Addenda: Miscellaneous 1580

Pages 532-571

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 17, January-June 1583 and Addenda. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.

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Miscellaneous 1580

A.D. 1580,
[About Jan. 2.]
554. Occurrents from Antwerp.
Antwerp. Dec. 28.—M. de la Noue being departed and no general commander left, each colonel rules his regiment and takes charge of the place they lie in. The Malcontents are in the field with 6,000 footmen and eleven cornets of horse, but what place they will begin with is not known. The French and Scots that were at Wervick and Commines (two open places taken awhile ago by de la Noue) are departed thence, finding them not tenable, and have fired all the houses. Both towns belonged to the Duke of Aerschot. The Malcontents have made Count Mansfeld general in field, and de la Motte marshal. It is feared the Spaniards will obtain from them “their long suit” to stay and aid the Malcontents, but not be admitted to keep any town or place. They still hover about Mechlin, seeking to get in, and divers fearing they will prevail by aid of the priests, have this week come from thence hither.
The Prince of Parma is still at Maestricht, “taking his pleasure and employing his instruments abroad. It is doubted those of Friesland will accept the King's peace and become Malcontents, refusing to receive any soldiers in their towns, notwithstanding Billy's (Bilhee's) bending towards them.”
Guelderland would do the like but is hindered by the Prince's garrisons in their towns. A chief cause is the great spoil that the reiters made in those parts, without respect of persons or friends. At Brussels there has been great discord between the townsmen and the soldiers for their pay, not altogether appeased. The English at Lierre are in mutiny for want of money.
It is thought the Emperor will prevail to make a peace, but only the better to cover further enterprises. The States are busy establishing a new course of government, “being almost agreed for collections of money to be equally paid and received in all places.”
Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 20.]
Jan. 8. 555. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
Antwerp. Jan. 3. The Spaniards have all departed to beyond Maestricht, and lie in the land of Limburg and Valkenburg, where it is promised they shall be mustered and paid, and so depart the country. The Malcontents are retiring towards St. Amands, lying by Tournay, where are three companies of English and three of Flemings, who, if the frost continues will not be able to keep it. Therefore order is sent to the Scots and Frenchmen, with the horsemen, to march that way if need be, to rescue the place or annoy the enemy. D'Inchi (Denzy), the governor, has surrendered Cambray or is about to do so, by composition to the Duke of Anjou, who is accepted as protector thereof; which will make the Malcontents bestir themselves for defence of their quarters.
The Prince of Condé is still at La Fére, and M. de la Noue with him, for whose speedy return into these parts the Prince has earnestly written. The States have resolved to make a new levy for a camp against the spring, and have already taken order for commanders, provision of money, &c. The English mutineers at Lierre are appeased with a month's payment, and promise of another in a few days.
Mechlin is so distressed for victuals, that there is a secret parley with the Prince. If suffered to enjoy their own religion they are willing to receive a garrison. Those of Brussels and this town have agreed to keep the passage clear between the towns, and equally to contribute to maintain the garrisons and soldiers that lie along the river. London, 8th of January, 1579.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 21.]
Jan. 24. 556. Occurrents from Antwerp.
The Prince of Orange and Archduke Mathias have gone to Breda. They had an escort of horse and foot, besides their trains, and the first night rode only to Bergen (Barrow), and so the next day to Breda.
The States are making a camp for the aid of towns distressed by the enemy. There will be 6,000 horse, 12,000 footmen and 2,000 pioneers. The Marquis of Havrech (Haveree) is gone towards Lorraine, and Madame de Parma is arrived at Milan and looked for in Artois and Hainault as governor for the King. It is reported (but not for certain) that the Spaniards, Albaneses and Burgundians have entered Flanders and joined the Malcontents, who are esteemed to be about 30,000 men.
1 p. [Newsletters I. 22.]
[The rest of the intelligence is contained in a newsletter calendared in S.P. For., 1579–80, p. 139. Hoddesdon was now in Antwerp.]
Jan. 31. 557. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
[The first part of this newsletter is calendared under date, from a copy, which does not contain the concluding paragraphs.]
It is said that the Italians levied for the King of Spain in the state of Milan will set forward in the beginning of March towards these Low Countries. Madame de Parma has passed the Alps, being appointed governor here by counsel of Cardinal Granvelle, the King's chief counsellor for the affairs of these provinces.
The 21st of next month the General States meet again in Antwerp, where some from Flanders are already arrived. M. de Fromont, a councellor of State, is chosen master of the Finances in place of the Marquis of Havrech, who has departed into Lorraine.
News comes from Venice that the Turk has withdrawn from Persia, leaving only garrisons to defend his borders.
Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. I. 23.]
Feb. 7. 558. Occurrents from Antwerp.
The Malcontents lie about Valenciennes, doing nothing. They want their pay, and some small controversy has arisen between their chiefs about accepting or rejecting the Spaniards, “for the which Mansfeld, Rassenghien (Rasingham) and others of that crew do greatly persuade.”
“The French have ventured between Tournay and Arras, even to the suburbs, firing and spoiling all they found, driving not only the poor peasant unto great fear but also disquieting M. de Capres and others to see the country so spoiled, the people crying out about his ears for redress, and small means to remedy the harms. De la Motte on the other side hath been abroad as far as Newport, setting divers gentlemen's houses and villages on fire, made spoil of all he found, and carried great store of cattle and horses with him into Gravelines.” Certain companies of horse and footmen went to meet him, but he never stayed their coming.
The people blame Treslong (Terlon), Governor of Dunkirk, for not gaining intelligence of the enterprises and so preventing it. De la Noue is said to be returned to Cambray. The Prince of Orange is still in Holland, and it is said those of the United Provinces yield to all his wishes.
The commons of Mechlin have secretly sent a commission offering to rejoin the States if they be exempt from garrisons, but this is thought to be some device and so is referred to the Prince. Here is talk that Casimir will come to the States' aid this next spring, entering by way of Luxembourg. Monsieur is said to be about Cambray, and thence “will pass further into the country, to see if he may be accepted according to the articles sent him by the States.”
The Emperor has sent a message to the Duke of Nova Terra and the other commissioners at Cologne. Madame de Parma is said to be arrived in Lorraine. The King of Spain (it is thought) will marry one of his daughters to the Emperor.
It is also said that those of Holland and Zeeland will send ships to Spain as soon as they know that the great army is departed from thence, hoping to find the country unguarded “and so to trouble the King at his own doors.” Since the variance amongst the Malcontents two companies of horse have come in to the service of the States.
pp. [Newsletters I. 24.]
Feb. 10. 559. Occurrents from Spain.
The King lies at Matherill, about four leagues from Cadiz (Cales). [Margin. Cales, the entrance to the Straits.]
Our English ships were stayed for seven days, and their sails taken, so that some departed without them, but all the ships were released and our men as well treated as heretofore.
There is great store of ammunition and ordnance at Cadiz, great warehouses full of artillery of all sorts; and at St. Mary Port there are 40 galleys ready and furnished, and four argosies laden with provisions.
From Gibraltar (Jubilator) [Margin. Jubilator in the Straits, distant from Cales 20 leagues or thereabouts] there are to come out of the Straits 40 or 50 galleys and 20 or 30 ships and argosies, and from Grand Malaga and Seville (Civill) 40,000 men to furnish them. This causes great scarcity of victuals, and such as our ships bring they take up at the King's price.
The navy will be ready about the end of April, but against whom it is to go we cannot learn; some say against the Portingals, other some, against the Turks in Barbary. The King of the Portingals as yet is a cardinal. We are assured that they do not look for, and are altogether unfurnished to withstand the Spanish power.
The Irish bishop keeps the sea with three or four ships, robbing and spoiling such English vessels as fall into his hands.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters XC. 1.]
March 1. 560. Intelligence from Spain, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
On Jan. 20, two barks left Porte [in Biscay] with great store of money, brought from the Court of Spain to Bilbao by mules and from thence to Porto by sea. Philip de Laro had charge of both, “no man knoweth whither.” One Solydon went with him, servant to John de Martynes de Recalde of Bilbao, who is captain general of all the navy that goes forth from Biscay. Philip de Laro and another captain went to sea in a little boat, and loaded oranges, as if for merchandise, and said he would go to Nantes (Nance) but it is known that he did not, and is thought that he went into Ireland. “The people of Spain report commonly that they will be on our jacks ere it be long, asking what provision the Queen made, saying the King would come and see her this summer.
There are 16 barques at Bilbao and Portigalet; 3 at Castro, between 15 and 20 sail at Santandero; between 40 and 50 at the Groyne.
Of 226 galleys in the south, 110 come to the Groyne and the rest remain at St. Lucar, St. Mary Port and Cadiz. In one of them is a great chain. The Pope sends 40 of these galleys. There are 20,000 sailors and 80,000 soldiers, whereof 50,000 are Spaniards, 10,000 High Almains, 10,000 Italians, and from Rome, Naples and the Straits, 10,000 old soldiers of the king's. The soldiers lie mostly where they were pressed, on half pay. The ships at Biscay and the Groyne are on whole pay.
Twelve thousand quarters of wheat, taken in the country of High Castile, are sent to a city called Badashose [Badajos] near Portugal. All the mills in Bilbao, Castro, Laredo (Allaredo) and along the coast grind for the King.
On the 1st of May, all the ships at the Groyne will “set sail to go whither the army is pretended.”
At our arrival there was great inquiry what ships the Queen sent to Ireland, and what are making ready and what men. The Spaniards say openly that Ireland is the Pope's. Report is that the Duke of Alva will be General, and that the King will go in person to Portugal. The Cardinal King of Portugal, who died about the last of January, is reported to have bequeathed the kingdom to the King of Spain; but the Duchess of “Bargansa” was crowned queen on the 2nd of February. The King of Spain went on Feb. 20 to an abbey called Guardalupo (Gaddalupo) to keep the funerals for the King of Portugal; and from thence, as is said, goes towards Portugal, hoping to be crowned. Whether he be so or no, it is said he will go in the fleet. Biscay, 1st of March, 1579.
Endd. by Burghley: “Sir Henry Ratcliffe's intelligence from Spain. 2 pp. [Newsletters XC. 2.]
[March, early in.] 561. Occurrents from Spain [sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe ?].
Cadiz, last of February, 1579. There are great preparations for war here [in Cadiz] and many galleys and great ships are come out of Italy and are at Gibraltar (Juberaltarye), having brought 20,000 soldiers and more. In St. Lucar are six galleys and six great ships, and in Port St. Mary eight galleys, and in Cadiz (Calles) road seven or eight great ships. There is also great store of ordnance and munition. It is said all is for Portugal, but I cannot believe it and some say it is for Ireland or England Some days past, the Cardinal of Portugal died, and the King of Spain will be King of Portugal if he can. There are 40,000 men ready in divers places, “and very close it is kept, where they do intend to go as yet.”
“The King of Spain has peace with the King of Fez (Feace) or Moor, for four years, which we like not well thereof.”
The Portugals are up, and say, before they will be subjects to King Philip, they will yield to the Moors or the French or to the Queen of England. “I think there will be much ado about that realm. God send us merchants quietness, which is much to be doubted and great unlikely, as was here these many years.
“This I writ to your honour which my son wrote to me from Cadiz, he which came forth out of their inquisition house in Seville.”
Mark Antony Colonna is admiral of most part of the galleys, “he which was the bishop of Rome his general in the last conflict, and overthrew of the Turks' army by sea.”
1 p. [Newsletters XC. 3.]
March 26. 562. Advertisements from Spain.
A Biscayan called John Martynes de Recalde of Bilbao sent a bark laden with oranges and some iron into Ireland, “and all was to understand the state of that country.” They brought back divers advertisements for their purpose, and the said Martynes, at the ship's arrival, sent letters post to the Court of Spain, but from whom in Ireland I cannot yet learn.
Ten ships are made ready in the passage of Biscay and in Bilbao, and more along the coast, all to go to the Groyne in Galicia to meet the rest of the fleet. This I write upon the report of a merchant of credit of this town.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XC. 4.]
[March.] 563. Newsletter.
Monsieur has been sick, from excessive playing at tennis, but finished his physic on Saturday last and intends to go from Angers and repose himself at the Abbey of Bourgeuil (Burgoyll), belonging to M. Simier, which stands in very good air. He is now settling the affairs of his house, his chief counsellor therein being the Marshal de Cossé. Monsieur Simier continues his credit.
De Vrey is come here to confer with the King touching Monsieur's causes, and especially the choice of his chancellor. Until he returns, the resolution as to his principal officers will not be published, but it is judged that M. Marchaumont will return hither to be leaguer-agent for his affairs at Court and chief of his finances.
M. de Buy (alias Perrot), one of the Queen of Navarre's masters of household, has been here, dealing in some secret cause of which I have no certain knowledge. Those here for the King of Navarre “have entered into some little conceit” occasioned by de Buy's close dealing, but he is now gone, and arrived at Angers on the 19th inst. M. de la Valle and young Brissac are yet at Angers. The Abbot de Guadagna has been sent again to Monsieur.
There have been sundry bruits lately that Monsieur had made levies openly by sound of drum, but as yet there is no such matter, though by his letters he has led his gentlemen to expect some enterprise.
It is reported that he will meet the King at Fontainebleau a fortnight after Easter. His Majesty was told that Monsieur had given commissions to Brissac, Jennisac and Bauffremont to levy regiments, but de Vrey, Monsieur's secretary, has declared that it is not so. Certain soldiers were levied in Anjou, but they were for St. Luc and went to him without Monsieur's knowledge, as his highness has written to the King.
Monsieur's agent has written that they of the Low Country of Flanders have consented to take him for their governor and protector, whereof Monsieur caused de Vrey to inform the King and Queen Mother, and to know their liking hereof. They seem to like well that the offer has been made, but defer their consideration of it, and do not encourage him that way, the King saying he is unwilling to make wars with King Philip, and the Queen Mother propounding the cause of Portugal and her title thereto, which some think she does to draw him from his enterprise.
This day M. de Bourc [Bourg] came to see me, but declared nothing of the cause, save of the good dispositions to the treaty, and that her Majesty “accepted well” of Monsieur's writing to her, and made answer, she hoped, to his satisfaction. He alighted in Paris on the 24th of this present, went next morning to the Queen Mother, and goes hence to-morrow.
After de Vrey had been here eight or nine days he came to me “with excuses of his many causes.” It seems they “conceive some staggering of the proceeding”; first because parliament has been prolonged twice or thrice, and may be so again, and until the Estates have deliberated on the articles agreed on by M. Simier, the commissioners cannot be sent; also they think there is “some quailing of the matter in England” because “the article of the use of religion is scanted, having been first considered and then agreed.” But insomuch as her Majesty at all times has shown her sincere good will, Monsieur takes this to be rather a drawing back of others than any alteration of her Majesty's disposition, and hopes that their mutual affections will break through these difficulties and conclude all to their contentation. I perceive by de Vrey that Monsieur has written to them of Cambray that he likes well their request that the Prince of Condé may be the lieutenant of any forces he may employ for the defence of Cambray and Bohen [qy. Bohain] but fears the King may mislike that the governor of Picardy should be his lieutenant in any warlike exploit against King Philip. Of late a monk of Cambray preached against the acceptation of Monsieur as their governor, whereon he was condemned and beheaded. Likewise the Bishop of Cambray is put out of the town, on discovery of a plot for surprising it, made between him, the canons and the Spaniards.
There are said to be come into Luxembourg three or four thousand horse and footmen, Italians, Spaniards and lanzknechts, to join the Spanish camp.
Endd.: “Advertisements from sundry parts.” 2¼ pp. [Newsletters IX. 3.]
March 14. April 25. 564. Extracts from two letters, one from the town of Dantzic, the other from Lubeck, stating that the Muscovites have been aided by the English Society of Adventurers with munition of all kinds.
Endd. Latin.½ p. [Poland I. 5.]
May 3. 565. Advertisements from Sir H. Cobham.
About the beginning of April two couriers from Portugal brought letters to their ambassadors in Rome from the governors. The plague is still in Lisbon and there could be perceived small provision for wars save great watch and ward, and fortifying the town at the entry of the haven. It seemed yet that affairs will be managed rather by treaty than force.
There was also a letter from the Duchess of Braganza to Cardinal Farnese, praying that a legate might be sent into Portugal, to see to whom the kingdom of right appertains, and to request the Catholic King not to occupy it by force, but to abide the sentence; otherwise the Portugals will be forced to crave aid from divers places, wherein the Duchess “uttered so much the more earnestness” because she hopes the succession will be adjudged to her; which should be to the great benefit (as she alleged) of Ranutio Farnese, nephew of the Cardinal.
Venice.—On April 17 Signor Paolo Contarini embarked in their galleys for Constantinople to be their Bailo. Letters were come from the Emperor's court dated March 26, certifying the return of Archduke Ernest out of Hungary to Vienna, and that the Hungarians, in the diet of Possonia [Pressburg], would not determine anything without the Emperor's presence. Likewise there was some muttering that the Emperor would have the peace of Flanders ruined.
The Emperor has so far derogated the privileges of the order of Malta that he has assumed into his power certain commanderies in Bohemia, which he claims to bestow at his will, and hath given one to a gentleman of the house of Coloredo of Friulli without the placet of the Great Master. Whereon the ambassador of the Great Master has besought the Pope to order the Emperor to abstain from this prejudice, but cannot obtain letters in that behalf, though the Pope has willed Cardinals Madrucci (Madruzzo) and Guastavillani to deal with the Emperor therein.
In the cause between the Elector and commonalty of Trier the Emperor has given judgment that the Elector has regal power over the said commonalty, who are therefore to submit to him in all things.
Madrid.—The King of Spain's late born daughter has been baptised and called Mary, being borne to church by the Duke of Brunswick, and held at baptism by Cardinal Toledo.
Radolpho Balione, despatched to levy 4,000 Italians, still waits for money and for the galleys from Spain to embark those soldiers.
A ship with 400 Italians, part of the Catholic army, has been drowned in Bocca San Laurentio, in Valenciennes [qy. Valencia]. The sickness still continues in the said army.
Touching the matter of Finale, after the departure of the Archduke, there is nothing further dealt therein.
The gentleman sent by the Cardinal of Bourbon and nephew of the Cardinal of Sans has brought letters of credit to the Pope, and is come to request him to allow him to resign all his benefices to a nephew of his, aged nineteen, one of the Prince of Condé's brethren.
After M. de Foix had been admitted to make his purgation, he was much commended by the Pope, and it is judged he shall be preferred to the church of Toulouse.
Endd.: 3 May, 1580. Advertisements out of France from Sir Henry Cobham. 1¼ pp. [Newsletters IX. 4.]
May. 566. Spanish Advertisements, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
(1). May 24, St. Sebastian.—The King is lading at Cadiz (Cales) for Portugal, “and so to return with implements either to England or Ireland, as the report is.”
An English gunner called John Wende of Fowey, who has served in the King of Spain's ships, is come from Cadiz, a proper man. He and I being in talk, he said for certain that on the 1st of May the King went from Madrill to Villa Nova, with 50,000 men, to take Portugal; but was resisted by 200,000 Portingals, who killed many of his men. So he departed for Seville, where he remains, sending more men by land to Lisbon. The Duc d'Alva is captain general by land, and the Duke Medina Celi by water. The latter entered Portugal with 15,000 men, by Tavira (Tavylla), and “was put to foil” with loss of many of his men. The Portingals are said to have proclaimed one Don Fernando [of Toledo] as King.
“And in no way they will not obey the King of Spain, so the common voice is here that after they take Portugal to go for England or Ireland.” There is great plague in the army. Ships have been sent from Cadiz to “Juberaltar” for more men and munition. It is said the Turks have taken some Spanish ships.
Postscript.—All the ships at the Groyne are gone to Cadiz, 3,000 men are come from Castile to Laredo, and 500 to St. Sebastian. Victuals and armour are daily sent out of Biscay to Andalusia.
1 p. [Newsletters XC. 5.]
[This and the four following newsletters from Spain are fastened together and endorsed: “Spanish advertisements, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.” He is probably the “right worshipful” to whom they are written.
(2). May 26.—Worshipful Sir,—At this date I was ready to depart from St. Sebastian's to Castro, and spake with an English merchant come from Valencia. He reports for certain that the army is for England and Ireland, and that it is the common speech of the soldiers there. Also that the King of Spain says the army is not his but the Pope's. 50 galleys and 50 argosies are come from Florence to Cadiz laden with soldiers, Almains, Neopolitans and Romans. There is great plague in Cadiz. The King is at Seville. I will go thither with as much speed as may be. The great chain is at Cadiz. It was made at Naples. The ship that carries it is very big. Their victual “is very sore spoiled.” By my next I will give you to understand of all.
“The Spanish ambassador hath and doth write over into Spain very sore words as touching the realm; as by a priest was spoken in St. Sebastian the 24th of May. Your worship may seek for passengers' letters that cometh to Spain from England. Philip de Laro, of Port Santonea, that went to Ireland for a spy, is come home.” 6,000 soldiers are come from Toledo to Biscay and Laredo and about the coast. St. Sebastian. May 26.
½ p. [Newsletters XC. 5a.]
(3). May 30.—Right Worshipful,—It is reported most certainly in all the country that the fleet is bound for Ireland and England, for the whole is come back from Cadiz to the Groyne and the Irish Bishop goes with them and is at the Groyne also. Ships, soldiers and provisions arrive daily. “The whole army is the Pope's, and he only is the head.” There goeth in the fleet the Duke of Medina Celi, the Duke of Najara (Naxar), the Marques of Cuenca (Quenqua), and many a noble man more of Italy and Spain. The like army was never seen before. The great chain was made in Naples; the like was never seen. She is said to be appointed to shut up a certain harbour in Ireland when the fleet is within. The report is that the fleet is to depart the 20th of June. From St. Sebastian's I go direct to the Groyne and thence to the court, whence you shall hear more at large. I have charged a trusty friend, Thomas Beaumount, my master's son, to carry my letters and deliver them into your worship's hands with all speed. St. Sebastian, 30th May, 1580.
1 p. [Ibid. XC. 5b.]
(4). June 1.—On May 30 I came from St. Sebastian's to Castro, where I write this, ready to depart for Galicia. It is here the common talk of the people that the ships are for Ireland, “with such strange inventions that the like was never seen.” The King of Spain is to be proclaimed King of Portugal on mid-summer day at Elvas (Elves), hard by Badajos (Badaxos). The Pope is sending 20,000 more men, with ships and galleys to Cadiz, with all speed. Thence they go to the Groyne, and so with all speed to Ireland. An Irishman in Portugal is also making ready ships to go there. There is great enquiry in Castro for the Earl of Desmond. I will get to the Groyne with all speed possible, and from thence write more at large.
Postscript.—Don Alvaro de Luna, Marquis of Santa Croce, and not the Duke of Medina Celi, head of the sea. Four thousand small boats for rivers, and to make bridges to go on. Don Frederick (sic) the Duke of Alva's son, Alfieri [lieutenant]. The Portingals yield themselves to the King of Spain on June 2. He is proclaimed on Corpus Christi day.
The chain is the most monstrous thing ever heard of; it is reported to be 7 miles long, 5 fathom broad, and to weigh 700 tons.
1 p. [Newsletters XC. 5c.]
(5).—On May 13, eleven men-of-war went out of Bilbao. The Admiral has chains of iron for a harbour's mouth in Ireland called Dingle Couch. All the fleet at Santander went to the Groyne on June 19, and are ready to go for Ireland with the next wind.
Letters from Cadiz say there are there 100 and odd galleys and 50 great argosies, “and that this army was able to take ten such countries as Portugal is.” Moreover, there is great quietness in Portugal, where King Philip is to be crowned upon St. James' day.
More galleys have arrived from Naples and the Duke of Florence, bringing soldiers and provisions.
¾ p. [Ibid. XC. 5d.]
[About June.] 567. The King of Spain's Army.
The Duke of Alva, chief general of the camp, 40,000 men, 5,000 horsemen and the rest footmen, whereof there are 4,000 Germans under Count Ladron; 8,000 Italians under Don Pedro de Medicis, brother of the Duke of Florence; the rest Spaniards.
Lieutenant under the Duke of Alva, Don Fernando his son.
Maestro de Campo, Sancho de Avila, who was governor of the Castle of Antwerp.
The army lies within a league of Lisbon.
The navy numbers 60 galleys and 40 great ships; Captain General the Marques de Santa Crux.
The Duke of Medina Celi has 12,000 men, and lies in the Condado [county].
The Dukes of Feria and Arcos, with 5,000 men, at Zafra.
The Count of Alva, the lieutenant, with 3,000 men, at Zamora.
The Count of Benavente, with 6,000 men at Albuquerque.
The Marques of Sara (Sary) with 4,000 men, in Galicia.
5,000 more, from Flanders, are at Cadiz and St. Mary Port, and the King looks for 1,000 more out of Italy.
½ p. [Ibid. XC. 6.]
July 1. 2. Also 16 and 22. 568. Spanish Advertisements, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
I wrote to you of all the men, ships and gallies that the King of Spain and the Pope had prepared at St. Anderos and the Groyne for Ireland. They are to depart by the 6th of July, first for Portugal and afterwards for England. The King and his wife, with the rest of the princes, ambassadors and governors are at Badajos. It is said that he has taken possession of some of the towns in Portugal, but that the rest will not yield.
The number of the Army.
The King of Spain, 100,000 men.
The Duke of Alva, 10,000.
The Cardinal of Arras, 3,000.
The Duke of Medina Celi, 10,000.
The Turk, 15,000.
[Margin: “This name is mistaken; for that I do think it should be the Princes of Germany or the Duke of Florence."] The plague is very sore. Valladolid (Valle de Leith), July 1st, 1580.
On the same sheet:—
There is come certain news “that one Francis Drake of Plymouth (the which was at the 'Indians') was taken prisoner by a captain of the King of Spain at a place called Panama, coming home with 1,006,000 gold ducats.” All the men of Portugal have come to Lisbon against the King of Spain and his power, and in no case will suffer him to enjoy their country. The men of the King of Spain “do die very sore, the which is a great hindrance to his proceedings. Don Antonio is King of Portugal, and the Duke of Braganza (Barganso) protector.” The Turk has taken some towns in Sicily (Cissill). Valladolid, 2nd July, 1580.
On the same sheet:—
I wrote to you from this court of all the forces which the King had prepared, first to go for Portugal and then for England, Ireland and Scotland. On July 15, letters came, “how that” the Duke of Alva was come to Portugal with 150,000 men and was in Setubal (St. Tovals), and so to go to Lisbon. But the Duke of Braganza and Don Antonio have 50,000 men. The King is in Elvas (Nelves) but his men in Setubal. Valladolid, 16th July, 1580.
There is great inquiry in this country for the Queen of Scots, and much talk of Ireland. The fleet is gone to Vigo. I should have received in print a letter from the Vice-roy of Valencia to the Court, of the great overthrow given by the King of Persia, but it is not come. 22nd July, 1580.
Endd.: “Sent from Sir H. Ratcliff, the 3 of Sept., 1580.” 1 p. [Newsletters XC. 7.]
July 2. 569. [Hoddesdon] to Burghley.
Antwerp. June 25.—The enemy having forced the States' forces to retreat in haste, have since removed their camp and artillery and rescued Groningen. They had purposed an enterprise against Campen and Swoll, by means of intelligence with the papists, but being discovered it failed, and the authors were used according to their deserving.
Certain horsemen of Herenthals, under Alonso the Spaniard, who is in the States' service, were surprised by the enemy at Hoegstraete and ten of them slain and taken. The rest escaped, but Alonso is not yet heard of.
On Wednesday night, the enemy lying in Louvain thought by scaling to seize Vilvorde, and some got on the walls, but were repulsed, and the town saved. There was also a plot to enter Brussels, whereto the Prince being made privy, he directed that part of the enemy should be received into the town, to which end the gates were left open, but the enemy, “fearing their practices, durst hazard no further, and so spoiling and burning the country, retired whence they came.”
The States' men of Nivelles and Brussels overthrew two companies of the enemy's horse on Tuesday last at Braine (Brene) le Conte, one of “Albaneses” and the other of Burgundians.
The Malcontents thought this week to have given the French lying in Flanders a camisado, but “found rencontre,” since when the French have joined with the English. Three companies of Englishmen have left the leaguer and gone amongst the boors, till they receive some payment. The Malcontents in Cortrick, after a recontre near Menin, have returned and spoiled the town again, for want of their pay. There is said to be division amongst the Malcontents since the apprehending of M. de Hèze. M. de Capres is dismissed from his government of Arras and charge of footmen, these being restored to M. de Vaux. London, 2nd of July.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 25.]
July 9. 570. —— to Mr. Hearlle.
Antwerp. 9 July.—A badly written and blotted newsletter, containing word for word the same intelligence as that sent by Hoddesdon to Burghley on July 18 (see p. 549 below), but wanting the last paragraph.
In a postscript the writer says that time will not permit him to write more, but that he follows after himself, and then will show his mind at large. Old Mr. Houghton died at Liége, the 2nd of July.
Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. I. 26.]
July 12. 571. George Lysman, Secretary of the Stilliard of London, to [The Council of Poland ?].
Worshipful Lords.—What a wild, waste and disordered estate has often time been among our towns, how greatly oppressed by their neighbours, and how much disquieted by strangers and shut out from their traffic and navigation, by which their wealth has been greatly decreased, yea, and at unawares by fleets of ships violently assaulted, robbed and spoiled [ye well know].
For which causes, the worthy Hanse towns deemed it needful to link themselves together; in which they have had great labour, cost and charges to attain their desire, as also to bring sundry princes to agree to it, besides the maintenance of the same and the arranging of the traffic equally and fairly between these many famous towns. By long experience they have learned how dangerous it is to draw strange nations unto them, endowing them with any kind of liberties, which (by benefiting one or two towns) might grow to the discommodity of all the residue. So that we ought not to part with any thing that we have, but should seek to procure more and more in strange countries beyond the seas. How beneficial the same has been to the famous Hanse towns, to what dignity, wealth and strength they have attained, and how easily they have been thereby able to match and bridle the strangers and compel them to be both calm and quiet; what sumptuous and gorgeous houses have been builded and how all things have increased and flourished: these things you shall find in our ancient records and in the written histories of sundry times. Whereof your worships have been more than once put in memory by my words and writings, and most humbly here I deal therein, praying you in your assemblies to consult specially on those points that might “redown” to the good of our societies, and that as our forefathers did studiously endeavour to link the Hanse towns together in amity, so we ought to persevere therein, although their doings agree not in all things with the ripeness of our age. Especially now, in anno '79 (sic), when after many hot and tedious disputations, all old malice, griefs and sores have been pacified and forgotten, “reforming” the confederates to their former quiet estate, upon which the prosperity of all the societies chiefly depends, especially the Stilliard of London. At which time the ambassadors of the Hanses sat long in public session, where I myself made relation of many matters, showing “how flourishing the Stilliard had been and how in the days of King Edward VI they began to threaten us that we had broken and lost our privileges in England, which with equity and justice they could not do. Whereupon Queen Mary did confirm and ratify, restoring us to our ancient liberties by publico diplomate through all the country.” And shall we now suffer all to be overthrown? Or shall we not studiously endeavour to remedy it, that the societies be not clean rent in sunder? How possible and easy it were, what remedies are required (and that not alone in words, which they in England neither believe nor greatly care for but with deeds) may be generally found amongst us all, without which we shall give cause to all strangers to jest and laugh at us.
So after many consultations about the articles of the Counter of London and other things, it was concluded, jointly and uniformly to deliver me an earnest, threatening commission, wherewith I should speedily repair into England. To this I objected that I knew not “how the Hanse towns would hold together, or how they would perform with their deeds what I should brag or face out in England. If they should remain still constant therein, then would I neither shun the going thither nor dread any danger,” but if we should be divided amongst ourselves, and not venture to deeds, then our bitter words and sharp letters would return to our own contempts.
To this they answered that they would prosecute the matter with all severity, and when I took my leave, I was greatly encouraged by the lords ambassadors of sundry Hanse towns, desiring me not to fear anything, but with all diligence to accomplish my commission. So that whereas I requested, in the behalf of the Stilliard, that I might remain till the assembly of the Hanses were dissolved (offering to send their letters and commissions to the Alderman of the Stilliard) you will find that all that I have herein declared is true, and that I have served the general society, not being pledged to any one town alone.
But where be now these minds to withstand these bragging English devices? I must confess it were not good rashly to proceed with extrema totalis exclusiones remedia, neither is it my desire in respect of the honest merchants; but that we prepare and be in readiness. As for our counter-caution, it is not kept secret, but known to all men and accepted as requisite; and I am persuaded by report of honest merchants “that you would take it of them in deed, as also the secret instruction is none other, but not to begin in any without consent of our magistrates and higher powers,” only giving information, requiring their consents, and praying them to provide for the firm foundation thereof, “which they, in sundry places, have put in execution, and of some here in Prussia as much as was possible.”
I, for my part, know no better counsel, but our delegates have signified to us that what we have already propounded has not helped hitherto, nor is like to do so, but that some deeds must be done, or else the Hanse towns are like to lose all their reputation in England, and to be deprived of all the benefits of the Stilliard.
The “counter-caution” is not against the welfare of any good town, but rather an aid to their privileges and liberties, nor is it prejudicial to any of our high potentates, even as little as it is against them when our burrowmasters and senators cause an Englishman to be arrested and compelled to pay for what he hath taken from our burgesses. How then may the higher powers dislike of what is to their advantage, as also to that of their subjects who desire that strange commodities should remain at reasonable prices? It is impossible that the higher powers can always attend on merchants' affairs, and therefore the Hanse towns are licenced to determine and execute what is requisite in such cases. And we cannot attain to be of the Hanses except by permission of these higher powers. Since then, this worthy town of Elbing has been long of the society, “good reason that she be a partaker of the benefits and privileges.”
When Embden was accepted amongst the confederates, was all this obstaculo allegiret, to which the noble Earls gave their consents, and I trust they yet favour this town so much that they desire its prosperity, and that, it having continued in this good estate these hundred years, its people should not now forsake the society of their allies, “refusing the wonted neighbourly amity and liberties . . . and now obstinately presume that their greatest commodity and game should grow by the drawing and alluring strangers into them.”
If we are to do nothing without our higher powers, it is labour lost for us to consult or determine of anything; and may not then the other Hanse towns do the like, soliciting their own higher potentates much more for their own benefit than careful for the common benefit of the societies? “And thus with travail, cost and loss of time, we get but scorn and mockery for our labours.”
The Queen of England, that prudent and peaceable princess, seems well to understand our cause, as I plainly understood, at my last being there, from Dr. Wilson, her secretary, who acknowledged that the Hanse towns were wronged, “but her Majesty would not have the evil wills of the Hanse towns, neither suffer herself to be brought to any such troubles or disquietness, . . . And the like the Queen's Council perceive and understand right well, but as long as we be silent and let it thus pass, they can be content withal. Volunte non sit injuria, for he is not all blameworthy that offers to make a fool or to misuse another, but he or they that willingly puts up the injury. And the lords of her Council must seem to bear and leave somewhat to their occupiers, especially for the rich merchants, which not only by intercession but by gifts and presents prefer their suits, as long as none other inveigh or do nothing earnestly against it. And the Lord Treasurer, who is one of the chiefest in governing the state, at what time I complained us of the great and unwonted customs raised upon us, gave me this resolute answer: The Hanse towns should and might do the like at home in their jurisdiction . . . but if they did not the like there, then were it a sufficient testimony and argument that either the Hanse towns durst not or could not do anything.” This presumptuous boldness of the Englishmen may be a spur to hasten the Hanse towns to an arrangement.
After our friendly reconciliation there should not remain, much less begin to seed anew, any contention amongst us, nor should any hope of private advantage be sought by one town alone, to the hurt of the society, thus not only bringing to confusion the estate of this famous Counter, but being the means to transfer all navigation from our towns to stranger nations. Hereby your worships may see how requisite it is for the society to deal circumspectly in this most just cause, and with courage to proceed to the delivery of this good Counter from her present thraldom. You have henceforth no excuse, now that the King of Poland has not only “firmed” to your commission, but also the like to the town of Lubeck, and it is my earnest request to you, in behalf of my lords and masters, that you will speedily give your resolute answer by writing what you mind presently to do, to the end that all the other Hanse towns now labouring in this case, as also the worshipful merchants, my masters, may know whereupon to repose themselves; craving you to think no worse of me than of him that entirely seeketh the flourishing state of the Society, which they will most thankfully accept at your hands.
Copy. 11 pp. [Poland, I. 6.]
On the same sheet.—A treatise headed “Whether the alluring or locking of strangers with their traffics to come unto us, or the yielding up of our ancient liberties and privileges be most beneficial to the towns of Prussia, especially Elbing, by a friend plainly discoursed.”
If the common treasure increase, it is to the universal benefit of the commons, and when the commons grow rich, it redounds to the town's profit; but if one should injure the other, then it is more necessary to maintain quiet traffic than to regard the town's income, seeing that the store gathered is only to maintain and defend the society of the town and country. But how can either be increased by alluring the English nation to you? If your customs, which are but small, were wholly converted to the benefit of the commons, it were somewhat, but what then becomes of your common traffic? The principal commons of the sea towns are merchants and master mariners, on whom numbers of other occupations depend, and how shall all these be maintained if their trades be cut off? The stranger cometh to enrich himself, and in time of need fleeth with his wealth; if your principal commons be decayed, whence could your treasury be fetched to supply your wants?
You should use means, not to lure the stranger to you, but to traffic yourselves in strange countries, for if you ship and sail by great numbers, your customs will be great. There is, besides, the great advantage that cometh by our navigation, for since strangers can with advantage come to us, why shall we not with more advantage go to them. It hath always been the chief care of our forefathers to maintain navigation, but even if we stay at home, we can live better where the chiefest privilege and liberty of our townsmen are not yielded to strangers, “and one town to spite another now granting this and that.”
In times past it has happened that one town alone, having the principal imperium, has flourished to the detriment of others of less ability, as in the case of Antwerp and Bruges, while when towns join together in amity, they all flourish together. Our worthy forefathers made this their special study to augment, not letting traffic and navigation slip from them into the hands of strangers, whence proceeded the flourishing state of the Hanse towns. But when our principal governors began to decline from the footsteps of their forefathers, each looking to himself and entertaining strangers as welcome guests, the amity was rent in sunder, whereby they have not only diminished the strength of their own countries, but nearly overthrown their privileges and counters abroad. Even as now we do not augment or even defend our liberties, and no strangers could find better means to drive us out of all, than our own discord and variance. The handicraftsmen look so narrowly to their privileges that no foreigner may be amongst them unless he compound to their liking, and if trade were free to all the town merchant would lose his benefit thereby.
This we have sufficiently seen both at Embden and Hamburg, and now here in Prussia, “where the strangers, dispersing themselves through the country, sweeps all together, buying it at the peasants' hands, and carry the same before our noses through the town of Elbing,” so that the land towns fall to utter decay. This is the first commodity that we are like to gather by our innovation. Further, as neither the river or port of Elbing are commodious enough, there cannot follow any great concourse of merchants or shipping, and without this, how can the state of the town be amended? The strangers have always all kinds of handicraftsmen attendant upon them, so that the poor labouring townsman shall find little amongst them to his relief. Even if the concourse of people increased, so that the poor labouring men could earn a penny more than ordinary, expenses would increase; and if this traffic were not of long continuance (and how can any man, who sees the sinister practices against Dantzic, believe that it will be durable) what then should we do.
Lastly we must conclude it “better that deceit and untruth beat his own master and him that first invented it, rather than touch those which heartily endeavour themselves to maintain tranquillity.”
The town of Dantzic, by two ways, has the means to get the preeminence, either by means of the higher powers, or like the Elbingers by alluring strangers, “which would ten times rather be at Dantzic than at Elbing,” it being the place of all others most commodious for them.
Furthermore, no bonds or writings whatsoever are esteemed or observed by the strangers, as we lately have seen in regard to their residence at Embden, “which presently, contrary to the order of all lawful contracts, were set aside and rejected as soon as they might get to Hamburg.”
Since then it evidently appears how unprofitable and dangerous this pretence is, all reasonable men should study by all possible means to continue the true ancient concord “of our dear native country and the good Dutches that now presently inhabit in the country, with the burgesses in the cities,” applying ourselves, as in old times, diligently to navigation and becoming by travel acquainted not only with the seas and lands but the languages of other countries, looking through the world, and in time of need being able to give intelligence and counsel. Is not this better than to remain at home like an ox in a stable, living at the grace and mercy of strangers, “whether they bring aught to us or carry any thing from us, whereby cometh to pass that those from beyond the seas increase in wealth and we decline downwards.”
If it were more beneficial to draw others to us than to go to them, “then would not the Englishmen so willingly expel all nations from them” or come into this country, practising to set one town at variance with another, “so to bring the Dutch nation, but specially the Hanses, to be laughed to scorn and derided.”
But now we have an opportunity which we have not had in a hundred years, to bring our foresaid trades and navigations again amongst us, which opportunity, if we let slip, I refer it to your judgments how we may answer it before God or the world. Therefore honest and upright citizens will not only regard the worthy foot-steps of their forefathers, but also walk in the same, and that so steadfastly that the remembrance of their worthiness may be left to posterity. Finis.
9 pp. [Poland I. 6a.] The whole document is headed (in another hand), “12 July, 1580. Discourse and declaration explaining the cause of the imposing of the counter-caution set upon our Englishmen by those of Elbing, delivered to the King of Polonia.”
[July] 18. 572. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
Antwerp. July 10.—“The Malcontents in Friesland had taken Damme and besieged Delfzyl (Delfsiele) wherein were seven ensigns of the States' men, and scant of victuals, but since, as report goeth, rescued by certain ships of war that came out of Holland and repulsed the enemy.” The English and French are to be sent thither when they have conveyed provisions into Tournay.
The States' men in Friesland agree in number with the enemy and exceed in horsemen. Nothing is yet effected for the deliverance of M. de la Noue. On Thursday last, the Malcontents came to Ghent with six regiments of foot and 1,500 horsemen, meaning to scale it, but, being discovered, had to retreat. A few men issued out and took a captain and some other soldiers.
The Malcontents then went towards Eccloo, but left after being there one night, and are returned to Cortrick and towards Lisle.
The Prince of Condé was that night in Ghent with his train. He arrived here yesternight, and was met and welcomed by the Prince of Orange and divers gentlemen at the waterside, whence he was conducted to the Castle and there lodged.
The Count of Hollock is said to have overthrown 1,000 Malcontents in Friesland. London, 18th of July.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 27.]
July 21. 573. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
Antwerp. July 17.—There is a report that the States' men have overthrown the Malcontents in Friesland. The English and Holland foot regiments embarked three days since for those parts and the horsemen follow to-morrow or next day with Col. Norris, taking their way towards Geertruydenberg. It is said that the Malcontents also are sending more horse and foot for Groningen, so there will fall out some great fight when the forces meet.
The enemy lie still about Cortrick, and made a show towards Hulst [qy. Alost], but proceeded not therein. Those of Ghent are fortifying their weak parts, and keep greater watch than before. London, July 21, 1580.
Add. Endd.½ p. [Ibid. I. 28.]
[July] 28. 574. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
Antwerp. July 24.—The soldiers sent to Friesland are landed at Harling, and are marching forward to join the rest of the States' forces. Certain Malcontents in Friesland, being busied in helping those of Groningen with corn and other provision, have been suddenly charged and overthrown by Count Hollock, and most of them slain or taken. Troops are marching to aid the Malcontents there, but it is hoped that the States' men, being animated with the victory and re-inforced, will have overthrown the rest before these succours are able to join them. Men from Lorraine and elsewhere are gathering to the enemy in Brabant.
The rest of the Malcontents lie between Valencienne and Bouchain, fearing forces from France. The Prince of Epinoy, it is thought, will accept the place of General of the States' camp in Flanders, which hitherto he has refused. He goes to Tournay next Tuesday.
The Scots of Menin have been about Lille and brought back beasts and cattle, spoiling all as they passed, and bringing several farmers prisoners. The Walloons at Armentiers are so discontented for the imprisonment of Count Egmont, under whom they served, that they are daily expected to yield the place to the States. It is thought “of certain” that this town will accept the Duke of Anjou for governor of the country. It will be known by Monday next. London, July 28.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 29.]
575. Another paper of occurrents of the same date, being verbatim the same as the above, but with the following additions:—
On Tuesday last the Princes of Orange and Condé went to Lillo to see the fort on the river, and there quietly took shipping for Holland. De la Motte is back in Gravelines, “being hurt before Ghent (at the intended enterprise) in the shoulder with a shot, not without danger. The States' men in Mechlin, Lierre (Lyre), Brussels, Vilvorde and other garrisons are wholly out of order for want of money.
The Duke of Anjou has sent money to Cambray and Bouchain for the soldiers, so that these places are altogether at his devotion. Those of Arras have again turned out all suspected of being of the Religion, or wishing well to the States' side.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 30.]
July. 576. Notes of Spanish Advertisements sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
An epitome of the letters from San Sebastian, calendared above. The following items do not occur in the letters:—All the wine in Xeres (Sherrys) is stayed for the King. Certain captains demanded of one who came to San Sebastian how he or any Englishman “durst to show their faces in that country, being that they intended to come for England and Ireland. This man is one Mr. Bale's servant of Rottins [sic] in Devonshire, and his name is Richard Lee.” A letter was sent from Andalusia to Robert Haines, an English merchant who dwells at St. Sebastian, that there is ready 120 galleys, 28 great argosies and 150 thousand men.
Endd.: “Spanish advertisements sent from Sir Henry Ratcliffe.” 1 p. [Newsletters XC. 8.]
Aug. 5. 577. Intelligence from sundry Places.
July 12, Prague.—To-day the Baron de Kray's sentence has been passed, for his life, estate and honours. He has certain days allowed him to go and see his parents again, and then to return and put himself into the hands of the Boya, according to the custom in this country.
Our departure is fixed certainly for the 22nd of August.
There is much talk of this Diet of Nuremberg having been demanded by the Electors, and that it would be published in two days. From Nuremberg [the Emperor] will either return here, or go towards the Danube or Ratisbon, and so to Vienna.
Last Sunday, his Majesty walked to his garden outside the moat of the citadel with the Queen his sister and all the ladies of the Empress and the Queen. (fn. 1) There was a dance until supper time, and he gave a collation to the ladies, and there was much merriment, to the great surprise of all, this Princess being very melancholy, and the Queen little disposed to mirth.
Signor Althan, president of the chamber of accounts, is hourly expected with money for the court, in order that, according to the order given them, they may make a good show at this diet.
Some months ago, a citizen of this city was put naked into the iron cage for eight days successively, three hours a day, as punishment for very great crimes, as rape, usury, robbery and the like, and was outlawed, but being let out, he began with fresh crimes and was condemned to the fire, but upon many prayers has been granted to be beheaded, with confiscation of all his goods, amounting to the value of 25,000 crowns.
Rome, July 22.—On Monday the bull was sealed against outlaws, confirming all the bulls of former popes, which excommunicated not only those who received and aided but also those who spoke to or had to do with them.
Letters from Badajos, the 24th of last month say that on the 18th (our style) Don Pedro de Velasco was sent to the city of Elvas, to know if it would surrender, which, on condition that no garrison should be left there, rendered itself, swearing fidelity to the King in the hands of the said Don Pedro, who sent his young son with the news thereof to his Majesty, which made great rejoicing. On the 24th order was given to attack the fortress of Estremos (Estremon), where was Diego Meneses, with 600 Portuguese nobles.
At Naples, Signor Giulio Caraffa, son of the old Prince of Stigliano, has been stabbed to death by one of his slaves, and also a servant who went to his aid. And Bernardo Caracciolo has been poisoned by a son, who having carried it to the other sons, one was dead and the other nearly so, and this one was in prison, having confessed. The Marchesa di Treviso, sister of the Archbishop of Naples, is also dead.
Prague, July 19.—Our departure for Nuremberg is fixed for the 22 of next month, and preparations are already begun for the journey. The Spaniards here solicit the Emperor that he will make an end of the affairs of Finale. They are sending an ambassador to the States of Flanders to inform them of the resolution to treat their affairs at Nuremberg.
Signor Pramei is going to Constantinople, being appointed ambassador there by his Majesty, and will carry with him the usual present for this year.
Rome, July 29.—Last Saturday the French Ambassador had audience concerning the affairs of the Cardinal d'Este, praying that he might be received again into favour and exercise his place of protector for that crown, which was granted and he may return to Rome when he pleases. From Naples we hear that the Viceroy has beheaded that Caracciolo who murdered his father and that they are making provision for the war of Portugal, having sent three carracks of munition and victuals; also that the poor strangers had been expelled the city, and those of the country must not go beyond their quarters. From Spain, it is reported that Don Antonio, made King of Portugal, had 40,000 foot and 3,000 horse, and all the strongholds in his hands; and that the people do not desire the Spaniard for King.
Venice, Aug. 5.—Letters are come from Constantinople, dated the 3rd of the past month, stating that the Bailo had kissed the hands of the Grand Turk, being introduced by Mustapha Bassa, the acting Grand Vizier, who took him into the seraglio, showing him many magnificent rooms, adorned with precious and beautiful things, and savage men, with great hanging ears, brought by him on his return from Persia. The said Mustapha used many ceremonious words, expressing his desire to be of service to this Signory, and excusing the cruelty used at the taking of Cyprus towards Signors Nestor Baglioni and Bragadino, which was by express orders of the “Grand Selim.” There have been letters from Sinan of the little obedience which his people showed him and that neither by punishment nor gifts could he subdue them, desiring more men from the Grand Signor, without which succour he declared he could do nothing against the enemy; and for this they were making fresh provisions of men. There is great scarcity and much distress from the plague in the city of Constantinople. The Grand Turk has confirmed the place of Grand Vizir to Sinan, urging him to make a noble attempt against the Persians and then return to enjoy this supreme dignity.
pp. Italian. [Newsletters XCV. 2.]
Aug. 13. 578. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
Antwerp. Aug. 7.—The Malcontents that were mustered last week at Mons are said to be come near to Bouchain with intent to besiege it.
Certain French forces have arrived at Cambray and Bouchain, since which they have ranged into the Malcontents' quarters, spoiling and firing the whole country as they passed.
Those of Cortrick have this week attempted to surprise Menin, but those that kept it issued forth and overthrew them, taking some prisoners. For further revenge of this bravado, the soldiers of Menin and Ninove have burnt and spoiled even to the gates of Lille, making the commons discontented with the magistrates.
The enemy lying hereabouts in Brabant have threatened the villages about this town that if they do not bring in large contributions of money, their houses shall be fired; to prevent which certain companies of horsemen are to be placed and maintained at the charge of the country. Moreover the Prince himself has been abroad, and given orders for making certain forts upon the passage where the horsemen shall be placed. It is said he will shortly go to establish order in Ghent, and reform the council there.
Nothing more is done about the Duke d'Alen¸on, but things are set in a readiness for the despatch of the commissioners to him.
From Friesland we hear that the 30th of last month, all the States' men were together within a mile of the enemy, with full intent to fight, so good news is daily expected, as the forces are greater and of better men than those of the enemy.
Those of Holland have sent about 30 ships into the Ems, to beat the enemy out of their fort that “empecheth” the entrance to Delfzyl. London, 13th August, 1580.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 31.]
Aug. 14. 579. Occurrents from Antwerp.
After long and vain hope to hear news of the rescue of Delfzyl (Delphsuele) it has for lack of provisions surrendered to the enemy, who were so intrenched that the States' men could attempt nothing upon them; but the latter have now environed the place, and put those who possess it to greater distress than their own party were in.
The Englishmen, at their entrance to Groningen land took two or three forts, setting those who kept them over into East Friesland, with condition to bear no more arms against the States. The enemy's succours are marching in diligence, but, it is hoped, will not get passage; for the Prince's ships “lie so along the Rhine (Rin) as none can well pass.”
In Flanders, the Malcontents are quiet. There is much want and discontentment in the camp. On Friday, the Prince departed by Dermond to Ghent, and after the magistrates be re-elected, will go to Bruges and so homewards.
Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 32.]
Aug. 21. 580. Occurrents from Antwerp.
In Friesland, the enemy charged certain of Bertlendu's soldiers, appointed to keep a bridge, which was lost, and they overthrown. Three hundred Englishmen sent to their rescue, and falling among the enemy ere they knew of the loss of the place, happily escaped by retreat, but lost Captain Corner, Lieut. Carewes and 30 or 40 good soldiers. Colonel Margain [qy. Morgan] himself very narrowly escaped. The English horsemen likewise met with the enemy; slew 50 or 60, recovered two of the Dutch ensigns, and forced the enemy to retire. “Since did offer the enemy battle but was refused, and so have driven them under the walls of Groningen.” The States' men lie between Damme and Delfzyl. The Malcontents of Hainault are still about Bouchain; it is said that some have been cut off by the garrison of Cambray.
It is reported that Monsieur is sending 8,000 Frenchmen to the aid of the States. Certain commissioners “are gone afore along by the Prince, who hath altered the Council at Ghent, and the rest prepare themselves to follow.”
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 33.]
Sept. 3. 581. Advertisements from Spain, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
Right worshipful, news is come to this Court that the Duke of Alva, with 50,000 men, has taken Lisbon and ransacked the suburbs. Don Antonio, with 9,000, gave him battle for five hours. Eight thousand are slain on both sides and Don Antonio is fled, no man knows whither. The merchants of Lisbon have given the Duke of Alva 600,000 ducats to save the city from being ransacked. “The isles as yet is not taken, but the Earl of the Holy Cross [Santa Cruz] with his fleet hath besieged and taken seven great ships of Don Antonio's. . . . The talk of this country is still that the whole army goeth for England, but most certain the Pope's men goeth for Ireland.” Valladolid, 3rd September, 1580.
The castle of San Juan (St. Jones) was taken the 20th of August.
Endd.: “Spanish advertisements sent from Sir H. Ratclif."½ p. [Newsletters XC. 9.]
582. Copy of the same.
Endd.½ p. [Ibid. XC. 9a.]
Sept. 7. 583. The Queen to the Emperor Rudolf.
The counts of Embden, our cousins, have written to us (and at the same time sent copies of your Imperial Majesty's letters, for the better credence of what they notify) that the privileges conceded to our merchants in the town of Embden by your Majesty are not only not to be confirmed, but by your orders are to be annulled, and that these being annulled, our said merchants are to be removed and driven out, a violent decree, and a great strain upon our friendship, who have always been allied with the august imperial family, and have not in any way merited that we should be held either unworthy of the ancient leagues, or deserving of so violent a sentence of condemnation, especially in a cause so nearly touching our honour and privileges, unless it were to be treated in an assembly fully with both parties, as is customary, so that if the Hanse merchants complained that in any thing they suffer hurt by us or ours, it should be so treated and concluded as may be seen to be good and fair.
Thus it is customary to act in weighty causes between great princes by the laws of justice and equity, from which, we doubt not, your Imperial Majesty will not be turned aside by any complaint or entreaty, as we pray you again and again; for our part most solemnly promising that (as is our habit in all causes) in all that concerns the Hanse towns, we and every one of us will act fairly and equally. And meanwhile, that our merchants may be granted habitations in the town of Embden, and may, by your favour, possess and enjoy those privileges with confirmation by your Majesty's good-will. And that the aforesaid counts may, as submissive and humble servants, comply with what your Majesty is seen to bestow. We send our beloved Daniel Rogers as our envoy, praying that he may be as kindly received and heard by your Majesty, as we ourselves should be if we were present.
Copy. Latin.½ p. [Germany, Empire, I. 5.]
Sept. 18. 584. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
The news of the fire in Bouchain, after the surrender, is most true. The town being very small, the force of the powder slew and spoiled many of the Malcontents and amongst others some personages of note, but particulars are not yet known. They are removed with their camp towards Audenarde and Ninove.
The States' camp advances greatly, and it is hoped they will be ere long in the field. Some companies of French are daily expected. It is said the Prince will shortly go again to Ghent, to further the new camp, and establish some better order. Full powers are being sent after the commissioners to conclude with Monsieur, if he agrees to their articles.
The English in Friesland are before Lingen, and the companies of these countrymen in Covoorden and the house called Wedden. The enemy took by surrender Die Ommeslach, a passage and bulwark on the border of Friesland and Groningen land, which was before taken by the English at their coming into the country. This done, the enemy went with their whole force to the house of Wedden and surprised and dispersed the regiments of Count William of Nassau and Captain Michell, slaying about a hundred of them. The rest gathered together again. The Englishmen lying hard under the gates of Lingen, ready to take it if succour come not, have upon this overthrow been forced to retire to the rest of the forces.
Last Tuesday Count John of Nassau was married to Duke Casimir's sister. The diet at Nuremberg is at a stay, and likely to take no effect at all; though some say it is to be deferred till next March.
An ambassador from the Persian Emperor has arrived at Constantinople to treat about peace. There is a rumour that the Duke of Savoy is dead. Antwerp, 18th Sept., 1580.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 34.]
Sept. 25. 585. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
“In Friesland all runneth backward; the enemy being again master of the field, ranging round about at his pleasure.” He lately overthrew two ensigns of Capt. Michell's men, where two captains were taken; 30 or 40 men and another captain slain, and the ensigns lost, but not without some loss to the enemy, “for the States' men defended themselves stoutly.” This done, they made show to besiege Swoll, but understanding that the English were passing the river to fight with them, they retired. They have also recovered Covoorden, which the “Dutches” put in by Count Hollock surrendered, delivering their captains and officers prisoners, and themselves permitted to depart unharmed.
Since the overthrow at Wedden, neither reiters nor footmen will abide the coming of the enemy. The reiters lie close in the villages about Deventer and Zutphen, calling for money. Many English are sick, for the country is very wet and the food too hard for them. Also, being without money or means to help themselves, they are forced to live upon the boors, who are all in arms, and where they can, cut either the States' men or the enemy in pieces.
No towns will take in garrisons. Victuallers are scant and dare not follow the camp for fear of the enemy. Count Hollock “useth the Almains exercise and hath lost the hearts of the people, they of Utrecht having commanded him of late out of their town with very ill speeches, so that all standeth there in desperate terms, and will to ruin if in time it be not remedied. To which end, it is said the Prince within these three or four days goeth to Utrecht, but is feared will come too late.”
The Malcontents range from place to place, and now make a show towards Nivelles. In Ghent there has been some practice of treason, and twenty or thirty are apprehended upon suspicion. The Malcontents are fortifying the frontiers against the French, having armed the country and made forts of their churches so that at the alarm of the bells they can bring great numbers into the field.
Twenty-three ships have arrived in Spain from the Indies, viz., from Nova Hispania, Havana, Honduras and one from the South Sea, “which passed the Straits of Magdalenus in seeking of Francis Drake.” The fleet brings much money, with cochineal, hides, wool and great store of anel.
The fleet of Terra Ferma is expected with five millions of gold. At Terceira there remained five gallions from the Portugal Indies and 17 of Brazil (Bresill) and Santonia. There has been a battle in Portugal betwixt the Duke of Alva and Don Antonio, wherein many were slain. Victory remained with the Duke, and Don Antonio is fled, being hurt. Lisbon and its suburbs were sacked, and all delivered to the Duke of Alva. Antwerp, 25th September, 1580. Sent “per me, Wm. Page, post.”
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 35.]
Sept., before the 19th. 586. Advertisements from Spain, sent by Sir H. Ratcliffe.
The whole army of argosies and galleys are now at Lisbon and St. Oves [qy. Setubal] except twenty argosies at Cales. The men-of-war are gone for the isles of Surreis [qy. Azores] and Madeira to meet the Callico and Guinea men which are coming homeward.
Those with the Duke of Alva have taken St. Oves and all the rest of the castles near Lisbon, but Lisbon is not yet taken, for Dom Antonio lies upon the hill above it with a strong power of French and Dutches and his own countrymen. Yet Alva's power is such that it is thought the other cannot long hold out.
It is thought that when King Philip has won that country he intends war elsewhere, for he is gathering another army. The report is that he will go to Argier, and is promised 40,000 men of the King of Morocco to aid him.
The Bishop of Ireland has been at sea, but is returned, his fleet being separated. He sent two small barques (as spies) for Ireland, one of which returned within nine or ten days, reporting that off the Irish coast, about the middle of August they met the Queen's ships, from which he hardly escaped, and that his fellow was taken, and all or most of the men executed. Now he (the Bishop) is gone again but whither no man knows.
The Earl of Westmorland, with six gentlemen, arrived at St. Sebastians on Aug. 20, and proceeded to the court at Badajos (Baddoxoso), on the borders of Spain and Portugal.
Endd. “19 Sept. 1580. Spanish advertisements sent from Sir H. Ratclif.” 1 p. [Newsletters XC. 10.]
[Sept.?] 587. Agreement between the Duke of Anjou and the States General.
Propositions of his Highness, agreed to by them, viz.:—
That they shall put into his hands the whole conduct of the war, granting him 2,400,000 florins a month [sic; should be a year] and if this does not suffice, give hopes of inducing their provinces to augment it to 300,000 florins [a month].
That all the general means shall be put into his hands, and officers appointed to receive and collect the same, and that the cost of the ships of war, garrisons in the towns and fortresses in each province shall be paid before all else.
Complaint by his highness that he cannot carry on the war with the 2,400,000 florins, but that they should be increased to three millions a year.
Agreement for 200,000 florins the month, but (upon the aforesaid complaint of his Highness), raised to 300,000, and thereupon (to avoid dissension between the marching troops and the garrisons in the towns and fortified places) grant of 50,000 florins the month for six months only, it being understood that the said 50,000 florins (with one month of quota already granted) will be taken for arrears.
Another act that the general means shall be put into the hands of his highness, in order to know how far they will go to supply what will remain wanting, and satisfy the sum promised to him.
A month's pay in advance granted to him to be used for immediate payment of the soldiers, both in camp and garrison.
Act of commission for the commissioners on behalf of his highness in the chambre des aides.
Instruction in the matter of the said chamber.
Act for the grants and assessments of the respective provinces.
Endd. “Memorial of certain acts touching the procedure with Monsieur, brother of the King of France.”
French. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 56a.]
Oct. 2. 588. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
The enemy in Friesland is master of the champaign country. He has laid siege to Oldensael (Olderzele) and will take it if rescue come not in time. The reiters are departed, discontented, out of the country, being twelve months behind with their pay. Count Hollock has gone after them to persuade them to return. If he fail, the rest of the States' men in Friesland will be driven to more dangerous terms. The English and other companies are resolved to attempt the rescuing of Olderzele if the reiters return, without whom they are too weak. The companies of Malcontents, passing the Rhine to the aid of their friends in Groningland, were, at their landing in Guelderland, met and defeated by the States' reiters there.
The Prince of Orange has been at Mechlin to set good order for its defence. He “mindeth to transpass a cloister from thence to build himself a house at Flushing,” in the place where the Duke of Alva purposed to make a castle. He is thought to have some secret enterprise in hand.
The commissioners in France write only of their great entertainment, and that they are now ready to deal with Monsieur. “The delay of the French is for the better hemming in of Holland and Zeeland, which must be wrought by means [sic], for that the people there be generally addicted unto her Majesty.” The French army which besieged La Fère lies near Cambray, and, it is thought, will disquiet the Malcontents in those parts. Antwerp, 2nd October, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 36.]
Oct. 6. 589. Lord Burghley to [the Officers of Customs?].
Whereas the Council has been informed by the Governor and Society of Adventurers, that the men of the Hanses, more especially those of Lubeck, Dantzic and Hamburg, have lately imposed a new charge on every hundred of merchandise imported and exported to or from those ports by the said Adventurers, and as a further security for the payment of that charge, exact an oath, both from their own citizens and her Majesty's subjects, whether the said merchandise belongs to them or not:—It has seemed good to the said Council, upon such ungrateful contempt of the many and great offices of kindness done to them by her Majesty, to requite the said Hanseatics by the law of retaliation. Therefore, by order of the Council signified to me by their letters, I direct and command you to impose a charge of 7¾ upon every hundred of merchandise imported or exported to or from this realm by the merchants of the Hanse.—6th of October, 1580.
Draft. Latin.½ p. [Hanse Towns I. 61a.]
Oct. 10. 590. Dr. John Rogers [Ambassador to Denmark] to Walsingham.
Having long since devoted myself, first to the service of God, and next to that of her Majesty and the State, with cordial detestation of all traitors and treasons, I feel myself enforced to advertise your honour as ensueth.
Arriving the 21 of August about midnight at Elsenor in Denmark, the next morning I learnt that an English gentleman, bound also for England, travailed very busily to know my name, profession, religion and cause of my present employment in those regions, with offer of all dutiful services.
This being very suspicious, I accepted his courtesies and in our first conference found that he was called James Leonarde, by parentage a gentleman, in profession a student (to speak of religion so early I judged not convenient), and that desire for his native land and hope of preferment “drives him to his natural country. And all this in the best manner, with great outward humility.” By this communication I conjectured two things; that he had been long in foreign countries (his English accent being very evil); the other, that he “wanted” [i.e. was in need], which he confessed after other speeches. Wishing him to take courage, I assured him that as a student and a countryman, my purse, table and friendship should be at his command. At table, I could extort nothing from him but indefinite answers, which made me suppose that I had deceived myself and injured him. What stratagems I used, were too long to recount, but in process of time it manifestly appeared, that:—
First, as touching his name and surname, he was falsarius, calling himself James Leonarde, Nicholas Brother, Leonarde Ton, James Janeton or James Bosgrove, at his good pleasure.
2. The universities and other places he had frequented were Louvain, Paris, Venice, Rome (where he had been three times), Cracovia, Vilna, Posnania [Posen] in Poland and Bransberg [Braunsberg] in Prussia, five miles from Elbing, the last being a college for Jesuits.
3. In profession he was a divine, and in religion an arrant papist.
4. He served for a spy and was a deep dissembler.
5. He misliked the present government, and was a rank traitor.
Of the certainty of these matters, I was fully resolved, but as law requires more proof, partly by my industry and partly by his negligence, I at last rendered it apparent. My industry consisted in the interception of letters, and I came upon one directed to him as “Reverendo in Christo Pa. Jacobo Bosgrovo, Anglo societatis Jesu, &c.” by virtue of which, as also by the contents of the same I think I may conclude that he is not a professor of mathematics (as he specified) but a divine, an arrant papist and a Jesuit. That his name is false, I find by letters under his own hand, directed to George Jeschka of Danske (a notable papist and enemy to the English nation) in which he desires to be addressed as James Leonarde; also writing to Adam Broke he asks the same thing. And in his letter to Jeschka he desires to be addressed as a layman, without mention of Paternitas or reverend. And that he is a deep dissimulator and a scorner of the religion of her Majesty is also shown by his letters [quotations given].
From Elsenor we sailed for Königsberg (Coningsberg) the 5th of September, and arrived the 9th of the same, where I had intelligence that this Jesuit's confreres were most at Rome, more at Vilna, and many at Bransberg, which city I being enforced to take in my way, I addressed myself further to discover the disloyal enterprises as well of my man as of his accomplices.
Travelling by waggon, I reached Bransberg on the morning of September 12, and made entry into their college, affirming for introduction that the Catholics in England and Ireland sorrowed the long absence of a dear friend of mine (with whom I pretended to have been conversant at Rome, Venice, Louvain, &c.) named sometimes James Leonard, James Bosgrove, &c., for whom also I said I had a hundred dollars, with sundry other like means.
After very courteous and friendly entertainment, they assured me he was lately gone for England; and briefly, after many communications, view of their books, &c., the issue is:—
1. James Bosgrove had heretofore been employed from the Pope in very weighty matters, as also in regard to the ban of excommunication against the “pretended Queen.”
2. That he had drawn divers of noble rank to the Pope's side, and into their Order.
3. He was now despatched by his Holiness to England, with dispensation to use a secular habit (this agreeing with his own words), the better to accomplish his Holiness' purpose.
4. That even now was the time come in which the “pretended heretical Queen,” the defender of the wicked, together with all other heretics, should be utterly overthrown by the just judgment of God.
In the said College I found a false Scot, who called himself David Gud of Berwick, by whom I understood that Robert Abercromby of Fife was lately departed from them, first for Scotland and afterwards for England, reckoning upon the good success of the foresaid and of Robert Lather of Basse and another Lather of Edrington (Scottish lairds) for a sudden alteration to happen there. “These Lathers be interlopers for the Pope,” and have three times been sent from Rome into Scotland. In the College also was William Good, aged 80 years, a professed papist and a rank traitor, greatly favoured by the Pope, from whom he has been sent to the Kings of Poland and Sweden (where he first established Jesuitism) “the one hand” of Stanislaus Hosius the Cardinal, by whose order he is provided for in this College, which Hosius founded.
It is thought that Good will shortly repair into England, of which, if I hear anything, you shall know it.
I am now certainly informed that this Bosgrove accompanied by Adam Broke and another, whose name I cannot learn, in such sort railed on her highness (as a heretic and a tyrant, adding also that her overthrow would speedily follow) that the Voyvode, Radevyle, gave orders that if they returned they should be apprehended, and so chastised as they should report her Majesty not to be without well-wishers in Poland. This Voyvode is an earnest gospeller and a friend to the English nation. I pray to have your directions in this matter.—Elbing, 10th October, 1580.
Add. Endd. Partly in Latin. 7 pp. [Poland I. 7.]
Oct. 16. 591. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
It is certainly reported that 15 companies coming to Friesland have overthrown certain States' horsemen, sent to hinder their passage over the Rhine. The enemy still keep the advantage, and meant to lay siege to Doesburg (Dausbourg), but the English companies got in, and will, it is thought, remain there this winter. The enemy's force is now drawn before Dockum, and makes show to besiege it.
The enterprise of Maestricht having failed, those who entered into it are most of them taken and executed. In Nivelles, certain of the burghers, thought to favour the Religion and the States, have been hanged. The captain and officers of the soldiers that yielded the town are sent prisoners to Mons.
Ninove is thought so hot a place that they have left their enterprise, and range about the country, having sent part of their forces towards Cambray to hinder the Frenchmen's entrance, who are looked for under the Count of Rochepot. Those of Ghent have issued out and overthrown certain of the enemy who held a stronghold on the river on Flanders' side, not far from their town.
Captain Seton and his horsemen, perceiving the enemy's horsemen spoiling and taking the poor peasants as they came to Bruges (Bridges) market, slew some of them, took most of their horses, and brought many prisoners to Bruges.
The Prince of Parma has written to Brussels and other places, offering them peace, with promises of the King's favour. Ambassadors are expected from the Emperor and the Prince Electors. Antwerp, 16th October, 1580.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 37.]
Oct. 22. 592. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
In Friesland, the enemy draw the reiters from one place to another, pursuing them even to the gates of the principal towns in Guelderland. The English are in the towns in garrison, being too much weakened by sickness to meet the enemy.
The Malcontents in Flanders have again laid siege to Ninove. The soldiers in Brussels have mutinied for their pay, and will suffer none to leave the town till they are satisfied.
There was a general privy search last Tuesday in this town, and divers apprehended, whereof the most part are sent hence and the rest commanded to depart. Ypres was almost lost this week, but the practice was discovered and the instruments imprisoned. It is said that M. de Hèze had his head cut off in Mons by order of the States assembled there, to whom the Prince of Parma committed the disposing of him. There is speech of an overthrow of the Malcontents about Cambray by certain French sent by Monsieur; also of a peace in France made by Monsieur, “though the Malcontents' proceedings makes show to the contrary.”
The Archduke Mathias, with the Prince and States, departs from this town next week. A general Assembly of the States at the Hague is appointed for Nov. 1. Antwerp, 22nd October, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 38.]
593. Another copy of the above.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 38a.]
Oct. 28. 594. Advertisements from Lawrence de la Riola.
He stayed behind his ship in Newhaven [Havre de Grace] and went to Rouen (Ronne) to receive his freight, but there had letters to receive it in Bilbao (Bylbo). In Bilbao he met some Spaniards who were in the five ships which went from Santander to Ireland, and they told him that being on the Irish coast, they heard that the Queen's ships were there and had taken all the harbours except two. So the five ships were constrained to return without landing. Their captain general was a comely man of fifty (a Roman born) with a red beard, said to be one of the Pope's major domos. One Philip de Laro of Porto in Biscay, “imbarged” all the shipping on the coast to transport wheat to Lisbon and the Groyne.
“The King of Spain hath Lisbon, and all Portugal is in quietness saving two towns. And Don Antonio is in one of them.” The King is at Badajoz (Badashosa).
Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters XC. 11.]
Nov. [1?] 595. Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, to the Queen.
The good will which your Majesty has always borne to my late lord and father, founded on his affection towards yourself, will prevent me (in order not to increase your sorrow for his death) from writing at length thereupon, which, indeed, would be impossible to me without increasing my already too great affliction on this, my unspeakable loss. I pray you therefore to give credence to the Count de Monreal, my chamberlain, in what he will say to you on my behalf, and beg you, moreover, to give me that place in your favour which was held by my late father, assuring you that I shall be as ready as he was to do your Majesty any service. Turin, (qy. 1) November, 1580.
Signed. French. 1 p. [Savoy, I. 2.]
Nov. 9. 596. Advertisements.
Spain.—It may please your worship, I departed from Valladolid (Valle de Leith) to Castro on Oct 7, where was news that the King's wife had been brought to bed of two boys, in Malaga, “and there is great triumph in this land,” Don Antonio is in a stronghold twelve miles from Coimbra (Quimbra) and the town will not yield; so the Duke of Alva has sent one Sancio de Avila with 10,000 men against him.
The Pope's twelve ships have been safely unladen in Ireland. They are 10,000 men. Castro, 15th October, 1580.
France.—The report is that 2,000 soldiers have passed towards the Low Countries, and that a great band is made ready to go thither with Monsieur, “but where they will become, God doth know.” Dieppe, 9th November, 1580.
¾ p. [Newsletters XC. 12.]
Nov. 9. 597. Deposition of William Ingid.
William Ingid, master of the bark Francis of London, saith that the 8th of June last he came from Lisbon in the Jonas of London as master's mate, and that the 9th day they were taken by French men-of-war, who kept them in great misery eight days, and then, taking their ship and goods, put them aboard a little pinnace “and bade them shift for themselves.” Seven of the company were slain and twelve hurt in the fight.
The next day they reached Lisbon and were there when Don Antonio was proclaimed King on the 1st of July, but not crowned. Whereupon the Duke of Alva was appointed for the midst of the land, being chief governor; the Dukes of Medina Celi and Mastrada and the Marques of Candadace for Algarve (Algarie.)
And Mr. Francis Holland of Ayamonte (Amountie), an Englishman's son born in Spain, (by their appointment) obtained by fair means Tavira, Faro (Tavilla, Ferra), Villa Nova, Lagos (Laugus), and all the rest of Algarve, from Ayamonte to Cape St. Vincent, and twenty leagues up into the country, without any bloodshed. A third was appointed out of Galicia whose name he knows not.
He says that on Bartholomew's day, the Duke of Alva offered battle to Don Antonio, who issued out of Lisbon with 23,000 men (by estimation) and fought with him. Don Antonio, being forced to retire, was hurt in the arm and face with a pick by one of his own men, and so fled to Santarem (St. Tarma) with a few men. The Duke watched the battle from a hill on the backside of Alicante. He gave commandment that none should go forward to the battle till he held up his flag, which was performed accordingly. After this overthrow, he entered the suburbs and had the spoil thereof. The city yielded by composition, paying 6,000 ducats that he should not ransack it.
The King of Spain keeps his shipping together in Biscay and Galicia. His galleys are discharged, and the most part gone home to Naples and Sicily. He has taken up 8 or 9,000 butts of sack and hollock, and all the grain and corn that comes into the country, and is thoroughly furnished, but to what end such great preparation is made is as yet unknown.
He saith that in August last, William Heath, servant to Mr. Robert Burde, informed him that the guard of Ayamonte told him it could be for no other but England, when the King had gone through with Portugal. And he himself heard Mr. Burde and others say the same thing, which is also the common voice of the people.
There was a bruit in Spain that the Queen of England was dead, and that she had left her realm to the King of Spain. Since Don Antonio fled from Lisbon, he has taken Aveiro (Avera) by force, and has cut off the heads of the chief men because they had yielded to the King of Spain. He has the most part of the country between there and the Port of Portugal, and has 30,000 men in his camp.
He heard from Mr. Francis Holland, in August, that the King of Spain, then at Madrina, was sore sick and like to die, and that 17,000 men fell sick at that time in Madrina, and all who were let blood died. And that there were not above three doctors and “potecaries” left alive in all the city. Of the four “states” that fled with Don Antonio's treasure to the King of Spain, two died in Madrina, the third is there still, and the fourth was taken in Portugal and beheaded.
Don Pedro, who was Admiral for Portugal, is come to Bawn in Galicia with ten ships, and there stayed the Falcon of London, Mr. Alderman Pullison's ship, for the King of Spain, putting three score soldiers into her. Being at sea in foul weather, the master, Robert Hooke, had a leak made of purpose, whereupon the soldiers declared she could not hold above water, and she was discharged. Portsmouth, 9th November, 1580.
2 pp. [Newsletters XC. 13.]
Nov. 12. 598. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
The English companies which were mutinous are quieted, and continue at Doesburg (Dushborough), “having made brave wars as they yet daily do with the enemy, who now besiegeth Steenwick, and would ere this have given the assault if the Dutches had agreed therunto.”
Colonel Norris has been with the Prince in Holland, and has got a month's pay for his men. He is reported to be made General in Friesland, whither he is bound with all speed and has sent for his officers and men here to follow with all diligence.
The residue of the States left here are going for Holland, where the Assembly begins on the 25th instant. The Flanders Malcontents lie between Lisle and Menin, under Montigny and Don Baptista Monte. The four Members of Flanders are forming a flying camp of 2,000 foot and 6 companies of horse.
“Upon doubt that the Marquis of Bergh (Barrowe) would be malcontent, certain soldiers were sent thither to the better aid of the other, who since have broken down the images in the churches and driven out the monks.”
M. de Bours (Bourse) is discontented that M. Sweveghem (Suinenghen) is made Governor of Cortrick. Those of Ghent are said to be treating with those of Cortrick to yield the place to the States, “but it is doubted there is some other meaning and falsehood therein pretended by M. de Bours.” Antwerp, 12th November, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 39.]
Nov. 19. 599. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
The Malcontents in Friesland, having taken, as is said, Dockum and Staveren, continue still before Steenwick, which is defended very stoutly. If it be taken the English are to lie between Campen and Swoll.
The Prince returned in haste by reason of his wife's sickness, but she is amended, and he will depart again next week. The Malcontents in Flanders are drawing in full force to the frontiers to encounter the Frenchmen sent by Monsieur, “which attempt maketh some doubt lest they have more friends in that country than was hoped. The Members of Flanders proceed with their camp, and gather their men at Oldenburg [qy. Ardenburg], near Sluys.
Last week Beaufor [Col. Balfour], the Colonel of the Scots, going with Captain Seton and his company to meet three companies of Malcontent horsemen near Oldenburg, was slain with twenty or thirty of Seton's men. Many were hurt and the rest escaped by flight.
“M. de Bours, bethinking himself and doubting further displeasure, hath surrendered his government to M. Sweveghen; so that the labours of those of Ghent about the obtaining of Cortrick is turned to nothing. Antwerp, 19th November, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 40.]
Dec. 24. 600. Hoddesdon to Burghley. Occurrents.
The overthrow given to the States' men about Alost (Alst) in Flanders is not so great as was reported; not above 150 being slain at the most. Colonel Michel, who serves the States in Friesland, being with his regiment at a place called Gelmuyden and hearing of the coming of the Malcontents, forsook the town, and setting fire to part of it, left the rest to the enemy, who have fortified it, as it stands commodiously on the sea coast.
The Flanders Malcontents range about and spoil the people. Two days past, they were within two leagues of this town, “minding,” as was thought, to destroy the new forts set up for defence of the boors. In their way, they took some waggons coming with victuals from Breda. Hereupon, proclamation is to-day made, that all suspected persons shall depart hence, upon pain of life and goods.
Cambray is still besieged, and it is said the French thereabouts have received an overthrow in which M. de Lanthie, one of their chief captains, is slain.
The Malcontents have taken to Namur most of the artillery which was in Maestricht, “where also” they have placed a new garrison, sending the old soldiers into Lorraine.
The coming of the French is thought to be “impeached” through troubles like to ensue between France and Savoy, but the truth of this will be better known at Delft, whither is come to the Prince one from the commissioners who are with Monsieur.
The report of the overthrow given by the Persian to the Turk is confirmed. At least 100,000 Turks were slain in the battle, “besides the loss of the Great Turk's only son.”
There is a fresh rumour that the States' army in Friesland under Mr. Norrys has raised the siege of Steenwick and forced the Malcontents to retire in haste; but reports here are so variable that nothing is to be credited at the first bruit, which is the reason I have not of late written weekly to your lordship, as I was wont; for since the Prince and States departed here is little means to learn the truth. Antwerp, 24th December, 1580. Sent by William Page, post.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 41.]
Dec. 31. 601. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
The rumour of the raising of the siege of Steenwick was false, and to-day there is a report that the Malcontents have taken it, but it is still hoped that the forces preparing for its rescue may come in time.
Three companies of English were left at Swarte Sluys while the rest went with their colonel towards Campen to join with other strangers in the States' service; whereof the enemy hearing, sent a force under the Count of Rhenenberg (who of late hath showed himself on their side as chief commander in field and otherwise), but the English so stoutly defended the place that they not only repulsed the enemy, but issued forth and charged them. During which skirmish the colonel and the rest of his men arrived, and so seconded them that the enemy retreated in great disorder, with the loss of three or four hundred men, besides divers prisoners. If the States' men had had more horse, the enemy would have been entirely overthrown. This service has got the colonel and his men great honour and credit. Few English were slain and none of note save Captain Ellis, who was too venturesome.
Colonel Michel, meaning to place some footmen in a town called Hattem (Hattan), where is a strong castle standing on the river between Deventer and Campen, was betrayed by its captain, who suddenly revolted to the Malcontents and gave Captain Michel into their hands. It is said those of Hattem, with the aid lately come from Deventer, besiege him in his castle, and are likely to recover it for the States.
The Count of Swarzenburg, brother-in-law to the Prince of Orange, having long solicited the States for payment for himself and his reiters, has this week taken the two abbots of St. Michel and St. Bernard, both councillors of State, and keeps them prisoners in the castle here until he be satisfied.
For Flanders, the Malcontents have burned and spoiled divers villages near Ghent; and it is said that some fresh companies of Italians are come to their aid, and already arrived in Luxembourg. The Bishop of Liége is dead; a great friend to the Spaniard and Spanish faction. Antwerp, 31st December, 1580.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 42.]
602. Occurrences in Spain.
1580. The doings of the King of Spain and the Pope, and their pretence against England and Ireland, according to my letters written out of Spain from the 25 of May, as followeth.
I departed from Portsmouth the 10th of May for San Sebastian and arrived on the 19th. Thence I went to Castro, and so to Santanderos on the 6th of June. Here were 43 of the King's and the Pope's ships, laden with flour, munition and men.
The Pope's twelve ships were very well appointed, and one carried the great chain. They departed for Ireland the 4th of September and landed at Dingle on the 12th, “and so barred up the haven with the chain.” Their captain-general is called Sebastian Coronell, and is of Rome, with another called Alexander, one Don Diego Valdes, captain of the 300 Esturianos and cousin to Don Peter Valdes Esturiano, and one Artiago of Bilbao, captain of the Biscaners. In the whole, 1,500 men were sent from Spain by the King and Pope into Spain, and there was put back from the coast of Ireland with foul weather one great ship of 300 tons and a barque, bringing 300 Romans and Spaniards and one Charles Bryland an Englishman, now at Santanderos.
The head doer (dowar) was a friar of the order of St. Francis, of Granada, appointed by the Pope; their paymaster John Martines de Recalde of Bilbao. Most part of their artillery was brought out of England, eighty pieces in a fly-boat of London [margin: “Nota, to know who did carry that ordnance"] with their shot; and seventy pieces were carried out of Shoreham (Shorom) and sent by Mr. Renarde, and his factor was one Harry Filder of Portsmouth, who sold them in Laredo for 32 reales the half quintal to the said John Martines, without their carriages, and the said Filder made a contract with Martines for as many more before a scrivener. [Here follows a list of the ships, with their ports and burdens.] These ships wore in their main tops the Pope's arms in their flag, and in their fore top King Philip's arms, and thus they departed for Ireland.
The 31 ships and barques that were in Santanderos went to the Groyne on Sept. 12, and from thence to Lisbon, their head captain being Don Peter de Valdes, and his lieutenant the said John Martines de Recalde, but, by the King's orders he was to stay in the Groyne and be paymaster again. “Always provided that King Philip is only the head doer (dowar) of Ireland joined (guynted) with the Pope.”
From Santanderos I went to Lianes [Llanes] on the 1st of June, and on the 3rd a small barque went thence by order of the Pope to Ireland with “letters of avizo” to the Earl of Desmond, and carried munition and money, which landed in “Boynaventura.” Their uppermost lading was salt. So they discharged and came back to Lianes.
On June 8 I went to San Martin de la Reyna and from thence to Villa Viciosa, Lastres, Shixon [? Gijon], Avilles, Luarco and so to Rivadeo (Ribadeo) on June 14. Here there arrived a great argosy of the Pope's, which had been to Dingle with calivers and picks, and now departed for Rome with 14 passengers. From Rivadeo I went to Mondonedo and so to Betanzos within three leagues of the Groyne. At the Groyne there were 8 great argosies lading and it was thought they should have gone for Ireland, but they went for Lisbon.
“In Ferrol there was an Irish bishop, helping for his part for Ireland, and so came to Santanderos and went to Ireland with Dr. Candares [Sanders]. It was reported that the Pope had made Dr. Candares Lord Chancellor of Ireland. So they are with the Earl of Desmond.”
From Betanzos, I went to Valladolid June 20, and came to Benevente, where is the Conde of Benevente with 15,000 men, for he has all the soldiers of his country and them of Leon (Lion).
“There is daily at Valladolid and Madrill [Madrid] very great enquiry for the Queen of Scots, with very great lamentation of her imprisonment, and that ere it be long she shall perforce be redeemed out of prison by the said King (sic). There is daily letters conveyed from the Queen of Scots out of England unto the King of Spain.”
[Margin: Here beginneth the abstract.]
“The King's pretence by report most certain is with the help of the Pope this next spring to depart with all his whole power from Lisbon to the Groyne, and so from thence to land his army, part in Ireland and the rest by Berwick, and to have the King of Scots to marry with the King's eldest daughter,” and so to land three leagues from the said Berwick and to conquer England.
The Pope hath given England unto the King of Spain, and upon pain of his course [qy. curse] to follow his pretence; and the Pope of his aid to take Ireland, so, in conclusion the King and the Pope are both in one.”
There are, the last of November, in Valladolid, Madrid, Toledo and Burgos, 3,800 soldiers of the Pope's making ready for Ireland. Their captain-general one Sebastian Trogillo, and of the Romans, one Courcio of Pisa. Don Hernando Vasan, son of Don Alvaro, Marquis of Santa Cruce, by report shall be captain of the galleys. The Marquis of Tavora is captain of the King's horse, and Don Rodrigo Sapato master of the camp.
On Dec. 9 the news came to Madrid of the taking of the soldiers that were sent to Ireland, written by the Spanish ambassador, who daily (sic) sends letters to the King by way of France, so that every fifteen days the King knows all the doings in England. Spain says plainly that the Pope and the King will be revenged of their deaths.
The 10th of September the King was very sick of the tabardillo [a malignant fever], but was twice bled and then amended. On Wednesday, the 5th of October, “the Duke d'Alva, in the King's name was proclaimed King of Portugal” in Lisbon, so Don Antonio fled by Coimbra (Quymbra) to a strong place called Monte Mayor, and Coimbra took his part and would not receive the King. So the King sent the Conde of Benevente and the Conde of Lemos with 20,000 men, who took it. Sancho de Avila with 5,500 horse and foot went thither to seek Don Antonio, and by the river of the Porte one of his men took him on Oct. 21, who had 11,000 ducats for his pains, “and so secretly he was put to death in Coimbra.” The Duke of Braganza (Berganco) is in prison in Burgos.
The Queen of Spain died in Badajos the 24th of October, and was buried in Escorial.
A barque sent from Santanderos to Dingle in Ireland with salt, had under its lading 60,000 ducats sent by the Pope to pay the soldiers, also calivers and picks.
[Account of ships lading at Santanderos and elsewhere and the wheat and munition brought thither.]
One Wm. Wyseman, servant to the Earl of Oxford, left London for Spain on May 20 and arrived in Laredo on the 31st. I spoke with him in Valladolid. He brought two letters from the Spanish ambassador, one for the Duke of Alva and the other for Don Rodrigo Sapato, which letters he said, were hidden under the ballast at Gravesend, and if they had been found about him, he would have been hanged. He had a passport signed and sealed by the ambassador.
The Earl of Westmorland passed through Valladolid on St. James' eve (?) last and so with three men to the King at Badajos. Lord Dacres landed at San Sebastian from Nantes in October with one Mr. Peter of Beverley. He went to Bilbao and so to Madrid and Badajos.
There are with the Duke 400 English soldiers that serve him. It is reported “that there is in this realm of the King's friends 20,000, and known.”
“Great lamentation for the death of James Femaries [Fitzmaurice] in Ireland and by the Pope it will be revenged.”
One Sir Francis Inglefild is in Madrid, likewise one Mr. Wadson is at the Spanish court.
In another hand: There is one Mr. Watson in Madrid. One Dom Pyramus, brother by the mother to Don John of Austria, is thought to go for Ireland, being in “Allaredo” with his mother.
Endd. 16 pp. [Newsletters XC. 14.]
[The above paper is evidently by the writer of the letters from San Sebastian, Valladolid, &c., calendared above.]
603. Another copy of the last part of the above, with a few slight variations.
8 pp. [Ibid. XC. 14a.]
1580? 604. Claims by the Duke of Anjou.
Monseigneur claims that he has had a gift from his Majesty of all the money accruing from the sworn freemen of the towns and suburbs of this kingdom, in like manner as in the ancient establishments in the great towns, which will amount to a large sum, for it is esteemed that there are 28,000 parishes and 2,300 villes closes in France, (of which Paris only counts as one) so that if they had an average of only two freemen in each, there would be 60,000 freemen, while, with an average of six, there would be 360,000 [sic]. Endd. “A note of certain moneys granted to Monsieur.”
Frenchp. [France IV. 196.]
[Undated.] 605. Ambassadors to the Emperor.
1. Horatius, Marquis de Malaspina, nuncio from the Pope.
2. Joannes Borgia, ambassador from the King of Spain.
3. Albertus Badoer, envoy from Venice.
4. Joannes Albertius, envoy from the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Secretaries of the above ambassadors:
1. Cæsar Del'arena, with the nuncio, auditor.
2. Campricius Cornovaglia, with the nuncio, secretary.
3. Alvarus de Veancos, with the Spanish ambassador, secretary.
4. Joannes Franciscus Marchesini, with the Venetian envoy, secretary.
5. Joannes Vincentius Modesti, with the Tuscan envoy, secretary.
Not reputed as full ambassadors, nor having the name as secretaries.
1. Georgius de Georgi, agent of the lord of Genoa.
2. Camillus Cato, ambassador of the Duke of Mantua.
In the place of ambassadors, with the name and rank of secretaries.
1. Gulielmus Ancellius, from the French King.
2. Philibertus Lovencito, from the Duke of Savoy.
3. Valentinus Florio, from the Duke of Ferrara.
Latin. 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 6.]
606. The difference between Mr. Norris and Mr. Cobham.
Mr. Norris received 5,745 gilders for Mr. Cobham's company, and paid them 2,000 gilders, retaining 3,745, whereof Mr. Cobham demands an account, because:—
1. It was received for the month of March, 1579, as appears by the Prince's warrant to the treasurer and Mr. Norris' own acquittance; at which time Mr. Cobham's companies were “uncast,” and so remained till the 4th of April following.
2. These companies are by name included in the said warrant, as parcel of the eleven companies of Mr. Norris' regiment.
3. The casting of Mr. Cobham's companies “hath respect only to the time coming after his discharge.”
4. It sufficiently appears by attestations of the treasurer, testimonies of the officers of the companies and in other ways, that they all took this to be his and their pay.
5. Part of the money is said to have been paid to Mr. Davison, then ambassador there, which Mr. Cobham was said to owe him, and divers other sums since, albeit without either request or warrant from Mr. Cobham.
These things considered, Mr. Cobham humbly prays your honours, upon examination thereof, to take such final order in this difference between Mr. Norris and him, as you shall think equitable and just, and offers bond to yield to whatever this may be, desiring that Mr. Norris may be bound to do the like.
Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 94.]
606a. Mr. Norris' reply to Mr. Cobham. 1 p. [Ibid. 94a.]
606b. Order thereupon, much torn. Dated July 14, but year illegible. [Ibid. 94b.]
[This dispute is mentioned in a letter of Dr. Wilson's, April 14, 1579. (See Foreign Calendar under date.) Davison returned to England in May. Date of these papers very doubtful.]


  • 1. Mary of Castile, widow of Max. II, and Elizabeth, reine blanche of France.