692. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
This morning I received your letters and delivered the enclosures
according to their directions. I return herewith such answers as
were sent me.
I thank you for the favour extended towards me in sending the
instructions and necessary writings for my better direction to deal
at the meeting at Angsburg ; the time of which we understand is
not till May 24, so that I am to stay till we hear more certainly, and
the letters etc. being sent by Mr Governor to Embden are to be
kept there till my coming. During my continuing here, I mean,
unless you command the contrary, to follow still her Majesty's
cause, and before my departure will not fail the best I can to
instruct Mr Longston according to commission and his good liking.
For our present news I refer to the letters herewith sent.—
Antwerp, 21 April 1582.
Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 117.]
693. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
By the last post I sent you a book of the genealogies of the
Princes of these countries, of their matches, 'armories,' and
portraitures ; which, for the humble and loving mind it came from,
I hope you will take in good part. Therewith I wrote a few lines
to entreat you even for equity's sake, and for the respect you might
bear to my poor estate, that you would decide the difference
between Mr Wade and me, and 'resume' it to your hands, that
he might be satisfied according to my ability, and I discharged in
good sort towards him ; which charitable benefit I will never
forget. In the same letter I signified that if you would give me
further leave to write to you from hence of such matters as occur
(though it be advertised from the very fountain of things) I might
haply give you some private contentment therein more than each
man does. I would repute it a favour if you vouchsafed to like
such poor service as it were in my power to present you ; and
therefore for the occasions now offered, I am bold to 'prevent' your
answer in that behalf, and to advertise you as follows.
The Prince of Orange on Monday morning had a tent taken out
of his wound, which was missing by the space of 12 days, and had
brought the physicians and surgeons into great perplexity, how to
be resolved where it was 'become.' But it troubled the Prince
more, for he feared a new eruption of blood upon the finding of it,
or else an incision when the wound should be closed up 'and' the
tent were not first discovered. The physicians and surgeons,
before nature thus rejected the tent, persuaded the Prince,
in regard to the long time since the putting of it in, that it
must have issued out with the flux of blood, or been swallowed
into his body ; which now by God's benefit is otherwise,
and therefore an assurance made that the vein is closed, and
that by the miracle of God and no science of man they may hope
for perfect health to follow. Yet they keep him from meat, ministering
only what may sustain nature, lest any accident should happen
of fever, catarrh, or other inconvenience that might undo all
before his wound and state of body were well confirmed. Cornelius
Celsus does not assure any of these wounds to be without mortal
danger for the space of 40 days after the hurt ; but in the Prince's
person, it requires a longer time of consideration and to proceed
leisurely in the cure, with all the respect and discretion that physic
may minister. Though, as was said before, God only has been the
workman of it, and no inferior creature nor means, which they all
confess. Yet the chief commendation is given to Schoutemans,
a surgeon of this town, who had prepared red copper dissolved into
powder by vitriol and other corrosive matter, which upon long tents
first took hold of the vein to glue it ; whence it comes that this
powder is well thought of by the physicians, and the rather since
in tasting it upon the tongue, and otherwise it appears so corrected
that it is without acrimony. I am promised by Schoutemans to
have the proper receipt of it. Dr Josephus Michell had the charge
to keep the Prince from sneezing and coughing during this cure,
which was not the least part to be 'entertained,' by reason of
continual distillation into his throat and of moistures that did and
do abound in the head ; and acquitted himself very carefully on
that behalf. They still hold one finger upon the vein night and
day, that no sudden accident may accede to destroy their cure so
far advanced. This is the true state that the Prince finds himself
in at this present, 'which' I would not leave you unadvertised.
It is feared that though he recovers health, he will yet hardly have
the vigour of mind and senses that he had before, which I put you
in mind of, as a Councillor of your nearness to her Majesty's
secretest affairs, to observe ; that in having to do with him hereafter,
you measure his judgement with his actions, lest the one failing, you
repose upon opinions rather than cause in the rest ; which deceived
a number, by an error not corrigible, in the person of the late
Admiral Chatillon, when his senses failed him in the latter days, and
'was' directed by ministers.
The Council of Finance was established and sworn Wednesday
last ; their names are enclosed. The Privy Council was discharged
since the 25th of February, but now they are 'in hand' to make a
new election for it. The old Council of State was confirmed and
sworn anew on Tuesday, March 27, without alteration of persons ;
saving that if any by reason of sickness or age would be excused,
others should be chosen to 'supply the charge.' Here is likewise a
list of their names. Yet they intend to choose seven persons more,
with a greffier and usher, to be attendant and 'resyant' continually
beyond the Meuse, and determine affairs there as a Council of
State, 'appendent' of this greater Council, 'of' whom they shall
It is determined that Monsieur shall forthwith have delivered
into his hands and disposition all the domains appertaining to the
sovereignty of these countries, and in possession of the United
Provinces, to place in them his own officers, so they be 'naturals'
of the provinces, who shall adminster the revenues thereof towards
the discharge of Monsieur's Court, officers, train, and expenses,
whereof he shall set down a full proportion of all things requisite,
and be 'answered' the surplusage, whatever it shall be more than
the domains rise to, out of such means as the States-General shall
appoint to that use, in nature and certainty of a 'Rent of Assise.'
Next, the States have accorded to his Highness, from the 1st of
this present month, 250,000 guilders monthly for the maintenance
of the war henceforth, and he with the same sum to discharge them
from all further expense touching the war. To this effect they
consign into his possession and handling les droits de convoi, et licence
de toutes marchandises et denrées entrant et sortant des Provinces
Unies. Likewise they assign to him les droits de [con] sumptions
pardeça : à savoir, de vin, cervoise, blés . . . . . ., son, sel, tourbes,
bois, savon, etc. And in case these . . . . . not arrive to answer
the sum aforesaid of 250,000 guilders . . . . the States-General
promise to furnish the rest . . . contribution.
Besides this the States have granted him . . . money for the
'addressing' of an army, the sum of 356,000 guilders, to be paid
to him and his officer before the end of this month, whereof Brabant
furnishes 70,000, Flanders 130,000, and the rest is divided between
Zealand, Holland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overyssel, and 'Frize,' to
answer their parts as they are 'quotized.' M. de Laval departed
on Wednesday towards France, to levy troops, and others are daily
departing ; but it will be 3 months before they are here to do
His Highness has further proposed to the States that it is most
necessary they allow 300,000 guilders to be paid in the next six
months by equal portions from the beginning of April forward, and
with that sum the old debts due to the colonels and captains to be
compounded and 'stalled,' that they may be made the more able
and willing to serve, and the country be discharged of a huge claim
and burden. This motion the Estates have thought to be very
necessary and convenient, and are inclined to satisfy it.
Those of Holland and Zealand concur in the "premisses" with
the rest very forwardly, and have sent home for a new commission
to authorise the deputies here to confirm all that passes ; and
according to the Pacification of Ghent are now made able to decide
and conclude all controversies and processes at home, both criminal
and civil, without 'appellation' to Mechlin ; which has much confirmed
their devotion to Monsieur and the States.
Lastly the States have determined to erect a Chamber of Aids, to
furnish all these former contributions, and what further shall be
necessary for daily accidents and occasions that may occur ;
Monsieur having promised to bestow yearly 200,000 crowns of his
own revenue to ease the States, and the expenses that may arise by
the continuance of the war.
The thing next of most difficulty to determine has been the oath
that is to be given to the inhabitants of this town, which is conceived
and minuted in the form you will see enclosed, and copied in French.
Yet to such as traffic into Spain the oath, for good respect, is qualified,
that they shall only swear loyalty to Monsieur, and not abjure the
King of Spain.
It is a thing deeply to be looked into, as 'Monsieur's observers'
testify, there are found about 30,000 persons that have been at
mass at his church since permission was given ; and that of
120,000 souls that they calculate to be in this town more than half
are papists, and such withal as for their wealth and parentage carry
the very pulse of the 'Burse' and traffic with them.
There is some jar at present between the States of Flanders and
Brabant upon the point of Brabant's privilege, where none is to
be admitted officers in Brabant but natural Brabanters, which those
of Flanders would either cut off, or else exclude them from office
out of their own jurisdiction. It seems that Monsieur is not
displeased by this 'pyke,' and has received 'their' supplication of
Flanders, and deliberated on it in the Council of State.
Our merchants have procured testimony here to answer the
objections of the Hanse Stedes at the Imperial Diet ; wherein, as
Guicciardin and some other friends of mine have informed me,
their advocate has not so set down their reasons and justification
as the cause imports.
There is arrived here a fleet of 22 great ships charged with rich
merchandise from Lisbon and Andalutia, and one vessel from 'the
Madeiras' reporting that the place is still in the devotion of the
King of Spain, and nowise revolted.
The enemy after the easy winning of Lens is come into Flanders,
first to 'Bell' and Poperinge, whereof it was feared that he would
likewise besiege Ypres, and stop the passing out of France between
Graveling and Dunkirk. But now he is before Oudenarde, which
has caused hasty expeditions from hence ; for it 'imports.'
The Prince of Parma, after Schenck was taken by those of
Guelders, sent for Verdugo into Flanders, where he still is. But his
lieutenant Monceaux is come before Steenwyk in Friesland, with
18 ensigns of foot, 7 cornets of horse, and 16 pieces of battery
. . . the place. There are appointed 1,500 reiters to assist
Verdugo . . . in Guelders, of whom the Duke 'of Saxony and
Lowenburg' . . . has the leading. One regiment more of
Almain foot, with . . . . of Spaniards and Italians will be
employed that way . . .
There are two regiments of Almain foot now that are to join the
Prince of Parma, and 3,000 reiters whom Eric of Brunswick is to
have the charge of. Mr Norris is still here. His people have had
a conflict with the Boors beside Deventer, about their quarter and
'savegards,' wherein sundry Boors and others have been slain.
Mr Norris departs on Monday to his charge.
The Bishop of Liége has written to his Highness that whereas he
is informed that the passage of Mézières will be shut up, he would
be pleased to consider that his country has used neutrality all this
while, and that therefore he should 'regard' not to provoke his
The Archbishop of Mentz is deceased ; so is the Palsgrave's wife,
and himself so sick that he can hardly recover. The Imperial Diet
The King of Denmark makes great preparations of shipping and
soldiers. There are between 4,000 and 5,000 Bohemian pioneers
coming here for the service of the King of Spain ; whereby you may
guess what the Prince of Parma intends to do, as he is master of the
Don Antonio's preparations in France are feared to be more for
Rochelle than Portugal ; which opinion is augmented by the King
of Navarre's retreat when he was solicited to have come forward.
Her Majesty is wished, 'from very good place,' to have a careful
eye 'into' Scotland, for there is somewhat brewing that way.
Colonel Stewart is troubled by his regiment here, who have
exhibited supplications against him, and mean to be discharged of his
government, and to be assured of their money received by him.
This hinders his journey into Scotland and perplexes him
We say plainly here, and so do some letters of credit out of
France, that the king will not meddle with his brother's actions,
nor with these countries, of this side. The Prince of Orange's
wound was 'made nothing' to the French king by the reports
from here, to the end he should not be discouraged 'to' join with
It is confirmed that the King of Spain has money at 'Gene' and
at Venice, in readiness to make his soldiers march, and that great
troops daily arrive at Luxemburg.—Antwerp, 21 April 1582.
P.S.—. . . . ta is arrived here this day, and some English . . . .
who have brought 10 chests of bullion, as is openly . . . . from
her Majesty to Monsieur, a servir per Esta per questa [guerra.
Qu] esti inimici s'informano troppo d'ogni cosa.
Add. Endd. 6 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 118.]
694. DU PLESSIS-MORNAY to WALSINGHAM.
I have received yours of the 14th, but not the account of the
interview which you mention. I have however heard the details
of it through those who write to me from France, which all give us
hope of peace ; and yet I do not so far perceive any change in the
wishes of the King of Navarre. Nevertheless I should like very
much to know what has made her Majesty change her mind, not
daring to write crudely of the change without alleging some valid
cause. Here we swear by (?) the health of his Excellency, who
goes on improving, and is out of danger. The doctors themselves
are constrained to give God the glory of it.
The enemy is taking steps to besiege Oudenarde, and his Highness
is preparing his army everywhere. A little help from you would
come very appositely for him. The troubles at Aix are settled, and
the town freed from the inroads (courses) that molested it. Those
of the Religion have a place of worship there by agreement. It
seems as if at Cologne they will at length be compelled to allow the
like. Thus the Pope is tottering in spite of all he has ; and do what
he will, never rise again from it. It is so many battles gained by
God through the preaching of His Word.—Antwerp, 21 April 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 119.]
695. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have lately received your letters by the hands of Jackson and
Mr Marburry. Since the king is but lately returned, I could not
have 'sufficient commodity' to deal in the matter of the diamond
as yet ; howbeit, I shall presently 'have care' of it, according to the
importance of the thing.
And because in your letters you note that the Queen greatly
marvelled to see this king so cold and slow in prosecuting this
matter of the marriage, I went this afternoon to M. Lansac's house
to bid him welcome, being then returned from his journey with the
Queen Mother, whom he left at Chenonceaux. In the conference I
had with him, there grew occasion to speak of the matter of the
marriage ; of which he delivered these words, that the bringing to
pass of it would be very commodious and available for France and
England, but the prolonging of the negotiation seemed little profitable.
Thereon I said that by sending him and other like principal
personages as commissioners, had given [sic] Monsieur and the
Queen to understand that his Majesty desired the marriage to
content his brother ; howbeit otherwise it appears the king
would do nothing at once to take away the impediments and
advance the 'effectuing' of the marriage, as in doing for his
brother in the enterprise of Flanders that which was to be looked
for, considering he is both father and brother, king and sovereign to
After I had 'passed' this talk privately with M. Lansac, M. de la
Mothe-Fènelon, being lodged 'thereby,' came to us, and after salutations
entered also into the like discourse ; beginning with high
praises of her Majesty's beauty and the excellency of her wit, with
the qualities of her mind and body and her singular happy government,
declaring, with his mild manner of protestations, how
earnestly the king and Queen Mother desired the conclusion of the
marriage, and declaring what commission they had to offer to the
Queen principal points of amity in case of marriage, remembering
also the giving of the ring to Monsieur by her Majesty, with many
other appearances and shows, which had at times given them
exceeding hope that the marriage would be accomplished. He
concluded that the Queen was so great a lady that there could be
no hold taken of her but such as might please herself.
To which sayings I answered that upon the divers and princely
shows of Monsieur's affection towards her, she had been moved also
to deliver apparent signs for the requital of his love ; but yet she
has ever thought it good to keep herself within the compass of the
advice she has always used, for the continuance of her reposed estate,
and the better satisfaction of her subjects. Therefore it was no
marvel if she advisedly stayed her further course in the proceeding of
the marriage, till the king should perform such acts as may take
away the difficulties, and satisfy her ; which consisted in reasonable
points, as that she may be disburdened of those extreme charges
which would be necessarily incident to the marriage in respect of
Monsieur's embracing the affairs in the Low Countries, to the
dispossessing of King Philip.
To this they both answered that they were servants to her
Majesty, and desirous the marriage might take effect ; and as they
had, so they would do upon all occasions such good offices as the
cause required ; without giving one another direct remark or answer
to this last 'purpose.' I understood from them that because the
king thought good to enter into consideration of his brother's
affairs for Flanders, he has stayed his intended journey to Blois
and resolved to remain in these parts ; so that the Queen Mother
meant also to come to this Court with the Queen of Navarre, about
the beginning of next month.
I will not 'leave' to let you know how M. Lansac upon occasion
of the speech of the marriage, and remembering her Majesty's age,
let me know that Mme de Marrigni of Poitou, governess to the
Princess of Lorraine, is known to be with child, and 'gone on her
time five months,' being of the age of one or two and fifty.—Paris,
21 April 1582.
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France VII. 59.]
696. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I meant yesterday to visit M. Pinart, with intent to deal with
him on behalf of the merchants of Chester, according to the command
I lately received from the Lords of the Council, and likewise
to move him to 'have some order' for Mr Marburry's losses ; but
I found him 'impeached' in the Council of Finances, so I deferred
it till today, when he stayed my going to him, and repaired to me.
I delivered into his hands, and commended to him the causes of
the merchants of Chester, and Mr Marburry's, and put him in mind
of Mr Warcop's suit, receiving his earnest promise to do for them
as he may prevail with his Majesty. He also declared to me that
this morning M. Lansac told the king I had visited him, and what
passed in our conference. Upon the relation of this, M. Pinart
told me, the king said that for himself, he coveted the marriage as
much as ever he did, and was not become cold in his desire for it ;
howbeit when he remembers the sending of his commissioners to
England, and the twice passing thither of his brother, and yet no
conclusion of the cause, he cannot tell whether her Majesty intends
to proceed to the effecting of the marriage.
M. Pinart told me further that Mauvissière had written of the
Queen's late shows of inclination to hearken to the marriage ; as
also that it had been told him by a merchant lately come from
England (but not written by M. Mauvissière) that the Queen had
sent Lord Norris or one of his sons to Monsieur in Flanders, to know
his resolution as to the marriage.
Then breaking off from this 'purpose' he gave me to understand
that about the time of his being with me, the Pope's nuncio had
audience of the king. He discoursed to me how the nuncio had
little skill of the affairs of France, since he undertook to do correction
on the king's subjects ; considering the government of the clergy
and Gallican Church belongs to his Majesty. He added that the
king would show himself according to the profession of his religion
towards the Pope ; but that he did not mean to 'leese' any part
of his sovereignty for the ecclesiastical jurisdiction which the kings
his predecessors have hitherto enjoyed. And though he understood
how M. de Toix, his ambassador at Rome, had largely declared to
the Pope that the nuncio had mistaken the jurisdiction of the
king in this case, wherein he had so much wrongfully intermeddled,
yet he (the king) perceives that M. de Foix, fearing their discipline
at Rome, did not reply so earnestly to the Pope as the cause
required. Whereto I said that I heard the nuncio would earnestly
press the king to have the process which had passed in the Court
of Parlement against the Cardinal of Bourbon and himself,
disannulled, cancelled, and burnt. He said the king, rather than
consent to that, would cause all the scarlet hoodmen to be burnt—
meaning the Judges of the Parlement ; adding further that the
Cardinal of Bourbon was to blame in accepting a commission from
the Pope to be joined with the nuncio, without having first license
from the king.
M. Pinart informs me that the king with the whole means to
repair next week to Fontainebleau, where the Queen Mother resorts
with the Queen of Navarre ; and that about the end of July he will
remove to Compiègne in Picardy. After this M. Pinart left me.
I perceive the king means presently to dispatch one to his ambassador
in England.—Paris, 22 April 1582.
Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. VII. 60.]
697. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 15th inst. since which the magistrates have
received the following.
By the great protestations and entreaty of those of Lille the
enemy was determined to have laid siege to Meenen ; for they had
sent 18 cornets of horse and 1,500 foot to keep the passages thereabout
till the rest of their camp came thither. On Wednesday
last the rest of their forces that lay at 'Bell' came all before
Meenen at 5 a.m. and as soon as they came, 'fell in skirmish' with
them of the town, which continued till 4 in the afternoon, and
many slain on both sides. The Frenchmen and Scots showed
themselves very valiant, and that 'present' evening at 8, letters
came to the camp from the Prince of Parma at Tournay to
cause the whole camp at sight thereof to march forward towards
Oudenarde. So they have besieged that town, wherein are eight
ensigns of foot and one cornet of horse, all Flemings ; and the town
is indifferently well provided of munitions and victuals for six
months, but they lack men. Those of Ghent sent 3 ensigns thither,
but they could not 'enter' them, so it is feared the town will be
lost for want of rescue.
By letters from good patriots that follow the enemy's camp,
'hath given' advice to this town that the enemy has lately received
some good 'comfort' out of Spain that they shall not lack men
nor money to follow their enterprise. This news has given their
soldiers great encouragement.
They write also that one special cause of the enemy's going
towards Oudenarde and those parts is to keep the Duke of Brabant
from Ghent, or to make him afraid to venture thither, because that
is the place 'that' he must be sworn Earl of Flanders ; and to the
end that the Gentners might lose all the great charges they have
been at for the receiving of him ; for by all reports their charges
are very great.
It is a very easy matter for the enemy to do all that he list, for as
yet there are no forces on the States' side able to resist them, which
is a great grief to the commons.
This week M. de Laval passed through this town towards Dunkirk,
and so into France. He told the magistrates of this town that he
would be here again within a month with 600 horse of his own
charge to serve the duke.
Among the commons here the speech goes that it is now about
three months since Monsieur, Duke of Brabant, came into the
country. At that time they were 'put in comfort' that they should
have about this time some forces in the country able to keep the
enemy from besieging any town ; and now they see the contrary, as
also small hope of any to come in a long time, it begins to make
some discontent among them in these parts. If Oudenarde be lost
for want of rescue, it is feared it will turn to some further displeasure.
—Bruges, 22 April 1582.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 120.]
698. FREMYN to WALSINGHAM.
I received on the 21st yours sent on the 14th. As for what is
going on in these countries, his Excellency is doing reasonably
(se porte par raison) and is getting stronger every day. His wound
is quite healed, and yesterday no more plaster needed to be put on
it. A thumb has no longer been kept on the vein since last
Thursday ; so that he is held to be entirely cured, and able henceforth
to talk and do business. It only remains for him to get strong,
by reason of the blood lost. This cure proceeds from Heaven and
nowhence else, and all honest folk ought to thank God for having
preserved such a personage for His glory and for the salvation of
these countries in a time so corrupt and reckless (desbordé). And to
say the truth, if God had called him, his Highness's affairs would
have been shaky, having little better than no foundation, as it
can be seen with the eye since his wound that many things have
gone to disorder, in such wise that his Highness has still need of
such a preceptor for some years ; inasmuch as there are few people
of any stuff about him, but only too many others. There is the
secretary 'Kensey' [qy. Quincé] who manages everything. Some
days ago arrived at Court M. de Vray, secretary of State, to enter
upon his office (en cartier). He has not done it yet, but there is a
desire to keep him at a distance as much as possible on account of
some discontents, and to let his post fall into the hands of Chartier,
formerly secretary to M. de Damville, who has made some strange
traicts against those of the Religion, as you were long ago informed.
The reason why they oppose M. de Vray is because in his office
he makes public profession of the Religion. On Good Friday
his Highness told him he ought to come to mass, which he
refused to do. In this way all important matters pass through
the hands of the Roman Catholics ; and as for those of the
Religion, who are few in number in that household, they
are only so pro forma, and very few of those there would be burnt
for it. So it was more than time for his Excellency to get well,
to remedy these things. His Highness gives many commissions
for their army, but no money, and those who are serving cannot
get paid, which is a thing that ought to be looked closely into,
for the disorders and murmurings which in time it will bring with
it. The troops in Flanders are already doing infinite harm for
want of pay to the common people of the fields, who are leaving
the country and withdrawing to the towns in great troops, women
and children ; and lots of complaints which come to his Highness
about it, without amendment, which makes people murmur
strangely, and alters their first affection ; for which many honest
folk are infinitely grieved.
The States have granted his Highness all the moyens généraux,
excise, and all other imposts newly laid on, for the future, and
300,000 florins in ready money for the master of the troops. This
was granted last Friday. Meanwhile the enemy holds the field,
and is for attacking some place. He has already surrounded
Oudenarde, wherein there are but 5 companies of local infantry.
A week ago they would not receive 3 companies of infantry sent to
their town. It is to be presumed that if the enemy besieges it he
will carry it, inasmuch as we have no forces sufficient to prevent
him ; and if that town is lost, Ypres will be in danger and the
enemy always at the gates of Ghent. His Highness's delay in
going into Flanders to take possession does not further his affairs ;
it is only diligence that furthers everything, when done with good
advice. He has always put off the journey till his Excellency
should be out of danger. In fact, I see his Highness will have plenty
to do to re-establish the affairs of these countries, and without his
Excellency's assistance, he will be in a bad way. There is moreover
an enterprise against some place in the environs of Brussels, which
is to be properly carried out tomorrow or not all.
It is said that the Imperial Diet will be held on May 22 at
Augsburg. The Emperor has appointed commissioners in regard
to affairs at Aix, where there is great perplexity. The Pole has
made peace with the Muscovite, and it is said the same will take
place between the Turk and the Persian.
Those of Basle have had some disturbance (riotte) with their
bishop, because he has caused mass to be sung by force in a place
near Basle, where none has been said for 40 years. Those of Bern,
Zurich and Schaffhausen are helping them. The bishop is also
making alliances, so that this little beginning may well grow to a
great matter if it be not remedied betimes. The Bishop of
Lausanne has written to the senate and people of that place,
exhorting them to withdraw from allegiance to the Lords of
There is here M. de Villesaison, lately come to his Highness from
the Prince of Condé, who offers to serve him in this war. He will
decline with thanks.—Antwerp, 22 April 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 121.]
699. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
I received on the 21st yours of the 14th, mentioning the receipt
of my last, with thanks for the satisfaction which the Earl of
Leicester derived from that which he communicated to you. I think
it approached what was expressed in yours, and I perceive it was as
acceptable as that which I wrote you four years ago, and bore the
same fruit, contrary to the expectation which your last gave me,
together with Mr Greville's verbal promise. He must have reported
such notable advices, which can merit no less than the satisfaction of
my long waiting on your promises ; especially at the season in which
we are, and in which I have put off binding myself for service, however
far I might fall from my expectations, as Mr Gilpin knows, by
whose promises I have been 'behoneyed' with favourable expectations,
not with expense and other inconveniences. It will suffice that for
all my past service you shall be grateful to me ; that if in future I
am forced to accept a post (party) which takes away from me the
means of writing to you, you may hold me excused. I assure you
nevertheless that no other will serve you more faithfully than I
have done for her Majesty's state ; nor am I able to judge or to
think whence can arise the forgetfulness of things past.—Antwerp,
22 April 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 122.]
700. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have been requested by M. 'la Myllytyre' and M. de Montigny
to certify you that the King of Navarre has dispatched M. la Roque,
to repair to her Majesty and tell her what he 'passed' at this
conference with the Queen Mother, and show her how the French
king and his mother have permitted him to hold at the end of May
an assembly of all the reformed churches in the realm. After performing
this in England, la Roque was to pass into Flanders to
Monsieur ; but he is fallen sick by the way. The assembly of the
reformed clergy is to be at Saint-Jean-d'Angely.
The King of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, with M. de Rohan and
many other of the nobility, have continued the exercise of the
Religion this Easter holidays at Rochelle, where it is said they as
It is esteemed that about the beginning of next month some of
the fleet prepared for Don Antonio's cause will be in readiness.
I have lately been intreated by letter from the Abate del Bene to
recommend Bartolomeo Spatafora the Sicilian, who has, as he says,
some time served the Earl of Oxford. I have given him a letter to
yourself only, being since informed he has spoken with the Pope's
There is a young square-shamed [qy. framed] fellow, naming
himself a 'Senease' [qy. Sienese] who has sought ways to have
colour to repair into England, and has at sundry times made means
to serve some Englishman. He is but of mean stature, having his
nose 'camused,' with a wide mouth and great lips, his eyes black
and sad, having very little beard. Some have judged him rather a
Spaniard than an Italian. I hear he has passed by way of Calais.
The other day I was informed that an Italian courtesan, long
known in this Court by the name of la Signora Romana, intended
to take her journey towards England, with two or three companions.
Young Mr 'Arondale' departs tomorrow, he informs me, towards
Mr Humphry Mildmay is come hither, with intention to take
his journey next week towards England.—Paris, 23 April 1582.
P.S.—La Signora Romana intends to present herself to the
Queen. She was 'entered into the like humour' last year, as I
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France VII. 61.]
701. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
Even now at this present, 5 p.m. the magistrates of this town
received letters from Ghent that this morning at 4 o'clock, M. de
Thiant, governor of Nymegen, took the town of Alost by surprise.
In this enterprise many are slain on both sides, and M. Mocqueron,
governor of Alost, is taken prisoner. I thought it my duty to
write you of this good news. The particulars I will write by the
next ; for I send this after the post to Dunkirk.—Bruges, 5 o'clock
and a half this evening, Monday, 23 April 1582.
Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 123.]
702. Copy of the letter referred to in the last.
Today are come M. de Thiant's sergeant-major and the lieutenant
of Barson's company, who have secured the town of Alost for us at
daybreak. We have seen two ensigns which they brought to
present to his Highness. M. de Fresnoy is certainly a prisoner.
They took the town without much resistance. A good many were
killed. We have no other details. The joyous news, and my haste
to let you share it makes me end this letter.—Dendermonde, 23
April 1582, at nine o'clock. (Signed) Victor Nore.
Add. to M. de Ryhove. Below, in Stokes's hand :
This is the copy of the letter that the Lords of this town received
from Ghent, which was written at Dermond this morning, which I
got after my letter was closed.
Endd. Fr. and Eng. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 123a.]
703. THOMAS COTTON to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last letter his Highness having made a full resolution
what numbers of men he will have, I have procured four companies,
'which,' to entertain time till some better occasion serve, I must be
content. I am sorry that things do not fall out so well at home, that
I might have procured such letters as I desired of you. But I trust
my service abroad will in no way discontent in any action I 'will'
commit, but thereby only able [sic] the better to serve my country.
I trust you know me well ; neither shall you ever have me any
other than I have vowed myself. I have sent for men, 'which' if
any occasion shall be to crave your favour, I beseech you to
The Prince of Orange, God be thanked, is well recovered and sits
up, his wound whole within two days. I have spoken with his
physicians and surgeons, for with him they will as yet suffer no
man to speak, fearing he will force himself to speak, and thereby
'endanger' to force the vein again. He has lost 8 pounds of blood,
which makes him very weak, and requires some time to recover it.
This hurt, so dangerous, and for the service of his country, will
make him much more beloved than ever he was. To content the
people, the last day he showed himself at his window, which caused
great joy to them. Yet would they not believe it, 'but sent after
6, to see him with coming into his chamber.' By chance he was
asleep ; they would have him waked and speak to him, only to be
sure, for it was said for certain he was dead.
The enemy prepares, it is said, to besiege Oudenarde, and his
horse are come down to shut up the ways for fear of a garrison to
be put in. But it may be doubted it is but a bravado to victual or
surprise some other place. Yet if they take it in hand, having but
5 companies in it, and those weak and the town not strong, it may
be doubted to be lost before the duke can gather his forces to
'levy' the siege. The only hope that may be is considering a
siege is enough to ruin a camp ; and having lost so much time, and
now expecting the Duke's forces will rather seek to make themselves
Mr 'Du Vall' being made general of the horse is gone into
France to make his levy ; so there is nothing here but preparations
for the camp.
The Swiss 4,000 ready [sic] to march, and 1,800 'rutters' ready to
enter the borders at Vermandois. I think M. de Rochepot will go
with some foot to convoy them.—23 April.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 124.]
704. THOMAS NORTH, mariner, to WALSINGHAM.
Laus Deo. At 'Hellsanowr' in the Sound of Denmark, 24 April
1582.—My conscience has moved me to certify you of all the news
I have lately heard in these east parts, being Denmark.
Being in company with certain familiar friends of this country,
they told me that the King of Denmark was much offended at the
doings of the Queen's subjects in travel and trading northwards
with the Emperor of 'Roussay' ; and that certain of them had
much abused one of the King of Denmark's captains of his ships
and the king also, by evil and unreverent words. This is come to
the king's ear, and he is much offended thereat. Also there was
another master of a ship, whose name is Nottingham, coming from
Elbing in a ship laden with merchants' goods of [Lon]don. He
made a false 'entremes' in the king's custom-house, whereupon the
customers were minded to stay both ship and goods. Yet the error
that was made was a very sm[all] matter, so the master and men
of the ship were in doubt that a great loss would ensue for the
aforesaid doing beside their own troubles. For the avoiding thereof,
they enterprised to set their sail, the wind being good, to go away ;
which doing of Nottingham the king is offended with also, and
therefore means to send out four ships and t . . galleys to the
northward, to take and bring in all such merchants' ships and goods
as they shall meet with that way. For Nottingham's offence, if the
Queen does not take better order for it, he will stay all the
merchant-ships that pass the Sound for Elbing eastwards. The
custom which Nottingham went away with, has been sent him into
Denmark ; and the customers refuse it, saying they will have the
. . . the ships and goods, or else 1,000 angels. The truth is,
the ill-dealing of the customers there in Denmark with our nation
urges men to ill-dealing with the king in his custom, for the trade
and passage of ships through the Sound is very great in the summer
time ; and sometimes there will come into the Sound in fleets 100,
200, and sometimes 300 sail of ships, some English, some Scotch,
and some French, but the greatest number from the Netherlands,
Holland, Zealand, and Flanders, and some from Emden, Hamburg,
and Bremen ; and all these Low Country ships pass into the East
parts, most commonly empty 'in their ballyst,' unless a few of them
that carry bay-salt, otherwise must go empty. And all these ships,
they 'commonly and ever' take their custom and clear them away,
before they will take the entrance of an English ship ; so that
English ships must always lie with their whole lading till all other
ships are dispatched, which often 'turns' the merchants and
mariners to the loss of both ship and goods ; for the road where
the ships lie at anchor is an open road with an easterly wind, and
with a west and nor' west wind, so that by storm from these two
parts many ships are cast away, to the great loss and undoing of
many merchants, and also to the great charge of both merchants
and mariners, lying waiting the customers' leisure. And all this
while that men lie there, sometimes 14 days, sometimes a month,
there is no traffic to be made, nor sale for any English goods nor
goods of any other lands ; so barren and poor is that country of
Denmark, that it has no trade in any merchandise but herrings and
fish, so that bay-salt is the best merchandise that all the King of
Denmark's dominions require. If we had other trade for our
merchants into or from his lands, men would not think much to
stay their leisures, if his roads were also good, that ships may ride
in safety there. But there is no good commodity for merchants in
anything there, and the king's great revenue is in the great custom
that he has raised extortionately upon merchants and shippers
passing his streams, having no trade nor benefit for their custom
moneys else. The western parts have had their passage but of late
years through the Sound, paying but a rose-noble for the whole
ship, and goods passage ; but now the custom on a small ship
and goods come to 20l., 30l., and some even 100l. and 200l. a ship.
One English shipper paid the king 200l. for his ship and goods'
passage outwards within these two years. All that pass that way
bring the custom-money out of their own countries ; therefore
whether the princes of these west parts had not need to see some
order taken in this behalf I defer it to your wisdom to consider of.
The King of Denmark has watched a good time to 'exsacke' and
raise his tolls and custom. The Duke of 'Allvey,' by writing but
one letter to him once, made him let fall his custom upon the sight
thereof, about 16 years ago, being then but newly raised ; and since
that time he never raised it again till this year. But this queen's
subjects have paid the most custom ever since, and the French
and Scots also, because their princes have never said anything to
the contrary ; 'under correction.' It were good that the Queen,
with her good friends, the Prince of Orange and the Governors of
the Low Countries, and the King of Scots, and the King of France,
and Grave of Emden, 'did write' to the King of Denmark together,
for it touches them all, especially the Queen and the Governors
of the Low Countries and of Friesland ; for their trade is very
great that way because the Low Countries are served with corn
mostly from the east parts, and all other necessaries for their
shipping, as masts, ropes, pitch and tar, hemp and flax. These
are the chief commodities that we and they fetch from the east
parts through the Sound of Denmark ; and the lands of Denmark
have none of all this kind of merchandise but masts for ships,
'which be but a coarse sort of masts nother,' but the King of
Denmark's subjects 'and the king's provision also of these commodities
is brought from the east parts out of 'Pruseland' and
'Leueffland' and 'Roussyay,' from whence we bring ours. Therefore
if the King of Denmark may raise and take such tolls and
customs for the passage of stranger's ships, he will much impoverish
all the princes' lands of their treasure, for there pass not 'so few as'
2,000 sail through the Sound in one year, for 'some one ship'
makes 3 or 4 voyages in a summer out of the Low Countries.
There are divers towns of the east parts that have 'stood with' the
King of Denmark in these causes, challenging their passage according
to old customs and agreements between the King of Denmark
and them ; and I think that we of the west parts ought to have the
like, if the princes will look to it, and search the registers for the
same. The customs that he has raised of late enrich him very
much, and cause him to be very quarrelsome with other princes,
and he builds castles, and he has English shipwrights that build
him goodly ships and galleys, after the English mould and fashion ;
I would they were hanged that owe so little good will to their
prince and country, that will go to strengthen a foreign prince.
Also the King of Denmark has had out of England about 200
pieces of 'iearne' ordnance and shot for the same. They are all
sakers and culverins, and have been very well proved with
double charge three times shot off at least. They are for
his ships and castles, and were provided from England by one
John Focksell, who is the king's great friend, and I think a
better Dane in heart than Englishman. So is one Thomas
Tynneycar, who was Focksell's man ; and both have been the
king's factors for 'theas' out of England to furnish him with all
such things as he has need of, and he has very well rewarded them
for their 'travells,' for they be both 'beger rype.' The king has
not lacked anything that they might help him to out of England,
neither shipwrights nor any other persons, as masters, mariners,
or captains and men for his wa . . . ; but all these have not moved
the king to any friendship towards our nation, but it is rather
suspected that they have been the cause of the raising of new tolls
every year for this 9 or 10 years, so that 'eythery' [qy. every] year
the king must have more. Some years he will have his toll in
'this country' money, and another year in 'that country' money,
so that the passengers never know, till they come into the Sound,
what 'quyne' [coin] he will have for his toll ; yet they must go
seek such money as he will take, for his own country money 'will
not' be taken in his custom of strangers. This much I thought
good to let you understand of the dealings in Denmark.
Further you must know that it has been told me by my friends
here that there have been here this winter with the King of Denmark
certain lords of the Hanse Towns, whose coming was to have
the king to be their 'shotes heyre' [Schutzherr], that is to say, the
defender of all the Hanse Towns in their rights and privileges ; for
which, if it pleased him to take it upon him, they would become his
faithful friends, and aid him against all his enemies, and also yield
him a great tribute yearly. This is thought to be a practice of the
Hanse Towns against the English nation, to bring their matters the
better to pass, for they know not how to be avenged of us or our
country otherwise than by the King of Denmark ; for they have sued
to the Emperor, and to the King of Poland, and to the Duke of
'Spruse,' to have 'set us off' from the trades of these parts. But
their 'shuts' [qy. suits] have taken little force with them, for all
their practice is to have the English merchants put from the trade
of these east parts, and they have persuaded the King of Denmark
that if he would banish and forbid the English nation the trade
through the Sounds, the trade would then grow to himself and his
friends in those parts, to the great enriching of himself and his
subjects ; for as yet the king has very few merchants or merchantships
of any force. I am sure that he has not six good merchantships
belonging to all his country ; but the force that he has now,
is in his own shipping or navy, which is not above 20 or 24 sail
small and great. But if he join with Lubeck and "Danske" and
other Hanse Towns, they have many great hulks. Whether the
king had granted them their request, I cannot learn ; but I hear
that the Danskers and others of the Hanse Towns have levied such
great 'takes' and gathered such sums of money of their townships
that the like was never done before. What the meaning in
it is cannot as yet be known, but it is thought to be to aid the
King of Denmark, or to have money in readiness for some other
purpose ; but certain it is that they of Danske and Lubeck are
travailing all that in them lies to drive our nation from the trade
of the east seas and countries. But when they bring that to pass,
I hope the Queen will drive them from their trade through her
narrow seas, through which they travel yearly into France and
Spain and Portugal ; and they cannot 'miss' this trade so well
as we may miss the east trade, for they have no salt but from
these south parts.
The king, perceiving that the Queen has of late yielded to his
writing on behalf of his subjects, touching satisfaction for John
Callis's offence, the same being made at the great suit of her loving
subjects, it causes him to make further requests of her, thinking
that she will not deny him for the trade's sake which her subjects
have through his Sounds to the east parts. For these causes the
king thinks that the Queen will not and cannot deny him ; but if it
pleased her to send the King of Denmark word, and these proud
Hanse Towns also, that they should not presume to trade through
her narrow seas towards the south parts, I believe it would abate
their high minds ; for if they should lose the trade, and not have
salt out of France and Spain, they would be even in as ill case as
we should be to be without the use of bread. Or else if it shall
please her to set a new toll or custom for all ships that pass her
narrow seas or come to anchor in her roads or haven, I think it
would terrify them, and make the King of Denmark, and them
also, deal with her subjects as they would be dealt withal ; for sure
it is very seldom that any ships pass from the east parts into
France or Spain, but they must 'of force,' if they meet with
any contrary wind, come to anchor in some of her Majesty's roads
or havens, both for the safeguard of their ships and goods, and
also to refresh themselves with fresh water or victuals or other
things that they have need of. And surely the Queen were better
worthy to have a custom there, than the King of Denmark is
in his streams ; for in England they may have good roads
and havens, where their ships may ride in safety, and they
may have all necessaries that they lack ; and so cannot we have
in Denmark in the Sound, but there, if a man buy a barrel of
beer for his ship, he must pay as much custom as the beer is worth.
I do not think that the custom would be as beneficial to the Queen
as the Sound is to the King of Denmark ; and I know this of
myself, that about 4 years ago there came in an English ship into
the river of Danske. The master had laden her at 'Quynsbrowe,'
and by force of weather the ship being leaky they went into the
river to stop their leak ; and the Danskers made the master pay the
whole custom for the ship and goods. If it be lawful for them to
take custom of those ships that come in for refuge upon extremity
of a leaky ship and foul weather, I hope it may be also lawful for
the Queen within her passages and streams to take custom in like
sort. If the King of Denmark stops our passage through his
Sound, I do not doubt but that we shall find a trade for all these
necessary commodities that come from the east parts, for they are
as able to keep their commodities as we are to keep ours. There
is come of all sorts of the east counties' commodities as great store
at Amsterdam in Holland as is in any one place in 'they' east
parts ; and as at Antwerp there was in times past the storehouse
for all merchandise out of Spain and Portugal and other parts, so
is Amsterdam the storehouse for all the east-country commodities.
Therefore I would not that the King of Denmark should be feared,
or that there should be any doubt of the lack of the country
commodities, or that we should lack the 'vent' of our cloths ;
or anything that the country 'doth increase' ; and as for the
use of our navies, they may as well be set on work in
trade between Amsterdam and England as to go through the
Sounds, and with a great deal less danger or venture ; for
the voyage is as perilous into the east parts as any that is traded
of that distance. No, there is none so perilous, but that it is traded
in the summer time, in fair weather ; yet there are more losses on
that voyage than on any other I know. Also if the King of Denmark
pretended a quarrel towards our prince or nation, always
about midsummer or Whitsuntide he might stay, that pass his
Sounds, 50 or 60 sail of English ships, if he do 'deal upon the
vantage' ; for in the spring of the year, if he will suffer them to
pass eastwards by 4 sail and 6 sail as they come, before those first
ships return, there may be 60 or 100 past and come within his
'danger' ; which if he should stay, it would be a great foil to our
merchants and owners of ships and also to a number of poor
mariners. But if there were but 20 or 30 of our good merchantships
together in the Sound they would come and go in despite of
all his power, for he has but one castle or house that stands upon
one point of the land where the stream is narrow, and at that
place where he takes his custom ; and there the strait is but 4
English miles broad. And after the ship has passed about that
point where the castle is, there is a great broad road, where the
ships may ride out of reach of any shot from the land or castle,
and all the rest of the Sound is broad waters and very shallow, and
narrow channels in some places. There he keeps one or two of his
ships lying, if he fear anything ; either that strangers should pass
uncustomed, or for any other cause of evil. This I thought good
to certify you, because it is thought verily that the King of Denmark,
by the procurement of the Lords of the Hanse Towns, will
pick a quarrel to make war with the Queen, or else that he will
stay all her ships and goods until she yields to his request. But I
hope in God these proud peacocks' tails will be pulled well enough
by such good orders as shall be taken for them by her Majesty and
her Council whom I pray God to bless with all wisdom and long
Many will say, what advantage shall any prince have, to war
against the King of Denmark or the King of Sweden, for they have
neither of them any trades of merchants or of shipping that pass
abroad into other countries. Notwithstanding they have not, they
are therefore the easier to be invaded in their countries. 'Why,'
say they, 'will we invade their countries? They are so poor and
beggarly that there will be nothing gotten amongst them.' Yet I
say, though the people be poor, and inhabitance small, there are
two or three places on this side the straits of the Sounds, and lying
in the entrance of his Sound or narrow seas, which is a day and a
night's sailing from the place where his fort and castle stands,
that if any other foreign prince should come and take them 'in,'
they were to be held from the King of Denmark with a very small
power, to his 'detterment' and hindrance ; for they are two of the
chief fisher-towns that he has, and stand very strongly. One of
them gives him, I think, very near as much custom for the
herrings that are taken there in the winter as he has for his
passage at 'Hellssenour,' and the best sounds for ships to ride in
that there are in all Norway. Two ships, with 100 men 'in a
piece,' would keep either of the sounds from all the king's power ;
for either of the sounds has a small island lying at its mouth or
entrance, which is of rock ; and the towns stand on these rocky
islands without bulwarks, castle, or ship to defend them, so
that any ships may come into the sounds these two ways, both
on the west side and on the east, so long as it is undefended by
bulwark, castle, or ships of war. One sound is called Mallstrom and
the other Fleckerry ; and there are divers others lying on that north
side, which are good for any shipping to come into, but not 'Leeke'
[qy. like] the other. If any enemy should take one of these islands,
all the king's power were not able to recover it again. On the other
side of the sea, in the entrance of the main Sound to go eastwards,
the King of Denmark has another fisher-town, which lies on the
south side of the channel which is called the Skaw, and lies on a
neck of land ; and ships may ride on both sides of this town, which
has no bulwark, nor ship, neither . . . to defend it. This town's
men have commonly the 'syte' of all ships that pass eastwards,
and it is very easy to be taken and held. And in truth the strongest
part of the King of Denmark's country, which is the island where
he . . . . . of no force, and easy to be taken and overrun in three
days ; for the land that the king's force is on is but 40 English
miles long and 30 broad, and a narrow sea round about it. The
king has not at this time men here to furnish the 7 ships that he
sends to deal with our 'Rosse' merchants, to St. Nicholas, but he is
forced to send to Lubeck and 'Wismore' and into Norway, and
takes men out of passengers' ships to serve him, some Scots, some
Hollanders, and some English. He has taken three Englishmen
to be pilots to carry his ships to St. Nicholas Bay, where our
merchant-ships should lade ; I pray God send them ill success.
Also his customers tell the masters of our ships that they shall
pass as many outwards towards the east parts as they will, but they
must talk further with them as they come homewards.
About matters that are 'in the first leaf herein written,' what the
king's pleasure is to do, that no man of us knows as yet. You shall
know further hereafter. Now I cease, beseeching you to pardon
my rude writing, which I have done of a good zeal towards my
prince and country.
P.S.—I beseech you that when there shall be any occasion for
commissioners to meet on matters between the Queen and the
King of Denmark, you will be a 'mean' to the Queen and Council
that there may be some order taken for the dispatch of her merchants'
ships from thence after they come thither ; which is very
needful both for the shortening of our voyages and the bringing of
the merchants' goods to the 'markes,' for sometimes 'by' staying
us long in the Sound, the wind being good, causes us to make a long
voyage of that which might be short. Also that the merchants
might have a set rate for the custom of their goods, that they may
know what custom to pay, and also what money they shall bring for
their custom in the Sound.
Add. Endd. : Advertisements from Denmark, and again in a
later hand. 4 pp. [Denmark I. 12.]
705. "The presents made to the Grand Signior and others
the chief of his Court by the English ambassador in
Constantinople the 24th April, 1582."
Plate double gilt, fine cloth, "a very great and fair clock, set
upon a rock of mine-ore of silver and other metals, quadrate in
proportion ; on the one quarter whereof were to be seen men and
women labourers, some drawing water out of wells, some digging
metal, some carrying the same on 'wheilebarres,' others purifying
it in furnaces, others washing it ; having all the instruments
belonging to that science. On the other side hunting the hart in a
park with greyhounds and also in the forest with hounds, wherein
were dragons, lions, panthers, 'libberdes,' serpents, adders, snakes,
grasshoppers, worms and other sorts of creeping beasts. On the
other two sides were shepherds keeping sheep and driving them to
very fair fountains with cisterns and running conduits, plowmen
'at' tilling the earth, soldiers both horse and foot in action ; and
over all these a quadrate castle with a drawbridge, compassed about
with running water, etc. In which clock for a quarter of an hour
after it had struck all these exercises had their moving."
Endd. 1½ pp. [Turkey I. 4.]
706. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
On Sunday afternoon arrived at this Court the Count of la
Rochefoucault, whose coming rejoiced Monsieur wonderfully ; also
his offer to bring 200 gentlemen well horsed to his service, with
their train and a certain number of footmen.
On Monday morning about 10 o'clock, advertisement came that
Colonel 'Temple,' accompanied by Thyant and Lagarde, had got the
town of Alost by escalade, and by intelligence had with some of the
town. The garrison of Albanese were abroad with a convoy, and
in their absence this was executed, which is to be ascribed to chance
rather than 'conduction' ; for the sun was an hour high before
they came to the walls and they had overshot their assigned time
more than 3 hours, so that the defence of 25 men would have
repulsed them, being a town impregnable both for the new fortifications
and the site of the place.
The Governor 'Muskeron' and his new spouse were taken, and
above 500 priests that had retired thither for safety, and with them
two fat abbots. It was a 'prise' of singular importance for the
state of the whole country, and of as great a loss to the enemy.
By this means Brussels, 'Dermond,' Mechlin, 'Villford' and Ghent
on that side, are all assured.
It is doubtful what the enemy will do ; whether persist in besieging
Oudenarde, 'who' has no small benefit by these three days that
have fallen, or remove to some other place. Monsieur, who 'did
even languish' for Oudenarde and Ghent, is now well relieved, and
the passages are free from hence to Brussels, and the whole land of
Waes and of Alost, containing about 300 good villages, assured.
Provision of victuals and munition, with marvellous speed lest
the enemy should prevent them, was made from hence to Alost,
by the river Scheldt to Dermond, and from thence by the 'Tender' to
Alost. These entered safely yesterday and 1,000 soldiers were
placed in garrison.
The French, English and Scots that were at Eccloo, march today
towards Ghent and encamp between the town and the enemy,
that they may take advantage of the occasions presented to keep
Ghent in order.
Tympel has another enterprise in hand, which is thought to be
either Louvain or 'Bollduck,' in which latter place there are about
3,000 priests 'retreated' together.
Mr Norris is departed towards his 'charge' and must bring it to
serve in these parts. Yet the matter is referred to the 'land rede'
or country Council of Guelders and the provinces about, whether
they will retain him longer there. It is thought they will not be
scrupulous in discharging him, so small affection do they bear to
soldiers. But by this means some Frenchman, or rather the
Count of 'Hollock,' who is to be the Prince's son-in-law is to be
placed there, for our greatness and strength in this country will be
daily diminished. The enemy has before Oudenarde 14,000 to
15,000 foot, old soldiers, among whom are Pollwiller's, Frundsberg's
and 'Fowcker's' regiments, who have been these twelve years in
pay. Therewith 3,000 horse 'by the poll,' with great store of
artillery. They have made a bridge over the water of Scheldt, and
'hold their sentinel' as far as 'Eke' and 'Landhute,' which are
within a small league and a half of Ghent. They do not as yet
batter the town, but they had gathered the peasants to mount their
Herewithin is a paper of the governors of the provinces and
towns that hold at this present, either on the Spanish or French
side, which I thought not unfit for you.
Du 'Bee' departed hence towards her Majesty last night.—
Antwerp, 25 April 1582.
P.S.—Here is also a paper of the Council of State established at
Utrecht, for the province beyond the Maes.
Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 125.]
707. Enclosures in the above :
(1) Names of the governors, colonels, captains, and lieutenants
of the provinces, towns and fortresses at present under the obedience
of his Higness.—
Of Brabant, Guelders, and Zutphen, the governor is the Prince
In Flanders there is no governor, but they hold the Prince of
Orange as their chief.
Governor of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Friesland, the Prince
Of Overyssel there is no governor. The last was the Count of
Rennenberg, brother of the Count of Hoochstraet, formerly
governor of Friesland, Overyssel, Groeningen, Devener and
The Governor of Friesland is M. de Rumen, alias de Mérode,
lieutenant to the Prince of Orange.
The governor of Antwerp ; the colonels and magistrates. Of Lierre,
M. Etfelt (?). Of Diest, M. Vandernoot. Of Bergen-op-Zoom,
M. de Lagarde. Of Herentals, Philippe d'Asseliers. Of Westerloo,
M. de Vliet. Of Brussels, M. van der 'Temple.' Of Vilvoorde, a
council of war. Of Mechlin, M. de Famale.
Flanders.—The governor of Ghent ; M. de Ryhove and the six
colonels with the magistrates and the council of war. Of Bruges,
the magistrates with the council of war. Of Ypres, M. d' Utenhove,
Grand Bailiff of the town, and the council of war. Of Dermond,
M. de Ryhove, and his lieutenant, M. Loys de Vitz. Of Oudenarde,
Frederick vander Burch and the magistrates. Of Hulst, the
magistrates and the council of war. Of 'Axsels,' the magistrates.
Of Nynove, M. de Thiant. Of Sluys, Grove (?) with the magistrates
and those of Bruges. Of Damme, Captain Jost Broxs, son of the
burgomaster of Bruges. Of Ostend, Captain Utenrecht. Of
Nyeuwpoort, Captain Birul (?). Of Dunkirk, Admiral Treslong. Of
Berghes-Wynox, Lieut.-Col. Lochre (?) called van Eynde, with the
magistrates. Of Veuren, M. de Lochres (?) and the council of war.
Of Dixmude. M. Sescheval, a Frenchman. Of Meenen, Colonel
Trayll. Of Eccloo, M. de Rochepot. Of Doesborg, Mr Norris.
Of Zealand, Mr. Haultain. Of North Holland,—. Of
the towns in Holland, Overyssel, Utrecht, Friesland, Zutphen and
Guelders, the magistrates and council of war.
Colonels in Flanders.—The Count of Rochepot, M. de Ryhove,
M. de Thiant, M. de Lochre, M. de Villeneuve, Colonel Preston,
Colonel Trayll, Colonel Morgan.
Colonels of Brabant.—Colonel 'Temple,' Col. Lagarde, Col.
Michiel, Col. Stewart, Col. Drucker.
General Norris, the Count of 'Hollack,' Count William of
Nassau, M. de Hooghe. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [Ibid. 125a.]
(2) The same for places at present held for the King of Spain.
The Prince of Parma, Lieutenant-governor and captain-general.
The Governor of Artois, the Marquis of Risbourg. Of Luxembourg,
Count Mansfelt. Of Hainault, Count Lalaing. Of Lille,
Douay, and Orchies, M. de Rassinghen. Of Namur, Count Barlaymont.
Of Limburg, M. de Ruisborch. Of Tournay, the Prince of
Parma and his lieutenant Mondragon. Of Franche-Comtè,
nihil. At Notre-Dame-de-Hault in Hainault, Capt. Couralin. Of
Landrecies, M. de Habecourt. Of Avesues the count [sic] and
M. de Bougie. Of Marienbourg, M. de Brya. Of Quesnoy, M. de
Goners. Of Philippeville, M. de Florines. Of Charlemont, M. de
Barlaymont alias Haultepenne. Of Namur and Breda [sic], the same,
who is also governor of the County of Namur. Of the castle of
Namur, M. de 'Vo.' (? d' Yoe). Of Maestricht, M. de Theve (?). Of
Limburg, M. de Ruisborch, who is in charge of M. de la Noue.
Of Saint Omer, the Count M. de Reulx, formerly M. de Remminghen.
Of Aire, the Viscount of Aire, and M. de Mousbeeck. Of Bethune,
M. de l' Attiloys, formerly maitre d' hotel to the Duchess of Parma.
Of Gravelines, M. de la Motte. Of Bourbourg, M. de Royon. Of
Cassele, Count Harlay, sons of the late M. de Glazon, master of
artillery. At Lille there is a lieutenant, called M. de Buech, Lord
of Honing, knighted in Spain about the year '71. Of Courtray,
M. de Zwevegham. Of Alost, M. de Mocqueron. Of Boussain
[qy. Bouchain] M. or Capt. Charlier. Of Comines, Captain Baley ;
and at Busseyn. Of Louvain, M. de Licques, brother-in-law of the
late Count of Reulx. Of Tournay, Mondragon. Of Guelders and
the Meuse, Verdugo. Of Gemblours, nihil. Of Bois-le-duc and
Eyndhoven, their magistrates. Of Ruremonde, Count Sunoy of
of Liége. Of Groeningen, the magistrates. Of Lens, M. de
Noyelles. Of Bapaume M. de Noyelles, brother to M. de Bours.
Of Arras and Hesdin, the Marquis of Risbourg. Of Nivelles,
Captain Cherff (?) Of Aerschot, nihil.
Endd. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. XV. 125 b.]
708. Power of attorney granted by the Consuls and Senate of
Cologne to John Praeter, John Rose, and Henry Uwens to act on behalf
of Gerhard Bierboom in the matter of a bond for £3,433 10s. transferred
to him by the widow of John de Camerina out of obligations
given by the Queen and the Corporation of London at Kirtling,
3 Sep. 1578, to Baptista Spinola, agent (? autori) for John de
Camerina, payable 30 June 1579.—25 April 1582. (Signed) Laur :
Copy, certified 22 March 1583 by Paulus Typoots. Endd. Latin.
3½ pp. [Germany II. 30.]
709. ALFONSO FERRABOSCO to BURGHLEY.
After thanking you for your kind remembrance of an old servant,
I will beg you to be protector in a cause that is pending between
the heirs of Gerard Croker and myself, as you may learn from Mr
Lorenzo Dandino, the present bearer, my general proctor ; and I
will pray Heaven to recompense you.—Bologna, 25 April 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital. ¾ p. [Italy I. 4.]