548. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
I resolved, after the receipt of yours, to go to Antwerp and quit
the field, which I have kept almost a whole year, with so meagre
pay and entertainment that I would quit such a service, were it
not for the appearance of better things.
Although letters from abroad threaten us with a stratagem, the
fact is that jacta est alea. Everything has been arranged in such
sort that in my judgement it is impossible to facilitate the remedy.
The triumphs, theatres, triumphal arches, are made in preparation
for his Highness's entry on the 18th with the rank of Duke of
Brabant. Some undecided persons are in trouble. Questions have
been put to the Council of State, all the officers of the finances,
accounts, and others to renounce the King of Spain. Some are
unwilling to do this ; they will be dismissed.
The Malcontents are assembling near Tournay, where the States-General
of the disunited provinces will be on the 20th inst.
Another assembly, of Piedmontese, Burgundians, and Lorrainers,
is being held at Marchevilette [qy. Marchéville] in the Ardennes
country. I perceive that they will attack some town of ours. They
would have done it already, if the Prince of Parma had had more
infantry, according to the advices we have from their [sic] spies ;
who say that the Malcontents are resolved for war, and accept the
Spaniards and all other foreigners to their aid.
We are threatened with this Imperial Diet, though I hope it will
do us no more harm than the others.
I hope to salute the Earl of Leicester and do him all the service
I can for her Majesty's sake and yours.—Antwerp, 17 Feb. 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 26.]
549. HODDESDON to WALSINGHAM.
I thank you both for the courteous letters which I received at
Canterbury, whereby my journey was the better furthered, and for
that which you sent me since my arrival here, which has satisfied
me in the matter wherein I was bold to crave your advice.
According to your other letter of the 6th inst. brought by Mr.
Mildmay, I have delivered him £100, since he desired to be
furnished with so much.
The Duke of Alençon is not yet arrived, but it is thought he will
be here next tide, unless by the Prince's means he stay a night at
Lillo in order that they of this town may be thoroughly ready to
receive him ; who for that purpose have made solemn and great
preparation.—Antwerp, 18 Feb. 1581.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 27.]
550. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I wrote to you lately how certain Englishmen had gone to
England ; and I have been since assured that Friar Bowser went in
their company, and returned 'this other' day. Mr Paget does not
appear much in this town, so there is some muttering that he has
gone secretly to England.
On the 10th inst. the Bishop of Ross went to Morgan's chamber,
where they remained together, the door shut 'to them,' all the
forenoon. The bishop, as I am informed, brought many letters
with him, some addressed to Lord Hamilton and others to the
Bishop of Glasgow ; said to be sent from the young king in most
privy sort. But I cannot 'assure' these advertisements to be such
that you can make any foundation of them for her Majesty's
service, nor shall I be able to discern how I am dealt with therein
unless you let me know how these intelligences of Scotch matters,
and of the English papists, are found by you to be matters of
truth ; otherwise I may be abused, and her Majesty's money illbestowed.
But on understanding your opinion herein, I shall be
encouraged to think well of those persons who give me these
By the 'same self' parties I am given to understand that Mr.
'Hayse' and other Jesuits have dispatched one John Lohorayne,
an Irishman, to Oxford, 'and is to be' found in Mr Case's house
They say there is come over one Punte, a Lancashire man, who
was apprehended by Hodkins the pursuivant, but he escaped from him.
They say that Richard Cornelis of Staffordshire, sometime
student at Exeter College, accounted a good scholar, is gone this
week towards Rome. I hear further that Bowser since his return
reports that John Torner, William Connesbe, and Christopher
Marshall of Exeter College have been at Sandwich to slip over ;
but being advertised they were laid for, turned back.
They say one Blechendall [qy. Blechinden] of Kent, who names
himself Marshall, has returned, having gone down by the river of
Rouen with intent not to come a-land till he arrives 'to' 'Radderif'
[qy. Rotherhithe] or nearer London ; a way which many of these
Romanists use to pass to and fro.
I hear that one Jeremy Payne, whose brother is prisoner in the
Tower, some weeks ago brought over letters from Roper of the
King's Bench to Dr Allen, and is now returning by way of Calais
with answer from him. He was sometime Roper's man, who he
says gave him at his coming over twenty crowns, and for his return
he had ten crowns of Dr Allen. This Jeremy is described to me to
be a proper shaped young fellow with never a hair on his face and
well-complexioned ; being apparelled in a white collar cloak, the
collar cut after the new fashion, with a doublet of yellow fustian,
'laid on' with copper lace.
I have been informed that Mr Archibald Hamilton, a learned
Scotch Jesuit, is gone to Rome about some important matters ; but
I have not as yet learnt any particulars.—Paris, 19 Feb. 1581.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [France VII. 24.]
551. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have been 'first' given to understand by M. Torsey that there
was an 'Alman' named 'Thys' Schombergh, who for the friendship
he had with M. de Strozzi was desirous to concur in the
enterprise of Portugal, and 'coveted' to communicate his intention
to me, because he meant to procure her Majesty's favour in his
action. So upon his motion I 'yielded myself willing' to confer
with Schomberg ; who repaired to me 'this other' day, declaring
that he wished to do some exploit for the benefit of Don Antonio
against the common enemy, in the Indies, whereby likewise he
might accompany his friend Strozzi's enterprises. He was resolved
to venture eighty or a hundred thousand crowns of his own, and
meant to levy 2,000 or 1,500 Almans, whom he desired to embark
at Amsterdam, where he would provide ships and victuals necessary
for his long voyage. And because he had not already sufficient
ready coin to pay his soldiers, to hire his ships, and to furnish
them with victuals and munition to 'pass' so far a voyage as to
the West Indies, he has thought good to offer her Majesty certain
propositions concerning the mortgaging of an unicorn's horn, as
may appear by the enclosed offers.
Since I found the matter of some importance, and the party to
be of consideration, I sought to know if he could be content to pass
over to England ; when the Queen would think good to confer with
him about his offers and requests. He has assured me that
incontinently after the knowledge of the Queen's mind, he will
Moreover because it seemed to me necessary that her Majesty
should be in some sort advertised of the quality of the person, with
suchlike knowledge, before she entered any further into 'the
dealing of' his affairs, I have sought to be informed as to this
'Thys' Schomberg. I understand he was born in the Palatinate,
near the Rhine ; a man of 10 or 15,000 dollars a year, holding his
castle and lands only in fee of the Empire. He was married to a
lady of the House of Culenberg, and is thereby allied to divers
noblemen of Germany. He has always professed to be of the
confession of Augsburg and is esteemed one of the 'vaillants'
captains in Germany ; the rather because he served the Prince of
Orange valorously and faithfully as a marshal of his camp. He
likewise served the Duke of Deuxponts for those of the Religion ;
at which time there was some mislike between him and the
Admiral Châtillon, because Schomberg was very earnest for money
to pay his countrymen, being one who had the chief credit with
them. He was brought up in his youngest years page with the
Duke of Guise, but has since seemed to run the course of those of
the Religion. Notwithstanding, since I think it my part to let you
know all that comes to my knowledge both in his favour and what
is said against him, I will let you know that there are some of the
Religion who think him not so thoroughly to be trusted, because he
has become a pensioner to this king ; which is known to him. But
he says he will clear that doubt ; being content to take into his
'consociation' any gentlemen of Almaine, England or Scotland,
with such companies as it shall like her Majesty or otherwise be
thought good by Monsieur, the Prince of Orange, and the States.
He is dispatching a man to Monsieur and the Prince about this
negotiation ; and requests me earnestly to be a means to her
Majesty to let him speedily proceed as her pleasure may be touching
his offers and enterprises, which I beseech you to procure, that I
may give him satisfaction.
I suppose M. Torsey will write to you of this. You will find
Schomberg of a very good manner and behaviour, showing to be
well practised in the affairs of the world ; much different from the
ordinary sort of gentlemen of Germany. Conferring with him I
hope you will perceive his meaning, which may be turned to her
Majesty's service.—Paris, 21 Feb. 1581.
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France VII. 25.]
552. J. TAFFIN to WALSINGHAM.
Desiring to use the small industry and means with which God
has endorsed me for the good and furtherance of the cause which I
esteem the best, or particularly to render such aid as I can to my
poor afflicted country, I have learnt from M. de Schomberg that he
has this day dispatched to his Highness and the Prince of Orange
a good and confidential man, whom I lent him, to follow the
negotiation of which M. de Maninville, sent a short time since into
England by M. de Strozzi, has spoken to you ; and I also have
written of it. King Don Antonio gave M. de Schomberg hopes
that he would be able to supply him with the means of levying
4,000 landsknechts ; but since then having had to spend
in many other directions, and not having such large resources
as he had hoped, M. de Schomberg, not wishing to remain
useless and still less to lose the good opportunities which are
presenting themselves, decided to raise at his own cost, and
embark, 12 or 15,000 landsknechts, and after serving the King of
Portugal for some months, and helping him to secure the Azores,
afterwards to seek adventures elsewhere at the expense of the
common enemy. And because he will do him the more harm, the
greater his force, and consequently the more profit to those who
have occasion to dread either his greatness or his tyranny, I
thought to make him talk with the English ambassador here, to
see if, the interest being common, any increase of resources might
be had from thence towards his pious and public-spirited intention,
in the fortunate issue of which England ought to wish to share.
I have put together certain conditions to which M. de Schomberg
agrees, and have sent them in writing to the ambassador, so that
by your means he may bring them to the sight of the Queen, and
that you may favour them with your recommendation in so far as
you find them to tend to the public good ; to which all those whom
God has touched with His fear, or blessed with His grace, ought to
devote themselves, for His glory and the universal good.
Please take this into your mind, and let me know soon what may
be hoped for from that side. If there be any doubt or scruple
made, he is ready to be sent for to satisfy it ; but there is no time
to lose.—Paris, 21 Feb. 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 26.]
553. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have delivered to the king the commands which I last received
from her Majesty : how he had from time to time shown his great
desire the marriage might be effected, but could not content himself
to take away those impediments which in good reason persuaded
her to defer the knitting up of it ; and that she had been the more
advised to refrain from the consummation of it, seeing that the
instructions which M. Pinart brought with him and those which
were sent him since his being in England were not so ample as to
satisfy her that it clearly appeared he meant to give assurance that
she should be acquitted of those charges which his brother was to
sustain in the prosecution of his enterprise in the Low Countries,
but rather that he remained of opinion that he would bear but half
the charges, leaving the rest to be defrayed by his brother and the
States, without that also he would enter into any further consideration
that whereas, if his brother and the States were unable to
support the other half, it might be also certainly set down and
agreed how that were otherwise to be supplied, since on that point
depended the ruin of the Low Countries with hazard of his
brother's person and honour ; as likewise he seemed to press the
Queen to enter into an absolute and indissoluble contract before he
would give assurance for the sustentation of half the charges
towards the advancement of his brother's enterprise ; which
manner of proceeding has given her Majesty occasion to enter
more deeply into the consideration of the affairs, the rather
seeing he will not extend himself otherwise than with a naked
promise in words, which sometimes, upon divers accidents, princes
think good to revoke or qualify, and that chiefly when such promise
may bring with it matter of war ; moreover, he joined with his
promise such a condition as would bind the Queen overmuch to
enter absolutely into a cause which brings with it many dangerous
inconveniences, and that so much the more, because she will not
be thoroughly assured first of his more entire absolute meaning and
faster friendship towards the aiding of his brother ; whereon she is
bent to show herself no less inprovident [sic] than heretofore she
has appeared in the course of her former government, wherein
likewise she would not give mislike to her subjects. And because
M. Pinart 'delivered' further that his Majesty was loth to enter
into consideration of the half charges until he in some sort perceived
what the whole might grow to, which those of the Low Countries
have shown themselves loth to discover, or their own estate, until
Monsieur should pass the sea in person to accept the government,
whereby he was compelled by their importunate persuasions, and
by the small hope which M. Pinart brought him, to cross into
Flanders ; the Queen now besought him to enter into consideration
of the affairs his brother embraced, which tended to the enlargement
of his own dignity. For although his brother was 'erected'
[qy. elected] by those of the Low Countries to be their Governor,
yet the renown should be his, because the duke was his subject,
having no means nor power but such as he might vouchsafe to
grant him ; so that the happy proceeding of the action would
remain as a perpetual crown of fame to him and his successors.
Further, he may in assisting his brother, recompense him for the
favour he did lately in composing dutifully and carefully the
appeasing of the civil troubles of the realm.
In answer the king first delivered his ordinary compliments,
showing by how many means he found himself bound to her
Majesty for many good offices, and especially for the princely
entertainment bestowed on his brother, which he would never be
able to requite ; but she might assure herself of his perpetual
service and goodwill. Notwithstanding the obligation would be
the greater, and the knot the more indissoluble, if she would
make them joyful by accomplishing the marriage which they
desired above all other things. To the same purpose he delivered
many sweet words, showing his eloquent flowing ability in the
French tongue, whereof he is much praised.
For answer of his further assurance about assisting his brother,
he said he must 'deliver the same purpose' he had heretofore
signified to me, that after the Queen had been pleased to consummate
the marriage, he would 'give assurance to sustain' half
the charges. As for his brother, he could not be more dear to any
person, considering he was his only brother and his son ; whereby
his affairs were 'had of him in a recommendation' as much as his
own. But by the observation of her Majesty's wise government,
he likewise thought it not good to draw his people into war, nor
did he find his realm in such a state that he might venture any
such enterprises. Yet he could not forget the pains his brother
took in appeasing the troubles within the realm, being likewise
careful for him. He wished it might have pleased her to stay his
brother there, 'for' going into Flanders, and that she would now
be contented to persuade him to return from thence, because he
knew he was so much her servant that she had more power over
him than either his mother or himself. This he requested me to
write, especially to her Majesty ; and I promised that I would obey
him therein. I showed him that although I had delivered him so
much as my commission 'stretched unto,' yet if he gave me leave,
I would say something on that point concerning his brother's
passing into Flanders. On this I pointed out that besides that his
brother was importuned by the States to come and take the government,
they having delivered into his hands themselves and all
theirs with their fortune, he was further compelled to take the
voyage because he would get no better resolution by M. Pinart from
his Majesty to assure him of comfort and aid in his affairs, finding
besides clearly the great reasons with which she was persuaded not
to yield to the consummation of the desired marriage ; and thus he
was hereby constrained to pass the seas. To this she very
unwillingly consented, only yielding to Monsieur's will therein.
Besides this, I showed him that many were of opinion that
Monsieur's being in Flanders would be a great fortifying to his
own estate, which had stirred up the minds of other nations to have
his greatness in admiration.
The king returned that the greatest happiness that could come
to them was the marriage, without which he had little opinion of
his brother's enterprise in Flanders or elsewhere. On this mind,
for his own part, he rested.
To this I said, that though the persuasions of the Queen could
not further move him at present to advance his brother's enterprise,
yet I hoped God would in time induce him to embrace Monsieur's
endeavours, and deal more to his satisfaction. Wherewith I took
my leave and repaired to Queen Mother.
To her I declared that the Queen had recommended me to
communicate to her any conferences that I might from time to
time 'pass' with the king ; and consequently I briefly delivered
her what is set down above. She seemed to 'stick upon' the
opinion to have the marriage precede, before the king gave any
assurance for the defraying of Monsieur's enterprises, or entered into
any war for his sake. Nevertheless that Monsieur was dear to her,
but yet she trusted that the king would not be counselled to enter
into war with the King of Spain, but rather remain as wary of it as
the Queen herself. She marvelled much he would go to Flanders
so slenderly provided with men and means, which could not but be
a shame to them, and to the French nation. As for herself, she
would deal plainly with me ; she had no good opinion of this
voyage, being assured that those of the Low Countries did but seek
to serve their own turn 'of' him, being ready to accept any available
composition that may be offered them by King Philip. Upon
consideration of this, she had written very earnestly to her
son to return thence. She thought herself very much beholden to
her Majesty, not only that she has given him that princely
entertainment, but because she had sent divers noble personages to
accompany him with much honour.
I assured her the Queen had not forgotten, nor would 'leave' to
do him such honour as appertained to her son and a King of
France's brother ; whose friendship she would by all good offices
deserve. I said further, it seemed Monsieur was compelled to go
to the Low Countries, through the little hope and resolution Pinart
had brought with him for the advancement of his marriage in
England ; as also because he had not been 'put in comfort' to
receive aid from the king. Whereupon, in respect of the necessity
of his present state, and being moved by the importunity of the
States, he resolved to pass into Flanders ; which rather brought
grief to the Queen than any liking.
The Queen Mother rendered many thanks to her Majesty for the
earnest remembrance of her son's affairs, and wished she would do
them this good, to be the means he might return.
Lastly, I requested her to incline her mind to solicit the king to
assist his brother with such effect that my Sovereign's desires in
that behalf might be known to further Monsieur towards the better
establishing of his affairs ; which she promised. Wherewith I
departed from her.
I beseech that this much may be delivered to the Queen, that she
may perceive the king and his mother 'show not' to have any
liking of Monsieur's journey into the Low Countries ; but rather
desire he would return from thence. For a further demonstration
of this, the king has conferred with some of his chief lawyers to
have their advice whereby means may be found that none should
levy any companies of soldiers save only by his commission. He
has ordered certain disorderly soldiers, who as they say were levied
for Monsieur's service, to be executed before the Court gates.
They tell me the Queen Mother said that Pinart brought her
word from Monsieur that he hoped to procure the Queen to declare
war against the King of Spain, if the king will enter into the
The Queen Mother is very inquisitive to understand if the Queen
advised Monsieur to pass into Flanders. She likewise enquires
curiously of her Majesty's particular disposition and liking of her.
I am informed that Du Vray's instructions, wherewith he is now
sent hither, import that he has to require of the king money
towards the defraying of his Highness's household charges ; as also
for the maintenance of his enterprises. Further he begs instructions
to inform the king that if he will give assurance by letters
patent to the Queen that he will support all the charges of the war
in Flanders, she will assure him by oath to accomplish the
I hear the king has sent one into Germany to make a levy of
men, and there are divers commissions in writing in Secretary
Villeroy's chamber to take up companies within this realm.
His Majesty seeks to compound with the Duke of Maine for his
office of Admiralty, which is to be bestowed on Duke Joyeuse. So
the Duke of Maine remains nothing well satisfied since his coming
The king has made an assured promise to Lavalette's eldest
brother to give him shortly the office of chief gentleman of his
chamber ; wherewith Marshal de Retz remains much discontented.
His Majesty has of late performed another of his ceremonious
vows, having been a pilgrimage with the young queen at 'Le bons
homes,' afoot, early in the morning, very privately. He purposes
shortly to make the like journey to Notre Dame de Clery, and then
'disposes himself' to repair to Saint-Germain, there to take his
diet, as the year past.
The Queen Mother proposes to begin her journey about the end
of this month towards Chenonceaux, and so to pass forward as
occasion may serve to meet her daughter the Queen of Navarre,
who is at present at Saint-Jean d'Angely. It is thought she will
confer with her, and with the king her husband, and likewise with
the Prince of Condé.
I suppose you have been told of the 10,000 Italians whom King
Philip is causing to be levied and 'conducted' under the charge of
Colonel Spinola, a Genoese, Sigismonde Gonzaga of Mantua, and
'Anguiolo Marcuinæ,' a Milanese, who sometime commanded in
the fort of Tunis.
I have been informed that M. de Guise and d'Entragues the
other day jointly spoke to the king on behalf of d'Aubigny.
M. de Guise is preparing certain horses to be sent to the Scottish
I enclose a 'pasquin' which is come to my hands.—Paris,
21 Feb. 1581.
Add. Endd. 7½ pp. [France VII. 27.]
554. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I thank you for 'keeping me in comfort' that there is hope her
Majesty will be pleased to repair my decaying estate, which she
cannot do before there is need. I leave the means to your
consideration, and the issue to God's good will. Meantime I would
you would direct me to do her some particular service, which might
give her satisfaction. I shall as gladly enter into it, as I was
desirous to receive her benefits ; and so the Almighty help me in
my affairs with her.
I have resolved to send my nephew with the present dispatch,
recommending him to your favourable protection. I have
delivered to him some passages which have happened in the Court ;
methinks hard to believe, but that I have received them from 'good
part.' I beseech you that after my nephew has done his duty to
his parents, he may 'be returned' at your pleasure.
A servant of Ker the 'leard' of 'Fanhurst' is come to this Court,
to fetch home his wife. He reports that the strife between
d'Aubigny and James Stewart was continuing.
I sent you 'this other' day a few plants of 'D'Aye' (qy. d'Aÿ)
vines, and desire you would let me know how I might deserve well
of you.—Paris, 22 Feb.
P.S.—M. Sainte-Croix, a gentleman of the Duke of Bouillon's,
has often asked me for an answer to the Duke's letters, which I
have heretofore sent to you and my lord of Leicester.
Add. and endt. gone. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 28.]
555. HODDESDON to WALSINGHAM.
I doubt not but you are sufficiently advertised by others of all
things passed lately here ; yet seeing you have always accepted my
former letters in good part, I am the bolder to trouble you with my
accustomed manner of writing.
On Monday last the Duke of Alençon was received into this town,
and before his entry sworn Duke of Brabant and Marquis of the
Empire at a place appointed for that purpose, near adjoining to
the town walls. At the same time he took an oath to maintain the
privileges of this country, and keep inviolably the articles agreed
upon between him and the States, which were then read openly,
both in Dutch [sic] and French. The rest of his inauguration was
performed with such solemnity that it seemed rather the coronation
of some king than the creation of a duke. If I should recite to you
the particular of it, and describe both the variety of the shows, and
the good order kept by the townsmen during the time of this
action, which lasted a whole day, I should require a very large
discourse. Therefore to avoid tediousness, I leave it to such as
were present at all things ; amongst whom the noblemen of our
country with their trains did Monsieur great honour that day both
by their number and by their costly attire. Only I noted that
all Italians, Portugals, and Spaniards absented themselves from
honouring this solemnity, though there are many Italians and
Portugals, and some Spaniards, resident and exercising traffic in
The enemy as yet attempts nothing, but it is said expects more
forces from Germany and Italy, with a new supply of money from
Spain, the want of which has of late kept their soldiers from doing
any exploit, and will, as some think, engender a mutiny, if contentment
come not in time.—Antwerp, 22 Feb. 1581.
Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 28.]
556. SAINTE-ALDEGONDE to the QUEEN.
The obligation under which your Majesty has placed these
countries by agreeing to let his Highness come hither, with such
evident demonstration of the good will you bear to the preservation of
this state, as you have heretofore shown by an infinity of testimonies,
makes me bold to importune you with a letter to thank you for the
benefit we have received therefrom, especially for the favours which
being imparted to his Highness are not failing to pass on (dériver)
their fruits to all the country ; but I would rather be importunate
than ungrateful, and would only beg you to accept this my duty,
and that since up to now you have bound us to your service, you
would henceforward be pleased, considering how much the preservation
of this state imports you for the repose of your own kingdom,
to continue your favours to us, especially with regard to this
generous prince whose merits are better known to you than to any
other. I do not say this to cast the actual charge on your Majesty,
since we should feel ourselves honoured by only taking part in his
good actions, but only to point out at how little cost you may acquire
a reputation throughout the world of having over and above singular
benefits, obliged all Christendom by the preservation of this state,
on whose salvation or ruin depends the happiness or unhappiness
of an infinite number of poor Christians and may in measure increase
the obligation under which you have placed not only his Highness
by the welcome you have given him, but all of us, in respect of the
kindness we have ever received from you.—Antwerp, 22 Feb. 1582.
(Signed) Ph. de Marnix dict de St. Aldegonde.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 29.]
557. SAINTE-ALDEGONDE to WALSINGHAM.
I was much vexed that I could not kiss your hands when I left
England, and thank you for all the favours and courtesies I received
from you, in recompense for which I shall esteem myself happy to
serve you. The reason was, first, your engagements which kept
you away from your lodging when I thought to take leave of you,
and then the notion I had that you would come in her Majesty's
company, and that I should kiss her hands also before my
departure. But as that did not come about, I beg you not to
impute to me a lack of gratitude for the obligation I am under
towards you, but assure yourself that wherever I may be, you will
have in me an affectionate servant and friend, whereof I pray you
to make trial when occasion offers.
I received your letter on board his Highness's ship. I have
communicated it to the Prince of Orange and some other friends,
and I find those of the States who are here wholly disposed to give
satisfaction to her Majesty. But I have been unable to communicate
it to the 'college' because they are not yet all assembled.
I shall not fail at the first meeting to bring it forward, and press
it, that an end may be made. Meanwhile I beg you to see to it
that no further steps are taken, assuring you that I will use my
utmost endeavours to get it carried into effect, and I hope there
will be no default.
I am further writing a line to her Majesty to thank her for the
kindnesses these countries have received and ordinarily do receive
from her ; which please see that she gets, unless perchance you
think it inexpedient.—Antwerp, 22 Feb. 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 30.]
558. Deposition made on oath before Paulus Typoots, notary,
by Gaspar Rodrigues, of the robbery committed on him by Henry
Roberts and John Belfield of Bristol, who captured his ship, the
St. John of Lisbon, and three others, whose masters were George
Gonzales, John Rodriguez, and Anthony Vello, and brought them
and their goods to Holyhead.
Broadsheet, parchment. Endd. by L. Cave. [Spain I. 56.]
559. The DUKE OF ANJOU to BURGHLEY.
I should wrong the sufficiency of M. 'Oby' [qy. Hoby] the
present bearer, if I were to recite to you what happened at my
arrival in this country, and the reception given to me. He will
tell it you, having had a good view of it ; so that this word will
only be to beg you to keep the Queen in mind of me, as I know you
can. Without her I cannot believe that I can have good success in
anything, all my good fortune depending on the good will she bears
me. I am likewise as sure of your friendship, that you will have
remembered what is needed for the establishment of my affairs,
which as you know depend in the chief part on this succour. I
shall never forget the claim that you have on me, or to show my
consciousness of it (pour m'en resantir) by all good means that I
know, worthy of your deserts.—Antwerp, 24 Feb.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. Fr. 1 p. [France VII. 29.]
560 (1). ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
In conformity with your last letter I have kissed the hands of the
Earl of Leicester, favoured and presented by Mr Milles your
secretary. He was well pleased to see me, owing to the favourable
report you had given him of me. He did not fail to speak of our
estate and goings on, with which he was in a measure (aulcunement)
satisfied, as I hope he will tell you. He asked me to impart our
occurrents to him, which I would not fail to do, thinking it would
be agreeable to you ; nor will I fail to send you copies each time of
all the letters I send him. I am at present beseeching him to
approve my services and good will, in order that seconding the
kindness which you are pleased to show me, his recommendation to
her Majesty together with yours may give me some advancement.
I had written to you for a letter of recommendation to obtain a post
in the finances, which I cannot get through the treaty and
capitulation made by his Highness with the States, wherof I send a
copy. For my own part, I am tired of the war, owing to the little
profit and honour I have gained through the fault of the ignorant
commanders who have discharged the principal functions. If I can
obtain some honourable employment from her Majesty, I shall
postpone all other business to do her service.—Antwerp, 25 Feb.
1582. (Signed) Rossel.
Enclosing copy of
(2). ROSSEL to [? LEICESTER].
On the morning your lordship left Antwerp, I went to his
Highness's Court to know what had happened at the cloister where
mass was said, that I might inform you of it, inasmuch as I had
just been told that one of the Religion had received a buffet from a
Papist for saying at the cloister that it was annoying to see the
mass set up again which had been driven out with so much trouble.
Hence arose a great outcry, especially because the Prince of Orange
proposed to leave one church free for the mass. Wherefore the
magistrates and some of the captains of the towns went next day
to the castle, where I being present perceived that in spite of the
Prince's persuasions, the re-establishment of the mass will not be
permitted, except for himself personally and for his suite, without
a tumult. This was why I was prevented from kissing your hands
on your leaving.
The evening before I was late with the deputies of the States,
who told me that you had presented to them letters from her
Majesty that they should receive his Highness with all honour,
both for your sake and for his own merits. They said the letters
had been given effect to before they were received, and that your
lordships had kept them so long to see what went on among the
people for good or bad, and that it was a trick (finesse). I told them
it was not, for I had heard from his Excellency's gentlemen that he
had caused the delivery of the letters to be deferred because the
number of the Estates was not complete, and their hall and
chamber were not fitted up or carpeted for your lordship's introduction.
They confessed it was likely.
As for the punishment that befell the papist who was a sworn
officer of the guilds (?), he has been put out of his oath, and condemned
to several days' imprisonment with 100 florins fine for
having been at the mass. He and all others were forbidden to
attend it in future under penalty of 200 florins. This 'pecuniary
prohibition' will keep them in their place (les rangera) in future, if
the importunity of his Highness's ministers which I have observed
since your departure does not cause a change in it. One of his
secretaries, of the Queen Mother's forge, sent in his train, named
Charreton, with all the importunity (recherches) possible, insists on
having a temple. This gives me a bad idea, since I notice
that he is one of the late comers who arrive every day, known by
the people to have been one of the Paris massacrers—one in
especial, named Roctaillade and others, who as soon as they came
were recognised, and they have made many think they come for
no good deed ; this is the popular talk.
Meantime his Highness does not cease to seek all means to
further the progress of affairs. He has today sent a dispatch into
France to call all his friends to his aid, perceiving that the enemy
is resolved to attack Meenen or Oudenarde. He has already made
a feint of opening his approaches at Meenen, but forasmuch as the
artillery is being got ready at Tournay, we doubt that the attack on
Meenen will be a feint, and that he will come at a leap to
Oudenarde.—Antwerp, 25 Feb. 1582. (Signed) Jaques Rossel.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 and 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 31.]
561. ROSSEL to [? WALSINGHAM].
I have discoursed briefly to you, hoping to write more at large
with the occurrents that may hereafter offer themselves.
As I was closing this, there presented himself from one of the
lords of the Council of State one who informed me of a post vacant
in the finances, called a clerkship, which I might obtain with the
goodwill of his Highness. Having considered the means, I have
thought I could do good service to the Queen and yourself if
provided for by this post, as you may think. I have decided to
entreat you that if you think I should be of use for her Majesty's
service in this work you would persuade to write secretly of it to his
Highness ; inasmuch as I already know the means to increase the
value of his domain by a million and more. This on his own
account ; for the rest, her Majesty will have a servant in a council,
whence she can learn more than from any other for her service and
that of her realm. I have friends in the Council of State, who
advise me to pursue this quest. I shall not do it withour your
advice and her Majesty's good pleasure. If she approves, it would
be well to write in a special ink to his Highness and the Earl of
Leicester, and see to it, professing to do it on behalf of an old
servant of the States, well known, of good fame, and a reputation
This discourse will serve for my private affair. It is not that I
am ambitious, but willing to be of service. Awaiting some fruit of
it, I will salute you.
No add. endt. or signature. No doubt the letter referred to in
No. 560 (1). Fr. 1 p. (small). [Holl. and Fl. XV. 32.]
562. PIETRO BIZARRI to WALSINGHAM.
How lordly, splendid, and royal was the entry of his Highness
into this city, after taking the oath to the States at a place made on
purpose opposite to the castle, and with how much applause and
honour he was received by many others, but especially by the most
illustrious English nation, wherein I was present, and in fact took
part, I am sure that you must have been already fully informed ; so
that any report of mine would be superfluous. The entry took
place on the 19th at 4 in the afternoon ; on a quiet and calm day
though without sun, who kept his rays in the clouds. Soon after
however he gave us abundantly of his splendour and withal very
fine and springlike days.
On the 22nd his Highness took the other oath, solemnly and
publicly in the municipal palace, to the magistrates of Antwerp ;
and afterwards was royally banqueted in the same palace, with a
noble company of gentlemen and ladies. Don Antonio's ambassador
was not present at the entry, for the question of precedence as
they say, but on Thursday he accompanied his Highness to the
Town Hall, and had the first place above all the others. He will
shortly go to Holland, to see after the 80 ships which are been got
ready to join the fleet at Rochelle, which may God prosper.
It was lately written from Naples that in parts of that city the
King of Spain's arms had been thrown down, and that the viceroy
had published great proclamations and offered great rewards to
know who did it ; but so far they had no information whatever.
Please God that the fatal period may be coming for this tyrannical
and cruel government.
Similarly they write that the ambassador of France residing in
Spain had been dismissed by the king, who says he would sooner
have an open enemy than a feigned friend. Time will show
whether this is true or not.
No more at present.—Antwerp, 25 Feb. '82.
Add. (through Pallavicini). Endd. Ital. 1¼ pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XV. 33.]
563. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 18th.
Monsieur's coming into these parts 'continues still in great
gladness' amongst the commons ; and even so they are now as
sorry that the Earl of Leicester with the rest of the nobles are
returned to England. Their departure grieves them very much,
for by good report their being here 'feared' the enemy more than
It is said that Monsieur will come to Ghent, for the Gentners
begin already to prepare for the receiving of him, which they say
will be very costly.
The enemy has the news at Tournay and Corttrick that the
English noblemen are returned, whereat they greatly rejoice.
Those of the Spanish faction on the enemy's side have 'wrought
such means' that they have got the Marquis of Risbourg to take
his charge again, and he is now at Tournay with the Prince of
Parma. For Count Lalaing, there is no speech of him.
By letters from Tournay the enemy now wholly agreed to take
the aid of Spaniards upon conditions ; one of which is that when
they are come, they shall serve in Friesland and not come to Artois
and Hainault, and all the soldiers now in Friesland shall come
from thence and serve the enemy in these parts.
It seems the enemy has received some comfort, whencesoever it
has come ; for on Friday last they mustered all their soldiers in
every place, both horse and foot, and have given them a month's
pay, some say two months. So they vaunt themselves greatly,
and fear not Monsieur's coming. For some proof thereof they
have this week at Tournay laden into great boats all their battery
pieces that were at the siege of Tournay, and at Corttrick, Lille,
and Armentières ; they have made great provision of scalingladders
and great store of munition ; and have besides made many
small boats, so that they have some enterprise in hand that lies on
the river. It is thought to be Oudenarde, Meenen, or Ypres, which
towns are all of great importance and lie all upon one river ; but
by their preparations and speeches it seems it will be either Meenen
On the States' side I cannot learn of any preparations they are
making for the defence of those matters ; which must be presently
done, but as yet nothing is preparing.
This week the Four Members of Flanders came to this town and
will tarry here about the affairs of the country fourteen or twenty
days. It seems they are very sorry for the departure of the
English noblemen, and greatly fear they will receive some great
blow at the enemy's hands ere long for want of aid. As I hear
from their speeches, they hoped that Monsieur would have brought
four or five thousand men from England. The enemy loses no
time, for he refuses, neither winter nor summer nor yet foul
weather, to lie in the field, and yet their soldiers are scantly paid—
a month's pay once in six or eight months.—Bruges, 25 Feb. 1581.
P.S.—As you commanded me, I wrote to the Earl of Leicester
at his being at Antwerp of such occurences as were at that time
stirring in these parts.
P.S. 2.—Kept until the 26th. This day a trumpeter of the enemy's
came to this town from Iseghem for the release of some prisoners
that lie in this town. He declared that on Friday last M. de
Montigny in 'carriring his horse upon a bravery,' fell under him,
and broke his right leg, and bruised his body very sore, in such
sort that he is in danger of death. Iseghem is a village between
Corttrick and Rousselaer, where most of the enemy's horse lie.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XV. 34.]
564. The STATES-GENERAL to the QUEEN.
On hearing of the Duke's happy arrival in your kingdom we were
very joyful ; our joy has been greatly increased, indeed rendered
complete, by seeing him arrive in these parts, accompanied by so
great and notable lords on your behalf. We hope that by his
means and by the favour and aid of the king his brother, and your
Majesty, these countries will soon be delivered from the misery
into which they have so long been plunged, and restored to their
ancient prosperity. And although he has been received by the
States in general, and particularly by Brabant and the city of
Antwerp with great satisfaction and demonstration of gladness,
you may assure yourself that all these preparations and declarations
of obedience have not been what we could have desired ; but that
the calamities of war and the attitude of our neighbours, the ruin
and desolation of all the open country, have compelled us to reserve
a great part for the time when God shall give relief and security to
And whereas by your letters, delivered to us by the Earls (sic) of
Leicester and Hunsdon, and Lord Howard, we understood your will
in regard to the reception of his Highness, we hope that, considering
the necessity and difficulty of the times, you will be satisfied ;
the more so that his Highness has shown his own satisfaction,
which is a great support and relief to us in these afflictions. We
desire nothing so much as to serve and obey your Majesty in all
things possible to us.—Antwerp, 26 Feb. (Signed) Houfflin.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XV. 35.]
565. MARCHAUMONT to [WALSINGHAM?].
I was sorry not to find you, that I might ask you to speak to the
Queen, whom I had entreated to summon you to speak with her, to
do me the honour to remember all that has passed, and the
promises of affection made to my master, and how he is being
treated. It is necessary that he should be informed of her
Majesty's intention, from whom he parted quite resolved in his
heart not to accept the sovereignty. The articles were made,
seen, and read over ; the oath administered to the deputies, and
they to his Highness [sic] ; this confirmed by our treaty, accepted
by her Majesty, who has often said that it was fitter that his
Highness should go and take his oath three weeks before the
marriage while awaiting the king's answer. After the treaty he
waited three weeks, and four since it was ratified (remis sur faict).
The loan liberally granted, the Lord Treasurer took the bond before
his departure, furnished £10,000 sterling, the specie which he had
to furnish. He has since returned to this princess all the gratitude,
and from his letters has no doubt.
I beg you, Sir, let it be remembered with what foot Monsieur has
walked, and how often he has been promised that if he were
deserted by the king, he would never be left alone. When she has
considered everything, I believe she will give way. I desire to be
informed what she wishes of me. I never found anything so
strange as this change. I wish you good-night.—Let her Majesty
remember that I hope God will not abandon him, and that he will
not be denuded. (Signed) [symbol].
Endd. : Feb. 26, 1581. From M. de Marchaumont. In the
'Moine' hand. Fr. ¾ p. [France VII. 30.]
566. C. URSIN to WALSINGHAM.
Having found this bearer so opportune, I would not fail to write
to you ; only to recall myself to your good graces, and beg you,
if I can do you any service to command me.—Paris, 27 Feb. 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [France VII. 31.]
567. LA FIN-LA NOCLE to WALSINGHAM.
When I received your letter lately, I had no means of answering
promptly, being constrained to take so suitable an opportunity for
my passage, as the gentleman whom you were then sending to
France may have written to you ; also that having embarked the
day before, I was obliged to put into Dover and land. The important
journey which I had undertaken for the service of Monsieur,
my master, was so pressing that I did not like not to postpone
everything to that object. Also, besides these considerations,
indisposition has hindered me from writing to you sooner.
I have to thank you for the advice which you gave me, and for
the good offices you did me in the recovery of my box, jewels, and
other commodities ; the whole having been, as I understand, in the
hands of the Lord Treasurer.
You were good enough to write to me that in consideration of
M. Beauvoir-la Nocle, my brother, and of myself, you would like
to have some means of doing me some service. I recognise the
obligation as I ought, and shall remember it [?] all my life, and
wherever I may find myself, and my brother the like. You may be
sure that he and I will be freely at your service whereinsoever you
may deem us capable, etc. (all complimentary).
I beg that I may as soon as possible have news, and the happiness
of a letter from you through the ambassador Cobham, having left
a gentleman at Paris on purpose. I am sure you will have regard
to this, and I will serve you all my life, on all occasions agreeable
to you.—Longjumeau, 27 Feb. 1582.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. VII. 32.]
568 The GOVERNOR OF TERCEIRA (CYPRIAM FIGUEREDO) to
My soul so desires to see the king Don Antonio in his royal
estate that I cannot utter in words how much all we who have that
wish would give you for the favour which you have in act shown
towards seeing him restored to the Crown of Portugal. And
although I, as the smallest of his vassals, cannot make too much
of such an obligation, nor show my gratitude by services, there will
remain to you the perpetual fame of having done so heroic a work,
laying all of us his Majesty's vassals under obligation continually
to serve you and give you thanks. Captain Henry 'Rigors,' who
first came to this island, is doing his duty to you who sent him
hither, and to the office of a good captain, and I feel no less
affection to him for his actions than for the friendship that I
perceive he has for me ; but the greatest bond I have to him is that
he comes from you. The good captain is much encouraged on this
account, as one who had to try the flight of himself.—From this
very noble and ever loyal city of Angra, the last of February 1582.
Add. Endd. Port. 1 p. [Portugal I. 76.]
569. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I thank you for dispatching my Italian with your next packet ;
but beseech you to change your meaning in that you thought to
send him with the resolution of the great matter. I doubt I shall
tarry so long for the order of my money, which I have need of ;
and I do not long for the bills of exchange till his coming. I doubt
the great matter having had so long a time in 'thinking on of the
resolution,' will of necessity 'axxe' some respite to pronounce it,
and therefore I beg he may come 'with the next commodity.'
I enclose the seal with which your letter was sealed, which
du Bex, Marchaumont's late secretary, delivered me. It seems to
me to differ from your usual seal, appearing as if it had been oiled ;
and in his conference with me about Monsieur's causes, he seemed
to say I may perceive by your letter the doubt yet remaining. I
am bold to let you know this, yet perhaps I suspect the seal without
cause. I perceive du Bex knows the Court entirely, more 'and' I
could afford him. Their Majesties hear willingly the discourse he
delivers of English affairs as he conceives.—Undated, unsigned.
Endd. with month and year. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 33.]
570. The QUEEN to the FRENCH KING.
Although it does not well become one who is coming out of an
ecstasy to write to a prince like you, my dear brother, yet the
constraint put upon me by your last dispatches makes it suitable
for me (m'y convient). I seem astonished to find no answer declared
therein, as if paper and ink had been employed with no object, like
ciphers signifying nothing ; from which I learnt a lesson before I die,
namely that a negative was not given to me, and an affirmative was
not agreeable to you. I will say no more on this, except that I hope
that even if the marriage is broken off you will retain some consideration
for your loyal and affectionate brother, for I promise you I
think that you ought to be proud of him, and glorify yourself for
having so rare a prince from whom you have experienced so much
affection expressed in so many good service and who has risked his
life and employed his diligence and so well effected his plans in the
conclusion of a good peace, a matter of no small consequence in a
country which long has needed it. Of my sincerity in this great
affair so long treated of between us, M. Pinart will I hope discourse
to you fully, how I have discharged my part from the beginning
till now with all sincerity, using no precaution or subtilty, things
unbecoming to great princes ; and your brother when present will
testify how it was necessity compelled these delays in order the
better to settle the business, and no indecision on my part. It
would be too unjust to impute the faults of others to me ; but it
happens often to kings to do good and receive no recompense.
Wherefore interpret my text as my deserts require, and keep me in
the rank of your most genuine friends.
Draft in the Queen's hand. Endd. by L. Tomson : Copy of H.M.'s
letter to the Fr. king. Fr. 1 p. [France VII. 34.]
571. [? WALSINGHAM] to — [? the DUKE OF ANJOU].
Before your departure hence yesterday, her Majesty had
commanded me to send you her letters by 'Monsieur my lord'
Howard, accompanied with a little 'fantasy' solely as evidence of
her desire (since the occasion for anything of more consequence
did not offer) to express, though by a thing of little show, the
honour which you had done her. Wherein, to make her intention
clearer, seeing that my letter was delivered to the ambassador,
Lord Howard having started with you, I thought it well to write a
line to let you know that if the thing you receive be valued in
itself, it is not in any sort worthy of a personage like you. But if
you will estimate it by the relation it bears to the sender, I am sure
you will judge that even the greatest invisible things make themselves
visible by small demonstrations ; and it was principally to
this effect that I was commanded by her Majesty to take order with
Lord Howard to let you have the little keepsake (mémoire) with
this message : that although you were in such a hurry to take the
post and change countries so quickly, for which she has a little
quarrel with you, yet, not rightly knowing how you are provided
with post-horses, she sends you a fast nag (bydet volant), not indeed
from her own stable, on whose wings she wishes you a swift
course, both to preserve you from any dangers that might arise, and
to bring you to all the honours at which you aim. Finally, Sir, as
concerns yourself, pray regard me as one who will yield to no man
in the desire to serve you.
Draft in hand (?) of L. Tomson. Fr. 1 p. [France VII. 35.]