300. The BISHOP OF HALBERSTADT to the QUEEN.
The bond of blood by which your ancestors were united to our
ancient Imperial House of Brunswick, lately renewed by letters,
when Robert Beale, clerk (secretarius) of your Privy Council, acted
as envoy to our lord and relative Julius Duke of Brunswick, makes
us send these to you the more freely.
Three noble youths, our loyal friends, John von Arnim,
Hermann Kotz, and Christopher von Dorstet, have presented
themselves to us, stimulated by the fame of your virtue which
is deservedly celebrated throughout the world as of a pillar of
Church and Commonwealth, and of your realm, by God's blessing
peacefully administered for many years, declaring that they are
possessed by no common desire of travelling in the same, and
therefore begged our aid, that their expedition might not turn out
a fraud, being strangers (ne fraudi ea ipsis profectio esset, tanquam
peregrinis). We have therefore given them these letters as a
testimonial of their noble birth and blameless life, and commend
them to you that they may have the safe access to various places
in your realm, and may themselves be safe under your protection
from the wiles of bad men. This protection we venture to promise
ourselves they will the more readily obtain seeing that the two
peoples, English and Saxons, have from the first been on friendly
terms, owing, if we may believe the histories, to the identity of
their origin. In return we offer you our duty, and doubt not
that you will maintain the goodwill which has always existed
between our families. If ever such goodwill was ever needed
between royal families, it is worth preserving in this corrupt age,
that the glory of God's name, driven like a ship amid the waves,
may be protected by the work of even a few Christians from the
storms which are assailing the Church and the Christian commonwealth.
—Gröningen, 17 Cal. Sept. 1581. (Signed) Henricus
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. Latin. 1¾ pp. [Germany II.
301. WALSINGHAM to the QUEEN.
— Paris, 16 August 1581.
See 'Compleat Ambassador,' pp. 390, 391.
Copy in hand of L. Tomson and endd. by him, as for Walsingham.
1½ pp. [France VI. 13.]
302. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
— Paris, 17 August 1581.
P.S.—I refer you, touching other proceedings here, to the lord
See 'Compleat Ambassador,' second letter on p. 392, Holograph.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 14.]
303. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
— Paris, 17 August 1581.
P.S.—Mr Somers, who is now with the duke, has commission to
offer him support in case he shall see his necessity great, or not
likely to be otherwise supplied. I am given to understand that
Pinart after he has been with his Highness is appointed to repair
into England if the Duke shall find it meet ; and that the end of
his repair thither is to press her Majesty to a final resolution in
the cause of marriage.
See 'Compleat Ambassador,' first letter on p. 392. Holograph.
Add. Endd. by Burghley : Mr Secretary, with copy of Marchaumont's
letter to him. (See Hatfield Papers ii. No. 1014.) Brought
by young Watson. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 15.]
304. The CONSULS of SEVILLE to the MERCHANTS ADVENTURERS.
We need not enlarge upon the robberies and insolencies which
Francis Drake, a subject of her Majesty, has committed in his
three voyages to the Indies, since they are notorious. In the
second, he plundered even to the rrequa[?] which was coming from
Panama to Nombre de Dios carrying gold and silver for the king ;
and in the third, so great a sum of ducats that while most of the
members of this consulate have been losers, we do not venture to
specify the sum, which is most terrible. And as persons interested,
we are sending, as you have heard, Pedro de Zubiaur in the name
of this consulate with a power from it and order from the king, to
solicit, and with him Don Bernardino de Mendoza, ambassador in
that kingdom, to hasten the restitution of the said plunder. And
inasmuch as by the persons whom we have at Court we do not hear
that the ambassador has written any resolutions in all this time,
while ships must go on being laden at great loss and risk, we have
not liked, being persons to whom trade and its freedom everywhere
is so important, to tell you that if the said restitution is not
made conformably to reason and justice, we must beseech the king
to make it for us by indemnifying us out of English goods ; which
we doubt not he will order to be accomplished, as other kings do
with their subjects, and some of us have proved whenever they
have taken any property, and justice has not been done, giving
them letters to pay themselves out of the goods of those subjects of
the king who have done such robbery.
And whereas those of that noble city and all that realm have for
many years held such friendly trade with Andalusia and this city
of Seville, we should be very sorry that you as merchants should
be the first to pay these damages ; wherefore we beg you, seeing
what you have at stake, to supplicate her Majesty on your side to
order justice to be done shortly. For this we hope, since if it fails
us, we must have recourse to what we have said, which is our last
remedy, and that which we shall get from our king in order to be
paid for the great robbery and loss we have received.—Seville,
17 Aug. 1581. (Signed) Diego Diaz, Alfonso de Cacalla de Leon,
Antonio de Cabrera.
Add. Endd. Span. 2 pp. [Spain I. 71].
Aug. 17, 18.
305. 'Somers negotiation with Monseigneur the xviith
and xviiith of August, 1581.'
After Monsieur had heard from Somers how things had passed
'from' the king and his deputies 'with' the Queen's ambassadors,
and that M. de Vray's request to the king, by Monsieur's command,
as he said, had stayed proceedings to treat of a league [sic] unless
it might be with the marriage, and Monsieur had been 'moved' by
Somers whether he were of that mind still, or would be pleased that
the king and her Majesty might proceed to the treaty of a league,
not speaking of the marriage ;
Monsieur answered that he had still been put in hope of the
marriage, and by letters which he had lately received from her
Majesty and from M. de Marchaumont he conceived more assurance
of the marriage than M. de Walsingham [sic] had given him ; and
that her Highness had written to him that the league should not
esloigner le mariage. 'But' said he 'si cela ne se pourra faire pour
les difficultés qu'on a alléguées,' yet would he not depart from the good
affection that he assures himself her Majesty bears to him and
which he also owes to her for her virtues and the honour she has
done him. As for the treaty, he referred that to the king, as he
had told his mind to M. Pinart ; and would do all that might please
Then Somers according to his instructions told him what bruits
were given out of an overture made to him for marriage with Spain,
and that her Majesty esteemed him a prince of that honour 'as' he
would not entertain any other so long as this pursuit of marriage
continued. He 'assured' that he heard not one word of that matter
this 12 month and that he esteemed much more the amity of
England than that of Spain.
After this he remembered a request which he had willed Somers
to recommend in his name to his Majesty last year, for which
purpose he then sent M. de Buy to her ; which was for some aid of
money for his cause then in hand. Now having much more need
of her Majesty's support, he should acknowledge an infinite obligation
to her if she would assist him with some good sum of money,
being now entered into this action, and so accompanied with
nobility and other friends as he is.
Thereto Somers answered that he understood that the king had
furnished him with money, and that the States of the Low
Countries had also assisted him as they are bound to do, seeing
him thus 'avancid' for their weal. He answered that the king was
not si eschauffé therein as he desired, nor that he had received any
from the States : saying with very earnest speech and countenance
that if he be not succoured speedily he shall be forced to depart
from the action, which would touch him very much in honour,
considering what companies of 'voluntary nobility' were come to
do him honour and service. Of this he besought her Majesty to
have some consideration, to make him the more bound to her.
Somers said that the departing from the action would encourage
the enemy and greatly hinder his affairs thus well begun ; and that
the States ought for their own honour and safety, to have special
regard thereto. He said that he could not assure himself of
sufficiency from them in due time, and that this matter did not
require any delay. Somers answered that he had no commission
to deal in that matter, but would not fail to report his request to
her Majesty's ambassador, who would advise her thereof with speed.
These speeches Somers had with Monsieur at three several
times ; the first as he was marching in battle array about 3 leagues
from Cambray ; the second at his place of encamping that night,
called 'Hombrecorte' [Honnecourt], an old 'torm' abbey, whither
he returned, having lodged there the night before, by reason of
want of forage nearer to the enemy, after he had been the most
part of that day [Note in margin : Thursday, 17 Aug.] within two
leagues of Cambray, occupied in taking two villages upon the
passage, fortified by the other side, viz. Marcoin and Crevecu ; and
the third time, on Friday morning before his departure 'into like
order,' where surely he was not unoccupied, both in dispatching and
directing, and also in taking 'most pain' in the field by continual
'travail' between the several companies.
That morning, upon the arrival of M. de Bellievre the day before
from the Prince of Parma, Somers learned of Monsieur, upon
request made to him, that the prince answered that if Monsieur
would stay his army from entering further into the country, he
should have liberty to victual Cambray quietly, so also that he
would leave the party of the States. Whereto Monsieur made
answer that he came not to fight for profit, but for his honour,
which he had engaged to relieve his poor servants and friends in
Cambray, and so perform his promise to the States, and therefore,
in the prince's demand, he must have their consent. He did not
mean to stay his army, but would relieve Cambray and pursue his
enterprise, or else would assay his fortune. This offer of the prince
made Monsieur think, as he told Somers, that he would not willingly
At Somers' coming away his Highness besought her Majesty that
for his sake she would write to the Prince of Parma and use her
good means where the same might do good, that he would put the
Viscount of Turenne to ransom, according to the ancient and
honourable usage of war, or else exchange him for other prisoners
in the States' hands ; naming the Count of Egmont and de Selles,
now prisoners in the citadel of Cambray. But if they would not
exchange, then to set him at a ransom. So Monsieur and the
gentlemen would be more bounden to her Majesty. (Signed)
Copy. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland and Flanders XIV. 92.]
306. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Since it is by Mr Somers that I am sending you this letter, I think
I should err in not committing everything to his sufficient hands
who by his good judgement will be able to put them before you by
word of mouth better than by writing. I will only say that there is
nothing however difficult willed by the Queen my mistress that I do
not will and desire it, and will not endeavour to contest her therein
though it were a matter of my life ; although in regard to the
matter in hand, it seems that there is some delay to our marriage,
which is the last thing that I wish to put off, as my greatest
pleasure and happiness, and that from which I would not withdraw
for any occasion that could present itself. It will never arise
through any fault of mine. I approve all that you have done,
provided that our marriage remains unbroken and without
possibility of alteration ; as you will hear from Mr Somers.—Camp
at Honnecourt, 18 August 1581.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France VI. 16.]
307. The DUKE OF ANJOU to COBHAM.
I am so resolved to serve the Queen my good mistress in all her
wishes that I can refuse her nothing that might be acceptable to
her save one, which I can never give up whatever her commands to
me may be ; namely, to hope for a larger share of her favour than
any prince who may serve her. I cannot give up this place to any
man soever ; and so I desire all that is her pleasure, provided that
it be not with such disaster and prejudice as may shake the good
success of our marriage by that means, in such sort as Mr Somers
the present bearer will tell you, whom I beg you to believe on this
point, and other particulars which he will tell you from me.—
Hondecourt, 18 Aug.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 16 bis.]
308. The KING OF SPAIN to the QUEEN.
Letter of recall for Dr Antonio de Castillo, sent by 'our uncle of
glorious memory, King Henry.'—Lisbon, 19 Aug. 1581. (Signed)
Add. Endd. Lat. ¾ p. [Spain I. 72.]
M. & D. iv.
309. The DUKE OF ANJOU to the PRINCE OF ORANGE.
The dispatch brought by M. de Neveu will have informed you of
my resolve taken agreeably to your message by M. de Medavy, who
found me at this place. Without any junction with the States'
army, I have with my own made the Prince of Parma quit the
place in such a fright that on the night of last Thursday he went
off with his army towards Bouchain, putting two rivers between
himself and me, all his swagger gone and vanished into smoke.
He allowed me to enter this town without striking a blow, and as
quietly as if he had not been in the country. Tomorrow I shall
see if there is any means of pursuing him. I desire above all
things that the States' forces should now join with mine and supply
us with some money and provisions, since when we advance further
into the country we cannot obtain either one or the other, and I
have put in so much of my own that I cannot go on without assistance.
If it does not come at the present opportunity, when their
interest is more involved than mine, I cannot hope that they will
ever do it, as they will never have the attraction or the incitement
of a finer or more signal task (subject), whereof a commencement
thus favourable will repay us by the completion of the work with
all the satisfaction we can desire. You know that such things are
in the hands of those whose fortune exalts their reputation among
men ; but it must also be watched, for if by any fault it escapes us,
I do not think it will long level the road as it has done towards the
success of this enterprise, with which I ought certainly to be most
content and thank God for His assistance.
Things being then in a better position than when M. de Medavy
was dispatched, and the way very much shortened, and the town of
Cambray freed, by favour of which many things can be undertaken,
it remains for the Estates to bring up their army with all diligence. I
am sending to it presently, to give them like advice ; and remaining
as I shall do master of the open country I will take such a road as
may be decided to be the most convenient for the prosperity of the
affairs of the States to whom your good counsel may be of great
service, if you will set before them the long time that I have had
this army on my hands, which though one of the finest that has
been seen for a long time, has for that very reason cost me the
more to get together and maintain up to this point, without the
necessary expenses in this town, which amount to no little. So if
on their side they do not help themselves and do not send me
means of sustaining it until some other comes in, it will be impossible
for me to lead it further, and I must to my great regret
be content with having succoured this town and freed it from its
miseries. It is now so well provided that the enemy cannot hope
with the resources at his disposal to get it into his hands ; so that
they will long enjoy the advantages they have gained, wherein I
will according to my promise assist them with all my power.
M. Chauvin the present bearer will tell you more fully how
things have passed so I will not make this longer.—Cambray,
19 August 1581.
P.S.—As I cannot do without M. Chauvin, who has business to
do with (étant chargé d'affaires auprès de) des Pruneaux, I have
decided to send you this bearer, M. de Buzanval.
Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 327. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XIV. 93.]
M. & D. iv.
310. The DUKE OF ANJOU to the STATES-GENERAL.
You will have seen by my dispatch which M. de Neveu brought
you the resolution I had formed to come with my army straight
to Cambray. I have executed this so fortunately that the
Prince of Parma having retired with his army on Thursday night
entirely and in disorder left the place to me, and I entered about
6 o'clock yesterday evening without hindrance. I shall stay
only today to set things in order here, so that I may follow up the
good success which has befallen me and clear the Cambresis,
which I hope to bring wholly into my obedience within a few days.
I wished to tell you this to make you sharers in the good news,
whereof you receive as much benefit in your affairs as might or
could be hoped. But you must also consider that having staked
my means and hazarded my life very liberally, if I am not promptly
assisted by you both with men and with money, it is quite
impossible for me to support the burden, and we should be in
danger of having to content ourselves with what has been done ; a
thing which would by no means meet either your views or mine,
these affairs being managed more by prestige than by any other
expedient that can be found. And while this good fortune brings
us favour, and all the towns of this country begin to open their
arms to me, let us, I pray you, seize it by the hair, that it may not
escape us, since you can never employ your resources in anything
which can bring you more honour and profit. Thus as I am
assured, since your interest is so much concerned, that you will
on your part spare nothing, so you will believe that on mine I will
never rest till I see you satisfied in your hearts, making you
recover the repose and liberty of which you have been deprived by
the tyrannical dominations of your enemies.
Thus, without using longer discourse, which would serve only to
fill paper, three things are necessary on your part ; the junction of
your forces with mine, a good substantial sum to maintain my army,
and the provisions necessary for it at its entrance into your country.
If you delay in the very least, the fault will be such as can never be
repaired, as you will hear from M. Chauvin the present bearer,
whom I am sending to you on purpose, and have commanded to use
all diligence in his return after he has made lively representations
to you as to the importance of this matter ; which touches you so
nearly that I will pray you with all affection to let everthing else go
and see to it, and that we may not by an irreparable fault allow that
to escape which I see we have completely acquired. If such a misfortune
occurs, I shall be at any rate excused, having fulfilled my
duty and my promises so thoroughly that I can expect no reproach.
Aid me then at this moment, for there never was so fine a one ;
and in so doing believe that I shall never abandon you. For the
rest give credit to Chauvin.—Cambray, 19 August 1581.
P.S.—As in the last.
Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 327. Fr. 2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV.
311. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
I am by secret intelligence given most assuredly to understand
that about two months ago there was a plot sent out of Spain
[sic ; but qy. Scotland] to the Pope showing him upon the 'alienation'
of villeqr [sic : but is not Morton meant ?] what way is to be taken
for the conquest of Scotland ; which the Pope was desired, in case he
should allow and like it, to send to the King of Spain. This being by
him greatly liked, he has very earnestly recommended it to the king,
and has assured the party that sent it, that the king will employ
himself to the uttermost of his power in the execution of it. He that
gave this advertisement is not without hope to get knowledge of
the particulars of the plot ; as also from whom it was sent out of
Scotland (?). He desires that the matter touching that point of the
sending of a plot from Scotland (?) to the Pope may be kept secret ;
for being known, it may breed him some peril, and hinder his
obtaining further knowledge.
'Hambleton,' brother to him that killed the Regent, arrived in
this town about two days ago from Spain. Upon his coming, there
is great hope conceived that the young King of Scotland will lack
no assistance that the King of Spain can give him. My lord
ambassador acquaints you with some particulars touching his
dealing with the King of Spain, so I refer you to his relation. He
seems to rejoice greatly there that the Earl of Angus receives no
better entertainment in England ; whereby they hope that such as
are of his party in Scotland will seek to make their own peace at
home, as void of hope to receive any great relief out of England.
There is no one thing that so surely prognosticates that some
unavoidable mischief is to grow out of Scotland against her Majesty,
as that she has of late had no power to put anything in operation
that leads to the preventing thereof. I may add also, her neglecting
to take order with the Scotch Queen. Such as love her, and depend
on her fortune, can but lament it, and pray that it may please God
to open her eyes to see and do that which may be meet for her
greatness.—Paris, 20 August 1581.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Words in cipher deciphered by
Burghley. 2 pp. [France VI. 17.]
312. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
By Mr Somers' declaration of what has passed between him and
the duke, you may see in what necessity he stands of money and
how weakly he is supported by the king his brother ; so that unless
he receives some present support from her Majesty according to his
request, the only exploit that this army is like to do is the revictualling
of Cambray, for he will presently be forced to disperse it. So
the benefit his enterprise works is only honour to himself, in that
he has relieved the town according to his promise and caused the
enemy to withdraw. But the States, for whose sake this enterprise
is taken in hand, will be in great distress ; by reason that the
enemy has greatly increased his forces, the brunt of whose malice
the States are now like to bear alone, since the duke will be forced
to disperse his army.
By her Majesty's command, I have sought by all the means I
can to inform myself what relief has been given him by the king,
but I cannot find that he has received anything at all ; which is
generally misliked here, save by such as are of the Spanish faction.
They are grieved to see the king at so great charges otherwise in
matters of pleasure, and suffering his brother to want in an action
so honourable and so profitable to this realm.
I am assured that about four days ago the Queen Mother
lamented with tears the king's hard dealing in this case towards his
brother, as also to see the great impositions that have of late been
levied here, so greatly to the grief of the people, and so unprofitably
or rather so vainly employed. Her credit with him is not so great
as it has been. She is forced to make court to la Valette, who is
all in all with the king ; whose insolence is so great towards all men
in respect of the great favour the king bears towards him that it is
thought by the wisest here there will come thereof some dangerous
effects, for as far as I can learn, there is a general 'discontentation
of' the present government. Only the House of Guise is of late
crept into a little credit, by reason of this marriage between Arques
and the Queen's sister, the duke's kinswoman. And as the king's
credit greatly decays, so does Monsieur's greatly increase, especially
in this town, where heretofore he was least loved. No one thing
shows more the credit and authority he has in this realm than the
levying of so great an army without money, and without the sound
of either drum or trumpet ; especially his army being 'compounded'
of the flower of the nobility of France. This increase of his credit
and authority in his realm ought in due course of policy to move
her Majesty to make the more account of him, and to deal with him
in such friendly sort, especially in this his necessity, as to make
him an assured friend for ever [sic].
As for this relief which is presently required at her Majesty's
hands, it may be delivered to him, in respect of the inward friendship
between them, by way of loan, without mentioning the end
whereto it shall be employed. And if hereafter, upon the conference
that shall pass between the commissioners, especially touching
the secret treaties for the Low Countries, she shall find the king
not disposed to deal so frankly with his brother as in reason he
ought, then she may in honour and with reason stay from yielding
further support.—Paris, 20 August 1581.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. VI. 18.]
313. "The substance of a letter from the LORD TREASURER to
MR SECRETARY WALSINGHAM, then in France."
Mr Secretary greatly 'mistakes' the alteration of the French
from yielding to a treaty without marriage to proceed upon anything
uttered in England by the Queen to M. Marchaumont tending
to give Monsieur assurance that if the king will bear the charges of
Monsieur's war, she will marry ; for she says she continues as
she did when you departed, and loth would she be to alter anything
from your instructions without first making you privy thereto. As
for her speech to Marchaumont, she says it accords with what you
have in hand to say, viz. :—
(1) That she cannot consent to marry Monsieur, to bring her
realm into a war.
(2) She cannot think it good for Monsieur's honour, or for the
weal of the French king and herself, that he should now by any
patched composition leave off his enterprise.
These two propositions she held and does hold ; so that there
remains to be considered how this war should be maintained,
which can be but in one of these two sorts :—If the exhibition of
the aids of the Low Countries shall not serve, then either the
French king and her Majesty must do it under hand ; or else the
king must do it alone, which it is unlikely he will do.
If her Majesty finds that Monsieur cannot perform the action
without some support from her, you are instructed to promise
that rather than he should desist, she will give him some support,
though you are not instructed to what quantity.
Upon this point she seems to 'find lack' that you have not
sought to know, or not advertised her, some estimate of the charges
of this war, with a declaration how much the States are bound to
contribute thereto, whereby might be seen what should be 'in
opinion' requisite to be further supplied, of Monsieur's own patrimony,
and 'consequently' by the king, who 'ought' for the honour
of his brother and the Crown of France, which only shall be
benefited by this requisition. Lastly upon these things advertised,
her Majesty says she is to consider what were a meet portion for
her to yield 'to' the rest.
As to the second, that the French king is to maintain the war
without charge to her Majesty (and so it seems by Marchaumont's
letter, if it may be obtained, she will marry), she never used such
speeches to him nor to none else, for she continues therein in mind
as she did at your departure ; that is :—
If the French king, at the instance of his brother, upon respect
and hope of marriage to follow, should yield thereto for the bearing
of all the charges, on condition she shall promise to marry, you
were willed to make no answer affirmatively thereto, as a matter
not remembered in your instructions, but should advertise her
Majesty thereof ; and so she would you should keep that course,
if it be offered.
At this time she seems not resolved what to answer if the king
shall offer the whole charges on condition of the marriage ; but
upon your advertisement she will further advise.
She has not found by any letters that you have ever dealt with
the king to aid his brother, which to do she says you know her
mind. Monsieur may think his case much forgotten of you as her
minister, whereby he has cause to think that your coming was only
to break the marriage, and only to procure a league without regard
how he might be supported by the king.
She finds lack that you have not advertised of what forces
Monsieur's army consists, nor of what charge, nor of what force
the enemy is, nor yet the likelihood of the success of this enterprise
for the victualling of Cambray, whereof the Court and Monsieur's
ministers cannot be ignorant.
She says that Marchaumont's words are true in this sort : That
the great impediment to her marriage was the charges of a war
should be brought with it. But if the king would bear the whole
charges, she saw no great impediment but it might proceed,—so as
she does not write contrary to her own words always used before
your going. But being by me, the Lord Treasurer, requested to
consider what should be answered if Monsieur can bring the king
to bear the whole charge, she says, when she shall hear thereof,
she will give further answer.
In hand of L. Tomson, and endd. with date by him. 1½ pp.
[France VI. 19.]
314. The KING OF SPAIN to the QUEEN.
If you are accepting as you should the letter which I lately sent
you full of love and confidence, and I hear that satisfaction has
been given me, nothing more agreeable can befall me than to have
had an experience of our mutual love therein. But meantime as I
hear that 'Don Antonius' [sic in orig.] has not only had free access
to England, but has been received by you otherwise than I had
hoped ; and also that a fleet is being fitted out for him, and he is
being aided with men, arms, provisions and money, and finds
everything with you friendly to himself and hostile to me, I could
not but expostulate with you about it all, the only way left to me
of satisfying my good will, which, worried as I have been, is not
yet wiped out. I beg therefore, as I have done before, that you will
take steps at once to have Don Antonio handed over to me. If you
do, no one shall surpass me in gratitude ; if not, I at least ask
that you will have him, with other rebels, turned out of your
dominions as soon as possible. You owe thus much to the public
peace, our brotherhood, and our alliance and unbroken treaties.
If you refuse, and like again to abuse our often-injured patience,
you are to know that for what place soever in our dominions he
departs from your country with hostile mind towards us and our
subjects, with whatever aids to war, on whatever pretext supplied,
I shall understand war to be undeservedly declared upon me by
you. If that happens, note will be taken that I have never lacked
loyalty in preserving amity, and that when peace, so often shaken
by you, has been quickly broken I shall not lack force to meet
the consequences. For the rest credit Bernardino de Mendoza.—
Lisbon, 23 Aug. 1581. (Signed) Philippus, and below Jo. Idiaques.
Add. Endd. Lat. 2/3 sheet. [Spain I. 73.]
315. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
—Paris, 21 August 1581.
See "Compleat Ambassador," pp. 396, 397. Add. Endd. 2 pp.
[France VI. 20.]
316. The DUKE OF ANJOU to MARCHAUMONT.
The Scottish gentleman who bears this, of the family of
Hamilton, was recommended to me in such a good quarter that I
send you this in his favour. Please hear what he has to say
touching some business that he has with the Queen, and kindly
assist him with all such recommendations on my behalf as the case
deserves, and so far as you recognise that you can honourably
intervene ; my intention being to do him all the favour in my power
provided there is nothing at which her Majesty can take offence.—
Camp at le Verger, 25 August 1581.
Add. Endd. : Monsieur to Marchaumont. Fr. ½ p. [France VI.
M. & D. iv.
317. The DUKE OF ANJOU to the STATES-GENERAL.
You will have heard from M. de Buzenval what happened in
regard to the succour which I brought to the town of Cambray and
the arrangements I made during the two days I stayed there.
After that I resolved to seek means of joining your forces, and
came with my army to lodge here, determining to give battle to the
enemy who were quartered on the other side of the river. On my
arrival I forced the passage which they held across it, which is a
long causeway by which you go to Arleux. This they had barricaded
and intrenched at three points, which they did not defend overmuch,
the place being actually so strong that with warlike men it
could keep an army fighting two or three days good. I reckoned
that next morning I should gain the last fort, quite close to Arleux,
and that the passage being free, I could get at them. From this
trouble I was relieved by the dislodgement of their army, which
went off about an hour after midnight without drum or trumpet,
and made such haste that it reached Valenciennes at 10 a.m.
There it is still intrenched on one side, and lodged in a suburb, by
favour of a river which they have again put between themselves
and me. On the very day of their departure I took 'Lescluize ;'
and seeing that I could neither attack them nor bring them to
battle where they are, I have stayed here four or five days to await
news of your army, of which I have none. Whereupon I have
resolved to depart tomorrow, and while you are sending me your
decision, I am going to help the revictualment of Cambray all I
can, and lay siege to the Castle in Cambrésis, which I hope to take
on the day I present myself, so as to make the country free and
the access to Cambray easier for the merchants who are coming
there in the greatest possible numbers. This enterprise cannot but
be very profitable, and I shall be always afoot to join your forces
wherever you may give me notice and as may suit your resources
and your convenience. I have sent you word, both by M. de Neveu
and by M. de Buzenval of the extreme expense to which I have
been put to raise and maintain this army, and how inasmuch as
your interest is involved, it was very necessary that I should be
promptly aided by you, both with money and with provisions. I
say it again by the present bearer, M. Bailly, that you may be
succoured according to my desire and intention, being here for no
other thing.—Camp of Verger, 26 August 1581.
Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 344. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XIV. 95.]
318. COBHAM to BURGHLEY.
Though there be no other occasion to write than there has been
of late, as now signified otherwise, in our joint letters, I would not
'leave' to advertise you of the receipt of those you sent by John
Welles, with the enclosed packet.
They have spread reports in this Court that Monsieur purposed
to dismiss and retire his forces. This rumour does not appear as
yet to be verified, but rather hope is conceived that he will continue
in the field ; because on Saturday last, the 26th, the king sent his
brother 100,000 francs [Burghley notes in margin : 33,333 crowns ;
in English money, £4,000] to entertain his troops till somewhat
may come to him of greater importance.
They of the Religion desire very much that the Viscount of
Turenne should before Monsieur returns be ransomed out of prison.
The king sends this week Marshal Matignon and M. de Bellièvre
to Guyenne to take order in the 'rendering' of Périgueux, and that
the Marshal may enter on the government of those parts, and
Marshal Biron thereon return to Court to receive some other
charge. This much has some months past been appointed, but the
taking of Périgueux made a stay in the sending of Marshal Matignon
until now, for he was desirous to receive his government without
trouble, the better to preserve the public peace in Guyenne.
It has been given me to understand that the king in his last
dispatch the other day granted M. Mauvissière leave to return ; and
that M. d'Age [? de l'Age], a president of the Court of Parliament
in Paris, is nominated as his successor.
The king departed this morning to St. Germain's, where it is
thought he will pass 'this week's time.'
Count Vimioso is gone to Monsieur's camp, with intention to
return next week, and so to pass privately to England, if Don
Antonio remains there. I send herewith a packet directed to
Diego Botelho.—Paris, 28 August 1581.
Add. Endd. (with three). 1½ pp. [France VI. 22.]
319. WALSINGHAM to the DUKE OF ANJOU.
Agreeably to the profession I have always made hitherto of being
your very humble and affectionate servant, I cannot but congratulate
you on the good success which I hear that God has been
pleased to grant you in your enterprise for the relief of Cambray ;
which I hold for a presage of the happy issue which I hope will
accompany not only the entire action on which you have embarked,
but also all your other virtuous and magnanimous designs. No
other among those who have vowed themselves to your service will
have more pleasure in it than I. I have not failed to advertise
her Majesty of the good news, knowing that there is no prince or
princess in the world, not even those who are nearest to you, that
would be more rejoiced than she.
It has been a singular satisfaction to me to hear from Mr
Somers, that notwithstanding any information which some persons
may have given you suspicions of the line I have taken in my
negotiations, you have been pleased to approve it ; and indeed you
may, if you please, believe that I have walked uprightly (de bon
pied) and like a man of honour, as one who would not, for all the
treasures of the world, attempt anything else ; as I hope you will
find whensoever you think fit to enquire into my conduct.
I have not failed diligently and effectually to write to her Majesty
the message that you sent me by Somers as to the support in money
which you desire. I hope she will have such consideration of it that
you may have cause to be satisfied with her, and with my good
offices in this matter ; for I should be much vexed if it should fall
Draft in hand of L. Tomson, and endd. by him. Fr. 1⅓ pp.
[France VI. 23.]
320. LORD HENRY SEYMOUR to BURGHLEY.
I arrived at Boulogne between 11 and 12, where I understood by
some (I cannot say of credit) that Monsieur had given a great overthrow
to the Prince of Parma, not without some loss of his own.
The circumstances are so uncertainly told me that I give little credit
I think this night to reach Muttrell [qy. Montreuil] so to hasten
my journey forward ; praying you to continue my friend in assuring
her Majesty that the care I have to serve her is so great that I shall
not be well in quiet till it is well performed.—Boulogne, 29 August
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. VI. 24.]
Lettres de C.
de M. vi.
321. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
The Queen my mistress has always by many proofs shown
me more goodwill than I could possibly deserve ; and now by her
liberality towards me, in which I know for certain that you have a
good share, it has been redoubled till I can by no service recompense
her, unless she will do me the honour, being fully assured of the
fidelity which I have promised her, to recognise by my actions that no
prince can serve her in will and in deed as I shall do to the end of
You have seen how I have got on in my enterprise. The sequel
goes every day from good to better. It was seen from the first that
the reports spread by the Spaniards of the forces which they had,
and their courage, in excess of the requirements, were gone off in
smoke. There was not one to show himself in front of me, and I
executed what all the world has seen, in the face of all the difficulties
and oppositions in the world. I need not point them out to you,
for they are too well-known, especially by her Majesty, who knows
them as well as I do ; since I have often complained to her with
much reason, whereon she has assisted me as she could, which has
greatly furthered me. Now she will see that with her assistance
(of which nothing will ever be known) [? dont il ne sera jamais nulles
nouvelles] if my actions have been creditable with my small
resources, hers will cause the Spaniards to find here no more credit,
favour, nor furtherance, provided her promise be promptly carried
out ; wherein you are all powerful. So I ask you as in a matter
touching her service as much as anything can.
As for what you tell me, that by the advertisement which M. de
Mauvissière has given to the king he has on the hope he gives of
the prompt conclusion of our marriage, gone back from the treaty
of alliance, I will frankly own to you that nothing is so deeply
engraven on my soul as the effecting of that. And had I not
assured myself that the Queen would more easily agree to it when
she saw me resolved to desire all that she wished towards the
accomplishment of it, I do not know if I should have agreed so
freely to conclude the alliance as you see I have done. Wherein I
have for my part changed nothing, and I assure you I had nothing
to do with the message sent by Mauvissière, which I will confirm by
letters similar to those I sent to him, as you know, to that effect.
I was by the last letter I received from the Queen my mistress
invited to that alliance on the understanding that the marriage
should in no way be broken off. I assure you that she will never
find any change in my words, nor in my will, when there is any
question of pleasing or contenting her.—Camp before Câteau-Cambrésis,
Aug. 29, 1581.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 96.]
322. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Another copy of the above.
Endd. by Burghley's secretary : Copy of Monsieur's letter to Mr
Secretary Walsingham ; and in another hand : for the Lord
Treasurer ; the original to be delivered to her Majesty. Fr. 2 pp.
[France VI. 25.]
323. RICHARD SPENCER to BURGHLEY.
I recently received a letter from my brother in which he told me
of your good will towards me and pointed out how opportunely you
had undertaken to be my patron. I was so pleased at this news
that I cannot remember anything more agreeable having ever
happened to me. What more could I desire from so illustrious a
man ? When I think of your kindness I think myself highly
blessed by God, to have betaken myself to your service. What
greater patron could I have to look after my interests? etc.—Padua,
30 Aug. 1581.
Add. Endd. Lat. 1 p. [Venice I. 2.]
324. WALSINGHAM to BURGHLEY.
Even as this bearer was ready to depart, my servant Phillips
arrived, by whom I understand that the 'moytye' of the money is
conveyed away in Lord H. Seymour's train. And whereas you desire
to know my opinion for making over the other moiety, I think it best
it should be conveyed over at several times by such couriers as are
sent over, and to be left at Amiens in the custody of some such
person as shall be appointed by the duke to take charge of it. And
for the safe transporting by sea, the courier in charge of it may
have order by the assistance of the Lieutenant of Dover to furnish
the 'passenger' with 20 shot. Now the one moiety is passed,
some respite may be taken in the conveyance of the rest. The
making over of it to exchange will both be chargeable, and also
make the matter public. I will send to the duke to know what
discreet and trusty person he can appoint at Amiens to take charge
of such sums as are to be sent over, and advertise you thereof.—
At the Court at Paris, the last of August, 1581.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley and by his Secretary :
Brought by Burnham, the 3 of Sept. 1581, (4 s.). 1 p.
[France VI. 26.]
Aug. 31 ?
325. [SOMERS] to BURGHLEY.
Understanding by your letter of August 24 to Mr Secretary that
the Queen found fault with me in two things—one, that I gave
Monsieur no more 'comfort' of her support ; the other, that I
stayed not to see the entry of Monsieur or of his vaward into
Cambrayher.—please herewith receive my answer, not as excusing
myself against a prince, but to hear the causes which moved me to
do as I did, and then refer the judgement thereof to her Majesty's
and your consideration.
For the first, I thought it no honesty nor safety for me to engage
her Majesty by my speech, or else to discredit myself, for I take it
to be safe for ministers having no certain direction to go no further
than they can help in unpleasant things, as a matter of charge is
in these days. I told him that I believed her Majesty would consider
of his request in the need wherein he said he then was, which
I would faithfully report, as upon advertisement from her ambassadors
he should have good news from her very shortly ; but that
I had no commission to assure him. And truly my answer very
well satisfied him, when I said that all diligence should be used
therein. And I thank her Majesty so far to credit my true report of
his earnest suit, as thereupon speedily to content him in that behalf.
For the other point, I protest that it was much against my will
that I came so soon from thence, wishing with all my soul that I
might have continued in such a company longer than until his
entry into that town. But I considered that M. Pinart and I went
to Monsieur for one cause ; he going from Paris a day and a half
before me was come from him a day before my arrival there. For
he found him in a 'stayed' place ; and therefore both for that, but
especially for the speed that Monsieur desired to be used in his
request, he having dispatched me in the morning, using also some
speeches to me of danger of a battle, and I having but posthorses,
for in troth I said that I would take his fortune, so desirous was I to
have seen the end of those causes and speeches of his Highness,
made me come away the sooner. And yet I continued there four
hours after my dispatch, and went with the army within two leagues
and in so plain sight of Cambray, his vaward within a league, and
heard of the enemy's retiring to Haxt [?] and Nave, a league off,
that I held it for certain there would be no impeachment, and to
that effect I advertised you.
I beseech you that this to her Majesty and yourself shall be
thought good, that I may herein receive no more blame than may
be imputed to my simplicity.
If any French minister be made acquainted with the sending of
the money, it will not be kept secret, and so be in the more danger
by the way. If it be in coin, it may be considered whether it may
not be put in post or 'in journey' in trunks to Montreuil, or,
better, to Abbeville or Amiens, were it not for danger of Hesdin,
not three leagues from the highway between Montreuil and Abbeville ;
and from Amiens to advise Monsieur, that he may send
persons to receive it 'upon' his writing, mentioning the sum, or
else to forewarn him that 'by a day it should be there,' that his
ministers may away it, to save time. If at Amiens, at the
sign of the Ave Maria, if at Montreuil, at the sign of the
Gros Cornet, or the Homme Sauvage, if at Abbeville, at L'Escu
de France ; not to be told there, 'for making it too apparent.'
From Amiens it may be carried to Péronne without danger, and
thither Monsieur may send an escort ; for from Château Cambrésis
and Bapaume and Bouchain, the enemy's horsemen make forays
sometimes upon the passengers.
Draft in hand of Somers. Endd. : End of August 1581. To my
L. Threr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. VI. 27.]
326. SUGGESTIONS for the TREATY.
To have added to the league defensive to suppress pirates'
depredations and disorders by sea. The same to be proclaimed.
Ships to be armed on either part to clear the seas, and bond to be
taken of all persons going to sea for their good behaviour on the
Touching a staple to be established at Rouen, as was accorded by
the treaty of Blois and other points depending thereon for the
benefit of the English merchant.
(1) Whether a league offensive particular against any prince to
be named ;
(2) Or whether a league offensive general, en conservation d'état.
If the second be thought the meeter ;
(1) Whether her Majesty will like that it be concluded to be
friends to friends and enemies to enemies ;
(2) If either of the princes confederate shall be invaded by
another prince the prince assailed shall be bound to advise his
confederate thereof ; who shall send straight to the assailant to
warn him to cease his invasion and repair the wrong done, or
else that he, the prince confederate, will denounce war to him ; as he
shall do indeed if the invader will not retire and make reparation
of the wrong within six weeks.
If either of the confederates shall be invaded, and the prince
invaded shall require his confederate to declare open war and enter
into acts of hostility against the invader with him as bound by
league (after due admonition and summons made as aforesaid), who
shall bear the charges of the forces of the prince 'required ?' Shall
he bear them alone for a certain time, or the prince 'requiring'
bear a portion thereof according to his quality and greatness ? Or
shall it be borne at the common charge of both princes for a time
to be limited ? And if the prince invaded shall desire longer
continuance, whether he shall bear the charges of his confederate's
forces for the time so required ; or whether the prince required
shall be 'at his choice' to send a number of ships and men to such
places as his confederate shall appoint, or else a certain sum of
money, and no ships or men ; or whether some ships, some men,
and some money ? And for what time, and how many, monthly or
otherwise, and how to be paid ?
Also, how far the ships and men shall go to invade or damage
his enemy. Also whether it may be thought good that the number
of horse and foot mentioned in the league defensive of Blois to be
reciprocally delivered may not be more limited in this league
offensive, and so make one aid, either the same or a less number.
And whether all in this to be horse and foot, as there set down, or
whether some ships may not 'supply in stead' the horse, seeing
that for England and Ireland, French horsemen are not to be much
Draft in hand of L. Tomson, and endd. by him : To be answered
from England. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 28.]
327. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last, which I wrote by your messenger, I have learnt
that you have put your hand in good style to the business you have
to do here for me, the Queen of England having favoured me so
much as to send Lord Henry Seymour to me with that remembrance
of me which she has always shown me, [to say that] the friendship
she is pleased to bear me will be followed by like effects, as pertains
to so great and virtuous a princess. This recent obligation is so
engraven on my heart that I would make the greatest part of my
happiness depend on the share she will give me of her favour,
which I shall preserve as dearly as my life. I say to you with
truth that the command which her Majesty has over me is such
that whatever risks or conditions her orders may involve nothing
will ever be disagreeable or difficult for me to serve her in the
execution thereof as it shall please her to signify [?] them to me.
I do not know if she will be satisfied with my message to you about
the alliance which she desired ; which I should not wish for without
the completion of our marriage, save that I wish only for what
pleases her, and what I recognise to be agreeable to her. I assure
you that in what has recently been dealt with by M. de Mauvissière
there is nothing whatever of mine, and you will never find me of
two wills as regards her Majesty ; which I beg you to testify to her
on my behalf, believing that I will do nothing but what she is
pleased to command me. I am writing the same to Vray and
bidding him keep the same way that he has been told to do, in
conformity with her desires.
As to what you wrote to me, I will say nothing about the fortunate
success of my enterprises, inasmuch as it will befit me better that
you should hear of them from other, since I cannot discourse of
them without attributing to myself what is due to me ; and that had
better be published by the repute of the feat in other mouths than
mine: I ascribe the praise of it to her Majesty's favour and goodwill
towards me ; and believe that as concerns you personally I shall
never forget the good offices which you are kind enough to continue
to me, that I may requite them as I confess that by your deserts I
am bound to do.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Walsingham. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl.
and Fl. XIV. 97.]