Bois-le-duc there has been some 'alteration'
about the taking of the churches by the Protestants ; which we
hear is now appeased. The Gauntois have in the last few days had
some conflicts with certain companies of the regiments of Montigny
and Hze, which lie spoiling and ransacking the bonhomme in that
corner of Flanders. They had taken two houses of strength between
Ghent and Courtray : but we hear that not above 20 or 30 have
been slain on either side. This disorder on the part of the soldiers
has grown of the want of pay to draw them to camp. They have
offered to come there with one month's wages, though ten or twelve
are due to them.
At Sluse, a port in Flanders, they have this last week planted the
religion with the banishment and suppression of the contrary,
taking the Gauntois for their example.
Last Sunday the Prince's child was christened here in the church
at the castle, which is one of the places assigned for the public
exercise of the religion. The godfathers were the Duke of Alenon,
(whose deputy was Mauvissire's maitre d'hotel), Duke Casimir, who
being at Brussels somewhat ill-disposed, sent M. de Clervant to
supply his room, and the States-General ; with the Countess of
Schwarzburg, the Prince's sister, for the godmother. A baptism
solemnized without any great ceremony.
Of other matters, especially of the defeat and slaughter of the
king of Portugal, you will hear from Mr Secretary.Antwerp,
25 Sep. 1578.
P.S.As touching the bonds I write nothing ; because you may
at length understand from my Lords what is done in that behalf.
Draft. Endd.: To Sir Fra. Walsingham [!]. 2 pp. [Holl. and
Fl. IX. 41.]
K. d. L. x. 848.
277. The PRINCE OF ORANGE to BURGHLEY.
You will have understood at large from the ambassadors what is
the present state of this country, and how the enemy having
resolved to continue the war, it is necessary for us to continue to
defend ourselves by arms. But so great are our necessities and so
excessive our charges that I do not see how without her Majesty's
aid, which we have always expected and still expect, it will be
possible for us any longer to support the burden of this war. And
inasmuch as you have always shown yourself a good friend to the
States and to myself, I will be so bold as to pray you kindly to use
on our behalf your influence with her Majesty, that we fall not from
the good hope which we have conceived of her liberality.Antwerp,
26 Sep. 1578.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. 42.]
K. d. L. x. 851.
278. FREMYN to DAVISON.
I last wrote to you on the 24th. That day Duke Casimir's reiters
made great difficulties about marching, and it was nearly eleven
o'clock before they would start, saying they wanted to be paid what
they call the 'nat guel,' which ought to have been paid at Deventer,
being money due to them from the time of leaving their homes till
their arrival at the place of muster, at 7 batzen per day, German
money. They are to be paid to-day, Count Bossu has promised ;
it may amount to 30,000 florins for the lot, apart from the two
months' pay which will be due at the end of this month, which it
seems they will want to be paid. Otherwise, it is to be feared they
will mutiny, and if they do they will find the rest of the army
ready enough to follow them. It is not easy to manage any army
containing so many foreigners without paying them.
It seems that Duke Casimir, who is at Brussels,will not return to
the camp till he is sure of his men's pay, inasmuch as it would not
be very safe for him. Besides I think that at the end of three
months he will ask to be dismissed, seeing how little occasion he has
to stay longer. Meanwhile our four French regiments are not worth
one ; the soldiers go every day to join Monsieur's troops, besides the
sickness and mortality. The English and Scottish regiments are
little more than half of what they were a month ago. To-day Binche
is to be assaulted ; the artillery was sent from our camp on the 24th.
Monsieur's men come foraging as far as our camp, pillaging and
stealing. They kill our reiters and take their wagons and horses,
and ours too ; and having got their plunder retire to France. War
in these countries does not suit them at all, and if we are in the field
another month only our ensigns will be left. The plague is all
over the country, and the camp is surrounded by thieves
who plunder the provision-dealers and traders, pretending
to be Spaniards. We are at present encamped in a
triangle between Gemblours and Binche, three leagues from
Nivelles, where we have been for two days. It is said that they
want to give us an instalment for our men, which is the way to lose
the rest of them ; they are owed for two months, and besides have
no great fancy for serving the States, having been so badly treated
in this country. To tell the truth we are nothing but captains of
imarauders and thieves ; it is enough to break the heart of an
honourable man to see no discipline, and to be at great pains to
ruin himself. There are people embarked in this business who if
it were to do again would take good care not to go into it.
It is said that if Binche is taken the whole army will go in the
direction of Namur. Meantime it is not certain if Monsieur will
join forces with the States. Our plans are often changed and so we
do nothing much.From the Camp, 26 Sep. 1578.
Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 43.]
K. d. L. x. 852.
279. FREMYN to DAVISON.
I wrote to you on the 24th and 26th, and have received yours of
the 26th, touching what has happened there. The camp remains
in this place waiting the capture or surrender of Binche. The bombardment
was to take place to-day ; 9 guns were sent from the
camp for that purpose. M. de la Noue was at Mons yesterday,
returning the same day. A good many of our troops are leaving to
take part in the assault of Binche. Meantime our men are not
slack in marauding. In the last week they have carried off more
than 2,000 cows, and no end of pigs, sheep, and horses, which are
sold cheap20 pattars for a cow ; clothing without end, men's and
women's alike ; linen, plate, everything is plundered and sold by
drumhead auction, ay, in front of Count Bossu's quarters. It looks
as if this army was employed on purpose to eat up the country foot
by foot. Where we have passed we leave nothing whatsoever ; and
if the enemy comes after us he will find nothing for man or horse
to live upon for ten leagues round Brussels.
The French captains in our regiments are meeting this morning
to choose delegates from their number to send to Duke Casimir for
their pay. There has been great discontent ; our men go every
day to join Monsieur, who has received 300,000 livres to pay his
men, brought by M. de Villeroy. It is said that when Binche is
taken, Monsieur will join our camp : which some doubt. It seems
as if the States would like to see their regiments disband, to give
them no provisions nor pay being just the way to break them up ;
and to content themselves with Monsieur's troops. Duke Casimir
does not appear to be at all pleased with the treatment he and his
receive ; and to tell the truth he has been badly treated, and his people
feel it extremely. He will request his dismissal at the end of the
month. We are a community of marauders because the gentlemen
will have it so ; and people of honour who do not wish to soil their
honour by these unworthy acts will not do it long.
I have remembered you to M. d'Argenlieu, who thanks you.
On the 25th there was a great alarm in Don John's camp owing
to a report brought by a Spaniard that the States' army was a league
off. They were in great fright and remained eight hours in order of
battle, near Namur, where he is entrenched. Don John had
the Spaniard hung in the middle of the camp in recompense for
the false alarm he had given. That is the news up to now.
As to the defeat of the King of Portugal, it is what often happens
to ambitious people. From the camp at Tenions [Thimon],
27 Sep. 1578.
Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 44.]
280. Complaints laid before
the ambassadors of the
Queen of England by the
English Merchants Adventurers
resident at Antwerp.
Resolutions of the States-General
with the Merchants
Adventurers and the
1. They complain of a
new imposition called Moyens
Generaux exacted on all goods
which they send out of the
1. The Estates do not find
the treaties, especially that of
1495, on the 9th article of which
this point is based, so clear as
the merchants assert. But in
their respect for the Queen and
desire to satisfy her subjects
they will have a closer investigation
made as to their powers
2. For certain of the goods
which they import from England,
baize, 'northern dozens,' &c.,
and also when they take away
their own goods they have to
pay this import, which has
never been usual in their case ;
the exaction being so great that
many will be ruined by it.
2. Cloths and wools which
the English merchants bring
hither having been freed, and
any further exemption, for the
buyers and those who take them
out of the country, being contrary
to Art. 11 of that treaty, while
that of 1499 on which the
merchants rely was only for the
lives of the two princes then
reigning, there is no reason to
complain. The baize imported
by subjects of this country is too
unimportant to be considered.
3. The receivers of the duty
raise the rate on various goods
at their pleasure, according as
the article is in demand ; so
that the merchants cannot tell
what to deal in.
3. This is provided for by
the new list, and if there be any
further cause of complaint, it
shall be set right.
4. The merchants are compelled
to specify to the collectors
in detail the contents of their
packages, their quality and
quantity ; whereby they disclose
their business and customers
and can do no trade without
being noticed. This is quite
contrary to custom, the merchants
being privileged to declare
only by sample.
4. Orders will be given that
the merchants shall be treated
as in past time and pursuant to
5. New searchers have been
appointed who want to open
bales, barrels, &c., of goods
belonging to the merchants,
which has never before been
6. The collectors claim the
right of confiscating goods on
which the duty has not been
paid, where the complainants
have the privilege of exemption
from all but the impost in
question, even from confiscation,
on paying four times the double
of the toll which has not been
6. Inasmuch as it is understood
that this privilege is
peculiar to the toll of Brabant,
and debate on it is pending in
the Colloquy of Bruges, this
claim had better be referred to
that Colloquy. Meantime there
shall be no innovation even
though manifest fraud may be
7. Heavy duties are also
levied on drinks, both wines and
beers imported from England
and those brewed in this country
or elsewhere, from which the
merchants ought to be exempt
as heretofore ; the franchise being
one that can harm nobody.
7. This is a matter for the
authorities of Antwerp, who will
be treated with for the satisfaction
of the merchants.
8. The collector of tolls in
Zealand levies on the merchant's
goods when brought from or sent
to other countries not being
directly for or from England ;
though the treaties of intercourse
do not make any exception.
8. Must remain as was usual
before the order pursuant to the
agreement of Bristol in 1574,
until other order is taken by the
Colloquy of Bruges, when this
article also awaits discussion.
9. The officers in Zealand
make fresh charges on mariners
for vessels passing, whereby
they are often delayed, losing
tides, fine weather and fair
winds. It would be better if all
vessels were free to pass up to
this Town, and pay their customs
there without further hindrance.
9. His Excellency and the
States will do their best with the
States of Zealand to have this
10. In conclusion your petitioners
humbly beg to arrange
that the grievances which they
suffer daily may be redressed, so
that they may freely enjoy their
privileges as of old, otherwise
they will be compelled to go
. Done in the Assembly of
the Estates in this city of Antwerp.
27 Sept. 1578. (Signed)
Copy. Endd. by Walsingham. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 45.]
281. Another copy. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. IX. 46.]
K. d. L. x. 856.
282. WALSINGHAM to DAVISON.
Please cause the enclosed to be safely delivered to the Emperor's
Ambassador. It is to request him to send us a copy of a letter he
has lately received from Don John in answer to his.
We are informed also by one who heard it from M. de Bours that
the town of Luxembourg has offered the States to join them. I will
ask you to learn the truth of this and acquaint me with it as soon
as you can ; and also to procure the answer of the Gauntoys to the
letter we wrote them.Ecclo, 29 Sep. 1578.
P.S.This bearer, Mr Poyns, can inform you of the state of
'Sootheake's' case and show you how in justice he ought to be
satisfied. Pray, good Mr Davison, deal effectually with the Prince
in that behalf. My Lords of the Council greatly pity his case ;
especially the Lord Treasurer, whose kinswoman he has married.
Add. Endd. p. [Ibid. IX. 47.]
283. (1.) The DUKE OF AERSCHOT, the ABBOT OF MAROILLES
and M. DE FRESIN to the STATES-GENERAL.
Though we know you are sufficiently informed, both by what
M. de St. Bertin has written to you and by the answer of those of
Quesnoy and Landrecies, that the inhabitants of those towns will not
agree to receive the French as you ordered, yet upon the receipt of
your letter of the 29th, desiring us to sound the mind of his Highness
to find out what else would satisfy him, we have, though the
task was difficult and one we should have been glad to be excused,
sounded his mind on that behalf in the presence of Lalaing. At
first he replied that he would ask for no town but those granted
him by the treaty. But when we laid before him the endeavour
you have made to deliver those towns into his hands, which through
the obstinacy of the inhabitants could not take place, he then, to
show his desire to meet you half way without constraining you to
do what was impossible, said, that leaving other articles of the treaty
in force he was willing in place of Quesnoy and Landrecies to accept
two of the following towns : Tournay, Bruges, Lille, Mechlin,
Douay and Bapaume, with the town of Brussels for his residence,
with his guard only, and no other garrison, either of his or yours.
Of which we have thought good to advertise you and desire you to
send him as soon as possible a good, brief, and practical [fruetueux]
answer by this gentleman whom he sends for that purpose. Meantime
we can assure you that we have used our best endeavours to
maintain his goodwill towards this country and to prevent it from
being in any way alienated ; wherein we judge that we have done
you good service, though we could have wished that some other
could have had the task, knowing how in such circumstances things
are apt to be misinterpreted.Mons, 30 Sep. 1598. (Signed)
Philippes de Croy, Fredericq Abb de Maroilles, Charles de Gavre.
(2) The DUKE OF ANJOU to the STATES.
I shall never be weary, when occasion serves, of writing to you
and doing whatever may be for the good of your state, though I
know that some people have mistrusted my actions. These have
however rendered sufficient testimony to my sincerity ; and
inasmuch as I have resolved to embrace your friendship it would be
impossible for me without violating it to discover anything without
letting you know. Wherefore, having received a letter containing
important advices, I have thought good in order that you may not
be taken by surprise to send you the substance of it, assuring you
that it comes from a trustworthy quarter. I have thought it
necessary to take prudent and dexterous precautions, for otherwise
imminent peril threatens you. I have also had other advices, by
express messenger from Franche-Comt, assuring me that
M. de Montfort and other of my military commanders there have
seized the fortresses of St. Laurens de la Roche, St. Amour,
Chevreaulx, L'Estoile, Perrilly [Perrigny] Sainguy, and some
other small fortresses in that country, and cut up those who
resisted, carrying off their flags, which they have sent me as
testimony of what has happened. This cannot but be of great
advantage to our affairs, since we can prevent the passage of men
and money by that route to our adversaries. Such actions it seems
to me may give you certain evidence of the goodwill which I have
promised you and remove any sinister impressions which those
envious of your welfare may have advanced ; whereby you
henceforth will walk roundly and sincerely. You know that by
your advice I have tried to bring the town of Binche to obedience,
which I should have done by now if I had been assisted by you
with the guns and ammunition which you promised me. But there
have been so many delays that up to now the enemy has defended
himself against any attempt, and many good men have been lost
owing to the delay, and the enemy has been able to fortify himself.
But I am so anxious to content you that this and the default in the
fulfilment of your other promises cannot kill my good will,
provided that my undertakings be assisted by you more in
proportion to your resources, which ought for your own sake not to
be so much delayed. You have I think more reason than I myself
to wish the success of my enterprise if you want your country
purged of its great afflictions, which threaten a sinister event.
I have imparted the rest to M. de Sechelles, and need say no
more.Mons, 29 Sep. 1578.
Copies. (Probably encl. in Davison's of Oct. 4, No. 287.) [Holl.
and Fl. IX. 48.]
284. English translation of the first of the above documents.
Endd. by L. Tomson. p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 49.]
285. Statement of rates of pay in the Estates' army, together
with the salaries of the Prince of Orange (72,500fl. per annum),
Archduke Matthias (84,000), and Councillors of State (6,000 apiece),
and other officers.
Endd. by Burghley's secretary : September 1578. The state of
the States' camp. Fr. with Eng. notes. 5 pp. [Ibid. IX. 50.]