Elizabeth: August 1581, 16-31

Pages 291-310

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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August 1581, 16-31

Aug. 16. 300. The BISHOP OF HALBERSTADT to the QUEEN.
The bond of blood by which your ancestors were united to our ancient Imperial House of Brunswick, lately renewed by letters, when Robert Beale, clerk (secretarius) of your Privy Council, acted as envoy to our lord and relative Julius Duke of Brunswick, makes us send these to you the more freely. Three noble youths, our loyal friends, John von Arnim, Hermann Kotz, and Christopher von Dorstet, have presented themselves to us, stimulated by the fame of your virtue which is deservedly celebrated throughout the world as of a pillar of Church and Commonwealth, and of your realm, by God's blessing peacefully administered for many years, declaring that they are possessed by no common desire of travelling in the same, and therefore begged our aid, that their expedition might not turn out a fraud, being strangers (ne fraudi ea ipsis profectio esset, tanquam peregrinis). We have therefore given them these letters as a testimonial of their noble birth and blameless life, and commend them to you that they may have the safe access to various places in your realm, and may themselves be safe under your protection from the wiles of bad men. This protection we venture to promise ourselves they will the more readily obtain seeing that the two peoples, English and Saxons, have from the first been on friendly terms, owing, if we may believe the histories, to the identity of their origin. In return we offer you our duty, and doubt not that you will maintain the goodwill which has always existed between our families. If ever such goodwill was ever needed between royal families, it is worth preserving in this corrupt age, that the glory of God's name, driven like a ship amid the waves, may be protected by the work of even a few Christians from the storms which are assailing the Church and the Christian commonwealth. —Gröningen, 17 Cal. Sept. 1581. (Signed) Henricus Julius. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. Latin. 1¾ pp. [Germany II. 23.]
Aug. 16. 301. WALSINGHAM to the QUEEN.
— Paris, 16 August 1581. See 'Compleat Ambassador,' pp. 390, 391. Copy in hand of L. Tomson and endd. by him, as for Walsingham. 1½ pp. [France VI. 13.]
— Paris, 17 August 1581. P.S.—I refer you, touching other proceedings here, to the lord ambassador's letters. See 'Compleat Ambassador,' second letter on p. 392, Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 14.]
— Paris, 17 August 1581. P.S.—Mr Somers, who is now with the duke, has commission to offer him support in case he shall see his necessity great, or not likely to be otherwise supplied. I am given to understand that Pinart after he has been with his Highness is appointed to repair into England if the Duke shall find it meet ; and that the end of his repair thither is to press her Majesty to a final resolution in the cause of marriage. See 'Compleat Ambassador,' first letter on p. 392. Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley : Mr Secretary, with copy of Marchaumont's letter to him. (See Hatfield Papers ii. No. 1014.) Brought by young Watson. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 15.]
We need not enlarge upon the robberies and insolencies which Francis Drake, a subject of her Majesty, has committed in his three voyages to the Indies, since they are notorious. In the second, he plundered even to the rrequa[?] which was coming from Panama to Nombre de Dios carrying gold and silver for the king ; and in the third, so great a sum of ducats that while most of the members of this consulate have been losers, we do not venture to specify the sum, which is most terrible. And as persons interested, we are sending, as you have heard, Pedro de Zubiaur in the name of this consulate with a power from it and order from the king, to solicit, and with him Don Bernardino de Mendoza, ambassador in that kingdom, to hasten the restitution of the said plunder. And inasmuch as by the persons whom we have at Court we do not hear that the ambassador has written any resolutions in all this time, while ships must go on being laden at great loss and risk, we have not liked, being persons to whom trade and its freedom everywhere is so important, to tell you that if the said restitution is not made conformably to reason and justice, we must beseech the king to make it for us by indemnifying us out of English goods ; which we doubt not he will order to be accomplished, as other kings do with their subjects, and some of us have proved whenever they have taken any property, and justice has not been done, giving them letters to pay themselves out of the goods of those subjects of the king who have done such robbery. And whereas those of that noble city and all that realm have for many years held such friendly trade with Andalusia and this city of Seville, we should be very sorry that you as merchants should be the first to pay these damages ; wherefore we beg you, seeing what you have at stake, to supplicate her Majesty on your side to order justice to be done shortly. For this we hope, since if it fails us, we must have recourse to what we have said, which is our last remedy, and that which we shall get from our king in order to be paid for the great robbery and loss we have received.—Seville, 17 Aug. 1581. (Signed) Diego Diaz, Alfonso de Cacalla de Leon, Antonio de Cabrera. Add. Endd. Span. 2 pp. [Spain I. 71].
Aug. 17, 18. 305. 'Somers negotiation with Monseigneur the xviith and xviiith of August, 1581.' After Monsieur had heard from Somers how things had passed 'from' the king and his deputies 'with' the Queen's ambassadors, and that M. de Vray's request to the king, by Monsieur's command, as he said, had stayed proceedings to treat of a league [sic] unless it might be with the marriage, and Monsieur had been 'moved' by Somers whether he were of that mind still, or would be pleased that the king and her Majesty might proceed to the treaty of a league, not speaking of the marriage ; Monsieur answered that he had still been put in hope of the marriage, and by letters which he had lately received from her Majesty and from M. de Marchaumont he conceived more assurance of the marriage than M. de Walsingham [sic] had given him ; and that her Highness had written to him that the league should not esloigner le mariage. 'But' said he 'si cela ne se pourra faire pour les difficultés qu'on a alléguées,' yet would he not depart from the good affection that he assures himself her Majesty bears to him and which he also owes to her for her virtues and the honour she has done him. As for the treaty, he referred that to the king, as he had told his mind to M. Pinart ; and would do all that might please her Majesty. Then Somers according to his instructions told him what bruits were given out of an overture made to him for marriage with Spain, and that her Majesty esteemed him a prince of that honour 'as' he would not entertain any other so long as this pursuit of marriage continued. He 'assured' that he heard not one word of that matter this 12 month and that he esteemed much more the amity of England than that of Spain. After this he remembered a request which he had willed Somers to recommend in his name to his Majesty last year, for which purpose he then sent M. de Buy to her ; which was for some aid of money for his cause then in hand. Now having much more need of her Majesty's support, he should acknowledge an infinite obligation to her if she would assist him with some good sum of money, being now entered into this action, and so accompanied with nobility and other friends as he is. Thereto Somers answered that he understood that the king had furnished him with money, and that the States of the Low Countries had also assisted him as they are bound to do, seeing him thus 'avancid' for their weal. He answered that the king was not si eschauffé therein as he desired, nor that he had received any from the States : saying with very earnest speech and countenance that if he be not succoured speedily he shall be forced to depart from the action, which would touch him very much in honour, considering what companies of 'voluntary nobility' were come to do him honour and service. Of this he besought her Majesty to have some consideration, to make him the more bound to her. Somers said that the departing from the action would encourage the enemy and greatly hinder his affairs thus well begun ; and that the States ought for their own honour and safety, to have special regard thereto. He said that he could not assure himself of sufficiency from them in due time, and that this matter did not require any delay. Somers answered that he had no commission to deal in that matter, but would not fail to report his request to her Majesty's ambassador, who would advise her thereof with speed. These speeches Somers had with Monsieur at three several times ; the first as he was marching in battle array about 3 leagues from Cambray ; the second at his place of encamping that night, called 'Hombrecorte' [Honnecourt], an old 'torm' abbey, whither he returned, having lodged there the night before, by reason of want of forage nearer to the enemy, after he had been the most part of that day [Note in margin : Thursday, 17 Aug.] within two leagues of Cambray, occupied in taking two villages upon the passage, fortified by the other side, viz. Marcoin and Crevecu ; and the third time, on Friday morning before his departure 'into like order,' where surely he was not unoccupied, both in dispatching and directing, and also in taking 'most pain' in the field by continual 'travail' between the several companies. That morning, upon the arrival of M. de Bellievre the day before from the Prince of Parma, Somers learned of Monsieur, upon request made to him, that the prince answered that if Monsieur would stay his army from entering further into the country, he should have liberty to victual Cambray quietly, so also that he would leave the party of the States. Whereto Monsieur made answer that he came not to fight for profit, but for his honour, which he had engaged to relieve his poor servants and friends in Cambray, and so perform his promise to the States, and therefore, in the prince's demand, he must have their consent. He did not mean to stay his army, but would relieve Cambray and pursue his enterprise, or else would assay his fortune. This offer of the prince made Monsieur think, as he told Somers, that he would not willingly fight. At Somers' coming away his Highness besought her Majesty that for his sake she would write to the Prince of Parma and use her good means where the same might do good, that he would put the Viscount of Turenne to ransom, according to the ancient and honourable usage of war, or else exchange him for other prisoners in the States' hands ; naming the Count of Egmont and de Selles, now prisoners in the citadel of Cambray. But if they would not exchange, then to set him at a ransom. So Monsieur and the gentlemen would be more bounden to her Majesty. (Signed) John Somers. Copy. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland and Flanders XIV. 92.]
Aug. 18. 306. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Since it is by Mr Somers that I am sending you this letter, I think I should err in not committing everything to his sufficient hands who by his good judgement will be able to put them before you by word of mouth better than by writing. I will only say that there is nothing however difficult willed by the Queen my mistress that I do not will and desire it, and will not endeavour to contest her therein though it were a matter of my life ; although in regard to the matter in hand, it seems that there is some delay to our marriage, which is the last thing that I wish to put off, as my greatest pleasure and happiness, and that from which I would not withdraw for any occasion that could present itself. It will never arise through any fault of mine. I approve all that you have done, provided that our marriage remains unbroken and without possibility of alteration ; as you will hear from Mr Somers.—Camp at Honnecourt, 18 August 1581. Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France VI. 16.]
Aug. 18. 307. The DUKE OF ANJOU to COBHAM.
I am so resolved to serve the Queen my good mistress in all her wishes that I can refuse her nothing that might be acceptable to her save one, which I can never give up whatever her commands to me may be ; namely, to hope for a larger share of her favour than any prince who may serve her. I cannot give up this place to any man soever ; and so I desire all that is her pleasure, provided that it be not with such disaster and prejudice as may shake the good success of our marriage by that means, in such sort as Mr Somers the present bearer will tell you, whom I beg you to believe on this point, and other particulars which he will tell you from me.— Hondecourt, 18 Aug. Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 16 bis.]
Aug. 19. 308. The KING OF SPAIN to the QUEEN.
Letter of recall for Dr Antonio de Castillo, sent by 'our uncle of glorious memory, King Henry.'—Lisbon, 19 Aug. 1581. (Signed) Philippus. Add. Endd. Lat. ¾ p. [Spain I. 72.]
Aug. 19.
M. & D. iv. p. 166.
The dispatch brought by M. de Neveu will have informed you of my resolve taken agreeably to your message by M. de Medavy, who found me at this place. Without any junction with the States' army, I have with my own made the Prince of Parma quit the place in such a fright that on the night of last Thursday he went off with his army towards Bouchain, putting two rivers between himself and me, all his swagger gone and vanished into smoke. He allowed me to enter this town without striking a blow, and as quietly as if he had not been in the country. Tomorrow I shall see if there is any means of pursuing him. I desire above all things that the States' forces should now join with mine and supply us with some money and provisions, since when we advance further into the country we cannot obtain either one or the other, and I have put in so much of my own that I cannot go on without assistance. If it does not come at the present opportunity, when their interest is more involved than mine, I cannot hope that they will ever do it, as they will never have the attraction or the incitement of a finer or more signal task (subject), whereof a commencement thus favourable will repay us by the completion of the work with all the satisfaction we can desire. You know that such things are in the hands of those whose fortune exalts their reputation among men ; but it must also be watched, for if by any fault it escapes us, I do not think it will long level the road as it has done towards the success of this enterprise, with which I ought certainly to be most content and thank God for His assistance. Things being then in a better position than when M. de Medavy was dispatched, and the way very much shortened, and the town of Cambray freed, by favour of which many things can be undertaken, it remains for the Estates to bring up their army with all diligence. I am sending to it presently, to give them like advice ; and remaining as I shall do master of the open country I will take such a road as may be decided to be the most convenient for the prosperity of the affairs of the States to whom your good counsel may be of great service, if you will set before them the long time that I have had this army on my hands, which though one of the finest that has been seen for a long time, has for that very reason cost me the more to get together and maintain up to this point, without the necessary expenses in this town, which amount to no little. So if on their side they do not help themselves and do not send me means of sustaining it until some other comes in, it will be impossible for me to lead it further, and I must to my great regret be content with having succoured this town and freed it from its miseries. It is now so well provided that the enemy cannot hope with the resources at his disposal to get it into his hands ; so that they will long enjoy the advantages they have gained, wherein I will according to my promise assist them with all my power. M. Chauvin the present bearer will tell you more fully how things have passed so I will not make this longer.—Cambray, 19 August 1581. P.S.—As I cannot do without M. Chauvin, who has business to do with (étant chargé d'affaires auprès de) des Pruneaux, I have decided to send you this bearer, M. de Buzanval. Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 327. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 93.]
Aug. 19.
M. & D. iv. p. 163.
You will have seen by my dispatch which M. de Neveu brought you the resolution I had formed to come with my army straight to Cambray. I have executed this so fortunately that the Prince of Parma having retired with his army on Thursday night entirely and in disorder left the place to me, and I entered about 6 o'clock yesterday evening without hindrance. I shall stay only today to set things in order here, so that I may follow up the good success which has befallen me and clear the Cambresis, which I hope to bring wholly into my obedience within a few days. I wished to tell you this to make you sharers in the good news, whereof you receive as much benefit in your affairs as might or could be hoped. But you must also consider that having staked my means and hazarded my life very liberally, if I am not promptly assisted by you both with men and with money, it is quite impossible for me to support the burden, and we should be in danger of having to content ourselves with what has been done ; a thing which would by no means meet either your views or mine, these affairs being managed more by prestige than by any other expedient that can be found. And while this good fortune brings us favour, and all the towns of this country begin to open their arms to me, let us, I pray you, seize it by the hair, that it may not escape us, since you can never employ your resources in anything which can bring you more honour and profit. Thus as I am assured, since your interest is so much concerned, that you will on your part spare nothing, so you will believe that on mine I will never rest till I see you satisfied in your hearts, making you recover the repose and liberty of which you have been deprived by the tyrannical dominations of your enemies. Thus, without using longer discourse, which would serve only to fill paper, three things are necessary on your part ; the junction of your forces with mine, a good substantial sum to maintain my army, and the provisions necessary for it at its entrance into your country. If you delay in the very least, the fault will be such as can never be repaired, as you will hear from M. Chauvin the present bearer, whom I am sending to you on purpose, and have commanded to use all diligence in his return after he has made lively representations to you as to the importance of this matter ; which touches you so nearly that I will pray you with all affection to let everthing else go and see to it, and that we may not by an irreparable fault allow that to escape which I see we have completely acquired. If such a misfortune occurs, I shall be at any rate excused, having fulfilled my duty and my promises so thoroughly that I can expect no reproach. Aid me then at this moment, for there never was so fine a one ; and in so doing believe that I shall never abandon you. For the rest give credit to Chauvin.—Cambray, 19 August 1581. P.S.—As in the last. Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 327. Fr. 2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. 94.]
I am by secret intelligence given most assuredly to understand that about two months ago there was a plot sent out of Spain [sic ; but qy. Scotland] to the Pope showing him upon the 'alienation' of villeqr [sic : but is not Morton meant ?] what way is to be taken for the conquest of Scotland ; which the Pope was desired, in case he should allow and like it, to send to the King of Spain. This being by him greatly liked, he has very earnestly recommended it to the king, and has assured the party that sent it, that the king will employ himself to the uttermost of his power in the execution of it. He that gave this advertisement is not without hope to get knowledge of the particulars of the plot ; as also from whom it was sent out of Scotland (?). He desires that the matter touching that point of the sending of a plot from Scotland (?) to the Pope may be kept secret ; for being known, it may breed him some peril, and hinder his obtaining further knowledge. 'Hambleton,' brother to him that killed the Regent, arrived in this town about two days ago from Spain. Upon his coming, there is great hope conceived that the young King of Scotland will lack no assistance that the King of Spain can give him. My lord ambassador acquaints you with some particulars touching his dealing with the King of Spain, so I refer you to his relation. He seems to rejoice greatly there that the Earl of Angus receives no better entertainment in England ; whereby they hope that such as are of his party in Scotland will seek to make their own peace at home, as void of hope to receive any great relief out of England. There is no one thing that so surely prognosticates that some unavoidable mischief is to grow out of Scotland against her Majesty, as that she has of late had no power to put anything in operation that leads to the preventing thereof. I may add also, her neglecting to take order with the Scotch Queen. Such as love her, and depend on her fortune, can but lament it, and pray that it may please God to open her eyes to see and do that which may be meet for her greatness.—Paris, 20 August 1581. Holograph. Add. Endd. Words in cipher deciphered by Burghley. 2 pp. [France VI. 17.]
By Mr Somers' declaration of what has passed between him and the duke, you may see in what necessity he stands of money and how weakly he is supported by the king his brother ; so that unless he receives some present support from her Majesty according to his request, the only exploit that this army is like to do is the revictualling of Cambray, for he will presently be forced to disperse it. So the benefit his enterprise works is only honour to himself, in that he has relieved the town according to his promise and caused the enemy to withdraw. But the States, for whose sake this enterprise is taken in hand, will be in great distress ; by reason that the enemy has greatly increased his forces, the brunt of whose malice the States are now like to bear alone, since the duke will be forced to disperse his army. By her Majesty's command, I have sought by all the means I can to inform myself what relief has been given him by the king, but I cannot find that he has received anything at all ; which is generally misliked here, save by such as are of the Spanish faction. They are grieved to see the king at so great charges otherwise in matters of pleasure, and suffering his brother to want in an action so honourable and so profitable to this realm. I am assured that about four days ago the Queen Mother lamented with tears the king's hard dealing in this case towards his brother, as also to see the great impositions that have of late been levied here, so greatly to the grief of the people, and so unprofitably or rather so vainly employed. Her credit with him is not so great as it has been. She is forced to make court to la Valette, who is all in all with the king ; whose insolence is so great towards all men in respect of the great favour the king bears towards him that it is thought by the wisest here there will come thereof some dangerous effects, for as far as I can learn, there is a general 'discontentation of' the present government. Only the House of Guise is of late crept into a little credit, by reason of this marriage between Arques and the Queen's sister, the duke's kinswoman. And as the king's credit greatly decays, so does Monsieur's greatly increase, especially in this town, where heretofore he was least loved. No one thing shows more the credit and authority he has in this realm than the levying of so great an army without money, and without the sound of either drum or trumpet ; especially his army being 'compounded' of the flower of the nobility of France. This increase of his credit and authority in his realm ought in due course of policy to move her Majesty to make the more account of him, and to deal with him in such friendly sort, especially in this his necessity, as to make him an assured friend for ever [sic]. As for this relief which is presently required at her Majesty's hands, it may be delivered to him, in respect of the inward friendship between them, by way of loan, without mentioning the end whereto it shall be employed. And if hereafter, upon the conference that shall pass between the commissioners, especially touching the secret treaties for the Low Countries, she shall find the king not disposed to deal so frankly with his brother as in reason he ought, then she may in honour and with reason stay from yielding further support.—Paris, 20 August 1581. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. VI. 18.]
Aug. 20. 313. "The substance of a letter from the LORD TREASURER to MR SECRETARY WALSINGHAM, then in France."
Mr Secretary greatly 'mistakes' the alteration of the French from yielding to a treaty without marriage to proceed upon anything uttered in England by the Queen to M. Marchaumont tending to give Monsieur assurance that if the king will bear the charges of Monsieur's war, she will marry ; for she says she continues as she did when you departed, and loth would she be to alter anything from your instructions without first making you privy thereto. As for her speech to Marchaumont, she says it accords with what you have in hand to say, viz. :—
(1) That she cannot consent to marry Monsieur, to bring her realm into a war. (2) She cannot think it good for Monsieur's honour, or for the weal of the French king and herself, that he should now by any patched composition leave off his enterprise. These two propositions she held and does hold ; so that there remains to be considered how this war should be maintained, which can be but in one of these two sorts :—If the exhibition of the aids of the Low Countries shall not serve, then either the French king and her Majesty must do it under hand ; or else the king must do it alone, which it is unlikely he will do. If her Majesty finds that Monsieur cannot perform the action without some support from her, you are instructed to promise that rather than he should desist, she will give him some support, though you are not instructed to what quantity. Upon this point she seems to 'find lack' that you have not sought to know, or not advertised her, some estimate of the charges of this war, with a declaration how much the States are bound to contribute thereto, whereby might be seen what should be 'in opinion' requisite to be further supplied, of Monsieur's own patrimony, and 'consequently' by the king, who 'ought' for the honour of his brother and the Crown of France, which only shall be benefited by this requisition. Lastly upon these things advertised, her Majesty says she is to consider what were a meet portion for her to yield 'to' the rest. As to the second, that the French king is to maintain the war without charge to her Majesty (and so it seems by Marchaumont's letter, if it may be obtained, she will marry), she never used such speeches to him nor to none else, for she continues therein in mind as she did at your departure ; that is :—
If the French king, at the instance of his brother, upon respect and hope of marriage to follow, should yield thereto for the bearing of all the charges, on condition she shall promise to marry, you were willed to make no answer affirmatively thereto, as a matter not remembered in your instructions, but should advertise her Majesty thereof ; and so she would you should keep that course, if it be offered. At this time she seems not resolved what to answer if the king shall offer the whole charges on condition of the marriage ; but upon your advertisement she will further advise. She has not found by any letters that you have ever dealt with the king to aid his brother, which to do she says you know her mind. Monsieur may think his case much forgotten of you as her minister, whereby he has cause to think that your coming was only to break the marriage, and only to procure a league without regard how he might be supported by the king. She finds lack that you have not advertised of what forces Monsieur's army consists, nor of what charge, nor of what force the enemy is, nor yet the likelihood of the success of this enterprise for the victualling of Cambray, whereof the Court and Monsieur's ministers cannot be ignorant. She says that Marchaumont's words are true in this sort : That the great impediment to her marriage was the charges of a war should be brought with it. But if the king would bear the whole charges, she saw no great impediment but it might proceed,—so as she does not write contrary to her own words always used before your going. But being by me, the Lord Treasurer, requested to consider what should be answered if Monsieur can bring the king to bear the whole charge, she says, when she shall hear thereof, she will give further answer. In hand of L. Tomson, and endd. with date by him. 1½ pp. [France VI. 19.]
Aug. 23. 314. The KING OF SPAIN to the QUEEN.
If you are accepting as you should the letter which I lately sent you full of love and confidence, and I hear that satisfaction has been given me, nothing more agreeable can befall me than to have had an experience of our mutual love therein. But meantime as I hear that 'Don Antonius' [sic in orig.] has not only had free access to England, but has been received by you otherwise than I had hoped ; and also that a fleet is being fitted out for him, and he is being aided with men, arms, provisions and money, and finds everything with you friendly to himself and hostile to me, I could not but expostulate with you about it all, the only way left to me of satisfying my good will, which, worried as I have been, is not yet wiped out. I beg therefore, as I have done before, that you will take steps at once to have Don Antonio handed over to me. If you do, no one shall surpass me in gratitude ; if not, I at least ask that you will have him, with other rebels, turned out of your dominions as soon as possible. You owe thus much to the public peace, our brotherhood, and our alliance and unbroken treaties. If you refuse, and like again to abuse our often-injured patience, you are to know that for what place soever in our dominions he departs from your country with hostile mind towards us and our subjects, with whatever aids to war, on whatever pretext supplied, I shall understand war to be undeservedly declared upon me by you. If that happens, note will be taken that I have never lacked loyalty in preserving amity, and that when peace, so often shaken by you, has been quickly broken I shall not lack force to meet the consequences. For the rest credit Bernardino de Mendoza.— Lisbon, 23 Aug. 1581. (Signed) Philippus, and below Jo. Idiaques. Add. Endd. Lat. 2/3 sheet. [Spain I. 73.]
—Paris, 21 August 1581. See "Compleat Ambassador," pp. 396, 397. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [France VI. 20.]
Aug. 25. 316. The DUKE OF ANJOU to MARCHAUMONT. The Scottish gentleman who bears this, of the family of Hamilton, was recommended to me in such a good quarter that I send you this in his favour. Please hear what he has to say touching some business that he has with the Queen, and kindly assist him with all such recommendations on my behalf as the case deserves, and so far as you recognise that you can honourably intervene ; my intention being to do him all the favour in my power provided there is nothing at which her Majesty can take offence.— Camp at le Verger, 25 August 1581. Add. Endd. : Monsieur to Marchaumont. Fr. ½ p. [France VI. 21.]
Aug. 26.
M. & D. iv. p. 198.
You will have heard from M. de Buzenval what happened in regard to the succour which I brought to the town of Cambray and the arrangements I made during the two days I stayed there. After that I resolved to seek means of joining your forces, and came with my army to lodge here, determining to give battle to the enemy who were quartered on the other side of the river. On my arrival I forced the passage which they held across it, which is a long causeway by which you go to Arleux. This they had barricaded and intrenched at three points, which they did not defend overmuch, the place being actually so strong that with warlike men it could keep an army fighting two or three days good. I reckoned that next morning I should gain the last fort, quite close to Arleux, and that the passage being free, I could get at them. From this trouble I was relieved by the dislodgement of their army, which went off about an hour after midnight without drum or trumpet, and made such haste that it reached Valenciennes at 10 a.m. There it is still intrenched on one side, and lodged in a suburb, by favour of a river which they have again put between themselves and me. On the very day of their departure I took 'Lescluize ;' and seeing that I could neither attack them nor bring them to battle where they are, I have stayed here four or five days to await news of your army, of which I have none. Whereupon I have resolved to depart tomorrow, and while you are sending me your decision, I am going to help the revictualment of Cambray all I can, and lay siege to the Castle in Cambrésis, which I hope to take on the day I present myself, so as to make the country free and the access to Cambray easier for the merchants who are coming there in the greatest possible numbers. This enterprise cannot but be very profitable, and I shall be always afoot to join your forces wherever you may give me notice and as may suit your resources and your convenience. I have sent you word, both by M. de Neveu and by M. de Buzenval of the extreme expense to which I have been put to raise and maintain this army, and how inasmuch as your interest is involved, it was very necessary that I should be promptly aided by you, both with money and with provisions. I say it again by the present bearer, M. Bailly, that you may be succoured according to my desire and intention, being here for no other thing.—Camp of Verger, 26 August 1581. Copy. Endd. Enclosure in No. 344. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 95.]
Aug. 28. 318. COBHAM to BURGHLEY.
Though there be no other occasion to write than there has been of late, as now signified otherwise, in our joint letters, I would not 'leave' to advertise you of the receipt of those you sent by John Welles, with the enclosed packet. They have spread reports in this Court that Monsieur purposed to dismiss and retire his forces. This rumour does not appear as yet to be verified, but rather hope is conceived that he will continue in the field ; because on Saturday last, the 26th, the king sent his brother 100,000 francs [Burghley notes in margin : 33,333 crowns ; in English money, £4,000] to entertain his troops till somewhat may come to him of greater importance. They of the Religion desire very much that the Viscount of Turenne should before Monsieur returns be ransomed out of prison. The king sends this week Marshal Matignon and M. de Bellièvre to Guyenne to take order in the 'rendering' of Périgueux, and that the Marshal may enter on the government of those parts, and Marshal Biron thereon return to Court to receive some other charge. This much has some months past been appointed, but the taking of Périgueux made a stay in the sending of Marshal Matignon until now, for he was desirous to receive his government without trouble, the better to preserve the public peace in Guyenne. It has been given me to understand that the king in his last dispatch the other day granted M. Mauvissière leave to return ; and that M. d'Age [? de l'Age], a president of the Court of Parliament in Paris, is nominated as his successor. The king departed this morning to St. Germain's, where it is thought he will pass 'this week's time.' Count Vimioso is gone to Monsieur's camp, with intention to return next week, and so to pass privately to England, if Don Antonio remains there. I send herewith a packet directed to Diego Botelho.—Paris, 28 August 1581. Add. Endd. (with three). 1½ pp. [France VI. 22.]
Aug. 28. 319. WALSINGHAM to the DUKE OF ANJOU.
Agreeably to the profession I have always made hitherto of being your very humble and affectionate servant, I cannot but congratulate you on the good success which I hear that God has been pleased to grant you in your enterprise for the relief of Cambray ; which I hold for a presage of the happy issue which I hope will accompany not only the entire action on which you have embarked, but also all your other virtuous and magnanimous designs. No other among those who have vowed themselves to your service will have more pleasure in it than I. I have not failed to advertise her Majesty of the good news, knowing that there is no prince or princess in the world, not even those who are nearest to you, that would be more rejoiced than she. It has been a singular satisfaction to me to hear from Mr Somers, that notwithstanding any information which some persons may have given you suspicions of the line I have taken in my negotiations, you have been pleased to approve it ; and indeed you may, if you please, believe that I have walked uprightly (de bon pied) and like a man of honour, as one who would not, for all the treasures of the world, attempt anything else ; as I hope you will find whensoever you think fit to enquire into my conduct. I have not failed diligently and effectually to write to her Majesty the message that you sent me by Somers as to the support in money which you desire. I hope she will have such consideration of it that you may have cause to be satisfied with her, and with my good offices in this matter ; for I should be much vexed if it should fall out otherwise. Draft in hand of L. Tomson, and endd. by him. Fr. 1⅓ pp. [France VI. 23.]
I arrived at Boulogne between 11 and 12, where I understood by some (I cannot say of credit) that Monsieur had given a great overthrow to the Prince of Parma, not without some loss of his own. The circumstances are so uncertainly told me that I give little credit thereto. I think this night to reach Muttrell [qy. Montreuil] so to hasten my journey forward ; praying you to continue my friend in assuring her Majesty that the care I have to serve her is so great that I shall not be well in quiet till it is well performed.—Boulogne, 29 August 1581. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. VI. 24.]
Aug. 29.
Lettres de C. de M. vi. p. 491.
The Queen my mistress has always by many proofs shown me more goodwill than I could possibly deserve ; and now by her liberality towards me, in which I know for certain that you have a good share, it has been redoubled till I can by no service recompense her, unless she will do me the honour, being fully assured of the fidelity which I have promised her, to recognise by my actions that no prince can serve her in will and in deed as I shall do to the end of my life. You have seen how I have got on in my enterprise. The sequel goes every day from good to better. It was seen from the first that the reports spread by the Spaniards of the forces which they had, and their courage, in excess of the requirements, were gone off in smoke. There was not one to show himself in front of me, and I executed what all the world has seen, in the face of all the difficulties and oppositions in the world. I need not point them out to you, for they are too well-known, especially by her Majesty, who knows them as well as I do ; since I have often complained to her with much reason, whereon she has assisted me as she could, which has greatly furthered me. Now she will see that with her assistance (of which nothing will ever be known) [? dont il ne sera jamais nulles nouvelles] if my actions have been creditable with my small resources, hers will cause the Spaniards to find here no more credit, favour, nor furtherance, provided her promise be promptly carried out ; wherein you are all powerful. So I ask you as in a matter touching her service as much as anything can. As for what you tell me, that by the advertisement which M. de Mauvissière has given to the king he has on the hope he gives of the prompt conclusion of our marriage, gone back from the treaty of alliance, I will frankly own to you that nothing is so deeply engraven on my soul as the effecting of that. And had I not assured myself that the Queen would more easily agree to it when she saw me resolved to desire all that she wished towards the accomplishment of it, I do not know if I should have agreed so freely to conclude the alliance as you see I have done. Wherein I have for my part changed nothing, and I assure you I had nothing to do with the message sent by Mauvissière, which I will confirm by letters similar to those I sent to him, as you know, to that effect. I was by the last letter I received from the Queen my mistress invited to that alliance on the understanding that the marriage should in no way be broken off. I assure you that she will never find any change in my words, nor in my will, when there is any question of pleasing or contenting her.—Camp before Câteau-Cambrésis, Aug. 29, 1581. Copy. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 96.]
Aug. 29. 322. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Another copy of the above. Endd. by Burghley's secretary : Copy of Monsieur's letter to Mr Secretary Walsingham ; and in another hand : for the Lord Treasurer ; the original to be delivered to her Majesty. Fr. 2 pp. [France VI. 25.]
I recently received a letter from my brother in which he told me of your good will towards me and pointed out how opportunely you had undertaken to be my patron. I was so pleased at this news that I cannot remember anything more agreeable having ever happened to me. What more could I desire from so illustrious a man ? When I think of your kindness I think myself highly blessed by God, to have betaken myself to your service. What greater patron could I have to look after my interests? etc.—Padua, 30 Aug. 1581. Add. Endd. Lat. 1 p. [Venice I. 2.]
Even as this bearer was ready to depart, my servant Phillips arrived, by whom I understand that the 'moytye' of the money is conveyed away in Lord H. Seymour's train. And whereas you desire to know my opinion for making over the other moiety, I think it best it should be conveyed over at several times by such couriers as are sent over, and to be left at Amiens in the custody of some such person as shall be appointed by the duke to take charge of it. And for the safe transporting by sea, the courier in charge of it may have order by the assistance of the Lieutenant of Dover to furnish the 'passenger' with 20 shot. Now the one moiety is passed, some respite may be taken in the conveyance of the rest. The making over of it to exchange will both be chargeable, and also make the matter public. I will send to the duke to know what discreet and trusty person he can appoint at Amiens to take charge of such sums as are to be sent over, and advertise you thereof.— At the Court at Paris, the last of August, 1581. Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley and by his Secretary : Brought by Burnham, the 3 of Sept. 1581, (4 s.). 1 p. [France VI. 26.]
Aug. 31 ? 325. [SOMERS] to BURGHLEY.
Understanding by your letter of August 24 to Mr Secretary that the Queen found fault with me in two things—one, that I gave Monsieur no more 'comfort' of her support ; the other, that I stayed not to see the entry of Monsieur or of his vaward into Cambrayher.—please herewith receive my answer, not as excusing myself against a prince, but to hear the causes which moved me to do as I did, and then refer the judgement thereof to her Majesty's and your consideration. For the first, I thought it no honesty nor safety for me to engage her Majesty by my speech, or else to discredit myself, for I take it to be safe for ministers having no certain direction to go no further than they can help in unpleasant things, as a matter of charge is in these days. I told him that I believed her Majesty would consider of his request in the need wherein he said he then was, which I would faithfully report, as upon advertisement from her ambassadors he should have good news from her very shortly ; but that I had no commission to assure him. And truly my answer very well satisfied him, when I said that all diligence should be used therein. And I thank her Majesty so far to credit my true report of his earnest suit, as thereupon speedily to content him in that behalf. For the other point, I protest that it was much against my will that I came so soon from thence, wishing with all my soul that I might have continued in such a company longer than until his entry into that town. But I considered that M. Pinart and I went to Monsieur for one cause ; he going from Paris a day and a half before me was come from him a day before my arrival there. For he found him in a 'stayed' place ; and therefore both for that, but especially for the speed that Monsieur desired to be used in his request, he having dispatched me in the morning, using also some speeches to me of danger of a battle, and I having but posthorses, for in troth I said that I would take his fortune, so desirous was I to have seen the end of those causes and speeches of his Highness, made me come away the sooner. And yet I continued there four hours after my dispatch, and went with the army within two leagues and in so plain sight of Cambray, his vaward within a league, and heard of the enemy's retiring to Haxt [?] and Nave, a league off, that I held it for certain there would be no impeachment, and to that effect I advertised you. I beseech you that this to her Majesty and yourself shall be thought good, that I may herein receive no more blame than may be imputed to my simplicity. If any French minister be made acquainted with the sending of the money, it will not be kept secret, and so be in the more danger by the way. If it be in coin, it may be considered whether it may not be put in post or 'in journey' in trunks to Montreuil, or, better, to Abbeville or Amiens, were it not for danger of Hesdin, not three leagues from the highway between Montreuil and Abbeville ; and from Amiens to advise Monsieur, that he may send persons to receive it 'upon' his writing, mentioning the sum, or else to forewarn him that 'by a day it should be there,' that his ministers may away it, to save time. If at Amiens, at the sign of the Ave Maria, if at Montreuil, at the sign of the Gros Cornet, or the Homme Sauvage, if at Abbeville, at L'Escu de France ; not to be told there, 'for making it too apparent.' From Amiens it may be carried to Péronne without danger, and thither Monsieur may send an escort ; for from Château Cambrésis and Bapaume and Bouchain, the enemy's horsemen make forays sometimes upon the passengers. Draft in hand of Somers. Endd. : End of August 1581. To my L. Threr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. VI. 27.]
Aug. (?) 326. SUGGESTIONS for the TREATY.
To have added to the league defensive to suppress pirates' depredations and disorders by sea. The same to be proclaimed. Ships to be armed on either part to clear the seas, and bond to be taken of all persons going to sea for their good behaviour on the same. Touching a staple to be established at Rouen, as was accorded by the treaty of Blois and other points depending thereon for the benefit of the English merchant.
(1) Whether a league offensive particular against any prince to be named ;
(2) Or whether a league offensive general, en conservation d'état.
If the second be thought the meeter ;
(1) Whether her Majesty will like that it be concluded to be friends to friends and enemies to enemies ;
(2) If either of the princes confederate shall be invaded by another prince the prince assailed shall be bound to advise his confederate thereof ; who shall send straight to the assailant to warn him to cease his invasion and repair the wrong done, or else that he, the prince confederate, will denounce war to him ; as he shall do indeed if the invader will not retire and make reparation of the wrong within six weeks. If either of the confederates shall be invaded, and the prince invaded shall require his confederate to declare open war and enter into acts of hostility against the invader with him as bound by league (after due admonition and summons made as aforesaid), who shall bear the charges of the forces of the prince 'required ?' Shall he bear them alone for a certain time, or the prince 'requiring' bear a portion thereof according to his quality and greatness ? Or shall it be borne at the common charge of both princes for a time to be limited ? And if the prince invaded shall desire longer continuance, whether he shall bear the charges of his confederate's forces for the time so required ; or whether the prince required shall be 'at his choice' to send a number of ships and men to such places as his confederate shall appoint, or else a certain sum of money, and no ships or men ; or whether some ships, some men, and some money ? And for what time, and how many, monthly or otherwise, and how to be paid ? Also, how far the ships and men shall go to invade or damage his enemy. Also whether it may be thought good that the number of horse and foot mentioned in the league defensive of Blois to be reciprocally delivered may not be more limited in this league offensive, and so make one aid, either the same or a less number. And whether all in this to be horse and foot, as there set down, or whether some ships may not 'supply in stead' the horse, seeing that for England and Ireland, French horsemen are not to be much desired. Draft in hand of L. Tomson, and endd. by him : To be answered from England. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 28.]
August or Sept. 327. The DUKE OF ANJOU to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last, which I wrote by your messenger, I have learnt that you have put your hand in good style to the business you have to do here for me, the Queen of England having favoured me so much as to send Lord Henry Seymour to me with that remembrance of me which she has always shown me, [to say that] the friendship she is pleased to bear me will be followed by like effects, as pertains to so great and virtuous a princess. This recent obligation is so engraven on my heart that I would make the greatest part of my happiness depend on the share she will give me of her favour, which I shall preserve as dearly as my life. I say to you with truth that the command which her Majesty has over me is such that whatever risks or conditions her orders may involve nothing will ever be disagreeable or difficult for me to serve her in the execution thereof as it shall please her to signify [?] them to me. I do not know if she will be satisfied with my message to you about the alliance which she desired ; which I should not wish for without the completion of our marriage, save that I wish only for what pleases her, and what I recognise to be agreeable to her. I assure you that in what has recently been dealt with by M. de Mauvissière there is nothing whatever of mine, and you will never find me of two wills as regards her Majesty ; which I beg you to testify to her on my behalf, believing that I will do nothing but what she is pleased to command me. I am writing the same to Vray and bidding him keep the same way that he has been told to do, in conformity with her desires. As to what you wrote to me, I will say nothing about the fortunate success of my enterprises, inasmuch as it will befit me better that you should hear of them from other, since I cannot discourse of them without attributing to myself what is due to me ; and that had better be published by the repute of the feat in other mouths than mine: I ascribe the praise of it to her Majesty's favour and goodwill towards me ; and believe that as concerns you personally I shall never forget the good offices which you are kind enough to continue to me, that I may requite them as I confess that by your deserts I am bound to do. Holograph. Add. Endd. by Walsingham. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 97.]