Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.
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January 1581, 11-20
14. DUKE CASIMIR to WALSINGHAM.
You may remember a young German scholar named Richard Waydman whom I recommended to you last summer, at the request of a near relation of mine who has hitherto maintained him at school, in order that you might recommend him to some good person at the University of Oxford, where they have decided to send him to pursue his studies. Now my relation hears that the young man instead of profiting and making good use of his time has not only abandoned himself to pleasure and dissipation, but has been so audacious as to borrow money on his credit. He has requested me to say two words to you about it, and beg you kindly to direct one of your people, after pointing out the young man's folly to him, and ascertaining from whom it is (German merchants, no doubt) that he gets money on credit, to exhort these good people to lend him nothing further ; for if they think that my relation or anyone else will repay them they are greatly mistaken, since hearing the bad conduct of the youth he does not mean to give him a penny more. I hope you will do me this kindness, and I shall ever be grateful.—Lautern, 12 Jan. 1581. Add. Endd. Fr. 1⅓ pp. [Germany II. 12.]
15. COBHAM to [? WALSINGHAM].
I received your letter last night, and having before resolved to send the packet, I return these herewith, purposing this evening or to-morrow morning to confer with Marshal Cossé touching the Count of Soissons and Pibrac. Howbeit I think that first the personages might more easily have been altered, and I made some motion towards it ; and being misliked I was put to silence. The king and Queen Mother and Monsieur are so far apart that there will be difficulty found. Experiar tamen. Please be present when her Majesty receives the letter I send directed to her, and 'hand into your hands' the paper I send enclosed therein, which 'imports' the examination of a foot messenger I have met with. I desire to understand in what sort I may carry myself to Tassis, the Spanish Agent, to whom neither the King nor Queen Mother has as yet given open audience. I await advertisement of the Queen's pleasure, because I hear the Spanish Ambassador has not for a long time had access to her.—Blois, 13th Jan. P.S.—Please read the enclosed paper, and burn the lesser note. Add. and Endt. gone. 1 p. [France V. 5.]
16. COBHAM to the SECRETARIES.
The king departed hence early on the 7th inst. in his caroche, accompanied only by his three minions, Châteauvieux, and his premier Escuyer, and waited on by a few of his guard. About two leagues hence, not 'finding himself well' in his caroche, he sent back for his riding apparel, and so continued his journey towards Saint Germain, in which house, or some other not far from Paris, he purposes to take diet and physic for six weeks. The Queen went the same afternoon with a few ladies to Chenonceau, where they still remain. The Queen Mother has both the Secretaries of State, Pinart and Brulart, attending on her. The Chancellor, Keeper of the Seals, Marshal Cossé, certain others of the Privy Council, and the ambassadors, still abide here. It is expected that the queen will return next week. The Duke of Guise departed on the 9th, taking his way towards Paris, where Marshal Cossé told me he meant to stay 15 days for his, the Marshal's, coming. Thence he intends to go into Champagne, and so to Lorraine, to keep the carème-prenant with his kinsman the Duke. Cardinal Guise went the same afternoon towards Burgundy, with like intention to meet the duke his brother at the Duke of Lorraine's Court. Some have watchful eyes on this journey of theirs, and the issue of it, considering the time and the affairs at present in hand ; the rather because there were certain præcursores who gave notice to noblemen and gentleman of this passing through those countries. The Bishop of Glasgow also departed on the 9th, taking leave of me in the morning, intending to go to Moret and so to Paris about his money matters. He showed in his conference with me that he greatly misliked the dealing of the Spanish king in Ireland, wishing ill-success to any foreign prince that should 'pretend' anything in Scotland or England. Whereon I took occasion to say that some gentlemen of his country were to blame, to become pensioners to that king to the prejudice of their own state, and betraying of their prince. He assured me on his faith that he knew of none but the two brothers Hamilton of 'Bodelaugh,' who were lately come from thence. I 'inferred' that I heard say there were more who had become Spanish pensioners, and that in this Court it was doubted lest d'Aubigny had some dealings that way. He answered, by his truth he was sorry to hear tell that. The Council of Scotland was made of so many young heads, and d'Aubigny was too young to have so great government in that country. This is all I could learn of him at that time, and in other conferences I have always found him in this manner of opinion ; but I hear that Morgan, who lies at his house in Paris, is privy to his more 'inward meanings.' The king, two days before his departure, received a letter from his Highness, in which he signified how he had conceived that the Duke of Nevers offered him great injury in his justification lately exhibited in print, concerning his quarrel with the Duke of Montpensier. Monsieur alleges first that he is aggrieved that the Duke of Nevers publishes and renews the memory of his departing from Paris, which he protests was done only to give place to the king's displeasure, not for fear of any fault he had committed, or 'meaning of any indisposition.' Secondly he is displeased that in the justification it is signified that the king commanded the duke to follow him in some manner of hostility ; whereby he discovered to the world that his Majesty had evil meaning towards him. Thirdly, that in the printed book the duke had manifested to everybody that he sent a gentleman to Monsieur's Court who had delivered the démenti in his great chamber, making all men thereby understand that little regard was had to him. Fourthly, whereas upon the king's letter his Highness had persuaded the Duke of Montpensier to have the quarrel accommodated, he had so worked with the duke that he had referred the cause and his honour wholly to his hands ; which he entered into upon the king's writing to him that the Duke of Nevers had promised to do the like. Yet in the meantime the Duke of Nevers printed his justification, contrary to the course taken, in which these injuries have been offered ; showing likewise that he thinks his Highness insufficient to take up the quarrel. Wherefore he has written to the king that he is bound in honour to assume the quarrel. Upon the receipt of this letter M. de la Fin was sent back by the king to Monsieur, stating that he 'has and will' have his honour in consideration above all else, and mislikes the Duke of Nevers proceeding in this way. He has sent M. de Rambouillet to the Duke of Nevers to desire him to satisfy his Highness in those points where he finds himself aggrieved ; otherwise it is thought he will have more parties against him than he will be able to sustain. But since reason will move him, being a prince of ripe judgement, it is esteemed he will accommodate himself to the king's will and submit himself to Monsieur. On the other side Queen Mother 'travails' with Montpensier 'to ease these griefs.' The Italians have been somewhat startled by the earnest disposition of Monsieur against the Duke of Nevers. The Duchess of Montpensier has been at Court 'making appearance' to play the part of a faithful wife, so far as the counsels of her brother the Duke of Guise may lead her. Monsieur has recalled Fervacques, so that he does not go as his lieutenant into the Low Countries. The night before the Duke of Guise's departure there was a quarrel in the chamber between the Bishop of Langres and Lancosme, playing at primera with the Duchess of Montpensier. Now that his Highness has caused the peace to be published in Guyenne, as I have said in my letter to her Majesty, and has taken up certain private quarrels, it is thought he will hasten his journey to Tours, but he will hardly do it before the beginning of next month. M. Biron will be restored to the King of Navarre's favour when Monsieur is at Bordeaux, so there will be a reconciliation that way, and the confrèrerie will be dissolved. M. de Duras the enemy of the Viscount of Turenne is lately dead, whereby that quarrel will have an end. The two MM. de Limeuil, nephews to the viscount, will be recognised, and 'severed in action of service' ; so that enmity will likewise cease, and Gascony be the better brought to peaceable government. Sundry packets and numbers of letters sent from Spain have been intercepted and brought to his Highness, among which he has found about 25 written by Cardinal Granvelle's own hand, most in cipher ; containing, as I am informed, some matter against her Majesty. I suppose his Highness will cause them to be sent to her. I have 'motioned' it to Marshal Cossé, who thinks they have been sent, or that M. Marchaumont will bring the contents of them. The Marshal has among other matters discoursed to me that he thinks the King of Spain's policy is to keep her Majesty occupied in Ireland, framing by his and the Roman Bishop's practices some conspiracy and rebellion in England, knowing the English to be a people willing to fight and apt to come to 'handy strokes' ; whereby through the rebel battles they may enfeeble themselves, and so the weakest faction may be persuaded to bring in some foreign powers ; and meantime to raise some alteration in Scotland with offer of marriage and such like. He concluded that Monsieur was the fittest person for her Majesty to assure to her, either by way of marriage or of close amity against the common enemy ; making large significations to me of his entire affection toward her. I told him that the Queen had such liking for his Highness' virtues, and opinion of his love toward her, that she was more affected toward him than any prince in Christendom, as he would find at his coming to England, after conference with her ; of whom he would receive as good entertainment as I hoped he would be in all ways satisfied with. Meantime I besought him that all things might pass 'assuredly' between the king and his Highness, or it would be dangerous for her to enter into amity with them, not being united. I further entered into some particulars of the minions and principal persons about the Court, of whom he spoke to me frankly enough, concluding that this matter of treaty being accomplished, others must accommodate their wills to the son and heir of France ; the rather since they account that the king will have no issue. Whereupon he entered into commendation of her Majesty, and the likelihood there was she might have children, considering the freshness of her blood and the strength of her voice, which betokened her heart and other parts to be strong and whole ; which alliance he seems earnestly to desire. Speaking of marriage brought us to naming them of Guise ; by which means he delivered his mind of them to me. He did not take them to come from Hugh Capet, but to be descended from a Count of Vaudemont, who married a daughter of the line of France, whereby there could by their laws be no descent nor lawful claim to the Crown ; for if the Crown of France could descend by women, the claim of England would be preferred, being of later lineage and nearer kindred. As for the King of Navarre his estate could not be prejudiced ; and he hoped he would embrace the counsels which have been given him, following Monsieur and making himself known in France. He thought the Prince of Condé would shortly be with his Highness. I wished that Monsieur had councillors about him of noble degree and quality, which he said I should shortly see ; among others the Viscount of Turenne, whom he praised, saying he was of kin to him by marriage through the alliance of the Montmorencis. The Marshal goes tomorrow to Chenonceau, to the Queen Mother, for she has sent for him twice or thrice. Otherwise he had appointed to go to 'Chomberg' [Chambord], a fair house of the king's two leagues hence, and take me with him. I have visited him three sundry times ; the last was 'this other' day, passing the time in the king's garden and the walks. The Pope's nuncio was there at the same time, with Cardinal Birague, which gave the lookers-on occasion to speak their opinions. The Marshal let me know how the king had sent to M. Pibrac to put himself in readiness ; but now upon receipt of your letter I will deal accordingly, and advertise you as occasion may offer. M. d'Agé, a councillor of the Parliament of Paris, 'makes means' to succeed M. Mauvissière. He has been with me twice or thrice, and now lastly since my coming hither requests me to use all the means I can that he may be acceptable to her Majesty ; the rather that he is given to understand that she has been informed he is affected to the House of Guise. This he denies, confessing that his kindred have been servants and beholden to that House. So I leave that matter to your judgement. M. de Marchaumont is daily looked for, but not yet come, from his Highness. Marshal Cossé is advertised of three shallops or pinnaces armed from Gravelines and those parts, and wishes that he might have some of her Majesty's ships for his better safe-conduct. Please move her so that he may be satisfied therein, and to let me know thereof that I may content him. The Duke of Maine sent an alarm hither that Saint-Esprit had been surprised ; which proved nothing so, only that 'Desguieres' passed with 1,000 foot and a few horse for his better strength, going to confer with some of the Religion in Provence. It is stated that the King of Spain has at Genoa 600,000 crowns, which he sent thither by the galleys that passed lately from Spain. And by the advertisements from Spain we hear that he is staying at Elvas, being persuaded by the Duke of Alva not to go to Lisbon because of the plague. Also that Prospero Colonna will remain at Lisbon with 500 Italians and no Spaniards. Don Pietro de Medici has recovered from his sickness, and proposes to repair into Italy, the hope being renewed of marriage with the daughter of the Duke of Urbino. It is held in Spain that Don Antonio has fled into Africa. They say that the Duke of Alva has given his opinion that the king should first settle the affairs of Portugal, and make sure of the Indies before he takes any other enterprise in hand. The advertisements of Italy are that the Pope has made the Prince of Parma his Governor of Aquila, which the Princess his mother had. 'Hannibal da Capua,' Archbishop of Naples, has presented to Jacomo Buoncompagno, the Pope's son, a Turkey horse with a marvellous rich furniture, and to the Pope a hackney furnished in pontificato ; to Cardinal Como, secretary to the Pope, two coachhorses richly furnished, and to the Cardinals of San Sisto and Guastavillani, to the one two pair horses, to the other a 'lictar' with two goodly mules. The chief Master of Malta has come to Rome, and been committed to the chief inquisitor, because, as it is understood, he licensed certain gentlemen of his 'religion' in Provence to arm a galley, wherewith they are roving on the seas. Howbeit it is supposed the Pope's displeasure is grounded upon some other secret cause. Count Girolamo Pepoli has returned to Bologna 'yielding himself to prison' ; but will be pardoned and set at liberty for his wife's sake, she being cousin to the Pope. The same day that Cardinal Morone died, his niece was beheaded at Pavia, having sought to murder her husband for love of another. Jehan Liberge has been dispatched to England, to renew his suit. As I understand by a letter of the merchants of Bordeaux, which I sent to you in my last, that they did not enjoy the benefit of the king's letters patent, I procured his further letters in their behalf, a copy of which I send.—Blois, 13 Jan. 1580. Endd. by Walsinqham and by Burghley's secretary. 6 pp. [France, V. 6.] Enclosed in the above :
17. The King to Gratien d'Olive and Louis Roux, merchants
and collectors of duty at Bordeaux.
Whereas by our letters of 24 September last, we exempted the English merchants from payment of the import and export duty of 2½ per cent., and whereas we understand that you continue to levy it on them : we expressly order you on your obedience to cease to do so, and to repay all that you have received since the date of our former letter.—Blois, 5 Jan. 1581. Copy. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. V. 6a.]
18. DUKE CASIMIR to the QUEEN.
The heirs of Christopher Mondt, formerly adviser to your Majesty and your predecessors, have, as I hear, pointed out that at his death he left them an income of 600 florins a year to receive from certain English merchants named Richard and Bernard Hilles, on account of a sum of money which he had in his lifetime handed to them. They have always been satisfied with this till the last three terms ; when having asked the merchants for better security, and also that their debt might be paid in German money, the merchants not only offered to pay the interest due, but also to repay the capital on condition that they would take it at the Antwerp rate of exchange. This the heirs were not willing to accept, money being at a higher price at Antwerp than in Germany. At the same time they desire that if sufficient security is not given and the interest not paid each year in good money, the capital may be repaid in German dollars, as it was received from Christopher. So the matter stands. Now inasmuch as one of the heirs is a councillor and vassal of my own I cannot but pray you that, having regard to the good service that Christopher Mondt did for you, you will take order in this, and see to it that the merchants be content to fall in with whatever may be found just and reasonable.—Lautern, 14 Jan. 1581. Add. (seal with Garter). Endd. Fr. l½ pp. [Germany II. 13.]
19. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last to you was the 8th [sic] inst. since which time few speeches have passed, save as follows :— M. de Montigny, with all the Malcontents that lay 'scattering' beside Nynove and Tournay, have all suddenly moved from thence, and are making towards Cassel aud Saint-Omer ; so that it is feared they have some enterprise in hand in those parts. The Malcontents who lay beside Cambray lately sent out two cornets of lances for forage ; whom those of Cambray met on their return, overthrew them all, and took most of them prisoners. It is said the Marquis of Risbourg has retired with all his forces from Cambray, saving a few whom he has left in certain cloisters and bulwarks kept by the Malcontents beside Cambray. A great discord has happened of late among the great gentlemen of Artois and 'Henogo' ; for some of them would have the aid of the Spaniards, and some of them will not have them 'to the last man.' It is hoped this discord will make some alteration among them. By letters from the Prince of 'Pinoy' from Tournay to the Quatre Membres of Flanders, it seems that the town of Bouchain has rovolted from the Malcontents, and joined with those of Cambray. There is great speech here of a French gentleman named M. de Vervagos [Fervaques] who is said to be marching out of Normandy towards these parts with 2,000 foot and 500 horse to the aid of the States. All the States' men here in Flanders lie still and do nothing, for their only trust is now in the coming of Monsieur. It is much feared that it will be long ere he comes, for they greatly fear that the enemy will have new forces come into this country before Monsieur is here ; for it is said the Malcontents look for aid out of Germany, Italy and Spain.—Bruges, 15 Jan. 1580. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 8.]
20. STOKES to the SECRETARIES.
Yesterday late in the afternoon the magistrates of this town received advice of some great treasons that the Malcontents had practised to take this town. Incontinently, after this was related to them, they took divers burghers of this town, and a priest that dwelt without the town, who are 'a counsalle' of this matter ; so that it is hoped they will reveal the rest who were dealers of this treason. It seems the matter should have been done within these two or three nights ; for the Marquis of Risbourg and M. de Montigny, with all the forces of the Malcontents, came yesterday on a sudden to Cortryk. So I trust God has prevented them for this time. Enclosed I send you a copy of the Prince of Epinoy's letter to the Quatre Membres of Flanders, wherein you will see what he has written of the revolt of Bouchain. M. de Ville, nephew and lieutenant of M. de la Noue, passed through this town to-day for Dunkirk and so into France. He says he will be here again in 3 weeks or a month, for he still has charge of all M. de la Noue's foot lying in Nynove and Oudenarde. Even at the writing hereof news is brought to the magistrates of this town that a great part of the Malcontents are come on this side of Cortryk towards this town, so that within a day or two it will be seen where they will be and what they will do. This town is very strong and well-guarded.—Bruges, 16 Jan. 1580. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XIV. 9.]
|Jan. 17. (fn. 1)||
21. WALSINGHAM to COBHAM.
Touching the state of things in Scotland you must know that not above an hour before the coming of Mr Randolph to Edinburgh, they removed Earl Morton from the castle there to Dumbarton. The king alleged to Mr Randolph for his excuse that the earl's friends were practising to give him intelligence in the castle of Edinburgh, and to convey him away, which had been the cause of his removal to a surer place. He promised however that nothing should be attempted against him but in due course of justice and order of law. D'Aubigny also for his part made outwardly a shew that he could easily be won to be at her Majesty's devotion ; but we interpret such feigned demonstrations of his facility that way to be but a device to entertain us in expectation till the foreign support that they look for from their friends may be ready for them. About which matters we hear that messengers pass between them and the French, and that the Duke of Guise has promised to embrace the action. Wherefore it will behove you to look carefully into their dealings, in order to discover, if it be possible, how far they proceed, and advertise us, that we may provide accordingly to impeach their purposes. A merchant of the west country, lately returned from Britanny, advertises that at 'Morlese' certain ships were put in readiness to descend into Scotland under pretence of a voyage to Portugal. Which being a matter of importance, and worthy in this broken time to be looked into, you will do well to send thither to inform yourself of the certainty of it, that we may know whether it be true or not. The best hope that we can conceive of the event of these affairs in Scotland is that her Majesty is put in good comfort by finding a sufficient party in that realm, through the backing of which she may easily continue surety to her own state. Her pleasure is that you should tell the party that was secretly at Richmond that in case he has matter of importance to deliver to her, she would be pleased that he should repair hither, following the course he took at the time of his last being here, touching the manner of his coming, etc. I am told that the lord of Arbrothe has been half won to be at the King of Spain's devotion. Pray do what you may to discover whether it be so or no ; for it were not well that her Majesty 'being at charges' with them should in the end be 'abused' by them. Draft. Endd. by L. Tomson: M. to Sir H. Cobham. 1580. 1¼ pp. [France V. 7.]