BHO

Elizabeth: April 1582, 21-25

Pages 634-657

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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April 1582, 21-25

April 21. 692. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
This morning I received your letters and delivered the enclosures according to their directions. I return herewith such answers as were sent me. I thank you for the favour extended towards me in sending the instructions and necessary writings for my better direction to deal at the meeting at Angsburg ; the time of which we understand is not till May 24, so that I am to stay till we hear more certainly, and the letters etc. being sent by Mr Governor to Embden are to be kept there till my coming. During my continuing here, I mean, unless you command the contrary, to follow still her Majesty's cause, and before my departure will not fail the best I can to instruct Mr Longston according to commission and his good liking. For our present news I refer to the letters herewith sent.— Antwerp, 21 April 1582. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 117.]
April 21. 693. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
By the last post I sent you a book of the genealogies of the Princes of these countries, of their matches, 'armories,' and portraitures ; which, for the humble and loving mind it came from, I hope you will take in good part. Therewith I wrote a few lines to entreat you even for equity's sake, and for the respect you might bear to my poor estate, that you would decide the difference between Mr Wade and me, and 'resume' it to your hands, that he might be satisfied according to my ability, and I discharged in good sort towards him ; which charitable benefit I will never forget. In the same letter I signified that if you would give me further leave to write to you from hence of such matters as occur (though it be advertised from the very fountain of things) I might haply give you some private contentment therein more than each man does. I would repute it a favour if you vouchsafed to like such poor service as it were in my power to present you ; and therefore for the occasions now offered, I am bold to 'prevent' your answer in that behalf, and to advertise you as follows. The Prince of Orange on Monday morning had a tent taken out of his wound, which was missing by the space of 12 days, and had brought the physicians and surgeons into great perplexity, how to be resolved where it was 'become.' But it troubled the Prince more, for he feared a new eruption of blood upon the finding of it, or else an incision when the wound should be closed up 'and' the tent were not first discovered. The physicians and surgeons, before nature thus rejected the tent, persuaded the Prince, in regard to the long time since the putting of it in, that it must have issued out with the flux of blood, or been swallowed into his body ; which now by God's benefit is otherwise, and therefore an assurance made that the vein is closed, and that by the miracle of God and no science of man they may hope for perfect health to follow. Yet they keep him from meat, ministering only what may sustain nature, lest any accident should happen of fever, catarrh, or other inconvenience that might undo all before his wound and state of body were well confirmed. Cornelius Celsus does not assure any of these wounds to be without mortal danger for the space of 40 days after the hurt ; but in the Prince's person, it requires a longer time of consideration and to proceed leisurely in the cure, with all the respect and discretion that physic may minister. Though, as was said before, God only has been the workman of it, and no inferior creature nor means, which they all confess. Yet the chief commendation is given to Schoutemans, a surgeon of this town, who had prepared red copper dissolved into powder by vitriol and other corrosive matter, which upon long tents first took hold of the vein to glue it ; whence it comes that this powder is well thought of by the physicians, and the rather since in tasting it upon the tongue, and otherwise it appears so corrected that it is without acrimony. I am promised by Schoutemans to have the proper receipt of it. Dr Josephus Michell had the charge to keep the Prince from sneezing and coughing during this cure, which was not the least part to be 'entertained,' by reason of continual distillation into his throat and of moistures that did and do abound in the head ; and acquitted himself very carefully on that behalf. They still hold one finger upon the vein night and day, that no sudden accident may accede to destroy their cure so far advanced. This is the true state that the Prince finds himself in at this present, 'which' I would not leave you unadvertised. It is feared that though he recovers health, he will yet hardly have the vigour of mind and senses that he had before, which I put you in mind of, as a Councillor of your nearness to her Majesty's secretest affairs, to observe ; that in having to do with him hereafter, you measure his judgement with his actions, lest the one failing, you repose upon opinions rather than cause in the rest ; which deceived a number, by an error not corrigible, in the person of the late Admiral Chatillon, when his senses failed him in the latter days, and 'was' directed by ministers. The Council of Finance was established and sworn Wednesday last ; their names are enclosed. The Privy Council was discharged since the 25th of February, but now they are 'in hand' to make a new election for it. The old Council of State was confirmed and sworn anew on Tuesday, March 27, without alteration of persons ; saving that if any by reason of sickness or age would be excused, others should be chosen to 'supply the charge.' Here is likewise a list of their names. Yet they intend to choose seven persons more, with a greffier and usher, to be attendant and 'resyant' continually beyond the Meuse, and determine affairs there as a Council of State, 'appendent' of this greater Council, 'of' whom they shall rely. It is determined that Monsieur shall forthwith have delivered into his hands and disposition all the domains appertaining to the sovereignty of these countries, and in possession of the United Provinces, to place in them his own officers, so they be 'naturals' of the provinces, who shall adminster the revenues thereof towards the discharge of Monsieur's Court, officers, train, and expenses, whereof he shall set down a full proportion of all things requisite, and be 'answered' the surplusage, whatever it shall be more than the domains rise to, out of such means as the States-General shall appoint to that use, in nature and certainty of a 'Rent of Assise.' Next, the States have accorded to his Highness, from the 1st of this present month, 250,000 guilders monthly for the maintenance of the war henceforth, and he with the same sum to discharge them from all further expense touching the war. To this effect they consign into his possession and handling les droits de convoi, et licence de toutes marchandises et denrées entrant et sortant des Provinces Unies. Likewise they assign to him les droits de [con] sumptions pardeça : à savoir, de vin, cervoise, blés . . . . . ., son, sel, tourbes, bois, savon, etc. And in case these . . . . . not arrive to answer the sum aforesaid of 250,000 guilders . . . . the States-General promise to furnish the rest . . . contribution. Besides this the States have granted him . . . money for the 'addressing' of an army, the sum of 356,000 guilders, to be paid to him and his officer before the end of this month, whereof Brabant furnishes 70,000, Flanders 130,000, and the rest is divided between Zealand, Holland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overyssel, and 'Frize,' to answer their parts as they are 'quotized.' M. de Laval departed on Wednesday towards France, to levy troops, and others are daily departing ; but it will be 3 months before they are here to do service. His Highness has further proposed to the States that it is most necessary they allow 300,000 guilders to be paid in the next six months by equal portions from the beginning of April forward, and with that sum the old debts due to the colonels and captains to be compounded and 'stalled,' that they may be made the more able and willing to serve, and the country be discharged of a huge claim and burden. This motion the Estates have thought to be very necessary and convenient, and are inclined to satisfy it. Those of Holland and Zealand concur in the "premisses" with the rest very forwardly, and have sent home for a new commission to authorise the deputies here to confirm all that passes ; and according to the Pacification of Ghent are now made able to decide and conclude all controversies and processes at home, both criminal and civil, without 'appellation' to Mechlin ; which has much confirmed their devotion to Monsieur and the States. Lastly the States have determined to erect a Chamber of Aids, to furnish all these former contributions, and what further shall be necessary for daily accidents and occasions that may occur ; Monsieur having promised to bestow yearly 200,000 crowns of his own revenue to ease the States, and the expenses that may arise by the continuance of the war. The thing next of most difficulty to determine has been the oath that is to be given to the inhabitants of this town, which is conceived and minuted in the form you will see enclosed, and copied in French. Yet to such as traffic into Spain the oath, for good respect, is qualified, that they shall only swear loyalty to Monsieur, and not abjure the King of Spain. It is a thing deeply to be looked into, as 'Monsieur's observers' testify, there are found about 30,000 persons that have been at mass at his church since permission was given ; and that of 120,000 souls that they calculate to be in this town more than half are papists, and such withal as for their wealth and parentage carry the very pulse of the 'Burse' and traffic with them. There is some jar at present between the States of Flanders and Brabant upon the point of Brabant's privilege, where none is to be admitted officers in Brabant but natural Brabanters, which those of Flanders would either cut off, or else exclude them from office out of their own jurisdiction. It seems that Monsieur is not displeased by this 'pyke,' and has received 'their' supplication of Flanders, and deliberated on it in the Council of State. Our merchants have procured testimony here to answer the objections of the Hanse Stedes at the Imperial Diet ; wherein, as Guicciardin and some other friends of mine have informed me, their advocate has not so set down their reasons and justification as the cause imports. There is arrived here a fleet of 22 great ships charged with rich merchandise from Lisbon and Andalutia, and one vessel from 'the Madeiras' reporting that the place is still in the devotion of the King of Spain, and nowise revolted. The enemy after the easy winning of Lens is come into Flanders, first to 'Bell' and Poperinge, whereof it was feared that he would likewise besiege Ypres, and stop the passing out of France between Graveling and Dunkirk. But now he is before Oudenarde, which has caused hasty expeditions from hence ; for it 'imports.' The Prince of Parma, after Schenck was taken by those of Guelders, sent for Verdugo into Flanders, where he still is. But his lieutenant Monceaux is come before Steenwyk in Friesland, with 18 ensigns of foot, 7 cornets of horse, and 16 pieces of battery . . . the place. There are appointed 1,500 reiters to assist Verdugo . . . in Guelders, of whom the Duke 'of Saxony and Lowenburg' . . . has the leading. One regiment more of Almain foot, with . . . . of Spaniards and Italians will be employed that way . . . There are two regiments of Almain foot now that are to join the Prince of Parma, and 3,000 reiters whom Eric of Brunswick is to have the charge of. Mr Norris is still here. His people have had a conflict with the Boors beside Deventer, about their quarter and 'savegards,' wherein sundry Boors and others have been slain. Mr Norris departs on Monday to his charge. The Bishop of Liége has written to his Highness that whereas he is informed that the passage of Mézières will be shut up, he would be pleased to consider that his country has used neutrality all this while, and that therefore he should 'regard' not to provoke his friends. The Archbishop of Mentz is deceased ; so is the Palsgrave's wife, and himself so sick that he can hardly recover. The Imperial Diet is deferred. The King of Denmark makes great preparations of shipping and soldiers. There are between 4,000 and 5,000 Bohemian pioneers coming here for the service of the King of Spain ; whereby you may guess what the Prince of Parma intends to do, as he is master of the field. Don Antonio's preparations in France are feared to be more for Rochelle than Portugal ; which opinion is augmented by the King of Navarre's retreat when he was solicited to have come forward. Her Majesty is wished, 'from very good place,' to have a careful eye 'into' Scotland, for there is somewhat brewing that way. Colonel Stewart is troubled by his regiment here, who have exhibited supplications against him, and mean to be discharged of his government, and to be assured of their money received by him. This hinders his journey into Scotland and perplexes him otherwise. We say plainly here, and so do some letters of credit out of France, that the king will not meddle with his brother's actions, nor with these countries, of this side. The Prince of Orange's wound was 'made nothing' to the French king by the reports from here, to the end he should not be discouraged 'to' join with his brother. It is confirmed that the King of Spain has money at 'Gene' and at Venice, in readiness to make his soldiers march, and that great troops daily arrive at Luxemburg.—Antwerp, 21 April 1582. P.S.—. . . . ta is arrived here this day, and some English . . . . who have brought 10 chests of bullion, as is openly . . . . from her Majesty to Monsieur, a servir per Esta per questa [guerra. Qu] esti inimici s'informano troppo d'ogni cosa. Add. Endd. 6 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 118.]
April 21. 694. DU PLESSIS-MORNAY to WALSINGHAM.
I have received yours of the 14th, but not the account of the interview which you mention. I have however heard the details of it through those who write to me from France, which all give us hope of peace ; and yet I do not so far perceive any change in the wishes of the King of Navarre. Nevertheless I should like very much to know what has made her Majesty change her mind, not daring to write crudely of the change without alleging some valid cause. Here we swear by (?) the health of his Excellency, who goes on improving, and is out of danger. The doctors themselves are constrained to give God the glory of it. The enemy is taking steps to besiege Oudenarde, and his Highness is preparing his army everywhere. A little help from you would come very appositely for him. The troubles at Aix are settled, and the town freed from the inroads (courses) that molested it. Those of the Religion have a place of worship there by agreement. It seems as if at Cologne they will at length be compelled to allow the like. Thus the Pope is tottering in spite of all he has ; and do what he will, never rise again from it. It is so many battles gained by God through the preaching of His Word.—Antwerp, 21 April 1582. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 119.]
April 21. 695. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have lately received your letters by the hands of Jackson and Mr Marburry. Since the king is but lately returned, I could not have 'sufficient commodity' to deal in the matter of the diamond as yet ; howbeit, I shall presently 'have care' of it, according to the importance of the thing. And because in your letters you note that the Queen greatly marvelled to see this king so cold and slow in prosecuting this matter of the marriage, I went this afternoon to M. Lansac's house to bid him welcome, being then returned from his journey with the Queen Mother, whom he left at Chenonceaux. In the conference I had with him, there grew occasion to speak of the matter of the marriage ; of which he delivered these words, that the bringing to pass of it would be very commodious and available for France and England, but the prolonging of the negotiation seemed little profitable. Thereon I said that by sending him and other like principal personages as commissioners, had given [sic] Monsieur and the Queen to understand that his Majesty desired the marriage to content his brother ; howbeit otherwise it appears the king would do nothing at once to take away the impediments and advance the 'effectuing' of the marriage, as in doing for his brother in the enterprise of Flanders that which was to be looked for, considering he is both father and brother, king and sovereign to him. After I had 'passed' this talk privately with M. Lansac, M. de la Mothe-Fènelon, being lodged 'thereby,' came to us, and after salutations entered also into the like discourse ; beginning with high praises of her Majesty's beauty and the excellency of her wit, with the qualities of her mind and body and her singular happy government, declaring, with his mild manner of protestations, how earnestly the king and Queen Mother desired the conclusion of the marriage, and declaring what commission they had to offer to the Queen principal points of amity in case of marriage, remembering also the giving of the ring to Monsieur by her Majesty, with many other appearances and shows, which had at times given them exceeding hope that the marriage would be accomplished. He concluded that the Queen was so great a lady that there could be no hold taken of her but such as might please herself. To which sayings I answered that upon the divers and princely shows of Monsieur's affection towards her, she had been moved also to deliver apparent signs for the requital of his love ; but yet she has ever thought it good to keep herself within the compass of the advice she has always used, for the continuance of her reposed estate, and the better satisfaction of her subjects. Therefore it was no marvel if she advisedly stayed her further course in the proceeding of the marriage, till the king should perform such acts as may take away the difficulties, and satisfy her ; which consisted in reasonable points, as that she may be disburdened of those extreme charges which would be necessarily incident to the marriage in respect of Monsieur's embracing the affairs in the Low Countries, to the dispossessing of King Philip. To this they both answered that they were servants to her Majesty, and desirous the marriage might take effect ; and as they had, so they would do upon all occasions such good offices as the cause required ; without giving one another direct remark or answer to this last 'purpose.' I understood from them that because the king thought good to enter into consideration of his brother's affairs for Flanders, he has stayed his intended journey to Blois and resolved to remain in these parts ; so that the Queen Mother meant also to come to this Court with the Queen of Navarre, about the beginning of next month. I will not 'leave' to let you know how M. Lansac upon occasion of the speech of the marriage, and remembering her Majesty's age, let me know that Mme de Marrigni of Poitou, governess to the Princess of Lorraine, is known to be with child, and 'gone on her time five months,' being of the age of one or two and fifty.—Paris, 21 April 1582. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France VII. 59.]
April 22. 696. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I meant yesterday to visit M. Pinart, with intent to deal with him on behalf of the merchants of Chester, according to the command I lately received from the Lords of the Council, and likewise to move him to 'have some order' for Mr Marburry's losses ; but I found him 'impeached' in the Council of Finances, so I deferred it till today, when he stayed my going to him, and repaired to me. I delivered into his hands, and commended to him the causes of the merchants of Chester, and Mr Marburry's, and put him in mind of Mr Warcop's suit, receiving his earnest promise to do for them as he may prevail with his Majesty. He also declared to me that this morning M. Lansac told the king I had visited him, and what passed in our conference. Upon the relation of this, M. Pinart told me, the king said that for himself, he coveted the marriage as much as ever he did, and was not become cold in his desire for it ; howbeit when he remembers the sending of his commissioners to England, and the twice passing thither of his brother, and yet no conclusion of the cause, he cannot tell whether her Majesty intends to proceed to the effecting of the marriage. M. Pinart told me further that Mauvissière had written of the Queen's late shows of inclination to hearken to the marriage ; as also that it had been told him by a merchant lately come from England (but not written by M. Mauvissière) that the Queen had sent Lord Norris or one of his sons to Monsieur in Flanders, to know his resolution as to the marriage. Then breaking off from this 'purpose' he gave me to understand that about the time of his being with me, the Pope's nuncio had audience of the king. He discoursed to me how the nuncio had little skill of the affairs of France, since he undertook to do correction on the king's subjects ; considering the government of the clergy and Gallican Church belongs to his Majesty. He added that the king would show himself according to the profession of his religion towards the Pope ; but that he did not mean to 'leese' any part of his sovereignty for the ecclesiastical jurisdiction which the kings his predecessors have hitherto enjoyed. And though he understood how M. de Toix, his ambassador at Rome, had largely declared to the Pope that the nuncio had mistaken the jurisdiction of the king in this case, wherein he had so much wrongfully intermeddled, yet he (the king) perceives that M. de Foix, fearing their discipline at Rome, did not reply so earnestly to the Pope as the cause required. Whereto I said that I heard the nuncio would earnestly press the king to have the process which had passed in the Court of Parlement against the Cardinal of Bourbon and himself, disannulled, cancelled, and burnt. He said the king, rather than consent to that, would cause all the scarlet hoodmen to be burnt— meaning the Judges of the Parlement ; adding further that the Cardinal of Bourbon was to blame in accepting a commission from the Pope to be joined with the nuncio, without having first license from the king. M. Pinart informs me that the king with the whole means to repair next week to Fontainebleau, where the Queen Mother resorts with the Queen of Navarre ; and that about the end of July he will remove to Compiègne in Picardy. After this M. Pinart left me. I perceive the king means presently to dispatch one to his ambassador in England.—Paris, 22 April 1582. Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. VII. 60.]
April 22. 697. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 15th inst. since which the magistrates have received the following. By the great protestations and entreaty of those of Lille the enemy was determined to have laid siege to Meenen ; for they had sent 18 cornets of horse and 1,500 foot to keep the passages thereabout till the rest of their camp came thither. On Wednesday last the rest of their forces that lay at 'Bell' came all before Meenen at 5 a.m. and as soon as they came, 'fell in skirmish' with them of the town, which continued till 4 in the afternoon, and many slain on both sides. The Frenchmen and Scots showed themselves very valiant, and that 'present' evening at 8, letters came to the camp from the Prince of Parma at Tournay to cause the whole camp at sight thereof to march forward towards Oudenarde. So they have besieged that town, wherein are eight ensigns of foot and one cornet of horse, all Flemings ; and the town is indifferently well provided of munitions and victuals for six months, but they lack men. Those of Ghent sent 3 ensigns thither, but they could not 'enter' them, so it is feared the town will be lost for want of rescue. By letters from good patriots that follow the enemy's camp, 'hath given' advice to this town that the enemy has lately received some good 'comfort' out of Spain that they shall not lack men nor money to follow their enterprise. This news has given their soldiers great encouragement. They write also that one special cause of the enemy's going towards Oudenarde and those parts is to keep the Duke of Brabant from Ghent, or to make him afraid to venture thither, because that is the place 'that' he must be sworn Earl of Flanders ; and to the end that the Gentners might lose all the great charges they have been at for the receiving of him ; for by all reports their charges are very great. It is a very easy matter for the enemy to do all that he list, for as yet there are no forces on the States' side able to resist them, which is a great grief to the commons. This week M. de Laval passed through this town towards Dunkirk, and so into France. He told the magistrates of this town that he would be here again within a month with 600 horse of his own charge to serve the duke. Among the commons here the speech goes that it is now about three months since Monsieur, Duke of Brabant, came into the country. At that time they were 'put in comfort' that they should have about this time some forces in the country able to keep the enemy from besieging any town ; and now they see the contrary, as also small hope of any to come in a long time, it begins to make some discontent among them in these parts. If Oudenarde be lost for want of rescue, it is feared it will turn to some further displeasure. —Bruges, 22 April 1582. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 120.]
April 22. 698. FREMYN to WALSINGHAM.
I received on the 21st yours sent on the 14th. As for what is going on in these countries, his Excellency is doing reasonably (se porte par raison) and is getting stronger every day. His wound is quite healed, and yesterday no more plaster needed to be put on it. A thumb has no longer been kept on the vein since last Thursday ; so that he is held to be entirely cured, and able henceforth to talk and do business. It only remains for him to get strong, by reason of the blood lost. This cure proceeds from Heaven and nowhence else, and all honest folk ought to thank God for having preserved such a personage for His glory and for the salvation of these countries in a time so corrupt and reckless (desbordé). And to say the truth, if God had called him, his Highness's affairs would have been shaky, having little better than no foundation, as it can be seen with the eye since his wound that many things have gone to disorder, in such wise that his Highness has still need of such a preceptor for some years ; inasmuch as there are few people of any stuff about him, but only too many others. There is the secretary 'Kensey' [qy. Quincé] who manages everything. Some days ago arrived at Court M. de Vray, secretary of State, to enter upon his office (en cartier). He has not done it yet, but there is a desire to keep him at a distance as much as possible on account of some discontents, and to let his post fall into the hands of Chartier, formerly secretary to M. de Damville, who has made some strange traicts against those of the Religion, as you were long ago informed. The reason why they oppose M. de Vray is because in his office he makes public profession of the Religion. On Good Friday his Highness told him he ought to come to mass, which he refused to do. In this way all important matters pass through the hands of the Roman Catholics ; and as for those of the Religion, who are few in number in that household, they are only so pro forma, and very few of those there would be burnt for it. So it was more than time for his Excellency to get well, to remedy these things. His Highness gives many commissions for their army, but no money, and those who are serving cannot get paid, which is a thing that ought to be looked closely into, for the disorders and murmurings which in time it will bring with it. The troops in Flanders are already doing infinite harm for want of pay to the common people of the fields, who are leaving the country and withdrawing to the towns in great troops, women and children ; and lots of complaints which come to his Highness about it, without amendment, which makes people murmur strangely, and alters their first affection ; for which many honest folk are infinitely grieved. The States have granted his Highness all the moyens généraux, excise, and all other imposts newly laid on, for the future, and 300,000 florins in ready money for the master of the troops. This was granted last Friday. Meanwhile the enemy holds the field, and is for attacking some place. He has already surrounded Oudenarde, wherein there are but 5 companies of local infantry. A week ago they would not receive 3 companies of infantry sent to their town. It is to be presumed that if the enemy besieges it he will carry it, inasmuch as we have no forces sufficient to prevent him ; and if that town is lost, Ypres will be in danger and the enemy always at the gates of Ghent. His Highness's delay in going into Flanders to take possession does not further his affairs ; it is only diligence that furthers everything, when done with good advice. He has always put off the journey till his Excellency should be out of danger. In fact, I see his Highness will have plenty to do to re-establish the affairs of these countries, and without his Excellency's assistance, he will be in a bad way. There is moreover an enterprise against some place in the environs of Brussels, which is to be properly carried out tomorrow or not all. It is said that the Imperial Diet will be held on May 22 at Augsburg. The Emperor has appointed commissioners in regard to affairs at Aix, where there is great perplexity. The Pole has made peace with the Muscovite, and it is said the same will take place between the Turk and the Persian. Those of Basle have had some disturbance (riotte) with their bishop, because he has caused mass to be sung by force in a place near Basle, where none has been said for 40 years. Those of Bern, Zurich and Schaffhausen are helping them. The bishop is also making alliances, so that this little beginning may well grow to a great matter if it be not remedied betimes. The Bishop of Lausanne has written to the senate and people of that place, exhorting them to withdraw from allegiance to the Lords of Berne. There is here M. de Villesaison, lately come to his Highness from the Prince of Condé, who offers to serve him in this war. He will decline with thanks.—Antwerp, 22 April 1582. Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 121.]
April 22. 699. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
I received on the 21st yours of the 14th, mentioning the receipt of my last, with thanks for the satisfaction which the Earl of Leicester derived from that which he communicated to you. I think it approached what was expressed in yours, and I perceive it was as acceptable as that which I wrote you four years ago, and bore the same fruit, contrary to the expectation which your last gave me, together with Mr Greville's verbal promise. He must have reported such notable advices, which can merit no less than the satisfaction of my long waiting on your promises ; especially at the season in which we are, and in which I have put off binding myself for service, however far I might fall from my expectations, as Mr Gilpin knows, by whose promises I have been 'behoneyed' with favourable expectations, not with expense and other inconveniences. It will suffice that for all my past service you shall be grateful to me ; that if in future I am forced to accept a post (party) which takes away from me the means of writing to you, you may hold me excused. I assure you nevertheless that no other will serve you more faithfully than I have done for her Majesty's state ; nor am I able to judge or to think whence can arise the forgetfulness of things past.—Antwerp, 22 April 1582. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 122.]
April 23. 700. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have been requested by M. 'la Myllytyre' and M. de Montigny to certify you that the King of Navarre has dispatched M. la Roque, to repair to her Majesty and tell her what he 'passed' at this conference with the Queen Mother, and show her how the French king and his mother have permitted him to hold at the end of May an assembly of all the reformed churches in the realm. After performing this in England, la Roque was to pass into Flanders to Monsieur ; but he is fallen sick by the way. The assembly of the reformed clergy is to be at Saint-Jean-d'Angely. The King of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, with M. de Rohan and many other of the nobility, have continued the exercise of the Religion this Easter holidays at Rochelle, where it is said they as yet remain. It is esteemed that about the beginning of next month some of the fleet prepared for Don Antonio's cause will be in readiness. I have lately been intreated by letter from the Abate del Bene to recommend Bartolomeo Spatafora the Sicilian, who has, as he says, some time served the Earl of Oxford. I have given him a letter to yourself only, being since informed he has spoken with the Pope's nuncio. There is a young square-shamed [qy. framed] fellow, naming himself a 'Senease' [qy. Sienese] who has sought ways to have colour to repair into England, and has at sundry times made means to serve some Englishman. He is but of mean stature, having his nose 'camused,' with a wide mouth and great lips, his eyes black and sad, having very little beard. Some have judged him rather a Spaniard than an Italian. I hear he has passed by way of Calais. The other day I was informed that an Italian courtesan, long known in this Court by the name of la Signora Romana, intended to take her journey towards England, with two or three companions. Young Mr 'Arondale' departs tomorrow, he informs me, towards Geneva. Mr Humphry Mildmay is come hither, with intention to take his journey next week towards England.—Paris, 23 April 1582. P.S.—La Signora Romana intends to present herself to the Queen. She was 'entered into the like humour' last year, as I then advertised. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [France VII. 61.]
April 23. 701. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
Even now at this present, 5 p.m. the magistrates of this town received letters from Ghent that this morning at 4 o'clock, M. de Thiant, governor of Nymegen, took the town of Alost by surprise. In this enterprise many are slain on both sides, and M. Mocqueron, governor of Alost, is taken prisoner. I thought it my duty to write you of this good news. The particulars I will write by the next ; for I send this after the post to Dunkirk.—Bruges, 5 o'clock and a half this evening, Monday, 23 April 1582. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 123.]
April 23. 702. Copy of the letter referred to in the last.
Today are come M. de Thiant's sergeant-major and the lieutenant of Barson's company, who have secured the town of Alost for us at daybreak. We have seen two ensigns which they brought to present to his Highness. M. de Fresnoy is certainly a prisoner. They took the town without much resistance. A good many were killed. We have no other details. The joyous news, and my haste to let you share it makes me end this letter.—Dendermonde, 23 April 1582, at nine o'clock. (Signed) Victor Nore. Add. to M. de Ryhove. Below, in Stokes's hand : This is the copy of the letter that the Lords of this town received from Ghent, which was written at Dermond this morning, which I got after my letter was closed. Endd. Fr. and Eng. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 123a.]
April 23. 703. THOMAS COTTON to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last letter his Highness having made a full resolution what numbers of men he will have, I have procured four companies, 'which,' to entertain time till some better occasion serve, I must be content. I am sorry that things do not fall out so well at home, that I might have procured such letters as I desired of you. But I trust my service abroad will in no way discontent in any action I 'will' commit, but thereby only able [sic] the better to serve my country. I trust you know me well ; neither shall you ever have me any other than I have vowed myself. I have sent for men, 'which' if any occasion shall be to crave your favour, I beseech you to further us. The Prince of Orange, God be thanked, is well recovered and sits up, his wound whole within two days. I have spoken with his physicians and surgeons, for with him they will as yet suffer no man to speak, fearing he will force himself to speak, and thereby 'endanger' to force the vein again. He has lost 8 pounds of blood, which makes him very weak, and requires some time to recover it. This hurt, so dangerous, and for the service of his country, will make him much more beloved than ever he was. To content the people, the last day he showed himself at his window, which caused great joy to them. Yet would they not believe it, 'but sent after 6, to see him with coming into his chamber.' By chance he was asleep ; they would have him waked and speak to him, only to be sure, for it was said for certain he was dead. The enemy prepares, it is said, to besiege Oudenarde, and his horse are come down to shut up the ways for fear of a garrison to be put in. But it may be doubted it is but a bravado to victual or surprise some other place. Yet if they take it in hand, having but 5 companies in it, and those weak and the town not strong, it may be doubted to be lost before the duke can gather his forces to 'levy' the siege. The only hope that may be is considering a siege is enough to ruin a camp ; and having lost so much time, and now expecting the Duke's forces will rather seek to make themselves strong. Mr 'Du Vall' being made general of the horse is gone into France to make his levy ; so there is nothing here but preparations for the camp. The Swiss 4,000 ready [sic] to march, and 1,800 'rutters' ready to enter the borders at Vermandois. I think M. de Rochepot will go with some foot to convoy them.—23 April. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 124.]
April 24. 704. THOMAS NORTH, mariner, to WALSINGHAM.
Laus Deo. At 'Hellsanowr' in the Sound of Denmark, 24 April 1582.—My conscience has moved me to certify you of all the news I have lately heard in these east parts, being Denmark. Being in company with certain familiar friends of this country, they told me that the King of Denmark was much offended at the doings of the Queen's subjects in travel and trading northwards with the Emperor of 'Roussay' ; and that certain of them had much abused one of the King of Denmark's captains of his ships and the king also, by evil and unreverent words. This is come to the king's ear, and he is much offended thereat. Also there was another master of a ship, whose name is Nottingham, coming from Elbing in a ship laden with merchants' goods of [Lon]don. He made a false 'entremes' in the king's custom-house, whereupon the customers were minded to stay both ship and goods. Yet the error that was made was a very sm[all] matter, so the master and men of the ship were in doubt that a great loss would ensue for the aforesaid doing beside their own troubles. For the avoiding thereof, they enterprised to set their sail, the wind being good, to go away ; which doing of Nottingham the king is offended with also, and therefore means to send out four ships and t . . galleys to the northward, to take and bring in all such merchants' ships and goods as they shall meet with that way. For Nottingham's offence, if the Queen does not take better order for it, he will stay all the merchant-ships that pass the Sound for Elbing eastwards. The custom which Nottingham went away with, has been sent him into Denmark ; and the customers refuse it, saying they will have the . . . the ships and goods, or else 1,000 angels. The truth is, the ill-dealing of the customers there in Denmark with our nation urges men to ill-dealing with the king in his custom, for the trade and passage of ships through the Sound is very great in the summer time ; and sometimes there will come into the Sound in fleets 100, 200, and sometimes 300 sail of ships, some English, some Scotch, and some French, but the greatest number from the Netherlands, Holland, Zealand, and Flanders, and some from Emden, Hamburg, and Bremen ; and all these Low Country ships pass into the East parts, most commonly empty 'in their ballyst,' unless a few of them that carry bay-salt, otherwise must go empty. And all these ships, they 'commonly and ever' take their custom and clear them away, before they will take the entrance of an English ship ; so that English ships must always lie with their whole lading till all other ships are dispatched, which often 'turns' the merchants and mariners to the loss of both ship and goods ; for the road where the ships lie at anchor is an open road with an easterly wind, and with a west and nor' west wind, so that by storm from these two parts many ships are cast away, to the great loss and undoing of many merchants, and also to the great charge of both merchants and mariners, lying waiting the customers' leisure. And all this while that men lie there, sometimes 14 days, sometimes a month, there is no traffic to be made, nor sale for any English goods nor goods of any other lands ; so barren and poor is that country of Denmark, that it has no trade in any merchandise but herrings and fish, so that bay-salt is the best merchandise that all the King of Denmark's dominions require. If we had other trade for our merchants into or from his lands, men would not think much to stay their leisures, if his roads were also good, that ships may ride in safety there. But there is no good commodity for merchants in anything there, and the king's great revenue is in the great custom that he has raised extortionately upon merchants and shippers passing his streams, having no trade nor benefit for their custom moneys else. The western parts have had their passage but of late years through the Sound, paying but a rose-noble for the whole ship, and goods passage ; but now the custom on a small ship and goods come to 20l., 30l., and some even 100l. and 200l. a ship. One English shipper paid the king 200l. for his ship and goods' passage outwards within these two years. All that pass that way bring the custom-money out of their own countries ; therefore whether the princes of these west parts had not need to see some order taken in this behalf I defer it to your wisdom to consider of. The King of Denmark has watched a good time to 'exsacke' and raise his tolls and custom. The Duke of 'Allvey,' by writing but one letter to him once, made him let fall his custom upon the sight thereof, about 16 years ago, being then but newly raised ; and since that time he never raised it again till this year. But this queen's subjects have paid the most custom ever since, and the French and Scots also, because their princes have never said anything to the contrary ; 'under correction.' It were good that the Queen, with her good friends, the Prince of Orange and the Governors of the Low Countries, and the King of Scots, and the King of France, and Grave of Emden, 'did write' to the King of Denmark together, for it touches them all, especially the Queen and the Governors of the Low Countries and of Friesland ; for their trade is very great that way because the Low Countries are served with corn mostly from the east parts, and all other necessaries for their shipping, as masts, ropes, pitch and tar, hemp and flax. These are the chief commodities that we and they fetch from the east parts through the Sound of Denmark ; and the lands of Denmark have none of all this kind of merchandise but masts for ships, 'which be but a coarse sort of masts nother,' but the King of Denmark's subjects 'and the king's provision also of these commodities is brought from the east parts out of 'Pruseland' and 'Leueffland' and 'Roussyay,' from whence we bring ours. Therefore if the King of Denmark may raise and take such tolls and customs for the passage of stranger's ships, he will much impoverish all the princes' lands of their treasure, for there pass not 'so few as' 2,000 sail through the Sound in one year, for 'some one ship' makes 3 or 4 voyages in a summer out of the Low Countries. There are divers towns of the east parts that have 'stood with' the King of Denmark in these causes, challenging their passage according to old customs and agreements between the King of Denmark and them ; and I think that we of the west parts ought to have the like, if the princes will look to it, and search the registers for the same. The customs that he has raised of late enrich him very much, and cause him to be very quarrelsome with other princes, and he builds castles, and he has English shipwrights that build him goodly ships and galleys, after the English mould and fashion ; I would they were hanged that owe so little good will to their prince and country, that will go to strengthen a foreign prince. Also the King of Denmark has had out of England about 200 pieces of 'iearne' ordnance and shot for the same. They are all sakers and culverins, and have been very well proved with double charge three times shot off at least. They are for his ships and castles, and were provided from England by one John Focksell, who is the king's great friend, and I think a better Dane in heart than Englishman. So is one Thomas Tynneycar, who was Focksell's man ; and both have been the king's factors for 'theas' out of England to furnish him with all such things as he has need of, and he has very well rewarded them for their 'travells,' for they be both 'beger rype.' The king has not lacked anything that they might help him to out of England, neither shipwrights nor any other persons, as masters, mariners, or captains and men for his wa . . . ; but all these have not moved the king to any friendship towards our nation, but it is rather suspected that they have been the cause of the raising of new tolls every year for this 9 or 10 years, so that 'eythery' [qy. every] year the king must have more. Some years he will have his toll in 'this country' money, and another year in 'that country' money, so that the passengers never know, till they come into the Sound, what 'quyne' [coin] he will have for his toll ; yet they must go seek such money as he will take, for his own country money 'will not' be taken in his custom of strangers. This much I thought good to let you understand of the dealings in Denmark. Further you must know that it has been told me by my friends here that there have been here this winter with the King of Denmark certain lords of the Hanse Towns, whose coming was to have the king to be their 'shotes heyre' [Schutzherr], that is to say, the defender of all the Hanse Towns in their rights and privileges ; for which, if it pleased him to take it upon him, they would become his faithful friends, and aid him against all his enemies, and also yield him a great tribute yearly. This is thought to be a practice of the Hanse Towns against the English nation, to bring their matters the better to pass, for they know not how to be avenged of us or our country otherwise than by the King of Denmark ; for they have sued to the Emperor, and to the King of Poland, and to the Duke of 'Spruse,' to have 'set us off' from the trades of these parts. But their 'shuts' [qy. suits] have taken little force with them, for all their practice is to have the English merchants put from the trade of these east parts, and they have persuaded the King of Denmark that if he would banish and forbid the English nation the trade through the Sounds, the trade would then grow to himself and his friends in those parts, to the great enriching of himself and his subjects ; for as yet the king has very few merchants or merchantships of any force. I am sure that he has not six good merchantships belonging to all his country ; but the force that he has now, is in his own shipping or navy, which is not above 20 or 24 sail small and great. But if he join with Lubeck and "Danske" and other Hanse Towns, they have many great hulks. Whether the king had granted them their request, I cannot learn ; but I hear that the Danskers and others of the Hanse Towns have levied such great 'takes' and gathered such sums of money of their townships that the like was never done before. What the meaning in it is cannot as yet be known, but it is thought to be to aid the King of Denmark, or to have money in readiness for some other purpose ; but certain it is that they of Danske and Lubeck are travailing all that in them lies to drive our nation from the trade of the east seas and countries. But when they bring that to pass, I hope the Queen will drive them from their trade through her narrow seas, through which they travel yearly into France and Spain and Portugal ; and they cannot 'miss' this trade so well as we may miss the east trade, for they have no salt but from these south parts. The king, perceiving that the Queen has of late yielded to his writing on behalf of his subjects, touching satisfaction for John Callis's offence, the same being made at the great suit of her loving subjects, it causes him to make further requests of her, thinking that she will not deny him for the trade's sake which her subjects have through his Sounds to the east parts. For these causes the king thinks that the Queen will not and cannot deny him ; but if it pleased her to send the King of Denmark word, and these proud Hanse Towns also, that they should not presume to trade through her narrow seas towards the south parts, I believe it would abate their high minds ; for if they should lose the trade, and not have salt out of France and Spain, they would be even in as ill case as we should be to be without the use of bread. Or else if it shall please her to set a new toll or custom for all ships that pass her narrow seas or come to anchor in her roads or haven, I think it would terrify them, and make the King of Denmark, and them also, deal with her subjects as they would be dealt withal ; for sure it is very seldom that any ships pass from the east parts into France or Spain, but they must 'of force,' if they meet with any contrary wind, come to anchor in some of her Majesty's roads or havens, both for the safeguard of their ships and goods, and also to refresh themselves with fresh water or victuals or other things that they have need of. And surely the Queen were better worthy to have a custom there, than the King of Denmark is in his streams ; for in England they may have good roads and havens, where their ships may ride in safety, and they may have all necessaries that they lack ; and so cannot we have in Denmark in the Sound, but there, if a man buy a barrel of beer for his ship, he must pay as much custom as the beer is worth. I do not think that the custom would be as beneficial to the Queen as the Sound is to the King of Denmark ; and I know this of myself, that about 4 years ago there came in an English ship into the river of Danske. The master had laden her at 'Quynsbrowe,' and by force of weather the ship being leaky they went into the river to stop their leak ; and the Danskers made the master pay the whole custom for the ship and goods. If it be lawful for them to take custom of those ships that come in for refuge upon extremity of a leaky ship and foul weather, I hope it may be also lawful for the Queen within her passages and streams to take custom in like sort. If the King of Denmark stops our passage through his Sound, I do not doubt but that we shall find a trade for all these necessary commodities that come from the east parts, for they are as able to keep their commodities as we are to keep ours. There is come of all sorts of the east counties' commodities as great store at Amsterdam in Holland as is in any one place in 'they' east parts ; and as at Antwerp there was in times past the storehouse for all merchandise out of Spain and Portugal and other parts, so is Amsterdam the storehouse for all the east-country commodities. Therefore I would not that the King of Denmark should be feared, or that there should be any doubt of the lack of the country commodities, or that we should lack the 'vent' of our cloths ; or anything that the country 'doth increase' ; and as for the use of our navies, they may as well be set on work in trade between Amsterdam and England as to go through the Sounds, and with a great deal less danger or venture ; for the voyage is as perilous into the east parts as any that is traded of that distance. No, there is none so perilous, but that it is traded in the summer time, in fair weather ; yet there are more losses on that voyage than on any other I know. Also if the King of Denmark pretended a quarrel towards our prince or nation, always about midsummer or Whitsuntide he might stay, that pass his Sounds, 50 or 60 sail of English ships, if he do 'deal upon the vantage' ; for in the spring of the year, if he will suffer them to pass eastwards by 4 sail and 6 sail as they come, before those first ships return, there may be 60 or 100 past and come within his 'danger' ; which if he should stay, it would be a great foil to our merchants and owners of ships and also to a number of poor mariners. But if there were but 20 or 30 of our good merchantships together in the Sound they would come and go in despite of all his power, for he has but one castle or house that stands upon one point of the land where the stream is narrow, and at that place where he takes his custom ; and there the strait is but 4 English miles broad. And after the ship has passed about that point where the castle is, there is a great broad road, where the ships may ride out of reach of any shot from the land or castle, and all the rest of the Sound is broad waters and very shallow, and narrow channels in some places. There he keeps one or two of his ships lying, if he fear anything ; either that strangers should pass uncustomed, or for any other cause of evil. This I thought good to certify you, because it is thought verily that the King of Denmark, by the procurement of the Lords of the Hanse Towns, will pick a quarrel to make war with the Queen, or else that he will stay all her ships and goods until she yields to his request. But I hope in God these proud peacocks' tails will be pulled well enough by such good orders as shall be taken for them by her Majesty and her Council whom I pray God to bless with all wisdom and long life. Many will say, what advantage shall any prince have, to war against the King of Denmark or the King of Sweden, for they have neither of them any trades of merchants or of shipping that pass abroad into other countries. Notwithstanding they have not, they are therefore the easier to be invaded in their countries. 'Why,' say they, 'will we invade their countries? They are so poor and beggarly that there will be nothing gotten amongst them.' Yet I say, though the people be poor, and inhabitance small, there are two or three places on this side the straits of the Sounds, and lying in the entrance of his Sound or narrow seas, which is a day and a night's sailing from the place where his fort and castle stands, that if any other foreign prince should come and take them 'in,' they were to be held from the King of Denmark with a very small power, to his 'detterment' and hindrance ; for they are two of the chief fisher-towns that he has, and stand very strongly. One of them gives him, I think, very near as much custom for the herrings that are taken there in the winter as he has for his passage at 'Hellssenour,' and the best sounds for ships to ride in that there are in all Norway. Two ships, with 100 men 'in a piece,' would keep either of the sounds from all the king's power ; for either of the sounds has a small island lying at its mouth or entrance, which is of rock ; and the towns stand on these rocky islands without bulwarks, castle, or ship to defend them, so that any ships may come into the sounds these two ways, both on the west side and on the east, so long as it is undefended by bulwark, castle, or ships of war. One sound is called Mallstrom and the other Fleckerry ; and there are divers others lying on that north side, which are good for any shipping to come into, but not 'Leeke' [qy. like] the other. If any enemy should take one of these islands, all the king's power were not able to recover it again. On the other side of the sea, in the entrance of the main Sound to go eastwards, the King of Denmark has another fisher-town, which lies on the south side of the channel which is called the Skaw, and lies on a neck of land ; and ships may ride on both sides of this town, which has no bulwark, nor ship, neither . . . to defend it. This town's men have commonly the 'syte' of all ships that pass eastwards, and it is very easy to be taken and held. And in truth the strongest part of the King of Denmark's country, which is the island where he . . . . . of no force, and easy to be taken and overrun in three days ; for the land that the king's force is on is but 40 English miles long and 30 broad, and a narrow sea round about it. The king has not at this time men here to furnish the 7 ships that he sends to deal with our 'Rosse' merchants, to St. Nicholas, but he is forced to send to Lubeck and 'Wismore' and into Norway, and takes men out of passengers' ships to serve him, some Scots, some Hollanders, and some English. He has taken three Englishmen to be pilots to carry his ships to St. Nicholas Bay, where our merchant-ships should lade ; I pray God send them ill success. Also his customers tell the masters of our ships that they shall pass as many outwards towards the east parts as they will, but they must talk further with them as they come homewards. About matters that are 'in the first leaf herein written,' what the king's pleasure is to do, that no man of us knows as yet. You shall know further hereafter. Now I cease, beseeching you to pardon my rude writing, which I have done of a good zeal towards my prince and country. P.S.—I beseech you that when there shall be any occasion for commissioners to meet on matters between the Queen and the King of Denmark, you will be a 'mean' to the Queen and Council that there may be some order taken for the dispatch of her merchants' ships from thence after they come thither ; which is very needful both for the shortening of our voyages and the bringing of the merchants' goods to the 'markes,' for sometimes 'by' staying us long in the Sound, the wind being good, causes us to make a long voyage of that which might be short. Also that the merchants might have a set rate for the custom of their goods, that they may know what custom to pay, and also what money they shall bring for their custom in the Sound. Add. Endd. : Advertisements from Denmark, and again in a later hand. 4 pp. [Denmark I. 12.]
April 24. 705. "The presents made to the Grand Signior and others the chief of his Court by the English ambassador in Constantinople the 24th April, 1582."
Plate double gilt, fine cloth, "a very great and fair clock, set upon a rock of mine-ore of silver and other metals, quadrate in proportion ; on the one quarter whereof were to be seen men and women labourers, some drawing water out of wells, some digging metal, some carrying the same on 'wheilebarres,' others purifying it in furnaces, others washing it ; having all the instruments belonging to that science. On the other side hunting the hart in a park with greyhounds and also in the forest with hounds, wherein were dragons, lions, panthers, 'libberdes,' serpents, adders, snakes, grasshoppers, worms and other sorts of creeping beasts. On the other two sides were shepherds keeping sheep and driving them to very fair fountains with cisterns and running conduits, plowmen 'at' tilling the earth, soldiers both horse and foot in action ; and over all these a quadrate castle with a drawbridge, compassed about with running water, etc. In which clock for a quarter of an hour after it had struck all these exercises had their moving." Endd. 1½ pp. [Turkey I. 4.]
April 25. 706. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
On Sunday afternoon arrived at this Court the Count of la Rochefoucault, whose coming rejoiced Monsieur wonderfully ; also his offer to bring 200 gentlemen well horsed to his service, with their train and a certain number of footmen. On Monday morning about 10 o'clock, advertisement came that Colonel 'Temple,' accompanied by Thyant and Lagarde, had got the town of Alost by escalade, and by intelligence had with some of the town. The garrison of Albanese were abroad with a convoy, and in their absence this was executed, which is to be ascribed to chance rather than 'conduction' ; for the sun was an hour high before they came to the walls and they had overshot their assigned time more than 3 hours, so that the defence of 25 men would have repulsed them, being a town impregnable both for the new fortifications and the site of the place. The Governor 'Muskeron' and his new spouse were taken, and above 500 priests that had retired thither for safety, and with them two fat abbots. It was a 'prise' of singular importance for the state of the whole country, and of as great a loss to the enemy. By this means Brussels, 'Dermond,' Mechlin, 'Villford' and Ghent on that side, are all assured. It is doubtful what the enemy will do ; whether persist in besieging Oudenarde, 'who' has no small benefit by these three days that have fallen, or remove to some other place. Monsieur, who 'did even languish' for Oudenarde and Ghent, is now well relieved, and the passages are free from hence to Brussels, and the whole land of Waes and of Alost, containing about 300 good villages, assured. Provision of victuals and munition, with marvellous speed lest the enemy should prevent them, was made from hence to Alost, by the river Scheldt to Dermond, and from thence by the 'Tender' to Alost. These entered safely yesterday and 1,000 soldiers were placed in garrison. The French, English and Scots that were at Eccloo, march today towards Ghent and encamp between the town and the enemy, that they may take advantage of the occasions presented to keep Ghent in order. Tympel has another enterprise in hand, which is thought to be either Louvain or 'Bollduck,' in which latter place there are about 3,000 priests 'retreated' together. Mr Norris is departed towards his 'charge' and must bring it to serve in these parts. Yet the matter is referred to the 'land rede' or country Council of Guelders and the provinces about, whether they will retain him longer there. It is thought they will not be scrupulous in discharging him, so small affection do they bear to soldiers. But by this means some Frenchman, or rather the Count of 'Hollock,' who is to be the Prince's son-in-law is to be placed there, for our greatness and strength in this country will be daily diminished. The enemy has before Oudenarde 14,000 to 15,000 foot, old soldiers, among whom are Pollwiller's, Frundsberg's and 'Fowcker's' regiments, who have been these twelve years in pay. Therewith 3,000 horse 'by the poll,' with great store of artillery. They have made a bridge over the water of Scheldt, and 'hold their sentinel' as far as 'Eke' and 'Landhute,' which are within a small league and a half of Ghent. They do not as yet batter the town, but they had gathered the peasants to mount their cannon. Herewithin is a paper of the governors of the provinces and towns that hold at this present, either on the Spanish or French side, which I thought not unfit for you. Du 'Bee' departed hence towards her Majesty last night.— Antwerp, 25 April 1582. P.S.—Here is also a paper of the Council of State established at Utrecht, for the province beyond the Maes. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 125.]
707. Enclosures in the above :
(1) Names of the governors, colonels, captains, and lieutenants of the provinces, towns and fortresses at present under the obedience of his Higness.— Of Brabant, Guelders, and Zutphen, the governor is the Prince of Orange. In Flanders there is no governor, but they hold the Prince of Orange as their chief. Governor of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Friesland, the Prince of Orange. Of Overyssel there is no governor. The last was the Count of Rennenberg, brother of the Count of Hoochstraet, formerly governor of Friesland, Overyssel, Groeningen, Devener and Zuighem. The Governor of Friesland is M. de Rumen, alias de Mérode, lieutenant to the Prince of Orange. The governor of Antwerp ; the colonels and magistrates. Of Lierre, M. Etfelt (?). Of Diest, M. Vandernoot. Of Bergen-op-Zoom, M. de Lagarde. Of Herentals, Philippe d'Asseliers. Of Westerloo, M. de Vliet. Of Brussels, M. van der 'Temple.' Of Vilvoorde, a council of war. Of Mechlin, M. de Famale. Flanders.—The governor of Ghent ; M. de Ryhove and the six colonels with the magistrates and the council of war. Of Bruges, the magistrates with the council of war. Of Ypres, M. d' Utenhove, Grand Bailiff of the town, and the council of war. Of Dermond, M. de Ryhove, and his lieutenant, M. Loys de Vitz. Of Oudenarde, Frederick vander Burch and the magistrates. Of Hulst, the magistrates and the council of war. Of 'Axsels,' the magistrates. Of Nynove, M. de Thiant. Of Sluys, Grove (?) with the magistrates and those of Bruges. Of Damme, Captain Jost Broxs, son of the burgomaster of Bruges. Of Ostend, Captain Utenrecht. Of Nyeuwpoort, Captain Birul (?). Of Dunkirk, Admiral Treslong. Of Berghes-Wynox, Lieut.-Col. Lochre (?) called van Eynde, with the magistrates. Of Veuren, M. de Lochres (?) and the council of war. Of Dixmude. M. Sescheval, a Frenchman. Of Meenen, Colonel Trayll. Of Eccloo, M. de Rochepot. Of Doesborg, Mr Norris. Of Zealand, Mr. Haultain. Of North Holland,—. Of the towns in Holland, Overyssel, Utrecht, Friesland, Zutphen and Guelders, the magistrates and council of war. Colonels in Flanders.—The Count of Rochepot, M. de Ryhove, M. de Thiant, M. de Lochre, M. de Villeneuve, Colonel Preston, Colonel Trayll, Colonel Morgan. Colonels of Brabant.—Colonel 'Temple,' Col. Lagarde, Col. Michiel, Col. Stewart, Col. Drucker. General Norris, the Count of 'Hollack,' Count William of Nassau, M. de Hooghe. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [Ibid. 125a.]
(2) The same for places at present held for the King of Spain.
The Prince of Parma, Lieutenant-governor and captain-general. The Governor of Artois, the Marquis of Risbourg. Of Luxembourg, Count Mansfelt. Of Hainault, Count Lalaing. Of Lille, Douay, and Orchies, M. de Rassinghen. Of Namur, Count Barlaymont. Of Limburg, M. de Ruisborch. Of Tournay, the Prince of Parma and his lieutenant Mondragon. Of Franche-Comtè, nihil. At Notre-Dame-de-Hault in Hainault, Capt. Couralin. Of Landrecies, M. de Habecourt. Of Avesues the count [sic] and M. de Bougie. Of Marienbourg, M. de Brya. Of Quesnoy, M. de Goners. Of Philippeville, M. de Florines. Of Charlemont, M. de Barlaymont alias Haultepenne. Of Namur and Breda [sic], the same, who is also governor of the County of Namur. Of the castle of Namur, M. de 'Vo.' (? d' Yoe). Of Maestricht, M. de Theve (?). Of Limburg, M. de Ruisborch, who is in charge of M. de la Noue. Of Saint Omer, the Count M. de Reulx, formerly M. de Remminghen. Of Aire, the Viscount of Aire, and M. de Mousbeeck. Of Bethune, M. de l' Attiloys, formerly maitre d' hotel to the Duchess of Parma. Of Gravelines, M. de la Motte. Of Bourbourg, M. de Royon. Of Cassele, Count Harlay, sons of the late M. de Glazon, master of artillery. At Lille there is a lieutenant, called M. de Buech, Lord of Honing, knighted in Spain about the year '71. Of Courtray, M. de Zwevegham. Of Alost, M. de Mocqueron. Of Boussain [qy. Bouchain] M. or Capt. Charlier. Of Comines, Captain Baley ; and at Busseyn. Of Louvain, M. de Licques, brother-in-law of the late Count of Reulx. Of Tournay, Mondragon. Of Guelders and the Meuse, Verdugo. Of Gemblours, nihil. Of Bois-le-duc and Eyndhoven, their magistrates. Of Ruremonde, Count Sunoy of of Liége. Of Groeningen, the magistrates. Of Lens, M. de Noyelles. Of Bapaume M. de Noyelles, brother to M. de Bours. Of Arras and Hesdin, the Marquis of Risbourg. Of Nivelles, Captain Cherff (?) Of Aerschot, nihil. Endd. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. XV. 125 b.]
April 25. 708. Power of attorney granted by the Consuls and Senate of Cologne to John Praeter, John Rose, and Henry Uwens to act on behalf of Gerhard Bierboom in the matter of a bond for £3,433 10s. transferred to him by the widow of John de Camerina out of obligations given by the Queen and the Corporation of London at Kirtling, 3 Sep. 1578, to Baptista Spinola, agent (? autori) for John de Camerina, payable 30 June 1579.—25 April 1582. (Signed) Laur : Webber. Copy, certified 22 March 1583 by Paulus Typoots. Endd. Latin. 3½ pp. [Germany II. 30.]
April 25. 709. ALFONSO FERRABOSCO to BURGHLEY.
After thanking you for your kind remembrance of an old servant, I will beg you to be protector in a cause that is pending between the heirs of Gerard Croker and myself, as you may learn from Mr Lorenzo Dandino, the present bearer, my general proctor ; and I will pray Heaven to recompense you.—Bologna, 25 April 1582. Add. Endd. Ital. ¾ p. [Italy I. 4.]