385. "Advertisements from Badajoz of the 1 of August 1580."
On the 28th of last month the Duke of Alva took ship in the
port of Setubal with most of the army, to go towards the castle of
Cascaes. We since understand that on the 30th they landed a little
this side of the castle, whither certain Portuguese harquebusiers
and horsemen came to withstand their landing ; but the Duke
caused some musketeers to be first set ashore, who put the Portugals
to flight with the loss of some of their men, but very few of ours.
And so all the army landed safely, marching directly towards the
castle, which it is thought surrendered the same day, and remained
in the custody of Don Antonio da Castro, to whom it now appertains.
The army goes on to the castle of San Juan, before which
ordnance is already planted, and the trenches drawn. They advertise
from Setubal that they were expecting the galleys to come for
the rest of the men and artillery.
Copy. Endd. ¾ p. [Portugal I. 37.]
386. COBHAM to BURGHLEY.
After being here a whole week, Mr Stafford has today had his
last audience. The King first let him understand in good language
that he intends to assist his brother all manner of ways towards the
finishing of the marriage ; and thereupon had agreed with him to
appoint 'Charles Monsieur' one of the Prince of Condé's brethren,
brought up with the Cardinal of Bourbon, about 14 years of age, of
the robe longue, Marshal de Cossé and M. Pibrac to be commissioners,
and would 'assign' them to be in England about Sep. 8
at the furthest.
When the King had 'passed' this much, I informed him that as
long as this civil dissension and war against the professors of religion
continued, her Majesty's subjects were 'amused' therewith ; on
which the Queen thought the Commission coming would not serve
to 'enlarge' a further entire amity by marriage or otherwise unless
first the troubles were removed by a new pacification negotiated by
Monsieur as one not distrusted by them of the Religion. She
wished his Majesty would condescend to some end that way, through
his brother's means, otherwise I alleged many discommodities which
would 'apparently' ensue to the realm by these intestine wars ;
as that his high designs were everywhere impeached ; for he
could not leave France burning in these seditions, and his native
soil disordered, to pass into any other country, with content, until
he had settled the public peace. Therefore the Queen hoped that
on consideration those princes and others of the Religion could be
contented for the better avoiding of bloodshed that la Fère and
other towns which were sanctuaries for their refuge in misery
should be delivered to his Highness till assurance could be given
The King said he had made pacification which he sought to have
maintained, but they had broken it ; as for example the Prince of
Condé was sworn, in the secret articles whereby he bound himself
not to enter his government till seven years were past.
I answered that in all contracts both parties are 'obliged,' so that
if one do not accomplish his part the other is set at liberty. His
Majesty I suppose had knowledge whether all assurances were performed
to the Prince and those of the Religion. Otherwise, at the
Prince's being at Saint Jean d'Angely, there were some who amassed
troops and had laid ambushes to entrap him, being 'set up in a
corner' far from his own territories and houses, which were very
evil dealt with. Whereon driven by necessity he did but fly from
one place to another ; where he carried himself dutifully till the
privy preparations of the League in Picardy threatened him many
ways, which constrained him, since he could enjoy no town-house
or place of repose in France, to seek refuge of foreign princes, so
that his fault seems to be in giving place to his enemies and flying
from injuries. And notwithstanding that his case was highly to be
pitied, the Queen had shown him small countenance, thereby discouraged
him and hazarded her credit among the Protestants ;
having promised him that she would treat with Monsieur to procure
peace to their contentment. Whereon the Prince had assured her
he would not seek to interrupt her negotiation, nor 'pretend' to
bring forces into France.
But since neither Monsieur's earnest suit for the repose of the
realm nor her Majesty's desire may take effect, she could not any
longer retain him from providing such assistance as he could.
To this the King said that for his part he was ready to have
received the Prince into his favour, so as he had 'domayned' himself
accordingly ; but if he seeks to trouble any further the repose
of his realm, he doubted not but to shew him with his forces and
his sword to have in consideration the state God had given him, and
the duty he owes to him, being his prince.
I pointed out that it was supposed he held the lives of his subjects
dear and wished their preservation rather than otherwise ;
which was only to be done by entertaining peace.
He said it was what he required, so that they restored his towns
and observed the Edicts of pacification.
I shewed that these troubles hindered in many ways the advancement
of Monsieur. He said that 'he would do for his brother so
he hoped he regarded his honour.'
Lastly I besought him to 'make show' whereby they of the
Religion might in some sort find good of the Queen's entreaty.
The King said he would read the letter and make a contented
answer, and meantime the King of Navarre and they of the
Religion should send deputies to his brother.
This is the summary of what passed, and the King's resolution
after a long hour's debating earnestly of the cause ; his Majesty
sweating and showing some earnestness. He accounts to take
la Fère in a fortnight.
If anything happen, I will advertise it by Mr Stafford, who has
taken his leave and awaits the King's letters.
I send inclosed the name of the principal at la Fère, and a letter
which M. Simier sent me the other day.—Paris, 1 Aug. 1580.
Appended is the following list of names : Marshal Matignon,
General du Camp ; M. de Puygaillard, Maréchal du Camp ; the
Duke of Aumale, M. de Crevecœur, M. Beauvais-Nangy, colonel ;
M. d'O, M. d'Arques, la Valette, colonel ; M. de Perillac, colonel.
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. 3 pp. [France IV. 124.]
387. COBHAM to the SECRETARIES.
Having had audience of the King this afternoon, first he declared
to Mr Stafford how he desired to satisfy his brother's mind at all
points, for his further advancement towards this marriage ;
perceiving how he liked that the Prince of Condé's brother,
Marshal de Cossé, and M. Pibrac should be appointed commissioners,
he had agreed thereto, meaning them to be in England
about Sep. 7.
I then declared the principal points contained in your letter of
the 27th ult. First I shewed him how the Queen was certified
and it has also been published everywhere, that the siege of la Fère
continued, and appointments were made for five or six camps in
sundry quarters of this realm, so that small hope appeared of any
fruit to grow 'on' the intreaty which Monsieur earnestly made for
the renewing of the peace. Whereby she and all others who were
of the Religion might clearly perceive that no remedy can be found
which may help their extremity, but that all means are used to
distress those principal persons, and suppress religion. This has
stirred much jealousy in the hearts of her Majesty's subjects,
whereon she conceives that the sending of commissioners would not
be to such purpose as otherwise was wished for the bringing to pass
of an assured alliance between the two realms ; since it is feared
that his Highness cannot, though he had power given him by his
Majesty, procure the means to frame a peace, inasmuch as the
dutiful offers of those princes were not accepted. Therefore the
Queen trusted that his Majesty would so far look into the matter
with his own judgement, that he might not be transported with the
counsels of those who under colour of being his good servants raised
by sinister means such doubts that the King of Navarre and the
Prince of Condé were driven to enter into places and 'accompany'
themselves for their safeguard ; furnishing themselves with his
Majesty's subjects only, acknowledging their duty and obedience,
as may be sufficiently demonstrated to him, and having submitted
themselves to the mediation of Monsieur to whose
consideration they had 'betaken' their honour, lives and estates,
forces and towns. Wherefore the Queen has thought him the most
indifferent person to deal for them with his Majesty, being most
assured to him, and not mistrusted by them for his virtuous carriage
to them of the Religion.
But as she understood those of la Fère to be fiercely besieged and
brought into imminent peril, which seems generally to be prepared
for them of the Religion, she had not only thought good to write to
his Majesty in this letter, but had appointed us to unfold thus much
to him ; the rather since she had promised the Prince of Condé
that she would earnestly entreat him to seek to make a pacification
within a short time, and had also received a promise from the
Prince not to bring any foreign forces into France, or otherwise by
any means impeach the negotiations intended by Monsieur.
But now since she had been informed how slowly the King
hearkened to the peace, and that the professors of Religion were
threatened with utter peril, she could not in honour any longer
challenge the Prince's promise nor stay him from using all possible
means whereby he may relieve himself and those that appertain to
The King entered into discourse of the desire he had to the continuance
of the peace, alleging that he had made two pacifications,
and the last especially he caused to be called his peace. He was
ready to receive those subjects to his arms who would come to him
and not continue their rebellion. He had for the better satisfaction
of those of the Religion granted their exercises in divers bailiwicks ;
so that in no prince's State were both religions more freely exercised
than in France.
I replied that his mind was understood to be such ; but there
were who would not have place for their ambitions if there were no
devices to raise troubles, by whom perhaps these princes have been
'put in an evil opinion' and so removed far from his presence. But
if he would [sic] with his judgement weigh how the King of Navarre,
who is known to be a prince of high birth, wisely instructed, and of
a ripe judgement, would not lose his Majesty's good opinion, venture
his estates, consume his revenues, and endanger his person to be
lawfully slain by the meanest that comes into the field under pretence
of being the King's soldier, if more than ordinary occasions
had not moved him and extreme despair of his life had not forced
him thereto. Wherefore it was held that the King's will was not
clearly obeyed by some governors, nor his justice truly executed.
Since their affairs pass in this sort, he should understand that it is
but putting themselves in safeguard against their enemies who were
cloaked under the colour of doing him service.
But he said that since the pacification they have taken divers of
his towns, which the Queen would not suffer, nor any other prince.
If these were restored and the pacification observed, his brother had
power to confirm and establish the peace.
To which my answer was, that Monsieur sending to Marshal
Biron to know whether he would 'discern' himself and hearken to
some order, he promised to follow his will. Whereon Monsieur sent
also to the King of Navarre to use no more hostility, which was
obeyed ; which done, he commanded Biron to do the like. He said
it might not be done except he received commission from the King,
so that during the time of this treaty, Biron gathered his forces ;
whereon the King of Navarre, fearing lest he might be found weaker
than his enemy in the field entered into Cahors for succour, which
he uses no otherwise than Biron treats those of Bordeaux. But
whatever has passed, Condé and the King of Navarre were content
to refer to his Highness, and yield those towns to him.
The King said they were his own ; therefore he should look to
have them as other princes had. And though he was, under God,
an absolute king and not bound to yield account to any, yet he
would in this 'particular manner' enlarge his mind and causes to
her Majesty, seeing her desires 'pretended' to be honourable and
full of amity.
I pointed out that while he amused himself in besieging la Fère
he stayed the progress of his brother's design, which might bring
not only towns but states ; and requested him to consider these
things, seeing that Monsieur is become a means and her Majesty a
solicitor to him for those of the Religion, whom she has abandoned
in respect of the amity with him. Therefore she now hoped that
upon the cause of the open demonstration shown at the Prince's
being in England, he would take occasion to make it known how
the entreaty of the Queen of England might bring them of the
Religion some relief.
The King concluded that he could not further answer me ; but
was content that the King of Navarre and those of the Religion
should send their deputies to his brother, and he would read the
Queen's letter and answer it.
"So perceiving that his Majesty did sweat, and the humour of
his watery eyes somewhat drop," which troubled him in beginning
to read the Queen's letter, so that he could not continue the reading
of it for that time, Mr Stafford took his leave, and I also departed.
Thence we went to the Queen Mother, giving her to understand
what I had 'passed' with the king, but more briefly and chiefly
alleging to her the impediments that these civil dissensions were to
Monsieur's design, which she cannot but be glad to see go forward,
and 'were to be accounted on' before the honour which may be had
in winning such towns as are the King's, and in France, being only
in the hands of a few gentlemen who put themselves into them for
She somewhat inveighed against those of the Religion ; but she
considered and promised to ask the King to hearken to a pacification.
She 'shewed to be' more willing than the King ; but when I
touched that point, how they of the Religion could be content to
give those towns so much required by the King into his Highness'
hands, she said the King had shown to trust his brother sufficiently,
and had given him many towns and sufficient patrimony. I requested
her to think of the demonstration which the Queen made at
the Prince's being in England, which the King might requite by
showing some favour to them of the Religion.
She said the King was beholden to her Majesty, and all should be
done that might be done ; and that if la Fère were won, peace would
shortly be made. This was the best language and satisfaction I
The King holds himself assured that la Fère will be taken about
the middle of this month, which causes this stiff standing on those
terms. As yet no gentleman of account has been slain on either
side, but yesterday they began the battery.
I send the names of the 'chieftains' in the king's camp, and a
note of the Edicts which the King ratified last week in the Court of
Parliament, with a 'brief' of the principal points touched by him
and the Chancellor in their orations. I enclose also the last
occurrents from Portugal, and a letter from la Fère.
The Duke of Savoy has lent the Christian King 80,000 crowns, to
be delivered to the Duke of Maine at Lyons for the war in those
parts, and disbursed by Bandini the banker at Lyons.
The King yesterday dispatched letters to the gentlemen of
Guyenne and Languedoc, to repair to Marshal Biron.—Paris,
1 Aug. 1580.
P.S.—On the receipt of M. Simier's packet I sent my man
The Marquis of Elbeuf goes to Monsieur within two days, and
his Highness, it is thought, removes towards Bourges. Mr
Stafford departs for England on the 3rd or 4th, having sent his man
immediately after our audience, which I did not know till he was
on the point of departure.
Add. Endd. 5 pp. [Ibid. IV. 125.]
388. STAFFORD to [WALSINGHAM].
I have sent her Majesty the names of the Commissioners. They
are, the Prince of Condé's brother, the youngest ; Pibrac joined
with him for counsel ; Marshal de Cossé for Monsieur. The King
did not name Simier, but I think Monsieur means him to be joined
with them. They desire 'day,' because of the preparations of so
great personages, till the end of this month or beginning of next ;
which I told them would I thought be very acceptable, because in
that time a peace might be concluded and brought by them, which,
as I told the King, would be the best prologue to bring in a treaty
The speech for the peace the ambassador delivered as his charge,
therefore I leave it to him to report it to you. I tarry but for the
King's letters, which he commanded me to stay for. I hope to be
shortly at home, when I will discourse plainly with your Honour at
large. Meantime I crave pardon for dispatching this bearer away
in haste, that her Majesty may not think much of my being long
without sending.—Paris, 2 Aug. 1580.
Endd. with date by L. Tomson. 1 p. [France IV. 126.]
Lettres de C.
de M. vii. 277
(where it is
389. The QUEEN MOTHER to the QUEEN.
I know not how to begin to tell you how pleased I was when I
heard by the present bearer, Mr Stafford, your decision, and that it
was no more parley or delay ; wishing that the King, my son, and
his brother should at once send commissioners to finish a matter so
much desired by me, namely the effecting of this happy marriage ;
for I cannot deem it other, since God makes me continue to desire
it, whatever obstacles may at times have seemed likely to break it
off, when they have been interposed in this negotiation, which has
lasted so long that I was much afraid I should never see the end of
it, wishing as I did to see myself honoured with such a daughter,
which pray God to complete the happiness by seeing you soon a
mother. Pray excuse this ; my happiness carries me away to say
more than I ought as yet, and to think that as God gives me the
grace to see what I so desire accomplished, He will not give me
one good fortune only but will accompany it with a fair lineage
which I hope to see from you two.—Saint-Mort [sic] del-Fuses [sic],
2 Aug. 1580.
Holograph. Add. Fr. 1 p. [France IV. 127.]
390. Contemporary copy of the above, not strictly accurate, and
dated Aug. 3. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. IV. 127a.]
391. The FRENCH KING to the QUEEN.
Is it possible that tongue or paper can express the extreme joy
with which my senses are ravished, joy, I say, the greatest and
most ineffable that can be ? Although then you know it well
enough, I will say it in this letter, the happiness which I see prepared
for my brother, who is my second self, of being worthy of
acceptance by you, if so it be that his good fortune lead him to
such felicity by the result effected by the Commissioners, which I
pray God may be so to your contentment, that I may see the
success of it for us all, myself and those who depend on it will
remain for ever your affectionate.—Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, 3 Aug.
Contemporary copy. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [France IV. 128.]
392. COBHAM to [WALSINGHAM].
On the 3rd inst. the Lord of Arbroth came to me to learn the
Queen's further pleasure. I told him how she meant to confer with
the Lord Claude at large, after which he should be further advertised
concerning his affairs. Meantime his brother's sickness was
some hindrance, so that such expedition could not be used as was
Notwithstanding I showed him that you, to whom I had always
hitherto commended his cause, had let me know that the Queen was
secretly advertised he received some pension from the Scottish
Queen. He confessed to me that his urgent necessity did constrain
him to receive her pension, which is so miserable that he 'condemns
her to be ungrateful' having heretofore employed all his forces and
ventured his life and estate in her service, which he protests never
to do again, desiring to depend wholly on the Queen, so that he
receive such means of entertainment that he may live honourably
till through her mediation his estate may be restored ; being willing
to serve her in any country where he may live with safety of his
conscience, respect whereof has made him refuse rich pensions
from the greatest Princes in Christendom. In this mind he will
continue till he receives her resolution, thanking her not only for
her gracious dealing for him toward the Scottish king, which he
perceived by the copy of her letter now shown him by me, but also
for the honourable entertainment which his brother Lord Claude
had lately received from her.
As yet he remains in the Bishop of Glasgow's house, but with no
great satisfaction ; though at his first arrival he was friendly
received and courteously entertained, yet he has since offered to
remove thence 'upon that' the Catholics importuned him with persuasions
to incline to papistry, which vexes his mind and conscience.
Howbeit the bishop as yet treats him so well, that till further comfort
come from her Majesty, his want persuades him to stay ; besides
that the Bishop is his kinsman.
Lastly with great oaths and deep promises he assured me that he
would serve the Queen above all the Princes of Christendom, chiefly
for satisfaction of his conscience ; next as acknowledging that she
has best means to restore him to his estate, which will be employed
in her service.
This is as much as I 'passed' with Lord Hamilton. It seems
that he would have the Queen to have in suspicion the proceedings
of the new Earl of Lennox ; but I said that unless he can intercept
the Earl's letters, he will hardly discredit him ; which he thinks
good to seek after.—Paris, 5 Aug. 1580.
1½ pp. [France IV. 129.]
393. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
Mr Secretary Gilpin was regretting that he had not for some time
written you any account of what had happened, as his custom was.
I told him that I thought his correspondence and that of other
people was more acceptable to you than mine, seeing that to several
of my letters I had had no answer ; which made me think that
either my advices were not believed, or my letters had failed to be
delivered. I do not know what course to take in this business of
the invitation hither of Monsieur ; fearing to be out of favour with
both parties if I furthered the negotiation which I have been
secretly working to delay, pending any appearance on your side of
You know the predicament that affairs are in. In a moment they
have been thrown into such confusion that it seemed a case rather
of resolve than of good deliberation ; the change of feeling on the
subject as sudden as the resolve. Those of Friesland, Guelders and
Utrecht are willing to back the plan of those of Holland ; those of
Brussels seem the most awkward (difficultueux) of all. Today the
deputies have started to assemble the crafts (guides), and the
ambassador des Pruneaux is going off afresh, in great anxiety to see
the deputies who are to go into France delayed. Several incidents
of the war which continues in France make the hope of succour
from Monsieur grow cold, according to the advices we have that
he had declared war against all who wish to hinder the peace for
which he is working in France. Another thing which helps the
delay is the meeting of an Imperial Diet (journée) to be held at
Nuremberg, where it is promised that some great matter will be
brought forward in favour of this State. But I fear it will be the
usual thing and no more. Your advice would tell me what line I
should do wisely to take in this matter, so I will say no more, but
tell you how our war stands.
In Friesland affairs go pretty well, and we hope that the arrival
of Mr Norris with the other troops will free 'Delvesel' [qy. Delfzyl]
from siege, with the help of 50 ships of war which are there to
attack two forts at the mouth of the harbour. On the land side our
people are within two leagues of the enemy, resolved to fight.
The Malcontents have stayed for the last fortnight about Bouchain
and Valenciennes, to enable the peasants of their party to get in
their wheat, making war meanwhile on the territory of Cambrai.
They have burnt several villages in both directions, and wish as it
seems to besiege Bouchain, according to our information and some
intercepted letters. They are getting up 18 guns, which in my
opinion will not be enough to batter the place, strong and well-provided
as it is with defenders and a resolute chief. He showed
me lately his resources for a defence of three months, during which
the enemy will receive considerable inconvenience. It is thought
that the Malcontents have some intelligence with those of the holy
league who are before la Fère, in the event of their attacking
On our side we are studying to surprise some towns. I hope we
shall soon attack two, if they stick obstinately before Bouchain, and
that in this way they will be constrained to make new plans. His
Excellency starts on Wednesday for Ghent to right the misunderstanding
there and fill up the post of Grand Bailiff. The Prince of
Epinoy wanted the governorship of Flanders together with the post
of general for the war which has been offered him, but which he
has neither accepted nor refused. He has left Antwerp, pretty
dissatisfied, as some say, at not having been promptly admitted to
You will have heard of Don Antonio's election to the Crown of
Portugal, while the Duke of Braganza with others of the nobility
and clergy have withdrawn to take the King of Spain's side. Just
as here, the nobles are for the King, and the people for Don Antonio.
We hear that 12 French captains have been sent to Portugal with
good store of arms. The Duke of Alva is carrying on the campaign
and the King is gone back to Castile.
M. du Plessis is urgently begging on behalf of the King of Navarre
for ships to use against the French papists and the Spaniards. The
merchants and those of Zealand object, but commissioners are
appointed by the States to discuss it with him ; though they do not
mean to avow them in the event of their letting some go to sea.—
Antwerp, 6 Aug. 1580.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 44.]
394. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last I have diligently solicited for the States' resolution,
M. Ymans not arriving till Tuesday last. His help has not been
wanting, together with 'theirs of this town,' who have committed
the reporting of their advice to their pensionary Van der Werke ;
but hitherto time served him not, for the agreement with the
merchants about their impost was not finished, those of Holland not
having yet sent their confirmation, though it is daily expected.
Meanwhile, seeing the 'longues' and delay, in all their dealings,
I sued for audience, which was granted me this morning. After I had
shown them the discontentment that her Majesty was justly caused
to conceive by their not answering her letters nor satisfying the
contents of them, I requested them to give me some assured
answer to avoid all further inconvenience which might ensue
through their default ; for the discharge of my duty I could no
longer write so uncertainly. Whereupon I was willed to depart into
the next chamber, where the pensionary of 'Bridges' brought me word
that they had appointed him with Van der Werke to deal with the
merchants to find means for providing so much money monthly as
would 'answer' the interest. This was all the answer I
could have of them at that time. Afterwards conferring with
'the abovesaid thereto committed,' they promised to do
their utmost to procure such a resolution as might be
to the liking of those interested ; for the compassing of which
no diligence 'has (nor shall) on my part be wanting.' I beg
that their 'longues' be not imputed to any want of carefulness
or endeavour in me. I assure you I have lost no time, but according
to my duty, postponing often both the Company's and my own private
business, have continually, yet without using too much 'importunacy,'
followed the cause. M. Ymans requested me to remember his
humble commendations, desiring to be excused for not answering you
this week. The very grief that the States had not resolved to
'answer' her Majesty's desire caused him to forbear, trusting to
have better occasion of writing by the next.
I received your packet this week, and delivered the inclosures as
directed. If there are any answers you shall receive them herewith.
The Commissioners appointed to be sent to Monsieur are not yet
dispatched, but will, it is thought, depart before the Prince goes into
Flanders on Wednesday and Thursday next, to settle some better
order, and establish the provincial Council, of which Meetkerke is
M. Ymans, who 'should' come into England, it is thought will
be dispatched at the same time ; though he himself fears it will be
longer, so long are the States in their resolutions.
The Malcontents who were mustered last week at Mons are said
to be near Bouchain, with show of intent to besiege it.
There are of late arrived at Cambray 600 fresh Frenchmen, with
some horse, and 200 at Bouchain. Since their arrival they have
ranged into the Malcontents' quarters, spoiling and firing the
Those of Courtray presented themselves this week before Meenen,
purposing to surprise the town by scaling ; but those that kept it
being vigilant issued forth, overthrowing 40 or 50, and taking some
prisoners, with which loss they returned. For further revenge of
this bravado the soldiers of Meenen and Nynove have burnt and
spoiled to the very gates of Lille, which has put the commons in
some discontent against the magistrates.
The enemy lying in Brabant have this week sent letters to the
villages round this town threatening that if they do not weekly
bring to a place assigned certain large contributions of money they
will set fire to their houses ; to prevent which, and hinder further
harm, horsemen shall be placed thereabouts and maintained at
the charge of the country. Moreover the Prince has himself been
to view the situation, having 'laid the platt' and given order for
making forts upon the passages, where the horsemen shall be placed
to keep them.
From Friesland we hear that on the 30th ult. all the States' men
were together within two miles [sic] from the enemy, who then lay
between 'Delphesile' and Groningen, with full intent to fight with
him ; so that news of good success is now daily expected for the
States, whose forces being greater, and of better men, hope to drive
the enemy to some extremity. Those of Holland have sent into
the Ems about 30 [sic] ships great and small, to beat the enemy out
of the fort that hinders entrance into Delfzyl.
The Count of 'Ronenborgh' (or M. de Ville) wrote this week to
the three towns of Campen, Deventer, and Zwol, and the Ommelanden
of Groningen, to send their deputies to Lingen, that he
might declare to them what he had in commission from the king,
who offered his pardon and grace, with large conditions, to their
contentment, as he hoped, if they would forsake the general States
and be reconciled. But they would not condescend or hearken
thereto, and so sent back word, sending his letter to the States.
The sale of the abbeys and spiritual goods lately begun in
Flanders brings in so much money that other provinces will follow
the like course.
From France the news is that the King goes forward with the
siege of la Fère, where the Dukes of Guise and Aumale are in
In Provence the Protestants prosper, and the Duke du Mayne
should be sent thither by the King, but for want of money.
M. d'Anjou is for certain said to have protested that he will
declare himself an enemy to all that will not conform to peace and
quietness. The King has sent 10 or 12 captains from Bordeaux to
the aid of the 'Portingalls ;' among them one of the 'Straccies ;' and
I hear that the Prince had news within these two days that the King
of France would declare war against the King of Spain if he did
not withdraw his troops from Portugal, where the news is that Don
Antonio is proclaimed king, and certain of the late King's councillors
having intelligence with the Spaniard were discovered, and fled
into Andalusia. Don Antonio has got into his hands all his
predecessor's treasures, which are said to be very great. Their
forces are said to be about 40,000 men ; though indeed but few of
them are men of war. The King of Spain's strength by land is
said to consist of 24,000 foot, some thousands of horse, and 6,000
carts. The want of provisions in his camp is thought very great,
and the country that he passes through poor and needy. At the
entry of his army into Portugal a town was taken, the keeping of
which he committed to Sancho d'Avila with 300 soldiers ; whom the
Portingalls have since all murdered, and it is not known what is
become of d'Avila. The Portingalls have taken two ships coming
This is the Portugal news which we have received this week.
I would not omit to send them, though I think you there are more
particularly advertised. From Italy or Germany we hear nothing.
—Antwerp, 7 Aug. 1580.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 45.]
395. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Having received the Queen's command in your last letter, to
inform the King of her desire to see his realm reduced to some
repose, I made large declaration thereof, and besides 'used some
replies' to his answers. It seems however that he is bent to have
restitution made of those chief towns now in the hands of them of
the Religion, and will not consent that his brother may be taken
to be an indifferent person or made known to be more trusted by
the Protestants than he ; so that the towns must be directly delivered
to the King himself.
But I then lastly 'inferred' to his Majesty how the Queen by
showing such partial amity and respect to him as not to vouchsafe
to the Prince of Condé a 'comfortable countenance' or relief, being
a prince professing her own religion, had thereby much discouraged
the Protestants ; and therefore hoped that upon the just consideration
of this he would make them perceive that her desire for the
speedy framing of a peace much moved him to stay the sharp proceeding
To this he answered that when he had read and considered the
Queen's letter he would let me know his further pleasure.
I therefore sent yesterday to Secretary Pinart to be informed of
his Majesty's pleasure, and received this morning a letter in answer
from the Secretary, which I inclose herewith.
Now today the messenger I sent to Monsieur with the Queen's
packet is returned with letters for her Majesty, which I inclose ; and
send you the copies of my letter to Monsieur, and to M. Simier.
On the 5th inst. Colonel Strozzi went hence towards Monsieur,
accompanied, as it were secretly, by M. Chassincourt, the King of
Navarre's agent. I am advertised that Strozzi has commission to
inform his Highness of the King's disposition to have an end of
these civil troubles, with a request for his advice and assistance to
turn these wars on to the Spanish king, by whom he had been
injured in divers ways ; as first, in 'detaining' the ancient right of
the Crown of France in sundry estates of the Low Countries, and
the just title of the Duchy of Milan, besides moving and corrupting
sundry of the King's principal subjects, as lately Marshal Bellegarde
and others, so that he thought it was time to put from them
the evil hour and employ their forces elsewhere. He is to deal
with his Highness with offer of the king's aid for the advancement
of his enterprises in the Low Countries. Further he has to persuade
the King of Navarre to address his forces towards Navarre with
promise that the King will give him means to recover his claim that
In like sort M. de Chassincourt is sent secretly with many 'purposes'
to that effect, more particularly from the Queen Mother, who
said to him not three days before his departure that she had
to break her mind to him, with confidence that she knew
him to be an assured servant of the King of Navarre, assuring
him that she and her son felt the injuries which the Spanish king
burdened them with, having first poisoned her daughter, and 'doth
continue' to withhold her son-in-law's right, giving great pensions
to principal persons within the realm, and to some of the Religion,
whereby the troubles of France might continue ; and lastly seeks to
take from her her right in Portugal, which she is determined not to
part from so easily. But she 'appointed' to confer with him
hereon another time more at large, which at his dispatch she did in
flat terms, if it proceed.
With these [sic] merchandise Strozzi and Chassincourt are on
their way, having at Orleans overtaken Francisco Baretto, the
Portugal ambassador, who has been here and at Rome, and is now
returning ; to whom Strozzi has commission to deliver 400
harquebusiers and two French captains, well appointed with vessels
to conduct him from Nantes to Portugal. In his company goes
Captain Pietro Paolo Tosinghi, Florentine, with six other captains
and two engineers.
There were delivered to Strozzi before he went 8,000 crowns to
accomplish thus much and also to make some preparations at
Nantes for more shipping if they of Portugal require it ; and that
he should then go himself with some 5,000 or 6,000 footmen.
Meantime he is to make an arrest of vessels along the coasts of
Guyenne and Britanny, and the King has promised that the same
order shall be taken in Normandy. Whereon the Portugal
ambassadors are encouraged, the rather upon this advertisement
which has come from Rochelle of the good success against King
Philip ; but as yet it is not held for certain. Howbeit, when the
King received the news, the Queen Mother shewed open rejoicing.
I enclose the copy of this advertisement.
I am informed that the said Portugal ambassador will be 'cheered'
at Sinanceau [Chenonceau], a house of the Queen Mother's, where
I hear that Mousieur would be about today. The Portugal ambassadors
trust that there will be the like stay of ships in England and
I have heard tell that the Queen may be sent to from hence to
borrow some of her ships, if the enterprise of Portugal grows into
terms convenient for them to present. The Pope's nuncio being
advertised of this is discontented and works to the contrary. He
has obtained a summary of all the affairs which Mr Stafford
'passed' with Monsieur, and lately with the King, by means, as I
am given to understand, of Cardinal Birague.
Notwithstanding that posts pass with packets and messengers
parleying of peace, they so far enter daily towards the furtherance
of the civil war in sundry quarters, and the House of Guise are
noted very 'politiquely' to separate themselves in divers parts, the
better to win credit without envy. The Duke keeps the Court, and
is at hand in all secret conference with Queen Mother, except at
comings of ambassadors ; and in all open shews seem to be a cipher,
and to 'bear no part of the tragedy.' He has Marshal d'Aumont
at his devotion, to march with him to defend his government of
Champagne. The Duke of Maine is chief of the enterprise against
those of the Religion in Dauphiné and Provence, who have abandoned
their towns that are not strong and have retired their forces
into a few of the strongest ; the rather because those of the commonalty
have shrunk from them. The Duke is specially commanded
by the King to take a castle which Captain Anselme has surprised.
Anselme had received 8,000 crowns of Antonio Sutello, a Spanish
Secretary of State of the Duchy of Milan.
The Duke of Aumale is at la Fère, as one that governs indeed all
that actions and those of the League in Picardy, though Matignon
is there as a Marshal of France, commanding by virtue of his office.
The Marquis of Elbeuf went the other day to his Highness, at whose
devotion he professes to be, which is not altogether liked by all ; for
some doubt that unless Monsieur stay the 'pretended' course, the
Marquis may be made lieutenant for the siege of 'Montacut' ;
though the 'name' is still given to the Count of Lude, and to M.
Hunaudaye, lieutenant-general in Basse Bretagne.
Sundry troops have been turned back who were coming this way
for the siege of la Fère, and will now be addressed towards
'Montacut,' if peace does not alter the determinations.
M. de Grandmont is slain with a culverin shot from la Fère. His
death is lamented, having gone thither against his will at the King's
The Duke of Ferrara lends 150,000 crowns to the Crown of
The King has commanded, in an order set forth by the Governors
of Paris, that all soldiers, strangers, and vagabonds shall depart
They advertise from Germany that the diet is appointed only for
the Emperor and the Electors. It is expected besides that the
Emperor will seek by favour of the Electors that some order may
be taken in the affairs of the Low Countries, that the establishing
also of the Lutheran profession by the book of Corpus Doctrinae
will be procured, and a time assigned for an Imperial Diet. Means
will likewise be propounded for the delivery of Hans Frederick of
Saxony, for it is alleged by the Landgrave and other princes of
Germany that he ought to be released by the laws of the Empire,
which proceeding displeases the Elector of Saxony. It is discovered
that the Duke of Saxony will underhand procure the King of
Denmark to be chosen King of the Romans, whereby he will be the
stronger, having married the King's sister. The Elector of Saxony
has procured a marriage between his eldest son and the daughter of
the Elector of Brandenburg, having made a new friendship and
alliance with sundry princes his neighbours. One of the causes of
his journey to Denmark was to stir up the nobles of that realm to
consent to take the King's son to be their sovereign if this King
should decease during his son's minority, for he doubts lest according
to the custom of that kingdom they will rather choose the Duke
of 'Holst,' the King's brother ; being a man able to govern them,
and the eldest of the line after the King.
The Duke of Saxony has caused his lodging to be 'taken up' in
Nuremburg and prepared 'something strongly,' and the wells
cleared. It is said he doubts there is some secret evil meaning
towards him. His subjects have 'lamented of' the grievous taxation
he has imposed on them. One of his chief treasurers has slain
himself in great desperation.
There is no apparent preparation for any Reiters to be levied by
Duke Casimir, nor by the last letters from thence was it known for
certain where the Prince of Condé was, save that they heard he was
Hans Frederick 'van Wormes' continues his levy for this king,
appointing his rendezvous at Metz.
The King has written to the Swiss alleging his just provocation to
war against his rebels, and requiring their assistance.
The Pope has made Cardinal Sforza his Vicar-general for all the
Estates of the Church, an authority rarely given, by virtue of which
he has power to do all supreme justice ; but he is now appointed
chiefly to suppress the insolence of the Banditi. He has for his
guard 50 Swiss, 200 horsemen, 400 foot. The Banditi in Bologna
have committed some excess, apparelling themselves in the night
time in priests' garments ; whereon the Pope has sent Cardinal
Cæsius to repress the disorder.
The King is gone to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and the Queen
Mother to a house of hers called Monceaux, to remain a sevennight.
The Cardinal of Bourbon fearing that the Pope would 'take indignation'
of sending 'Charles Monsieur' into England, requests that
the youngest son of the Prince of Condé, called the Count of
Soissons, may go commissioner in his stead.
I inclose a description of the situation of la Fère, and the order of
the camp, which was made and delivered to me.—Paris, 9 Aug. 1580.
Add. Endd. 5 pp. [France IV. 130.]
Enclosed in the above :
396. PINART to COBHAM.
I have acquainted the King with what you wrote to me. He says
he desires nothing so much as the repose of his realm, pursuant to
the powers he has given his brother to that end, and begs you to
write on his behalf to the Queen of England (as he is also sending
orders to M. de Mauvissière), to let her know this.
This is the answer to your letter ; and I will only add that I sent
by the bearer of it the passport for which you asked ; good night.
—Saint-Maur, 7 Aug. 1580.
Holograph. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. IV. 131.]
397. SUSSEX to BURGHLEY.
I heard last night of my cousin Stafford's coming to London, and
this morning I spoke with him at Westminster. He is dispatched
only with the marriage causes, and has been eight days on the way.
Strozzi is 'depeched' from the King to Monsieur and so to
the King of Navarre for the pacification, and it is hoped he will be
very willing to do good offices. The King has licensed the 'deputs'
to come to treat with Monsieur for peace, and no battery is yet laid
to la Fère. Pinart wrote to Monsieur's agent that the commissioners
would be in England as he thought by the last of this
month. They are those that were named. What dealings some
here are using underhand in France you may understand from
himself. He is departed to the Court this morning, and I think
you will shortly be sent for.
I send the letters I received from Monsieur Simier. I will be at
the Court tomorrow. The French ambassador has received letters,
whereupon he requests audience. The substance is that the King
and Queen Mother 'follow hard' the marriage, and will make
peace or do every other thing in reasonable sort that may content
the Queen. All the fear is that we should not mean so directly
here as they do there, which is gathered upon the practices 'known
that' some use there.
No full answer is yet come 'of' her Majesty's last letter, and
therefore surely—though I think they would do 'every' they can
do to please the Queen if they were assured of the marriage, and
because some underhand dealings give them a 'suspect' thereof—
I fear they do cretizare cum cretensibus.
These are the generals of all I understand ; you shall when I see
you hear the particulars, which are too long to write.—Thursday.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley : 12 Aug. 1580. Lord
Chamberlain, Mr Stafford's arrival. 2 pp. [France IV. 132.]
398. "The charges of Edward Stafford, esquire, for his transportations,
post-horses, passage, and carriage of letters,
being employed in her Majesty's affairs in France
from the 22nd of June to the 11th of August 1580."
Imprimis, to him that I sent to 'Dovor' to provide me a
ship - - - - - - -
For carriage of my stuff to the sea-side - - -
To the ferry-boat for setting me to the ship - -
For my passage - - - -
To him that I sent before to Paris - - -
To him that I sent before to 'Towers' - -
To Stallenger that came first to England -
The second dispatch from Towers - - - -
To him that I sent to Paris for money upon my stay, for
his posting and charges and back again - -
To Stallenger, for his last dispatch from Towers - -
To him that I sent before to Paris from Towers - -
To him that I sent from Paris to Towers, for his posting
and charges, and back again - - - - - -
To him that I sent from Paris into England - - -
To him that I sent before to provide a ship - -
For my passage from 'Callis' - - - - -
To them that carried my stuff to the ship - - -
To the ferry-boat at Callis - - - - -
To the ferry-boat that set me a-land at Dover - -
For carriage of my stuff ashore - - - -
For my man that I sent before to London - - -
For my post-horses from London to Dover : 9 horses at
2s. 6d. the horse ; 5 posts - - - - -
To the guides and mounters - - - - -
From Callis to Paris, 20 posts - - - - - -
To the guides and mounters - - - - -
From Paris to Orleans : 13 horses, 12 posts - - -
To the guides and mounters - - - - -
From Orleans to Towers ; 12 posts - - -
To the guides and mounters - - - - -
For other post-horses from Towers to 'Burgeuel,' 5 posts -
To the guides and mounters - - - - -
Back again from thence to Towers - -
Guides and mounters - - - -
From Towers to Orleans back again - - - - -
Guides and mounters - - -
Orleans to Paris - - - - - -
Guides and mounters - - - - - - -
Paris to Callis - - - - - - - -
Guides and mounters - - - - - - -
Dover to London - - - - - - - -
Guides and mounters - - - - - - -
For my charges going and coming - - - - -
Sum total of the expenses
contained in this account
Diet - -
Whereof received in prest at his going,
being 22 June last - - -
£100. And there yet remains to
pay on this account £416 8s.
Endd. 1¾ pp. [Ibid. IV. 133.]
399. THOMAS COTTON to LEICESTER.
Enclosed I send the articles of this last agreement for the treaty
with Monsieur. His ambassador, M. de 'Prenoies,' is to depart on
the 23rd ; with him M. Sainte-Aldegonde as chief commissioner,
which by his sufficiency he well deserves.
The wars have continued 'in terms so long and cold' that there
is 'scarce speech for' Friesland. Some say certain companies have
been defeated ; but no certainty, and I do not believe it.
The French in garrison at Ninoven attempted the surprise of
Enghien, and part that entered the 'rampior' were slain for lack of
seconding, to the discredit of the leaders ; the place not taken.
For Germany there is no speech of any preparation of men, other
[qy. than] the Diet holds at 'Norringeborge.'
The Prince of Orange went 'for' Ghent on the 11th. At Mechlin
there has been and still is some mutiny among the soldiers for
P.S.—The Malcontents in Artois have propounded to the Prince
of Parma, that unless the King prepare a camp royal (if the States
and Monsieur agree, as 'in all likely' they will), they can no longer
maintain the war but must make terms, considering the sea is shut
up on one side, and France environs them on the other. The Prince
answered, the King would beware 'how to' make war with the King
of Spain. Duke Matthias wrote last week to the States desiring
to know what they meant to do with him, and that they would
remember not to misuse the House of Austria. Also to give order
for satisfying the gentlemen that followed them.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 46.]