Addenda: Miscellaneous 1581-1582

Pages 571-648

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 17, January-June 1583 and Addenda. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.

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Miscellaneous 1581–1582

Jan. 7.
607. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
Those of Ghent have cut a ditch near to Alost, and thereby both greatly annoyed the town and also hindered the passage of the Malcontents thither. They are now busily occupied in levying soldiers and restoring their camp, lately dispersed by the enemy.
Here is a rumour that Colonel Norris has given a second overthrow to the Malcontents, raised the siege of Steenwick, and forced the enemy to withdraw almost to Groningen.
Peace is certainly concluded in France, so that Monsieur will shortly resolve touching his repair into these parts; and it is said the King of Navarre is preparing to come with a great army for the States' succour. Hattem (Hattan) continues still in the quiet possession of the States, but the castle is not yet rendered, though it cannot long hold out. Antwerp. 7th January, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 43.]
[The rest of the intelligence in this letter is contained in that from Hoddesdon to Walsingham of this date. See Cal. S.P. For., 1581–2.]
[Feb.?] 608. [Cobham to Walsingham.]
“The King of Navarre's agent did move me for to underst[and] if that they might have leave to repair with their ships unto some ports of the Queen's. I answered, that if it might be employed for the cause of the Religion I thought it would be liked of, wishing in such cases those inconveniences and disorders might be provided [for] which had hindered heretofore. He hath reserved the further circumstances and particularities to be enlarged to me by Strosso, whom I look to have with me to-morrow at night. The said Strosso hath lately had secret conference with the ambassador of Venice and with this party the abbot of Bene hath conferred, by order from Monsieur, money and the marriage. If I did not think they of England did like well of Strosso, I should have further care therein. Upon that I shall hear further from your honour, I shall more exactly inform myself. I may be best instructed from you, having good experience of their humour. It seemeth to me how the Queen Mother doubteth lest the Queen understandeth of the message to the Pope, which is to be carried by Abbot. Therefore, as I suspect, the Pope sent nothing (?). I have written to the Queen. Strosso hath received commissions for to levy companies. Guise repaireth presently, as he writeth, to Paris about a process; his coming is held suspect.
“The Marquis del Bene is parted this day from hence to pass in the county from whence Guise hath been. He would be believed for to be an assured friend of Monsieur. The message which Villeroi brought from Monsieur is not communicated to any, not to those which appertain unto Monsieur, though they have tempted him. He hath flatly assured them that he will discover it to the French King only, which is found strange. I perceive the King of Navarre with those of the Religion pretendeth to trade by sea, upon some conference I have understood they had privately about those matters.”
Endd. Secret advices from Sir H. Cobham. Partly cipher, undeciphered. Sealed. 1 p. [France V. 25a.]
March 2. 609. Attestation by Melchisedeck Laubendorn Vratislauius, public notary of Dantzic, that on March 2, 1581, in the 5th year of the reign of King Stephen, at Roger Fludd's house, the underwritten statements were made before him on oath, and the written copies of them signed by John Koch, protonotary, and Stephen Simon, companion of the order of St. Bartholomew. Koch's statement is in relation to John Langton, who brought papers in Latin by Sir Gilbert Dethick, Garter king-at-arms, in June, 1578, asking Koch to copy them in German, which—knowing Langton to have lived more than twenty years in their city, to have married there and carried himself honestly and worthily, as also that he was of good name and honourable family, he consented to do. Stephen Simon certifies that Henry Barchman (stated by Vratislauius to be an honest citizen and merchant of Dantzic) desired him to write out one or more public instruments, which he did, in the presence of John Langton, James Fluelin, and John Allen, witnesses.
Endd. “Attestation of the public notary of Dansyke, touching the speeches of John Lanchton.” Latin.pp. [Poland I. 8.]
March 5. 610. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
On the 21st ult., Colonel Norris, being entrenched very near the enemy before Steenwick, had a hot and long skirmish with him; those of the town sallying forth also and busying them on the other side. In the mean while 400 men laden with cheese and bread so tied on their backs that they could use their pieces got into the town, and leaving their provisions there, returned in safety.
Next day, Captain Williams with his horsemen went out and skirmished again, and (being outnumbered) for their rescue certain footmen came and fought very stoutly above three hours. The same day there was a third skirmish; a sconce and a fort were taken, those that kept it slain and two pieces of ordnance gotten; during which time about a hundred lackies on horseback, laden with meal, got to the town gates, discharged their loads and returned. Captain Williams “did most valiantly, having sundry shots in his armour and blows with cutlasses and pistolets on his head, but no hurt done save his horse shot twice.”
The town being thus victualled for about three months, and the enemy well beaten and discouraged, in the morning before day he marched away, to the great honour and joy of Mr. Norris and his men. All these countries under the States' government “are most glad and triumph at the good fortune and noble service which by God's help is fallen out, the like whereof hath not been done since these troubles.” Some say that, on the news, Groningen is fallen into civil dissension, and (is thought) will revolt to the States.
In these quarters nothing is done, but Cambray is said to have been succoured with provisions. The commissioners who have been with Monsieur are returned (Aldegonde excepted) bringing news that the French forces will be here very shortly. The Prince of Parma is still at Mons, where he celebrated last week the funerals of the late Queen of Spain. Antwerp, 5th March, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 44.]
March 11. 611. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
The enemy on retiring from Steenwick and entering Groningen sent most of their cavalry towards the land of Luxembourg to join with the Flanders Malcontents, who are drawing their forces thither to hinder the French entrance.
The States' men, pursuing their victory, have taken by composition two places lying on the Zeider [Zover] See, called Cuynder and Staveren; the castle of the last is still kept by the enemy, but hoped will not endure long. In Flanders the Malcontents withdrew from the towns all the Walloon and Italian garrisons, and put in High Dutches, breaking down the forts and sconces in their quarters, which shows intent to employ their men otherways.
De la Noue's son, with his horsemen about Gertsbergen has surprised and overthrown a cornet of the enemy's horse.
Nothing is known of the States Commissioners' success in France save that Monsieur has accepted the States' offer, signed the articles, and (as is said) taken oath as Earl of Flanders. He will be here very shortly or at least send his forces, of which the King of Navarre is to be commander. Antwerp, 11th March, 1580. Brought by William Page.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 45.]
March 18. 612. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
The enemy in Friesland, lying about Cowerden, are in mutiny for their pay and hold their general a prisoner. Those of Groningen are discontented and at a stop, not knowing whether to continue in their former terms or to return to the States. Schenk is reported to be there, and uses means to keep them for the King, but many of the first authors of their falling from the States, on the news that Steenwick was rescued forsook Groningen, so that there are now fewer to support Schenk.
The States' men have got another place, called the Lemmer, and it is thought will shortly attempt something against Delfzyl, to which end certain ships of war are sent to lie in the Ems.
The Baron of Nienoort and his people are returned towards Winsum (Winsen), a place fortified by him within two miles of Groningen, to the great annoyance of their passage that way.
The Prince is still at Amsterdam, but goes shortly to Utrecht, and perhaps into Friesland and Guelderland.
Monsieur's great preparation to come hither is in every man's mouth, but there seems no fear of it amongst the Malcontents, who, for the most part, have agreed to receive the Spanish aid, upon conditions. Antwerp, March 18, 1580.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 46.]
April 1. 613. Dr. John Rogers to Walsingham.
The effects of my service with the magistrates of Elbing and afterwards with the King of Poland are as follows:—
1. The three old treaties of intercourse granted the English nation by the three Masters of the Order in Prussia, specially, are, by the commissioners, to take place in this city and its territories.
2. The special jurisdiction of the Governor and Deputy, with their courts, acts, &c., confirmed by Richard II are also granted.
3. Such liberties as the Hanses generally, and the Prussians specially, have heretofore enjoyed in England, are to be here, as before, permitted to her Majesty's subjects.
4. The 52 articles or instructions required by the merchants of the Company are also approved.
5. The Hanses, by their deputies, assembled at Luneburg in Nov., 1580. “I foreseeing by more than manifest presumption an arrest would ensue,” our merchants, by my procurement each brought in the particulars of their cloths and other goods they meant to carry to Thorn (Thorun) as also of the debts due to them, especially by Danskers (their goods amounting to 82,380l. sterling, their debts to 65,996l.) and hoping for a great sale at Thorn (a general mart and Hanse town) they sent some packs, meaning to send the rest. The said cloths were by my means recovered, and the rest were by me stayed, and so preserved, in this manner.
By espials I learnt that twenty packs of cloth were already conveyed by some of our best merchants to Thorn. I, pretending to be ignorant thereof (knowing the Hanses would not arrest so mean a quantity), caused the Deputy to call a court general, when I declared the great peril into which they were entrapped, asserting that in lieu of great sales, the loss of their whole commodities was concluded. I certified them that in none of the Hanse towns could they be so much damaged, for none were credited with so great a mass of goods and debts. That the treaty now begun would either be overthrown or interrupted, they themselves conjectured, and I advised them to make trial of the magistrates of Thorn before they reposed trust in them, by sending some expert merchant to them with letters. This being done, the magistrates answered dissemblingly, “The English nation might come secure. Being urged to call a senate and to write, they answered, the Holy Nativity of Christ was now to be celebrated and they had no leisure, &c., praying we would not be more suspicious now than in old times.” The messenger returned, they were like to be intrapped. I moved the old Burgomaster, who could not be induced to think they of Thorn had any sinister meaning. I urged him to charge them cum violatione perpetuum fœderis, and to allege the safe-conduct given by the King of Poland to the English nation, which being done, the Thoruners answered, “They were a member of the Hanses and that which they should by them be enjoined, the same would they commit to execution.”
In the meantime, Richard Lewys (a god-fearing and diligent man) was charged by me to learn if any fraud was being used, and if so (while they were in consultation in their Council House) to convey away the goods already sent, which, being done, with great diligence, they were safely brought again to this city.
The Hanses, learning this, “wished no less to the English doctor than 1,000 lasts of devils, and as many hot pestilences,” for preventing their designs. But they dissembled, and issued a decree under the seal of Lubeck (of which I send you a collated copy) to the cities of Thorn, Königsberg (Koningsberg) and Elbing that they should take 7½ per cent. of all English commodities in name of caution, “as though they now meant not any manner of arrest general but caution special,” with addition that (for nonpayment) the goods should be stayed; and that as often as the said goods arrived in any Hanse town, so often (notwithstanding former payments) the said caution should be extorted; referring extrema media, that is, open hostility, to further conclusion of the Hanses. This is in the decree, which, knowing the sight of it would be required, they put favourably, but the letters sent show their intention manifestly. These I have seen and doubt not to get a copy of them on the return of the old Burgomaster (who is at the Landtag).
The effect of my service at Warsaw (Werschaw).
“The King perceiving I laid for foundation the treaty called Pax perpetua terrarum Prussiœ, concluded between Sigismund the 1st and Albert the last Master of the Order and first Duke of Prussia, as also the three treaties of the Kings of England with the great Masters, and the treaties with Hanses, general and special, whereby the privileges of the English nation in those regions were confirmed, adding thereunto the benefit Emporii Elbingensis authoritate regiœ et commitiorum, anno 79 confirmati.":—
The King desired such articles as I demanded to be communicated to him. This was the 10th of March, when, in the presence of the Lord Chancellor and the Bishop of Cracovia, I first had audience, lasting an hour and a half.
Which being done, and I having divided the articles into mere royal and mere merchant, for his highness' better understanding, on the 12th of March, the Chancellor of the Kingdom (for the King hath none) sent for me. To him I delivered the said treaties and our demands, according to the instructions of the merchants, with whom and with the Bishop of Cujavia (at this parliament nominated Archbishop of Gnesna) then and at other times, I largely proved the equity of our demands, the Chancellor and Bishop affirming them to be honourable to both princes, reasonable in themselves, and profitable to the subjects of both their Majesties, and saying they would presently deliver them to the King, which was done, as I learned by the Duke of Siradia, the L. Lasky.
The 14th of March I had secret audience of the King during two hours and a half, we being alone, when the issue of his speech (I having moved his highness after long speech to a conclusion) was that he rejoiced to see that such amity had been between both their predecessors, well liked of our demands, and saw no cause why he should not confirm them, yet being now in expeditione bellica occupatior and that the state military and the state merchant much disagreed, he thanked me heartily, but remitted the more ample examination thereof to certain of his counsellors, who should repair to Elbing.
I beseeched his Majesty to consider whether it were not more convenient, as we and the city of Elbing were now near a conclusion, the Treaty of Hamburg on our side and the articles of the city only wanting (I hoped both would be ready after a few days) that the said treaty should be sent to him, which being by him and his Council examined, “I doubted `no deal' would be allowed.”
Sanè, quoth the King, this your motion pleaseth me more than my resolution, and might give just cause of alteration of the same, were it not I may be remotior, as also that for certain causes, as well concerning the dependences of your negotiation (his highness meant the exactions of tolls by the Duke of Prussia) as also others, wherein I am to employ the said commissioners; adding thereunto, the said treaty would not long endure; for, said his Majesty, well see I that the articles mere merchant, being emere, vendere, permittare, &c., require no long handling, and to the articles mere royal, have I in genere assented.”
The articles mere royal, be these. [Recited.] These articles the King had diligently quoted, saying he would enjoin his orators Ne nos diutius quam per esset, remorarentur, for I had urged my business with the King of Denmark, &c.
As to that part of my instructions, of aid to have been given by her Majesty, “reported as appeareth by more than famosos libellos (not of Lubeck and Danske alone, but of the whole Hanses generally) the King answered, me confirmarant Ser. Reginœ Angliœ literœ, &c.,” adding that he had good proof thereof, for having taken prisoner divers of the Russ's counsellors, they told him that for certain years the English had not there traded, whereupon he had tanquam calumniatores temerarios rejected the Hanses, and far from him was it to have such sinister opinion of her highness, whom he knew to be dotatam non fœlicissimo et potentissimo regno tantum, sed virtutibus maximis supra sexum, &c. His highness never mentioned her Majesty but he raised him one foot from the place he sat on and took off his little polish cap half a hand breadth from his head.
Here I took occasion, from your lordship's letters of August 6, 1580, charging me to further the recovery of debts due to her Majesty's subjects, and after many interrogations, it was concluded that all such debts as could be proved should be paid. For the rest, his highness said if it pleased God he should return, her Majesty should find he would have that regard to her subjects which should be convenient to him. Of the King's resolution that no Hanse towns in his kingdom (which be many) should assist the others, having conspired against her Majesty, as also touching the Interdicte prohibitorie, that no decree of caution, contrecaution, reprisal or arrest, issuing against the English nation from the Hanses, shall take place in any city of his kingdom, of the King's and other letters to her Majesty, of more Jesuits, of a bull and a Jesuit's letters intercepted by our post overland (at last extorted from the merchants) your honour shall be at large advertised, nothing doubting but my other letters shall outstrip (antevertere) these presents, sent by James Cavyl, master of the Angel Gabriel of Ipswich.—Elbing, 1st of April, 1881.
Endd. “From D[octor] Rogers at Elbing. The effects of his negotiation.” 9 pp. [Poland I. 9.]
614. Copy of the above.
Endd. “Copy of D. Rogers' letter, 1 April, 1581.” 7 pp. [Poland I. 10.]
April 1. 615. Advertisements [from Hoddesdon].
The enemy in Friesland is gathering his forces together and a new supply is said to be coming to them from Germany. It is hoped that by now the States men have taken the Castle of Staveren, which done, they will go into garrison for a month or two to refresh themselves. The enemy has withdrawn the Walloons from Bolducq and Eindhoven, and put Dutches in their places. Cambray is in danger of being lost, unless the French come very shortly. The States men in Flanders have burnt a village called Merville, and in the church about 300 persons, soldiers and peasants, who had retired there for defence.
The Malcontents have given a month's pay to their soldiers, mostly furnished by the clergy, who do all they can to maintain the quarrel.
The Prince of Espinoy, without respect of person or religion, confiscates the goods of all who leave Tournay, “where he suffereth the exercise of religion in houses publicly, though he himself be a great papist.” The Malcontents last week defeated three cornets of the States' horse. Few were slain but many taken prisoners.
On Easter day, to avenge this loss, the Prince of Espinoy surprised three regiments newly levied by the Malcontents; one being entirely overthrown and the other two put to flight. Yesterday morning three cornets of the enemy were within an English mile of this town, where they spoiled the boors, took four or five prisoners and so returned.
There is said to be a revolt of the commons in Luxembourg against the magistrates, they “being so undone by continual wars and taxes.” The mutinous Scots in Vilvorde are not yet appeased. Commissioners have been sent from hence with offers of money, which it is hoped will quiet them.
The commissioner sent to the Emperor from the Earl of Embden has given the Hanses' commissioners such a repulse that they have returned to the Duke of Saxony to procure his help for a second assault.—Antwerp, 1st April, 1581.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 47.]
April 4. 616. Dr. John Rogers to Walsingham.
“Just cause of heaviness and regret might attaint me, if witness beyond exception, yea mille testes, I say, if an entire and good conscience acquitted me not, and found me not Not guilty. The good issue of my most melancholic and tedious travail in the Tower, Exchequer and Rolls (much unknown and yet altogether unconsidered) the success at desire, the trial of my service to be adjudged by your honour, cannot but greatly solace and comfort me. Who hath served in her Majesty's affairs (where merchants have been either treasurers in monies or tellers in pay) unreproached, and should poor I presume or think to scape scotfree? But to the matter.”
The 28 of March (which day I returned from the King of Poland's court at Warsaw (Warschovia) on the Vistula, six days journey from Elbing) I received from you letters of the 7th and 29th of January, the effect of which I have digested thoroughly. I pray you to expostulate with them that letters of so several dates should be sent so carelessly, they complaining that I paid no regard to the first, when the two were delivered to me together, after eleven weeks and odd days. The time of the year considered (the rivers, &c., being frozen) which forces them to travel by land, about five weeks are required to bring your letters by post express, but by posts at large (as from London to Antwerp, thence to Embden, Bremen or Amsterdam, and thence to Hamburg, Dantzic and Elbing) it takes ten or twelve weeks, yea sometimes four or five months. Therefore the merchants must tell us why I should be checked (as they term it) for not answering your first, it being impossible to have received your second. Moreover many things may cause delay, as absence at the court, interception or concealing of the letters (as from Caspar Cassellius' letters to me, I suspect has happened to mine), and that especially by couriers and posts not proper and express; praying you that the merchants may be ordered to pay proper postage so that her Majesty's affairs may not be divulged or my services impaired. Verily, so slender is their allowance, that I cannot be at the charge of express posts. Your honour knows that in the year '77, besides transportation, postage and other service, I had 40s. a day for my diet, besides my allowance for search. In the year '79 the Council ordered me, in the presence of those merchants, 40s. per day,” to have passed into Denmark,” and anno '80 their deputy Russell certified me that, for this service, I should have 200l. sterling, and if I stayed after Christmas day, 40s. as afore.
After my despatch, the books of the Hanses (my work) and other treaties out of the Exchequer (for which Alderman Pullison and I stand bound) were sent (with my other furniture) to Gravesend, they kept a court, and there concluded I should have 5l. a week. I was forced to follow my writings, &c., and doubted not but your honours and the Council orders were of more validity than their acts. “Not by corruption or by favour commenced I a doctor in Cambriga. I hope I ought to be used accordingly.” Subduct from 5l. a week all my charges, gifts, transport (for which I hear they will allow nothing), &c., and you will see “how their great reproaches will countervail the nona profit I reap by them.”
Of the effects of the treaties at Elbing and Warsaw I shall, in articles, inform you when they are concluded, as my instructions import. You may understand that after the Danskers rebelled against their King, and by grievous impositions and arrests forced our merchants to depart to Elbing, the Elbingers friendly entertaining them (finding themselves enriched by the English and Polish trade, and their town beautified) and a corporation either hoped or granted by her Majesty, “issuing amongst divers parleys by John Langton and other merchants and the magistrates, it was in fine demanded what privileges &c. they pretended. Answer was made, such as in old time to the whole English nation, and as of late time by the Hamburgers to the Merchant Adventurers were granted.” This answer highly pleased the magistrates, for being accused to their King as perjured persons against the Hanses, they pleaded that they would grant nothing but what the Hanses and Great Masters of old, and the Hamburgers of late, had granted to the English nation.
It was therefore concluded that the Treaty of Hamburg should be communicated to them. Hearing of this before leaving England, I told the merchants that of all the treaties “ensearched” by me, none was more necessary than this one, whereupon it was obtained, I perused it, and order was given that it should be copied, sealed and delivered to me. On my return to London, after attending at court, I was told that it was fair written but not sealed, and that Mr. Salkins should bring it without fail to Elbing, and I charged Richard Lews, assistant sworn to the Company, who escorted me to Gravesend, that he should not fail to see this done, desiring him to tell the Company that I should not treat before the receipt thereof.
The 12th of September I arrived at Elbing, where one of the first demands was for the Treaty of Hamburg, to which I answered that Mr. Salkins was bringing it. He arrived on the 4th of October, bringing a trunk with locks and keys, containing the treaties, &c., but when the trunk was opened, in the presence of witnesses, no Treaty of Hamburg was there to be found. The Burgomaster, eagerly asking for it, and seeing his hope frustrated, said he now perceived well that it might be true, as the Danskers reported, “that in the end the English merchants would leave them not only in the danger of the Hanses, but in the King's high displeasure also (they having taken upon them, according to the project aforesaid to purge themselves); but well, saith he, know I that Serenissima regina Angliœ hath vouchsafed to write unto this city most graciously, and I doubt `no deal' but if we send we shall obtain the same; and verily (quoth he) I have been found always to have been careful for this city, and never reproached before my prince, and rather than I would my old hoary head should be dishonoured in this mine age, I will take such course as I reckon to have the Treaty of Hamburg in my possession.” I gave the old Burgomaster my hand, assuring him that her Majesty and her Council would not suffer them to lack the said treaty and that I undertook to procure it. Thereupon I urged Mr. Deputy and Mr. Salkins with all speed to write to the Company, which they faithfully promised to do and which verily I believe Mr. Deputy has often done (for his credit, being here resident and married in the town, lieth therein) and think he would willingly have paid out of his own pocket for the possession of the same. We know that the Company have received his letters, and no sooner does a post arrive here than the Burgomaster and the commissioners incontinently clamour for the treaty. They even sent an expert man to Hamburg to obtain it “by friendship or by corruption of the secretary,” but did not succeed. I have often asked Mr. Salkins to send an express for it but have been answered as if I were the meanest of his apprentices, being told that I had no regard to the charges the Company were at.
On the 21st of February, when we departed for Warsaw, the Burgomaster so vehemently uttered his mind that Mr. Salkins thought it necessary to send an express, but he was to be stayed until the coming of the post from Antwerp, when, no treaty coming, he was despatched and we hope hereafter to hear of his arrival.
On the 7th of January I received letters from the Company and that they had (at great charges) sent the long desired treaty by an express named Swister. I sent for the man and demanded it, when he answered that he had left it at Antwerp, because the Deputy Russell had forgotten the Governor's letter to his deputy [of Antwerp] for sealing it, without which letter he dared not do so. Swister has written hereof to Russell, who will no doubt now obtain the Governor's letter to the deputy of Antwerp, so that we hope at last to obtain the treaty, which God grant.
Things standing thus, I pray you to strike fiercely, and not to suffer me, who have laboriously travailed (not without great peril of being murdered) to be suspected, when the merchants are the true hindrance to the conclusion of the treaty, for this I can avow, that if the Treaty of Hamburg had been delivered to me (as they promised) or had been brought by Salkins, the treaty with this city had been concluded, sent to you, returned to me and confirmed by the King of Poland and the Parliament. Even so, after long entreaty (private conference with the chief of the city, &c.) on the 13th of January we grew to this issue:—
1. The articles agreed upon (touching the city) should be delivered to me.
2. The Treaty of Hamburg should be delivered to them.
3. I should reduce the whole treaty (such credit I had with them) into such form that it might be ready for confirmation. Ever when I demanded their articles, they urged the Treaty of Hamburg, and I cannot deliver it. What excuse the merchants have for their negligence, I leave it to you to discuss.
To what purpose shall her Majesty send letters or commissions to this city, when a few persons of wealth can, by sinister practices, turn her highness' intents to their own factions?
It is well known that Peter Kemerlinck, a Dansker and a trader with our nation, has his first daughter married in England to Robert Hilson, a rich merchant; his second daughter to one Swister, a kinsman of Mr. Hilson's; his third, to John Burnel, also a rich merchant; his fourth to one Tives [?] Kruze, a trader of English commodities; while his two sons occupy this country's trade with our nation. Roger Fludde has married a Dansker's daughter, resides there, and arrogantly vaunts himself of his wealth by his wife and his trade, saying that he will be the destruction of this Elbing trade. These men's capitals are very great and work great effect. Hugh Offeley, a great trader in France, maintains a French factor here, named Pattelier, who has (as it were) a licence to destroy the trade at Elbing, and maintains, with defiance of the deputy, his actions for Danske. Now he has played his part here, he is departed, for what quarter is unknown. Robert Cooley, sometimes a factor of Mr. William Cockayne, has Mr. Cockayne's son and his young apprentice, Thomas Stepney here, and by all means “frameth the young lads for Danske. He is a very factious person, the champion of Roger Fludde and enamoured cum venere Gedanensi.” I think not that the foresaid William Cockayne fosters the faction of Danske (for I believe he abhors all practices against his prince's intention and her Council's orders) but this Cooley works evil effects. Mr. Bodligha has his son here (a friend of Mr. Fludd) who favours Danske, and Mr. Salkins (joint commissioner with me) has his servant Jo. Parker remaining continually at Danske. What he does there is not known to any.
Mr. Deputy Russell has had two factors or prentices a long time at Danske; it is said they are there to recover debts, but the merchants here well know the true cause.
All these (besides others) have their factors and apprentices on both sides. I have read that a very few merchants have been maintainers of great wars, and if you and the Council provide not for these by countermines, I fear the event will be contrary to her Majesty's demands, and the city's and our resolutions; yea against the King of Poland's desires.
I am told that Mr. Salkins (who, it seems, has all manner of allowances) has sent an express to England (never advertising me thereof), to whom I know not. He has here “used himself” so factiously that the chief magistrates, when sending me any matter of secrecy or weight, always pray that he may not be participant, saying that they have intelligence from Danske, and that he does not work so surely and secretly as he thinks. He has never been in this country, is quite ignorant of the same “and might altogether have been spared, for no help have I had or can have from him, seeing apparently for what cause the merchants have intruded him and excluded the most expert man of all our nation, I say John Langton (a very sincere and honest man) out of the commission. The said Langton hath been resident thirty-four years in this country and hath travelled all Prussia and Poland through, and is of that wealth and credit as there is no English man of the like, without whose help I had been altogether, of matter of fact and trade, unfurnished."—Elbing, 4th of April, 1581.
Endd. 13 pp. [Poland I. 11.]
A note headed “Of Jesuits.”
1. Dr. Smithe, called black Sir Smithe, is of great authority amongst English Jesuiters. He lives in the Friars by Newgate.
2. Mr. Francis Juniper is an arch-Jesuiter, well known by Henry Finch. He has a brother in Somersetshire.
3. Mr. Roberts is a Jesuiter (as I hear of wealth) also well known by Henry Finch.
4. The secret friend (spoken of in Adam Broke's letters) is known to James Bosgrove, and seemeth to have some great secret communicated to him.
5. Griffith Jones, at the sign of the Griffin in Walbrook, is wholly addicted to Jesuiters, and knows many of them.
6. Partridge, a goldsmith in Cheape, over against the Cross, has a son at Vilna, and cannot (if all be true I hear) be ignorant of the Jesuit “consorts.” His son is a favourer of them.
7. Edward Broke, the brother of the arrant traitor Brokeadam or Adam Broke (writer of these letters) abides at Oxford and is (as I take it) in Christ's Church.
8. Henry Finch is receiver and collector for all Jesuiters, and conveyer of their letters. He dwelt at Fishmongers' Hall, but now (I hear say) about Smithfield, in Great St. Bartholomews, not far from Sir Walter Mildmay's.
9, 10. Peter Bertrowe and John Faker are Jesuiters, but where they dwell I cannot learn. Bosgrove knows them, and so (I think) does Finch.
If time produces others, I shall not conceal them from your honour. It shall not hinder my other business.—Elbing, 4th of April, '81.
Add. Endd.pp. [Poland I. 11a.]
April 20. 617. The City of Elbing to the Queen.
Assuring her of their willingness to agree to the treaty, which now only awaits their receipt of the Treaty of Hamburg to be brought to a conclusion. After this, there remains nothing but that it should be confirmed by the King of Poland, at present busy with his warlike occupations and the expedition to Moscow. They pray that she will take orders that none of her subjects be suffered to break the treaty by combining with the Dantzickers to overthrow the trade settled at Elbing.
Add. Endd. (with note of contents). Latin.pp. [Poland I. 12.]
May 6. 618. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
In Friesland, the enemy going about to entrench a place over against Oldhove, to stop the passage of provisions, were encountered by some 300 Frieses, afterwards seconded by Döde Van Lay with some Hollanders, who valiantly charged them, slew above 500 and put the rest to flight, carrying Captain Bokeholt and divers others prisoners into Winsam [qy. Wilsen].
The States' men in garrison at Willebrocke, near Mechlin, mutinied for their pay and began to practise with the enemy, “but fearing the battery upon sight of the cannon,” and partly appeased with three months' pay, they surrendered the fort to the States and departed.
The papists here, who till Wednesday last had the whole use of the great church called Our Lady's Church, have since been kept out of it; all the images and altars being broken down, and no mass or such like service suffered to be said in any part thereof.
It is said that Monsieur is making all possible haste to relieve Cambray, and sues the King both for leave to depart and that the Duc de Montpensier may, in his absence, have the government of his countries, which is not yet agreed upon.
All ships bound for Spain are still stayed here, and a barque of Dunkirk has brought in two ships coming from Spain with wools for Calais. Spaniards and Italians in small troops come daily into these parts, and M. Barlaymont has order to levy 1,500 reiters for the service of the King.
Twenty-two galleys are said to be cast away in the Levant seas by foul weather, and in them 4,000 Spaniards and much money, going towards Genoa. Cardinal Granvelle is gone from Spain to Rome about certain differences between him and divers lords in Spain.
It is said that there is great want of money and some dissension in the camp of the Malcontents before Cambray.—Antwerp, 6th of May, 1581.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 48.]
May 20. 619. Hoddesdon to Burghley.
The enemy's horsemen in Friesland have attempted sundry ways to pass the Yssel into Guelderland and Utrecht, and this week some of them were at a great village called Wige, but finding no opportunity to pass the river, they fired the place and departed. By good hap it was quenched and no great harm done. Those besieged in Staveren seeing the cannon planted and no succours approaching, upon licence to depart have yielded the town and castle into the States' hands. Those of Groningen seeing themselves thus left open to the excursions of the States' forces have entered into treaty, the most part of the town being well inclined to rejoin the other provinces.
The Count of Rennenberg, governor in those parts for the King, tried to assure himself of Delfzyl by putting in a new garrison of his own men instead of the Groningers; but this intent being discovered, the town of Groningen has written earnestly to their soldiers at Delfzyl, to give place to none others. It is said the Count was glad to leave Groningen for his better security.
The camp of the States of Flanders has marched to the frontiers, and there awaits the coming of Monsieur, who is said to be mustering his men in Normandy and getting ready to raise the siege of Cambray before the end of this month.
It is hinted that the Prince of Parma is angry with some of the principal Malcontents and intends to give up his government here and retire into Italy. The quarrel is thought chiefly to touch Montigny, “with whom the Prince was so highly offended, that in his fury, he offered to strike him through the arm with a dagger.”
The Duke of Bavaria's son, lately elected Bishop of Liége, is coming with 4,000 horsemen to take possession of his Bishopric, “and doubted will show himself an open enemy against the Prince and States, whereat they of Liége begin greatly to murmur, by whom he was chosen upon especial condition not to meddle with the wars of the Low Countries, but to sit indifferent, without assisting either the one party or the other.”
In Amsterdam it is published that no Papist, Anabaptist or other sectary shall exercise their religion in public or private, or keep any secret meeting, upon pain of life and goods. The same proclamation will be shortly made throughout Holland, and at Haarlem the mass is already put down.—Antwerp, 20th of May, 1581.
Add. Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 49.]
May 23. 620. Francesco, Count of Vimioso to Sir Henry Cobham.
I deserve the favour which your honour has done me by your letter for the great affection which I bear you, and the desire I have to serve you, as I hope to show in a few days. I have received in your packet a letter from Dr. Lopez, physician to the Queen of England, in which he writes that her Majesty had sinister information concerning my affairs. Your honour may believe that there can be nothing in the world which could grieve me more, because not only for what began at the recovery of my crown (a la recuperatione de la mia corona), which so much was due to her Majesty, but also for her merits and greatness and by her other gifts from nature, above all those of fortune, I revere, love and honour her so much that I would desire to spend my life in her service. Your honour will do me a great favour if you will inform her Majesty of the great wrong which has been done me in this matter, for I hold more respect to the shadow of her name than to any other in the world. I would willingly go in person to her Majesty to prove, with arms in my hand, to him who gave such information that he had lied, but as I know not who he is, I reserve it for another time, and will make this longed-for journey as soon as I shall have put in order the affairs which I have to do in France, which from hour to hour are in a better condition, and for the present I shall despatch Capt. Perino to England, who will go to ask licence from her Majesty.
From Portugal I have had better news than those dispersed by the ambassador of Castile in this court, and hope soon to show his master of how little importance are the things which they possess by tyranny and unworthy means. In “Anduzia” and other parts, they write, the plague is raging and there is the most cruel famine that has ever been seen.
I grieve that the poor Christian people suffer so much, and desire to aid them with all my strength, not with the weakness of the enemy. The doctor writes that Sir Francis Drake (Drac) is not going in the fleet. Your honour will do me a favour to tell him that, with the greatest speed possible, he ought to put to sea. As to the capitulation, your honour will do what is possible without any reply. And this my letter will serve for your security or warrant by my hand. The note which you send me that the Portuguese princes do not treat matters cautiously, makes me marvel greatly at the methods of those countries, especially amongst persons of honour.
I pray your honour to send this letter for Dr. Lopez by the first courier, and beg you to hold me as your most affectionate servant, who will always desire to make a return for the great obligations which I owe to your honour. I greet my lord Sandes. Tours, 23 May, 1881. Don Francesco.
Holograph. Add. to Sir Henry Cobham, Ambassador from the Queen of England to the most Christian King of France. Seal, arms of Portugal.
Endd. Copy [sic] of the Count of Vimioso's letter to Sir H. Cobham. Italian. 2 pp. [Portugal I. 58a.]
Cf. his letter to the Queen under date of May 25 in Cal. S.P. For, for this year, written in the same strain.
June 3. 621. Advertisements from Hoddesdon.
The displeasure between the Prince of Parma and the Malcontent noblemen is fully appeased, and the Prince remains here, but his mother the Duchess is departing for Italy with all expedition.
M. de Londorf, master of the household to the Princess, lately sent to France to hasten the Duke of Alen¸on forward, passed through this town yesterday towards his Excellency with certain tidings of the Duke's approach, whom he left mustering his horsemen between Paris and Cambray.
The Spanish ambassador lieger at Paris “misliketh greatly the proceedings of the French King, whom he suspecteth to favour and support his brother's enterprise, although outwardly he make a show to the contrary.” He has lately made some threatening speeches to the King from his master, accounting the late proclamations for keeping soldiers out of the Low Countries as nothing but “shadows to blind the world withal.”
In Friesland, Heer van Neinorte, intending to environ the Malcontents in a cloister called Great Aurich, near Groningen, was suddenly assailed by the enemy, who at the first brunt overthrew most part of his soldiers, slaying some and taking the rest prisoners. The victory was got without resistance, for the States men became so amazed that they sought rather to save themselves by flight than to withstand the enemy.
M. de Verdum, a Spaniard, is in Germany, levying reiters and footmen for the King.
Endd. “Advertisements from Mr. Hoddesdon.” 1 p. [Newsletters I. 50.]
June 28. 622. The Emperor Rudolf to the Queen.
That for several years there has been a controversy between your Majesty and the cities of the Holy Roman Empire which are called the Hanseatics, what was the origin of that controversy, and what you have heard concerning their late embassy to us—all this we have understood from your Majesty's letters of the 5th of April last, presented to us together with an annexed request from your Majesty. Truly, we cannot hide from you that complaints have been repeatedly made to us since our inauguration, at one time by the said maritime and other cities, and at another time by the States of the Empire. Moreover, at the beginning of this year, there came certain delegates of the Hanseatic League to our Court, who complained that the ancient privileges and immunities, obtained not without great labour and cost from your Majesty's ancestors, the Kings of England of pious memory, were being infringed and destroyed, both by the excessive increase of the customs and by molestation of their own men resident in England, at the suggestion of certain persons, eager for their own ends rather than for the public good and the advantages of the kingdom.
As to which, the affair earnestly demanded that we, as holding the office of Cæsar, should, by some timely remedy, come to the aid of ourselves and the faithful subjects of our empire.
But as hitherto we have been always convinced of your Majesty's good-will and impartiality towards the Holy Roman Empire and its subjects, and that you desire to do nothing in opposition to the concessions and treaties of your ancestors, we thought it best not to decide anything until we should have informed your Majesty and others whom that business appeared to concern, and also made inquiries concerning other things which appertained to the subject of the said differences.
We have therefore communicated to your Majesty the complaints privately brought to us by the said delegates, and by them delivered in writing, as by the copies hereunto annexed you will the more fully understand. For we would very willingly do what your Majesty now desires of us, and, moreover, would freely do anything further in the matter, if it be proposed by the States of the Empire or the Hanse towns. And in like manner, we are altogether convinced that your Majesty, with your well-known zeal towards the Holy Roman Empire, will accede to our request that the privileges and liberties of the Hanseatics may be fully maintained in your kingdom, and not taken away on account of any private persons, or of any private considerations which might from time to time arise.—Prague, 28th of June.
Signed. Countersigned, A. Erstenberger; Svieheuser.
Latin. 3½ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 7.]
Oct. 10. 623. Stanislas Karnkowski, Archbishop of Gnèsen, to the Queen.
As I have understood that your Majesty's ambassador is now preparing for his return to you, I have esteemed it to be my office, as primate of the kingdom, to explain to your Majesty, in the absence of the King my master, the causes and reasons why this business cannot be brought to a conclusion, it not being by the will or fault of his Majesty or of the Senate of Elbing, but on account of the hindrances which have intervened by reason of the war with the Muscovite. Therefore I desire your Majesty to know that the King my master received your Majesty's envoys with the greatest willingness at Warsaw, and when the articles in that treaty were propounded (which could not conveniently be determined unless before our eyes) following the example of his own and your Majesty's predecessors, he appointed commissioners for the matter, I myself being amongst them, and, that I might fulfil my office I went nearly to the borders of Prussia, and continued there a long time.
Meanwhile “Monseigneur D. John Kostka a Steinberk, Pallatinus Sandomirien” and Captain of Marienburg, one of the principal commissioners, died, and no other was appointed by his Majesty in his stead. While we are still waiting for letters from his Majesty, the time has elapsed, wherefore I have thought well to signify to your Majesty that it was the will of the King my master that a firm and perpetual treaty should be made between your Majesty and the city of Elbing, and that its failure did not arise from the King, who has now been long absent from his kingdom, nor from the Senate of Elbing, who were very urgent in it, but on account of the aforesaid hindrances. To bring it to pass in his Majesty's absence is not possible, but on the King's arrival, whose victorious return we now, by God's mercy, shortly expect, it will, by me or other commissioners, be brought to a conclusion.—Cracovia, 10th October, 1581.
Signed. Add. Endd. (in error) “The Archbishop of Posnonia.” Latin. 1 p. [Poland I. 13.]
A.D. 1581–2.
Jan. 7.
624. Intelligence.
We look for a solemn embassage of the Swisses this week, to renew the league on condition of payment of two millions of gold due to them, without which there is no hope of any league, but it is rather to be feared the King of Spain will win them to his devotion, which he earnestly labours to do by large offers to them, and will so far prevail with them as to make them take arms against us, furnishing them with horsemen and treasure for that purpose, “wherein they may help themselves with a pretence of recovering their due.”
These ambassadors are charged upon pain of death to receive no private gift here, until satisfaction be made of the general debt. It were to be wished that Monsieur sent unto them to do some good offices in this matter.
If the King of Spain win the Swisses, I do not see how we shall be able to resist him, and we want means to keep them at our devotion.
Queen-Mother hath already waded very deep into these Portugal matters, which hath cost her a good round sum of money. The way to weaken the King of Spain, were rather to begin with him in the Low Country than in Portugal.
King Don Antonio hath sent to require help from the Low Countries.
Endd. The substance of Captain Masino [del Bene]'s letter of the 7th of January, 158[1. Torn].¾ p. [Newsletters IX, 6.]
625. Occurrences.
Paris, Jan. 14. Occurrences. [Being the heads of Cobham's letter of this date. See Cal. S. P. Foreign, 1581, 1582, p. 453.]
Overleaf: Other occurences.
There are certain bells brought to Rome from the Low Countries by Jesuits. La Signora Accorombona, which should be Paulo Giordano Orsino's wife, imprisoned. The Duke of Brunswick arrived at Rome, recommended by Archduke Ferdinand.
The Venice ambassador laboureth the Cardinals against the Patriarch of Aquila. Signor Cesare degli Oddi of Perugia, a chief banished rebel, imprisoned by Cardinal Riario.
The Great Master of Malta, being restrained of his liberty at Rome, died of an ague the 23rd of December last.
Paolo Bruno, sent from Malta touching the cause of the Great Master, was drowned near Palermo.
It is given out at the Emperor's Court that the Spanish King intends to send great forces to the Low Countries, and that the son of Archduke Ferdinand is to conduct 2,000 horsemen.
The Emperor intended a journey towards Vienna and thence to his diet in Hungary. The Marquis of Gretole and other personages of mark in Naples imprisoned by the Spanish inquisition. Sinan Bassa makes great provision for the sea army, now ready with the hundred new galleys made at Constantinople. 20 galleons prepared in Spain. After the coming of the Empress, the marriage between the Emperor and King Philip's daughter is to be concluded. The Duke of Alva reported to be dead. It is said the viceroy of Naples will be Major-domo in his place.
The Spanish King has made Cardinal Andrea d'Austria Protecter of Castile, in the place of Cardinal Sforza, with a pension of 6,000 crowns.
Endd. 14 Jan., 1581. Advices from Sir H. Cobham. 1¾ pp. [Newsletters IX. 7.]
Jan. 20, 22. 626. Letters from Paris.
These are merely Précis of Cobham's letters. See Cal. S.P. Foreign, 1581, 1582, under these dates.
2 pp. [Ibid. IX. 8.]
Jan. 27. 627. Précis of Cobham's letter. See Ibid. under date. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. IX. 9.]
Jan. 31. 628. —— to L. Tomson.
Since my last, which was on the 15th instant, by which I wrote to your honour how affairs had gone in this year's war, I have to tell you that at length the agreement between our ambassadors and those of the Grand Duke of Muscovy has been concluded; the Muscovite leaving to the King the whole of Livonia, without reserving any portion of it, but not including the region of the port of Narva as part of that province, because that place having been occupied while the King was in Pskov (Plescovia), the King of Sweden has always said that he could not let it go; so that on this head the agreement has not taken effect, but finally it has been arranged that whichever of them shall first recover Narva shall not be prevented by the other. All the things which the King has recovered of his own he is to keep, as well as Veliza and Suraza, places taken since the recovery of Polotsk (Poloska): and there are to be returned to the Muscovite, Velikiluki, Zawlogia and Nevel (Newel), places taken last year, and the little which has been taken this year, on going to Plescovia, where the camp is now to be raised. The artillery which is in the places given up is to remain there. It is said that the Muscovite is to include Soliess, but that is still doubtful.
As to the prisoners, the Muscovites wished that they should be given up equally, but ours did not agree to this, because those who are prisoners here are of much greater importance than those of ours who are in Muscovy; therefore they have resolved to treat with the King, to whom they are sending ambassadors; and upon these conditions there is a suspension of arms for ten days, with the intention to treat meanwhile for the pax perpetua, for which ambassadors are to be sent on both sides. Thus the agreement is concluded, and there has been such eagerness on the part of the Muscovite to arrange it that it clearly appears his affairs were reduced to extremities, and if it were not that our people are beginning to be weary of the war, we might easily have held out and obtained any conditions we liked. The King will depart on the 12th of next month for Riga, the chief city of Livonia, and thence will go throughout the province, to put all in good order, after which he returns to Poland. Vilna, January 31, 1582.
Endd.: “Al Sieur Tomson. Advertisements from Vilna, 1582.” Italian. 1 p. (Poland I. 14.)
Feb. 4. 629. Advertisements from Bruges.
The Malcontent nobility in Artois fear the coming of the Spaniards and Italians, whose aid they say they have no need of, and who resort into the said country in bands. This causes trouble about Namur, as the country “would stop their passage"; wherefore the Duke of Parma has sent Mondragon into those parts. Grain and victuals are dear in the enemy's government. The Scots at Menin are pacified, and have lately done some good service against the enemy.
The States have granted Don Antonio twelve great ships, manned and furnished. “Captain Skinckam,” being under the Duke of Parma's displeasure, is discharged, and returning into Germany with his horsemen. Monsieur is daily looked for and greatly desired. The States are to meet him at Bruges.
Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters I. 51.]
March 23. 630. Anthony Standen to Monsieur Mannering.
I must ask you to accept this in answer to three of yours, of Jan. 1 and Feb. 12 and 25. To the first I answer that your request hath been fulfilled “touching the three masses at this blessed devotion of Annunciation, for the souls of your so happily deceased brother, and Mr. Tyrell hath answered me that he hath done the like in the chapel of the Presipio at Santa Maria Maggiore, although both we doubt that he hath little need of the same.”
To that of the 12th I answer that as [symbol] writes that Masey is shortly to come into these parts, and that [symbol] is also to remove, I am in doubt whether to write any more by that way, and have this time used the means of the Archbishop of Glasgow, to whom sometimes I write. If Masey is to depart, you must find some other way for us to intersalute each other.
“I like of your free discourse of the proceedings of [symbol] with [symbol] about [symbol] [probably the writer himself], and note the same as much requisite, for [symbol] 's knowledge of the humours aforesaid, although, to say the truth, [symbol] did nothing but, as it were per manière d'acquit attempt the humour of the world, and, as our proverb saith, by the market folks see how the market goeth.
“Your good counsel and better advice touching those matters [symbol] accepteth of as from his dearest brother and best beloved friend, and above all things I keep in mind that special note you give [symbol] of [symbol], that is, in silence to be plodding of plats and in lavish speech to be least trusted.
“Touching the league between A and X, I believe, as you say, that A hath some further intent than bridal matter, which in time will appear, and in the mean season these babbles are a trouble to the world and a hindrance to all good purposes; to which I say [sic] no remedy unless [symbol] either by ill usage or else by some divine instigation be removed from the charms of A.
“There is great esperance that [symbol] and the [symbol] (fn. 1) are shortly to agree, and draw in one line, which by A is vehemently impugned, as matter that maketh little for his purpose. [symbol] hath written to me lately by Francis Tucker, who is come into these parts, and truly I do much fear for the poor man, for that no man cometh to Rome without good testimony that is not cooped up, whereof I advised him to beware.
“[symbol] is still in prison, wherefore I cannot learn, and none hath access to him but Mr. Tirrell. Pallavicino, Cardock's master, is also by the heels (fn. 2) about meddling in English matters; and believe that sithence your departure here is a new world, and no more coming for wager men. [symbol] doth well conceive [symbol] meaning touching the imparting of [symbol] conceit to [symbol], wherefore let [symbol] be assured that [symbol] will participate nothing thereof to any that shall be to [symbol] prejudice.
“Your letters are gone to Rome, and I hope shall be safely delivered, for I have directed them to Mr. Tirrell. From thence I hear very seldom, for all our countrymen are in a maze there, and each looketh hourly to be caught and imprisoned.
“The Prior [of Malta is] lurking in Venice, and sometimes he spurreth me with a missive to know what news, after the old manner, friend to all the world and neutral &c.
“The discourse of the deaths and martyrdoms of those good men at home (fn. 3) is familiar in these parts to the best sort, and our cases more pitied than heretofore, as by certain letters explanatory from his Holiness to all princes for the succour and support of the seminary in Rheims is manifest, those being directed to all archbishops and bishops to make gatherings and collections for that purpose. (fn. 4)
“Two days past, I was at mass in this cathedral church when the boxes went about, but besides myself, I saw not two more that extended their charity, and in this city is little hope, but in Rome is great liberality as I hear. The pamphlet in French you speak of Tucker brought me, and we hope shortly to have ampler discourse.
“All in these parts are quiet after the old manner, and out of Spain is said the King thereof maketh huge provision about the recovery of the islands of Terceira, which we say are possessed by the French in the name of Don Antonio. In the meantime his Flanders is like to go to wrack, specially Parma being without men or money as it is said he is. If [symbol] or [symbol] be not gone before these come to your hands, I pray you let me shortly hear from you again. If they be departed, then devise some other way, and persuade yourself that when you shall but salute me with a line, your letters shall be as welcome as whole sheets of paper. . . .
“I end for this time with prayer to God that we may yet once meet in our country, there to honour and serve his divine Majesty, to the consolation of his faithful servants, and to the confusion of Satan and his instruments.”
Postscript.—"Horatio writeth to me that Masey is also to depart shortly, to come to this town.” Florence, 23rd March, 1582.
Signed. Add. to “Monsieur Mannering, gentilhomme, a Poissi, ou la ou il sera. Cette lettre soit recommandé au reverend Père Darbishire, de la companie de Jesus.”
Endd. “Copy, 23 March, 1582. To Mannering from A. St.” 3 pp. (Tuscany, I. 1.)
[That this letter must have been written in 1582 (not 1582–3) is shown by the contents. It is no doubt one of those referred to by Cobham in his letter of April 10, 1582 (Cal. S.P. Foreign, 1581–2, p. 623), as having been copied and sent on.]
April 5. 631. Rough notes for Instructions to George Gilpin, to the same effect, but not so full, as the statements contained in the letter of April 14 below.
Draft. Endd. “Instructions for George Gilpin, sent to the Diet to be holden in Germany the 22 April. Despatched the fifth of the same, 1582.” 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 8.]
April 9. 632. Safe conduct for George Gilpin, sent on a mission to the Emperor and Princes of the Empire.—Greenwich, April 9, 1582.
Copy. Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 9.]
April 14. 633. [Walsingham] to George Gilpin.
“You have sent unto you before this (as I persuade myself) from the Governor of the Company, such direction as shall be requisite for you in the matter you have to deal in with the Emperor and other princes of the Empire this next Diet, and likewise the copies of such letters as are written to divers of them from her Majesty. By the Emperor's letter, you may clearly see what course you are to take, which is to serve you as a loadstone to shape your course in all this negotiation. By your Instructions you may perceive how that the privileges which they pretend were resumed by King Edward, by just cause proceeding from themselves, as appeareth by good record in her Majesty's Exchequer—That the enlargement that Queen Mary made them in derogation of that resumption, was but per viam recessus, which is as much as to say during pleasure, and in consideration of the troubles of her present state, which would not then abide any long Diets, and upon a promise that they made unto her that their disorderous trading into the Low Countries should be redressed.
“That for breach of that promise and condition, so by them made, that said enlargement was revoked and moderated within one year, her highness being moved thereunto by the intolerable loss she sustained by them in one eleven months' space, to the sum at the least of 9,000l. and odd in her customs. That they, upon mislike of the said moderation, having made means to King Philip for a qualification of the same, and at his request obtained the same of her Majesty, upon condition that within one year they should come to a Diet here within the realm in London, refused the said condition, and would not come to any Diet within the realm. That during this refusal, and their not coming to a Diet, Queen Mary died, and her Majesty succeeded, whose highness, in the second year of her reign, through intercession made unto her by their commissioners at that time sent over hither, offered them a reasonable project of privileges, which likewise they refused, whereupon her Majesty put them to the condition of her own subjects, in respect of the old amity that had of many years continued between this Crown and the Hanses, giving them therein a greater prerogative than to all other strangers, subjects of confederate princes to her highness. That they, in lieu of this favour and dutiful remembrance of the same, used her subjects within all their Hanse cities far more uncourteously than any other strangers; and where her highness's subjects had had residence, with liberty and privileges of traffic within the city of Hamburg for ten years space, with a clause of perpetuity, they, in an assembly at Lubeck, caused the said privileges to be taken from them, and to be used in harder sort than other strangers. That when her Majesty, for amendment of this hard dealing, made a show of like usage towards them, they imposed a new tax and imposition of 7¾ pro cento upon all the goods of the subjects of England found within any of their towns, and so the state of the cause standeth, as by the said Instructions and discourse you may see more at large, which being well looked into, you shall understand as much as by your last you desired direction for.
“Now for that you are to go on this voyage, and her Majesty's business is not to be foreslowed in your absence, which I understand that Copcott cannot conveniently follow, by reason of certain particular business of his own. I have thought good to make choice of Mr. Longston, to whom the charge thereof may be committed. And therefore I pray you acquaint him fully with the state of it as it standeth before your departure, that he may both receive the sums that are to be received for the last year, and solicit the States for a resolute order to be taken by the States in this their present assembly, for her Majesty's assurance for the payment of the yearly interest coming on, which she requireth to be in this sort, that she may have no further recourse for her debt than to the city of Antwerp, which city may, by convenient means, be provided for in this assembly for their indemnity in the remboursements which in this behalf they shall make to her Majesty; which order, unless they can be brought unto, as well for the present payment of the year past as for the establishing of a certain order for the years to come, then that he, the said Longston, advertise over from time to time when any rich ships come laden from thence to this realm, that they may be taken and arrested until due satisfaction be made.”
Draft. Endd. 2 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 10.] For Gilpin's answer, see Cal. S.P. For., 1581, 1582, p. 634.
634. Advices from Antwerp.
The enemy, since the loss of Alost, have laid siege to Oudenarde, and begun to batter it. They are said to have above 16,000 men, horse and foot. The town takes all means to defend itself, fortifying the weak places, and there is hope they will not get it so soon at they thought, it “being indifferently manned and well provided” for six months.
Monsieur's and the States' forces are to be mustered at a place near Ghent, but some will not stir till they receive part of their arrears.
The Count of Mansfeld and Duke of Deux Ponts have passed Mentz with 1,500 horse and make all haste to these parts, whither 3,000 Switzers and other horse do also march. Two thousand Malcontents of Brabant, under M. Hautepenne, came last Tuesday near to Lierre, Barrow [Bergen] and other towns, but did nothing.
“The Prince of Orange, God be thanked, is very well, and was on Tuesday last at church, which day was holden as festival, and sermons and prayers of thanksgiving solemnly in all the reformed churches celebrated.” The Princess having been ill of pleurisy and fever for seven days, “It pleased God to call her to his mercy, not without the great grief of the Prince, who by the good persuasion of the preachers and others is requested patiently to bear the same.”
1 p. [Newsletters, I. 52.]
May 16. 635. W. Herle to Walsingham.
“A collection of certain things from the last of April to the 16th of May, 1582, in Antwerp.
April 30. Du Vray told me that the Duke his master had received letters out of England from Marchaumont and others which caused the stay of Baqueville's journey thither till next day, and that the Duke meant to revoke Marchaumont and put Baqueville in his place.
“The advertisements were these: That her Majesty having had long conference with the Earl of Sussex one day that week, did immediately use gross words to the Earl of Leicester, reproaching him rudely of many disloyalties, and principally that he was the stop that she had not been long since married, to the comfort of her people and assurance of posterity; laying to the said Earl's charge that he only had broken the match that otherwise had been concluded between her Majesty and Monsieur, for the which, and many other grave occasions, her Majesty's displeasure was so grounded as it was past recovery; for Mr. Hatton (who hither unto had served for an instrument to support the Earl's credit) was for causes now banded against him, and albeit he were not, yet to assist another man's estate, he would not diminish his own by offending the Queen.
“The Earl of Sussex likewise had joined with the principal nobility of the realm, in nature of a league against the said Earl of Leicester, to ruin him and his house, and had the Catholics of his side, besides others (men of good spirit and value) which made in number more than two-thirds of England ready to take part with Sussex; the said du Vray naming particularly the noblemen that were of this confederacy. [Margin: “This is to nourish diffidence [i.e. mistrust] among us, the mother of factions."]
“And of the Earl of Leicester's side were but few and those not the best affected to him, by reason of the coldness that they found in the said Earl to do his friends good and of his weakness to stick unto them when the cause so required; but rather he had bent all his credit (while it was great) with a preposterous policy to prefer his enemies and not his friends, which in his need would be measured to him again. Only Mr. Secretary Walsingham might seem, for his place and religion, to be his great support; but if the Earl were once removed, one spurn should overthrow the said S[ecretary], his adherents and credit.
“There were (du Vray said) some principal persons of England whose signatures he had seen to letters then written to Monsieur that had assured the said Monsieur of a confederacy made against the Earl of Leicester, composed of such persons as for their power were able to cut him off and by their will had advisedly contracted to do it and would not leave till their intention had effect, whereunto a further countenance (if need were) should be added to assure their place. [Margin: “Another diffidence and jealousy &c. The end hereof makes your Excellency a party or rather un chef membre (?) de la faction contre la partie de la religion."]
Monsieur told du Vray that he was beholding to the Earl of Leicester for the honour he did him with his person, purse and train hither, but if the Earl's forwardness were rightly scanned “it served rather to be assured of the Queen's favour (in whose disgrace he then stood) and for his particular ostentation than for any good office to himself"; showing du Vray that he would have sent him back to England to negotiate his business (both for the Queen's special favour to him and that the Earl of Sussex favoured him as much or more than the Earl of Leicester) but that, for his promise sake, du Vray should first serve his quarter here.
Du Vray concluded his speech thus to me:—"That we should have civil wars presently in England, which he as a prophet had foretold, the seeds whereof were already sown and had taken root in the breasts of most resolute and noble persons of the realm, occasioned of three things":—
1st. For lack of a husband to the Queen, hitherto hindered by particular persons.
2nd. For not establishing an heir-apparent, which would be the destruction of the realm and of the ancient nobility.
3rd. “The hatefulness of the triumverate of England, secluding by so many years those that were [added in margin: worthy and deserved well] from authority and benefit by her Majesty, which would urge a free parliament before it were long to debate freely of these points, in the face of the whole realm.” [Margin: “He omitted the mention of religion, which is the chief groundwork to move their division pretended in England."]
Thursday following, June 3, du Vray told me that Monsieur had received a letter from the Queen, declaring herself greatly perplexed, for that her realm was in motion and men in warlike sort gathered together, whereof she could learn neither the cause nor the procurers, “which had bred her both melancholy and difficulty, to see herself thus entangled with sudden accidents unlooked for; whereof Monsieur did show to feel no less perturbation than if it had concerned his own person, promising to du Vray that in case her Majesty had need of him, he would come over with forces to repress the sinister attempts intended against her; but to this du Vray did add that the Queen did now see that she was but a woman, and that she had need of a head to resist disorders and storms that threatened her. [Margin: “They would be glad to have occasion to bring over foreign aid into England,” &c.]; for the Papists (said he) be in arms in England, and the state of the realm so confused as it passeth her force and capacity to qualify things; yet she hath stopped all the sea passages (he said) appointing governors in the provinces and ports, and that at Dover the Lord Warden was in person to order that quarter, who observed and searched all that passed out of the realm, even to the soles of their shoes, for letters and papers that might concern conspiracy and rebellion.”
May 6. Du Vray showed me that a great quarrel had been between the Earls of Sussex and Leicester, and manslaughter might have followed between their partakers, but both Earls were commanded by the Queen to their houses. Further, that the Earl of Sussex and Mr. Hatton were become Spanish and had maintained in Council that they were enemies to the Queen and to England who would establish Monsieur and the French in the Low Countries, which would be our ruin; “wherewith he remembered a speech that the Earl of Sussex once used, that Monsieur could not nestle in the Low Countries but that Spain must oppose itself to expulse him; for doing whereof, if the King of Spain did give Monsieur two battles, it behoved England to give as many, to assure their estate against the French.
“Lastly, he said that Marchaumont had done ill offices in England and was full of sedition and practices, which lest it should in this hurly-burly come to a discovery, Monsieur meant to remove him and to place Baqueville in his room, who will no less practice and entertain than the other did, and shall have more opportunity to work upon new and old matter by his fresh coming, and to penetrate further into credit and secrets unsuspected.”
The same day, Paul Buys and one Valke, deputy for Zeeland, told me that the Council of State had been openly told by the French of great part of this stir, “and that England should have need of their friends"; but that the English counsellors meant to abandon the care of the Low Countries, thinking it more necessary to favour the Spanish side than the French. Others of good degree have received the same information, and I have noted heedfully “that to merit well of the French is only to breed envy and ill conceit to the doers, which is familiar to that people, who, losing the memory quickly of benefits received, do esteem the rest without grace that proceeds not from them alone, being terribly nettled with the cunning they say that they found in England, which ability they little looked for at our hands, whom they esteem gross.”
Buys and Valke further said that Villiers the preacher (though received coldly in show by Monsieur) had received 50,000 gilders for his good offices in favour of Monsieur here. They inveighed against him, that “he, being a minister of God's word, was become a statesman, with a notable imputation of hypocrisy and apostacy,” [Margin: “He is here called Captain of the spies and practisers"], and that at his first coming he procured the superintendence of the secret intelligences, wherein he still continues, having the distribution yearly (without account) of six or seven thousand gilders to espials and practisers; concluding very bitterly, that he was a busybody, dangerous and very ill affected to our nation. Buys and Valke bear no good-will to Villiers or his nation, which may make their report suspected, but he is generally noted here for corruption and bribery, “which for the virtue of the man otherwise I am very sorry for.”
May 6. Monsieur asked me what I thought of their motions in England, to which I answered roundly that they were but devices of no credit, “for that our State was not supported of four forks, whereby it should totter with every puff, but was a kingdom consisting of good government, justice, power and substantial provision against events, which would make all attempts against her Majesty and the public quietness vain, destroying them as an untimely birth before they were once ripe, which he seemed to like of.”
Pietro Doro, one of Don Antonio's agents, told me that Monsieur had been unkind in believing things so suddenly of the Earl of Leicester, talking “as though the said Earl, to make himself popular in England with the hatred of Monsieur, should have debated against the opinion of the Earl of Sussex, that he was a traitor that would sustain it convenient for the state of England to establish Monsieur in the Low Countries; which suggestion (said Pietro) he finds now to be ridiculous and vain . . . one while making the Earl of Sussex and Sir Christopher Hatton Spanish, and another time Sussex to be mere French, for which cause the said Sussex had only opposed himself in favour of Monsieur against the Earl of Leicester. [Margin: “These things proceed from Marchaumont, as du Vray says, by the truth of his advertisements (?) and by the sight of Marchaumont's own letters."]
“But to allege my opinion (said Pietro Doro) I think it dangerous for England and suspicious for Monsieur to be invested here, nor able to assure his state, unless a perfect intelligence were had between England and him, which no way could be durable without marriage.”
Monsieur grows weak, and subject to maladies increased by incontinency, “and no obscure suspicion had of the overmuch favour he bears to Aurily,” of which advantage may be taken one day by those who now pretend friendship. Chartiers counterfeited the double key of Monsieur's lodging, which was found out by the old concierge; but the matter was suppressed by the captain of the guard.
It is a maxim of some of good judgment here that the Prince of Orange, St. Aldegonde and Villiers “be mere French, and do but serve their turn of all others.”
They find particular matter to work for their own surety by this young man's aspiring estate, who is to be employed to advance their actions, and to bring in others to strengthen them the more. He, on the other side, “shaping in himself the desires of Alexander, though perhaps by a wrong idea,” means to convert their sufferance to his own advantage. In the meantime he is poorly furnished with counsel for so great a matter, “neither doth the French Valois grace permit it, as the same which neither trusts nor loves any of the Religion (for so he hath protested) nor admits true wisdom to enter into the secrets of his affairs.”
They here reckon of the King of Spain as a mighty enemy indeed, not easily resisted or rejected; having still a natural respect for him, if he would but proceed in good earnest to reclaim them.
Of the Queen of England, that she “ministers matters to keep them occupied, contented with quietness, that the fire may be removed from her to others, and thereby the King of Spain's ambition and malice be kept under.”
Of the French King, that he will only help by connivance, getting all advantage he may with Spain, England, these countries, Don Antonio, the Pope and the Turk at once, and keeping his brother low, “whose greatness is fearful to him and to his favourites.”
Of these countries, that they have so many several provinces, remote councils, strong towns, shipping, &c., and withal are so variable and stubborn a people, abhorring foreign government and exaction, that they will be able, either by delaying their aid or openly withdrawing their obedience, to resist Monsieur when they will, or if they think themselves ill used; either to make their peace with their natural lord, or to “assure themselves with their neighbours” at their pleasures; so that Monsieur (being needy and of a nation anciently hateful to these people) will not be able to rule them absolutely without the aid of England or of France.
For England, they say it is a manifest danger to their traffic, navy and liberty to establish a son and only brother of France as absolute lord here. “And yet their surety to entertain the King of Spain with a bridle, though not to be saddled and ridden by so mighty and near a nation as France, by the assistance and sufferance of England.”
For France, though the King (who otherwise is drowned in unlawful delights which keep down his regal mind, and afraid of insurrections, the result of his misgovernment and extreme impositions, “which is more in this one last year having no war, than four of his predecessors have exacted during their whole reign amid all their wars") would and could give effectual aid to his brother, yet this would not only give cause of suspicion to these countries “who shun the sovereignty of the French Crown more than bondage itself,” but would draw England to withstand it, as both Monsieur and the Prince of Orange infallibly believe; therefore they desire to entangle her Majesty as deep in the action as themselves, and in order to compel her, desire divisions in England, that they may tie her to associate herself with them till they are substantially settled and grounded, believing that she will be led by fear rather than desire.
To the like effect they desire to entertain the young Scots King, whose title they prefer in their consultations above measure, “appointing him as successor worthily and lawfully to her Majesty; that he, stirred up the rather hereby, might urge to be declared heir apparent, or being denied, to contend openly for the same, “by which they may prevail on him and his ministers to work upon her Majesty's humour, who, they say, “is afraid as well of the Spanish King's greatness as of the Scottish King's years and courage.”
Holland, Zeeland and Antwerp have joined “by promise in a tripartite league to endure all events, whatsoever become of Monsieur or of the rest of the provinces, as also to be no further subject to the French forces than as they may be able to be masters and to govern in their own estates.”
Endorsed (by Herle): “To the right honourable Sir Francis Walsingham, her Majesty's principal secretary and to be perused only by himself.” Also 2 other endorsements. 6 pp. [Newsletters, I. 53.]
[The marginal additions are in Herle's own hand.]
May 21. 636. Advertisements from Paris.
The Pope has certainly granted great indulgences to all Christian princes for the relief of such as are in persecution for religion. 800 crowns were gathered in Rome and a like sum at Milan, and sent to D[octor] Allen, for the better maintenance of the seminary. There is a collection in and about Paris for the purpose. Eglenby and a servant of the Bishop of St. Asaph are condemned to perpetual prison, and some to the galleys. Every man is “so nearly looked unto in Rome” that he cannot hear from his correspondent there.
Mr. Copley has removed his household to Rouen, with mind to continue there. The Bishop of Ross is still there. One Gifford is sent from Rome to Rheims to read in divinity, and one Foster in philosophy. (A Précis of a letter not among the State Papers.)
Endd.¾ p. [Newsletters, IX. 10.]
May 28. 637. Bodenham to Michael Lock.
“Some men's luck is to have great rewards for no service at all, and others to have nothing at all for very great service.” As for me, I look for nothing, yet few have done the like, of all the travellers that have gone out of England in our time. “M.L.T. [my lord Treasurer] as it seemeth to me, would gladly have it," and the Q[ueen's] M[ajesty] also, and I am as desirous to do it, but cannot by the order my Lord Treasurer hath given me. But if he will arrange for delivery [of the money] I will willingly perform my promise, and if it be thought the matter is not worth the charges, I am also of that mind, yet having promised, will perform it with the reputation it deserves, or not at all. I also am of opinion “that when they have it, they will never use it, because the Queen's Majesty is altogether given to keep peace with K. P[hilip] for her time.” God grant it to continue, for peace is good, and even if bought dearly, is better cheap than wars. King Philip may give thanks to God that he has the Queen to friend, but what England shall get by it I cannot see. God hath done much for her hitherto, and so I hope will do still.
I have written divers times what harm Peter de Subier and others do in England, but it was not believed. The “fact” done to the Prince of Orange is well known to be by practice of Subier and one of his companions, “causing a poor young man to come to kill the prince, with the loss of his own life, to make a gain to themselves ... to remedy their own bankrupt breaking.” If not punished, they will do as much again. “I hear say he is prisoner in [the] house of the sheriff of London. I am ashamed to hear of it. Newgate is too good for him.” Do not our merchants see that from the beginning he had nothing but what he and his companions robbed of them and their goods, wherewith they have made great show.—St. Lucar, 28 May, 1582.
Endd. by Burghley. Copy. 1¼ pp. [Spain, I. 97a.]
[1582, May or June ?] 638. Advertisements.
The French King's preparations are great, both by sea and land. His navy is above 200 sail, great and small.
The King of Spain set forth two fleets about the 5th of April, one for Terceiras (Trasserus) St. Michaels and the islands there, with the Madeiras; the other for the Portugal Indies. There is a third preparing, said to be for revenge into Ireland, but that is doubtful.
Postscript. The French King's fleet is gathering at Brest. Don Antonio is said to be making ready to go as general to meet the King of Spain's fleets gone to Terceiras and the Indies. The King of Spain is reported to be gone out of Portugal to his house called Maderena, leaving the Duke of Alva with a great band to defend the coast towns as well as Lisbon. It was said at Lisbon that the King would have stayed 100 sail of Frenchmen and Bretons, but the Duke of Alva would not agree, saying that if any stay were made at Lisbon, all countries would shun the place, and then there would be so great want that he could not support his men. So that he has got promise of the King that whatever stay there be in the ports of Spain, “war or peace, there shall be none there.”
It is said that about eight ships going from Bristol and other places to the Terceiras, landed soldiers there about the beginning of last month, at which time were also landed there about 1,500 Frenchmen, who will “bear the whole stroke in the Isle.” One of the fleets going from Spain landed some men in the Isle of St. Martin's and other isles adjoining, and also in the Isle of Madeira.
Endd. “Advertisements touching the preparations in Spain and France.” 1¼ pp. Beginning wanting. [Newsletters XC. 15.]
June 9, 10. 639. Intelligence.
It is unlikely that the French King is a party to the enterprise against Geneva, having of late sent 800,000 crowns to the Swisses to confirm their league with him, from whom he can have no assistance in time of need if the passage of Geneva be taken away. If he had had any such meaning, he would have saved all that money. The Pope's and King of Spain's drift in this action, under colour of religion, is to cut off the Swisses' passage to France, wherein that young Duke [of Savoy] is made an instrument, being “altogether possessed by the King of Spain.” The French King pays the garrison of Geneva, and if the young Duke proceed further in the enterprise, he will not endure it.
Colonel Pfyffer (Phipher) animated the popish cantons against Geneva, and those of Berne, Soleure and Fribourg resolved to take arms, but now the papists themselves find it convenient that the town should be maintained and will not suffer such a bar to be laid between France and them. The Pope and the King of Spain will in the end lose their labour. Monsieur needs men of experience about him, and “setteth light” by M. de Biron, whom he might have used in the present service. If her Majesty were to persuade him to use men of skill and experience he might do great service by way of intelligence in Artois and Hainault. If they give the King of Spain any time to breathe, Monsieur will afterwards have his hands full.
June 10. There is no cause for England to be jealous of France. The Scottish practices proceed without the King's privity, being handled only by some who receive many disgraces in court.
Endd. “Extract out of a French letter concerning the siege of Geneva, June 9, 1582.” 1¼ pp. [Newsletters IX. 11.]
June 13. 640. Extracts of Letters [from William Bodenham?].
The King is said to be at continual charges in making fleets to defend the coasts of Portugal and other places. If Don Antonio gets aid to undertake any enterprise this summer, the King will have great trouble and charges out of measure. I think Monsieur being in Flanders will be the beginning of the fall of the Spaniards' great pride, if they go on as they have begun. The Duke of Alva is dead. It is said the King will go to “Madrill” and leave his sister in Portugal. [This first extract is undated.]
There is a show of great preparations here, and God knows how little wherewith to perform it. If there came not from England and France such things as are needful, they could do nothing at all, notwithstanding “their great treasures of gold and silver that cometh daily out of the Indias, which is the best flower of their garland.”
This country is greatly troubled with the plague; the corn has failed and is like to bear a great price this year as it did last. The King fears much the matters of Portugal. “Here is no going nor coming between one town and another, but every one keeps himself as though he were well, when indeed the one is as bad as the other."—St. Lucar, 13 June, 1582.
Extracts. Endd. “Advertisements out of Spain.” 1 p. [Newsletters XC. 16.]
June 15. 641. The City of Elbing to the Queen.
Stating that they have received letters from the King of Poland (who having happily ended his warlike expedition and established peace, is now returning to his dominions), desiring to know for what reason the envoy from her Majesty had departed. They have answered his Majesty very briefly, telling him how far the negotiations had proceeded, but leaving matters to be further explained by the envoys whom they are sending to his royal court. Meanwhile, as soon as her Majesty's hoped for letter arrives, and they have learned what her pleasure is touching the heads of the treaty, they will not be wanting in zeal or loyalty to urge the matter on, both in their own city and at the King's court, and are confident that her Majesty will do the same.
Elbing, 15th of June, 1582.
Add. Endd. Latin.pp. [Poland, I. 15.]
The letter from King Stephen alluded to above, requiring to know the reason of the departure of the English envoy. Mzzigoli, May 11, 1582.
Copy. Latin.½ p. [Ibid. I. 15a.]
June 18. 642. W. Ashby to Walsingham.
This Imperial Diet, long expected, is likely without further delay to begin on the 1st of July next, for divers princes are already arrived and the rest approach the city daily.
The 13th of June the Duke of Mecklenburg came with the Duchess, his wife, having in his train 200 horse in good order a la Tudesca.
On Sunday, the 17th, there entered the city the Duke of Saxony, the Duchess and the young Prince his son with his new wife, honourably accompanied by divers earls and barons, his subjects, to the number in the whole train of 800 horse.
The same day came the Cardinal of Trent, of the house of Madrucci, legate from the Pope, with a train of not more than sixty persons, “some on horseback, some in coaches, and the most of those taken up by the way, showing no such pomp as the Princes of Germany, which the Dutch laugh at and deride, calling them pied Welshers, for that they were not all in one suit, like their swart-ritters, not much regarding him nor his blessing.”
The Marquis of Brandenburg is not expected at this Diet, and the coming of the Palatine and his brother Casimir is doubtful; there is no certainty who will be present till the Emperor arrives, when you shall hear more particularly.
The Emperor is to make his entry on June 24, and (as it is thought) will be accompanied by the Archduke Charles, his uncle, the Archduke Maximilian, his brother, the Dukes of Bavaria, William and Ferdinand, and the barons of Austria, Bohemia and Moravia, to the number of 1,500 horse.
How long the Diet will hold is uncertain. I mean, God willing, to depart hence about the 1st of September if, by that time, I hear nothing to the contrary.
If there be any place where, in passing, I may do any service, I would, being certified, direct my journey that way. Augusta, 18th of June, 1582.
Postscript.—Even as I had writ this letter, entered the Bishop of Magonce [Mainz], with 200 horse and twenty coaches.
Unsigned. Endd.: “From Mr. Ashbye at Auspurg.” 2 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 11.]
643. Memoire from Mauvissiere to the Queen.
Undated. The King his master, from his friendship to her Majesty, is sending commissioners to his ports to inquire concerning those arming vessels without permission from himself or the Duc of Joyeuse, Admiral of France, and in case they have committed any pillage, to arrest the guilty parties and any who have aided them; causing them to make restitution or pay the fair value of what they have taken; to be given to the English who can prove their losses.
Moreover, the officers of the ports are ordered to let no armed ship go out without licence from the King or Admiral.
And inasmuch as the King's subjects receive great losses in like manner from English ships, and that the orders of the Council of England and Judge of the Admiralty thereupon have been treated with contempt, M. de Mauvissière prays her Majesty to give the same orders and take the same measures in her kingdom that the King has taken in his. [Probably soon after Joyeuse's appointment in May, 1582.]
Endd. “Memoire which the French ambassador presented to her Majesty in England, in order to be read and discussed by the Council.” And in another hand, “Depredations committed on the subjects of the Most Christian King.” Fr.pp. [France, VII, 120a.]
June. 644. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Divers companies of horsemen levied by Count Marco Antonio di Vallachara, to serve the Duke of Brabant. Unkindness between the Pope and Duke of Urbino for slacking the passage of the Pope's men to surprise Alfonso Piccolomini. Sir Horatio Gaetano, captain of those sent against Piccolomini. The Count Octavio Avogaro of Bressa thought to join Piccolomini with 200 banished men.
Paulo Giordano sent for by the Pope to do some exploit against Geneva. The patriarch of Aquila licenced to remove to Loretto. The Pope's galleys gone to join those of Naples against the Turkish rovers. A woman divineress now at Rome, respected greatly by the Pope, who hears her divinations secretly. She is in a nunnery and gives out that the city shall be destroyed. Towards the end of May a very strange comet was seen at Venice.
Divers commissions have been found printed in Portugal in the name of King Antonio, desiring the people to be ready to redeem the liberty of their country against the Spaniard. The Cortes are to be held in Castile, where the King means to levy a subsidy of Portugal.
Paolo Giordano has twice had audience of the Pope, and the Pope's purpose signified to him for Geneva, which is deferred. 60,000 crowns sent to the Duke of Savoy. The Pope refusing Giordano's request for the delivery of Signora Accorambona, he is retired discontented. Cardinal Farnese has propounded that the ladies of Piccolomini's kindred might enjoy their dowry out of the confiscation of his lands and goods, which is referred to be considered, as they are allied to Farnese.
The Pope means to take the palace of St. Mark from the Seignory of Venice, because they have not “bestowed” the money agreed between them and Pope Pius. Count Olivares has had great conference with the Duke of Florence, and has been very honourably received and entertained by him. He has “received message” from the Cardinal of Medicis of the Pope's threats if Piccolomini be suffered to abide in the Duke of Florence's countries. The Duke of Savoy requires Piccolomini's repair to him, with very honourable conditions.
It is reported that the Turk has set forth 150 galleys, against which the Venetians prepare themselves. The Spanish ambassadors, in order to receive precedency before the French, are to bear the name of nuncios. Dated at the top, June, 1582, by Burghley.
Endd. Foreign advertisements. 1½ pp. [Newsletters, IX. 12.]
[From the handwriting, it would appear to be one of those forwarded by Cobham.]
June 645. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Emperor.—Letters from Augsburg certify that in Munich (Minikin) the Duke of Bavaria had caused the Corpus Christi procession to be deferred to June 27 in order to receive the Emperor therewith in great solemnity. The princes are in readiness, but wait until they hear of the Emperor's certain departure from Vienna.
Germany.—The Duke of Mecklenburg (Michelburgh) with the Duchess (who is of the House of Denmark) are arrived at Augsburg, accompanied by two young dukes, his brother's sons, and many noblemen and others, to the number of 300 horse and 16 coaches.
On June 17, the Elector Augustus of Saxony and his wife, with the Duke's son and his late-married wife, made their sumptuous entry into Augsburg, accompanied by two other young Saxon dukes, Casimir of Coburg and William Frederick of Weimar, waited on by 1,000 horse and very many coaches. The Administrator of Magdeburg (Maldenburgh), son to the Elector of Brandenburg, was expected, with 400 horse; also the Elector of Mainz (Magonza), the Bishop of Würzburg (Herbipoli) and the Great Master of St. John's.
The Emperor, leaving Vienna on June 8, was to make his entry into Augsburg on the 24th, and to be met by all the princes and nobility with their horsemen, about 4,500 at the least.
Pope.—The Bishop of Carrioli, an assistant to the Archbishop of Raguza, is at Rome, sent for by the Pope that he might go to visit the church of Transylvania, by desire of the Vayvode of that province, who also wishes to have a resident nuncio.
Count Olivares, the new Spanish ambassador, is come to Rome, having been entertained by the Duke of Sora. They were accompanied by 480 prelates, whereof were not above four Portuguese and no Frenchmen. He was received in the ordinary chamber of audience, where sat the Cardinals Sirleto, Como, Rusticucci and Medici. He presented the king's request to the Pope, whereby (he said) his Holiness might understand the cause of his coming, praying his favour as to former ministers of that kingdom. The Pope's answer was brief, and the ambassador, kissing his feet, returned accompanied as before. He has brought the protection of Spain to the Cardinal of Medicis, with the Pope's consent.
pp. [Newsletters, IX. 13.]
July 3. 646. W. Ashby to Walsingham.
We now enjoy in this city the presence of the Emperor, so many months here expected. He arrived on the 27th of June, accompanied with the Archduke Charles, his uncle, the Duke of Bavaria and divers of the nobility of Bohemia, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Styria and Bavaria, to the number of 2,500 horse.
The day of his arrival, the two Electors here, Mainz and Saxony, with the Duke of Mecklenburg, the Palsgrave of Neuburg, and the Bishops of Wurzburg and Eichstat, went a Dutch mile to receive him, and so with great pomp brought him to the Cathedral church. The Bishop of Augusta there receiving him with Te Deum and other ceremonies, from thence they accompanied him with like magnificence to the court, in the houses of Signor Mark and John Foucher, where he is lodged for this Diet.
Tuesday, July 3, his Majesty, after he had been at the Cathedral church, came to the Council House, and there, in the presence of the Electors, Princes and deputies for the free cities, caused to be read certain articles to be consulted on in this assembly, requesting their consideration herein, for that they touched the whole state of the Empire.
“The first was concerning the troubles and this revolt made in Brabant and those countries, from the King of Spain to the French.
“The second for the better defence of Hungary against the Turk, for it is thought, if peace be made with the Persian, he will bend his forces against the Christians.
“The third for contribution to the payment and maintenance of the garrisons in Hungary, Croatia, and the frontier places upon the Turk.”
Other articles were propounded, whereof in my next I hope I can more particularly inform you.
Of religion, or concerning the church, no article was propounded, by the earnest request of the Legate to the Emperor; otherwise it would have been moved for the marriage of bishops and the choosing of Lutheran canons in cathedral churches. Seeing both religions be allowed in this State, it is thought reason that both sorts should enjoy the commodity the church doth yield.
There is expected an ambassador from the Duke of Brabant, and “we talk of his great offer he will make to the Empire, if he may be accepted; here we say, he will return not only those provinces which have, of long time, been accounted as parcels of the Empire, but also join the other countries and make them contributories in all affairs, both in peace and war, to the defence and maintenance of the State of Germany.”
The revolt to the French is greatly misliked here, especially by the House of Austria, as touching both their honour and profit, “and the whole State is loth the French should grow so great, for that in time they will be unquiet neighbours, as always, they say, it hath been the humour of that nation.”
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 12.]
“The names of the Princes arrived in this Diet” viz:—
The Bishops of Mainz (Maguntz), Augsburg, Würzburg and Eichstadt (Eistat).
The Duke of Saxony.
The Marquis of Brandenburg's eldest son, who supplies the place of his father.
The Duke of Bavaria and his brother Ferdinand.
The Archduke Charles.
The Palsgrave of Neuburg and three of his brothers.
The Duke of Mecklenburg and his son.
The Duke of Saxony's eldest son.
[Ibid. I. 12a.]
July 3. 647. Diet at Augsburg.
“Articles brought forward to be treated on at Augsburg on this date.”
1. That the six years of subsidy should be agreed to for the future, as they were at Ratisbon in 1576.
2. That it be considered how the troubles in the Low Countries may be appeased; and the dangers and losses which might result from them to Germany.
3. How the Empire might prevent the incursions of foreign potentates, especially into Livonia, and if what has been voluntarily promised by Russia could be put in practice.
4. How the Chamber of the Empire could reform the evident faults at present existing.
5. To put the Empire into a better state, and abolish the disorders which have crept into it.
6. To reform the litigious sessions, and that his Majesty would consider the writings of the complaining parties.
7. What should be done as regards the regulation of matters relating to the money of the Empire, and the raising of the price of gold and silver.
Lastly how to abolish the grievous customs put upon merchandise carried by sea to England, Sweden and Denmark.
Written below, in another hand: “The Emperor of Russia hath ambassadors at this Diet.”
Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 13.]
July 3. 648. Another copy of the above. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 14.]
July 3. 649. Opening of the Diet.
On the 3rd of July, 1582, the Electors, Princes, Commissioners, &c., being assembled in the Emperor's palace, that is the house of the Sieurs Foucqueres, early in the morning, shortly after seven o'clock, the Emperor went on horseback to the great church of Notre Dame, the Prince Elector of Saxony, as Marshal of the Empire, carrying the drawn sword before him. The office of the Holy Ghost was celebrated by the Bishop of Augsburg, Marquart, but when the celebration began, the Elector of Saxony with John Frederick, Administrator of the Bishopric of Magdeburg (who was come to the Diet in place of his father the Elector of Brandenburg); Philip Ludovic of Neuburg, Count Palatine of the Rhine, with his brothers, Otto Henry and John; Count Ulrich of Mecklenburg; Count Christian, son of the Elector of Saxony; Frederick William, son of the late Count William of Saxony; John and his brother Sigismund Augustus, Counts of Mecklenburg, John Albrecht and several other nobles, being of the Confession of Augsburg, withdrew from the choir, the hereditary Marshal delivering the sword to “celui de Popenheym,” and waiting at the bottom of the church until the service was ended, who [Pappenheim], after this, held the sword, although it was said he did it against his will, seeing that he is opposed to the Roman religion, until the Elector came back. The Emperor seated himself on the right hand of the choir, not far from the High Altar, under a gold canopy, attended by the Elector of Mayence, Seigneur Wolfgang, and the Commissioners of Treves and Cologne, who seated themselves about three paces from his Majesty. Next to them were seated the two Dukes of Bavaria, the Counts William and Ferdinand, with the Commissioners of George Ludovic, Landgrave of Lichtenberg (Lichtenper), and over against them, on the sloping place, the Archduke Charles, and next him the Bishop of Seckau (Seckouw) as legate for the Bishop of Salzburg, and then the Commissioners of the Sieur Julius, the Bishop of Würzburg, and Martin, Bishop of Eichstet.
After the celebration, the princes and other nobles who had withdrawn returned to the choir, and the Elector of Saxony received the sword again, and the whole assembly went with his Majesty to the Maison de la Ville, where the proposition was to be made.
Being arrived there, his Majesty remained standing by a seat covered with cloth of gold, under a gold canopy, until the princes, nobles and commissioners had taken their consiones, and then seated himself.
On his right hand was the Elector of Mayence, and by him the Commissioners of the Count Palatine, the Archduke Charles, and a little lower the Commissioners of the Archbishop of Premisch [qy. Bishop of Premisl].
On the left of the Imperial chair were the Commissioners of the Elector of Cologne, and next to them the Elector of Saxony, and the Administrator of Magdeburg. About a step lower were seated the Count William of Bavaria and the Count Palatine Philip Ludovic of Neuburg. Opposite to his Majesty were seated the Commissioner of the Elector of Treves and the Sieur Michael üsing, in the place of the House of Austria and the “Crets” [Kreis] of Burgundy.
On the third side were seated the Bishop of Seckau in place of the Bishop of Salzburg, the Bishop of Würzburg and the Bishop of Eichstadt, and on the fourth side, the Commissioner of Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg. All the other young lords and princes remained outside the circuit, but the other ruling lords were inside.
After all were in place, the Bishop of Würzburg (because the Vice-Chancellor was absent by reason of illness) went three steps forward, and spoke in the name of the Emperor to the Princes, Electors and Estates as follows:—
His Imperial Majesty, seeing that the Princes, Electors and Estates of the Holy Roman Empire had either in person or by their counsellors or commissioners obediently appeared at his request in the present assembly of the Empire, wishes first to declare that his not having appeared at the time appointed was not his fault, but was due to hindrances which were known to them.
And as his Majesty has arranged the present assembly for the peace, union and concord of the common Christianity of the holy Empire and the fatherland of the German nation, as also for the defence of his Majesty from the eminent peril of the enemy of the name of Christ and of the Kingdoms of Hungary and Austria, as the bulwarks and walls of Germany:
And as he has had put in writing his request, and has ordered it to be read in this assembly, he prays them not only to listen to it, but to take a good resolution thereupon, and to give his Majesty their opinion, and to show themselves hearty and obedient, as he hoped they would, and as their common Christianity required, both for their country and the well-being of strangers, as also for the very evident peril of the land of Hungary.
This speech being finished, the Bishop gave his Majesty's proposition to be publicly read by the Secretary of the Imperial Court, the Sieur Andrew Erstenberger, the articles of which were as follows:—
[The 8 articles of the proposition follow. See p. 607 above.]
When the proposition was read, his Majesty spoke briefly, desiring the Princes and Estates to consult together, what advice they should give him for the good of Christianity, and to ward off its great perils. Upon this the Sessiones rose, and the Princes, &c., assembled together to debate what they should reply to his Majesty. After they had agreed upon their answer, the Elector of Mayence, as Arch-Chancellor of the Empire, was commissioned to make reply in the name of the rest, to the effect following:—
That the Princes, Estates, &c., had obediently heard all that had been proposed by his Majesty, and believed no other than that his Majesty, no less than his predecessors, the late Emperors Ferdinand and Maximilian of blessed memory, had made his proposals for the dignity and reputation of the Empire and the peace and prosperity of their common Christianity, and especially in relation to the distractions of their fatherland, which up to this time, by God's aid, he had kept in peace, and would do so, it was hoped, in the future also. And he having assembled this Diet, the princes, &c., thanked him therefor, and desired in all obedience and according to their power, to show what for the future would be necessary for the carrying out of the praiseworthy and Christian intentions of his Majesty, and for the defence of his honour and reputation.
But touching his Majesty's proposition, as comprised in divers articles, they will consult obediently and willingly and will weigh the necessity thereof, and will each, according to his quality and power, do all that is possible for the peace and welfare of the Empire and their common fatherland, together with what is necessary for Christianity; and in conclusion they humbly commend themselves to his Majesty's Imperial clemency, as their benign Emperor and lord.
After this, his Majesty was escorted by the whole assembly to his palace, where he withdrew himself from them, with many thanks for their escort.
Endd.: “Proposition made in the Diet on the behalf of the Emperor, the 3rd July, 1582, with the answer of the Princes to the same.”
French. 11 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 15.] (Said to be translated from hault alleman, which apparently has not always been clearly understood.)
July 4. 650. Cavagliero Maycott to Walsingham.
The Emperor arrived here on the 27 of June, where were the Electors of Mentz, Saxony, and the son of Brandenburg, accompanied by the Archduke Charles of Styria, the Duke of Bavaria and his brother, the Palatine of Neuburg, the Duke of Mecklenburg, and the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstadt.
The other three Electors, viz. the County Palatine and the Bishops of Treves and Cologne, with the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, the Duke of Cleves, and the Landgrave of Hesse, only sent ambassadors.
The beginning of the parliament was upon July 3, where, amongst divers articles, the following were propounded:—
1. That the Emperor must have greater contributions granted him than his father had in 1576 (the time thereof being almost expired), both in consideration of his great charge about the Empire, and that he might be better able to withstand the Turkish force, now more to be feared as they have made peace with the Persian.
2. How Flanders may be preserved to the Empire.
3. That such princes of the Empire as thought themselves to be more charged in contributions than the rest may be rated with more equality. [Probably part of Article 4.]
4. That there may be an appointment for the valueing of all the current moneys of the Empire. [Article 7.]
There has as yet been no certain mention made of the Book of Concord.
“It was thought that there should have been handled divers other matters about religion, but the Pope's Legate, who is the Cardinal of Trent, hath gone about by all means possible to prevent that there be no talk thereof, which men do also think that he shall easily obtain at the Emperor's hands.
“It is here talked that the King of Spain hath sent hither one [to receive cancelled] of the States 6,000 reiters, which is not yet granted, neither is it thought that he shall obtain them. His intent is to carry them into the Low Countries. We look shortly to have an ambassador from Monsieur, who offereth to acknowledge himself prince of the Empire, and thereunto to annex the Low Countries, to be protected as it hath been in times past.”
The accord between the Turk and the Persian has alarmed those of Malta, who have called home all their knights. If any other news comes to me during the month or six weeks that I remain here, I will not fail to give it to you.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 16.]
July 7. 651. Henry van Holte to Walsingham.
Stating that it would be much for the honour of her Majesty and the interest of the English merchants if a commissioner or commissioners were sent from England to this present Diet of the Emperor at Augsburg as speedily as possible, since, at the instance of the men of the Hanse towns, and especially those of Lubeck, there will be serious discussion at this meeting of the Hanses' causes, of which (as he has heard from many) mention has already been made by the Imperial senate and estates. And in the first place there are come hither commissioners from the city and senate of Lubeck, who, having acted violently against the Queen and the Adventurers last year, will now, by these their commissioners (he fears), pursue the matter very earnestly, wherefore, the more quickly a commissioner or commissioners can be hastened hither, so much the more will it be for her Majesty's dignity and for the profit of the English nation.
It is hoped that the Diet may have a happy result, as the Emperor and all the princes seem to endeavour it by assiduous and diligent consultations. He himself will do all he possibly can. Augsburg, 7 July, 1582.
Add. Endd. Sealed. Latin. 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 17.]
652. Lorenzo Guicciardini to Sir Arthur Throckmorton, in London.
I have received your most welcome letter of the end of April, which truly has been a little too long on the way. I learned with much pleasure of your good health and pray God long to continue it. I also am well, and with good management hope to remain so. The affairs of this world go on here much as usual, and those poor English merchants and others who are prisoners at Rome, do not get out of prison. God knows what their end will be, for it is evident that the Pope has hardened his heart. The English ship which was taken by the galleys of Malta through the ignorance and obstinacy of her master, will, it is feared, lose all her goods, which grieves me infinitely. I have not failed and will not fail to work for the benefit of that nation, so much beloved by me, but the Roman Inquisition is troppo apassionata et interessata.
I can assure your honour that all the English ships with their crews and goods which shall come to Livorno will be safe, well received and well treated. The greatest part of the injury received by the nation is due to some English man who does the contrary of what he ought to do.—Florence, 12th of July, 1582.
Signed. Add. Endd. Italian. 1 p. [Tuscany, I. 2.]
[July 17.] 653. Diet at Augsburg.
On the 27th of June, 1582, between three and four o'clock the Emperor arrived in this town, and was received under the red gate. Thence he was conducted, under a canopy of yellow damask with the imperial eagle, to the church of Notre Dame, and afterwards to his lodgings.
At this entry, there, was first the harbinger of the Empire alone, then forty-one lines, followed by the Saxon drums and trumpets; 49 lines, together with 14 lines of youths [jeunes] with chains of gold and richly accoutred, carrying the arms of Saxony and Brandenburg. Next came 40 lines of the Prince Elector of Brandenburg and of Neuburg and Mecklenburg, with their noble pages, trumpets of Bavaria, 23 lords with gold chains, attired in velvet, 8 saddle horses furnished; 10 lines of the lords of Hungary also richly attired; 48 lines of servitors on horseback, four lines of “focqueres,” 48 of all sorts of people, 16 saddled horses of his Majesty, and 10 youths of the nobility, followed by one bearing the arms of the Emperor, in very fine feathers, 59 lines of nobles, 15 trumpeters of the Imperial Court with a drum, and 45 lines preceding his Majesty, before whom rode the Prince Elector of Saxony with his sword drawn.
Before the lords of his Majesty were four heralds in their habits, four lines of princes, viz. the son of the Elector of Saxony; one of Weimar; he of Brandenburg; the Count Palatine of Neuburg, the Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria and the brother of Neuburg (Uburch), the Archduke Charles, the Duke of Mecklenburg, the Duke William of Bavaria, the Prince Elector of Mayence, the Bishop of Würzburg and the Bishop d'Eichstadt (Aichstet).
Behind his Majesty came many princes, counts and lords, after these, a hundred “artsiers” of the Emperor, with more than 1,150 halbardiers of the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, followed by 178 lines of servitors of all the lords, and last of all the provost with his halbardiers. In all there were, at the entry, 2,082 horse.
On the 28th of June, the lords of this town presented to the Emperor two waggons of wine and four of oats; two casks of Malvoisie and Muscadelle, ten great tubs of fish, and three gilt cups, each with 500 new gold florins.
On the 11th of July, the Princes gave a banquet, at which were present the following:—
His Imperial Majesty.
The Prince Elector of Mayence.
The Prince Elector of Saxony with his company.
The Bishop of Würzburg.
The Bishop D'Eichstat.
The Archduke Charles with his company.
Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria.
The Duke of Coburg.
The young Duke of Mecklenburg.
The Duchess Maria Maximiliana of Bavaria.
The Marquise of Baden, a young girl.
The Count Palatine of Lichtenberg.
The Administrator of Halle.
Duke William of Bavaria and his company.
The Count Palatine Philip Lodovic of Lubourg [Neuburg] and his company.
The son of the Elector of Saxe and his company.
The Duke of Mecklenburg and his company.
The second and young Count Palatine of Neuburg (Uburch) and his sister, a young girl.
The Duke of Weimar.
The elder (ancienne) Marquise of Baden, a young girl.
The second Duke of Mecklenburg.
On the 15th of July there arrived the Bishop of Liége and on the 17th the Bishop of Treves.
On July 16 the Prince Elector of Saxony gave the banquet, at which were present:—
His Imperial Majesty.
On his right hand:—
The Prince Elector of Mayence, his kinsman.
Christopher of Würzburg, his kinsman.
The Bishop of Liége (Littich), Duke of Bavaria.
Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria.
The Prince Elector of Saxony with his company.
One of the house of Denmark.
The son of the Prince of Saxony and his wife, of the family of Brandenburg.
The two daughters of the Prince of Saxony, the ladies Dorothea and Juliana.
The young Sigismund Augustus, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Duke John Casimir of Saxony, Duke of Coburg.
The son of the Duke, prisoner in the Nyentsstadt, three leagues from Vienna.
On the left hand:—
The Administrator of Halle.
The son of the Prince Elector of Brandenburg.
Duke Carlin, of the family of a Duchess of Bavaria.
The Archduke Charles of Austria.
Duke William of Bavaria.
The Countess Palatine of Neuburg, of the family of a Duchess of Cleves.
The Count Palatine Philip Ludovic of Neuburg.
The old Duchess of Mecklenburg, of the house of Denmark.
The old Duke Ulrich of Mecklenburg.
The Duchess of Wirtemberg, of the family of a Marquise of Baden.
The Duke of Wirtemberg.
The second [brother] Otto Henry, Count Palatine of Neuburg.
The Countess Palatine, a young girl, sister of the three brothers of Neuburg.
The Count Palatine Frederic of Neuburg, the youngest.
The old lady (la vieille dame), Maria Jacoba, Marquise of Baden.
Count William of Saxony.
The Duke of Weimar.
The young lady (la jeune dame), Maria Salome, Marquise of Baden.
Duke John of Mecklenburg, the old one.
Endd.: “The order of the Emperor's entry into Ausburghe, 27 June, 1582.” [Last date, July 17.] French. Translation from German. 5½ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 18.]
July 17. 654. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Since my departure from Antwerp, I have neither done or heard anything worth troubling your honour with, but having to stay here a day or two on my way to Augsburg, I will give you such news as I have learnt.
The Emperor arrived at Augsburg on June 28 [sic], and the 5th [sic] present was the first day of meeting, when his Majesty delivered his proposition to the Assembly, according to the German manner. Now they are to give in their resolutions, which, I hear, is delayed because the Count Palatine and the Bishops of Treves and Cologne are not yet appeared. The two former are said to be on the way; the third has sent his commissioners, “excusing his not coming by reason of troubles in his neighbour countries, and the daily passing of men of war along and through his jurisdictions.”
“The Duke of Saxony arrived there with a great train, and, as it seemeth meaneth to stay, for he hath sent away the greater part, and showeth himself very attendant about the Emperor,” having at his entry, himself carried the sword before him. “The princes and nobles (as the custom is) begin to feast each other and make great cheer, the Emperor having been entertained very sumptuously at the Archduke Charles'.”
Amongst the propounded points, the first is for a contribution towards the payment of the soldiers “frontering on the Turk's country, which is thought will be granted, though not so soon as his Majesty looked for. For refusing after a sort, for causes, to accept or admit those of Aquisgrane [Aachen] in the assembly, as no free town, their deputies complained to the commissioners of the imperial towns, who are so discontented therewith as they have not only refused to yield their opinions but also to come or deal in council till the receiving of those deputies, according to their degree and former custom; besides, further doubt may arise ere the grant be passed, so small is the love or affection (which is said to be borne) to the House of Austria.”
The second is whether it is liked or not tolerable by the Empire “that the Duke of Alen¸on should settle his continuance in the Low Countries, and so the French have an entry into these parts, both by Metz and those countries, which question is thought will move great and long dispute, for I hear the King of Spain maketh many friends.”
The third is to take order to recover all those places (as Metz, Verdun, &c.) which are lost to the Empire, wherein the King of Spain has promised his help, and (as some say) that he will get Metz for them if they will use their power to restore him to his government in the Low Countries.
Fourthly, that good order may be set down how princes, nobles and gentlemen may know “the compass and precincts” of their jurisdictions, superiorities, &c., and how to demean themselves in ruling the same, to avoid division and debate amongst them.
Fifth, “touching the reforming of the course of law or order in pleas, which they call the chamber right.”
Lastly to take order to bring the coins and value of money to one rate throughout the Empire.
Monsieur's commissioners are expected daily. “By what I can hear, here will be as many will hold with him as with the King of Spain, or rather more, especially if in his behalf be offered . . . that whatsoever is in the Low Countries which, at any time, appertained to the Empire ... his Alteze will willingly yield due restitution.”
Six thousand foot and 500 horsemen have passed by Genoa, half Spanish and the rest Italian, but the horse all Albanoises, and more follow. The Duke of Savoy still intends to besiege Geneva, but the Swiss towns in league with her, and especially Berne, have sent to him that if so, they will make ready to assist their friends, and become his heavy enemies.
It is bruited that the King of Spain's daughter is on her way to Augsburg, there to be married to the Emperor, but some say it will not be yet this four months.
Advice from Rome says that the Pope has got fourteen or sixteen Jesuits to go for England, and has hallowed and charmed their persons, that no harm can come to them, “yet they fearing the force of their ghostly father that of late shrived their fellows at Tyburn, departed six or seven weeks since with intent to live and die as martyrs.” They should be looked for in time, before they do any mischief. Nuremburg, 17 July.
Postscript.—The enclosed I found at my arrival, and think it to come from the Count of Embden's doctor, who lies at the Emperor's Court. [Enclosure not now with the letter.]
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 19.]
July 19. 655. Diet at Augsburg.
[The Imperial and Free Cities are agreed as following:—]
Firstly, touching what has passed at Acon [Aachen]; that there was process granted and execution done upon an imperial and free city without any kind of forewarning; the like of which was never done before.
That it is openly said that the free cities are not members or states of the Empire, nor comprehended under the contract of religion and general peace, contrary to the decree of peace concluded in the reign of the Emperor Maximilian in 1574.
That they have no aid from the soldiers appointed as a guard of the shires and limits; as if they were not participant in their help, or that the head of the companies could give aid or not at their pleasure.
That the Imperial States, their neighbours, have sought to do execution against them, under a pretended colour of their rights, whereas they ought to “keep the ordinances of the Empire as well as the smallest member thereof.
As touching the Imperial chamber, the “inconveniences fell unto Acon” only because their process was not granted and ratified, or at the least slowly executed, whereby other cities are subject to the like misfortune.
That those of Acon were not only not called, but were wholly dismissed from the Imperial assembly; and it is sought to exclude the cities from all kinds of treaties and dealings.
That as those of Acon were dismissed, other free cities are in danger of the like.
That touching the controversy between the city of Augsburg and the Marshal of the Empire, there was process granted against the said city, they being neither adjourned nor their cause heard, contrary to their ancient privileges and the Emperor's own decree, “although it had been cum causœ cognitione, to the prejudicing and infringing of their government and privileges; and not only that they had determined against the city, but also were about to put the decree in execution.”
And forasmuch as by these processes the free cities are sought to be cut off from voice and place in the Empire (from which it will follow that they will come to no consultations and agree to no contributions unless in the present assembly they be warranted from such dangers), their suit to the Electors, States, &c., is that they would put to their helping hands that the cities may be provided for against such imminent perils.
For until such time as they know that they shall be equal participants of the privileges and immunities of the Empire, they, appointed of the said cities, have order neither to deal or agree to anything, for which they trust no man will blame them, “things being in these terms.”
And as the city of Augsburg in particular and they all in general were thus constrained to appeal to the Emperor, Electors, &c., their humble suit is to have their cause against the Marshal “talked” in open court, and execution in the meantime stayed.
And so far as the foresaid griefs be remedied, the commissioners of the free towns are content to enter into consultation with the other Estates. And the imperial free cities of Lubeck and Gosselar do further declare that they have given express commandment to their deputies that if, in this present assembly, they had no redress, they neither could nor would agree to any contribution. Augsburg, July 19, 1582.
Endd. 4 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 20.]
July 21. 656. News from Paris.
The Italians and Spaniards to the number of 7,000 footmen and 1,000 horse are already marched towards the Low Countries. Peace is thought to be concluded between the Turk and the Persian; 2,000 footmen are gone out of Naples into Spain, to be placed in garrison in Portugal.
Monsieur has sent one to the Duke of Florence, as it is thought to borrow money. The Pope and King of Spain use all means to breed division among the Swisses. Five companies of [Catholic] Swisses are gone to serve the Duke of Savoy. The Swisses have stopped the passages against the said Duke, and the Grisons offer them 12,000 men for defence of the country and Geneva.
Monsieur has already received money from France, and it is thought more will be sent. There is a great assembly held at Fontainebleau. It is said that Don Antonio is landed at Bayona in Galicia, and has taken a place of importance. He has in his fleet 500 soldiers, 300 gentlemen and 2,000 mariners.
Endd.: Extract of a letter from Paris. [But the letter is not amongst the State Papers of that date.] 1 p. [Newsletters IX. 14.]
July 21, 22. 657. Letters from Paris.
The French King has had many meetings in Council at Fontainebleau, and divers of the chiefest have been licenced to depart to their governments. The Lord of Weame [Wemyss], surnamed Colvin, has treated for a marriage between the Scottish King and the Princess of Bearn and has taken her picture to show to the King.
The affairs of Geneva depend upon the resolution of the Diet at Baden, but it is advertised that the Duke of Savoy has sent 14 pieces of battery towards Geneva. He has entertained 2,000 Swisses, led by Colonel Phyfer. The French King labours the agreement with the Swisses.
The 21 companies of Spaniards that came from Naples and Sicily are in Franche Comté, marching towards Flanders, and 9,000 horse are likewise passing thither, to be commanded, it is said, by the Duke of Parma's eldest son. Part of the 6,000 Arman [qy. Almain] footmen which John Manrique leaves in the Comtè of Tirol are to supply the garrisons in Naples, and the others to be sent into Portugal.
The Prince of Parma labours to go home, and it is said that Marco Antonio Colonna will supply his place. His father is discontented that the King has refused to let him take into his hands the citadel of Piacenza. Don John de Cardona is to go to the gallies with a thousand Italians and great quantity of saltpetre, to transport them into Portugal. The Pope promises the Duke of Savoy to defray a third of the charge against Geneva, and King Philip has promised to bear another third. It is said that 36 ships with galleys and galliots and 8,000 soldiers, Spaniards, are ready to depart upon news of the approach of King Antonio.
A marriage concluded between the Emperor and the King of Spain's eldest daughter. The Englishmen imprisoned at Rome are not to be released before their qualities be known.
July 22.—Précis of Cobham's letter calendared under this date. 2 pp. [Ibid. IX. 15.]
658. The Queen to the King of Poland.
Last year we sent to your highness our envoy, John Rogers, doctor of laws, in order to the obtaining of certain privileges of trade for our subjects in your city of Elbing. The affair then suffered some repulse, because it happened at the time of your expedition to Muscovy, and we recalled our said envoy, awaiting a time when the matter might be more convenient and opportune. Now, as we have heard, there is a pause in those warlike operations, and our affairs demand that the business should not be further delayed.
In order more expeditiously to obtain our purpose, we have caused a “formula” of the desired privileges to be prepared by our Council, which we would commend to your highness, together with our earnest request that (if, as we hope, they do not seem to you unfair) your highness will, of your goodwill and favour to us and our subjects, grant and ratify what we desire. And we, for our part, will not fail to make good our promises to your subjects of Elbing that they shall enjoy the like privileges in our realm, when and as they desire.
We therefore pray your highness to oblige us in the matter of the said privileges, and (since very few of the heads touch your royal authority and the rest are already as good as granted by the people of Elbing), thus to show your desire that we should be closely linked to you, which we shall be if you do not reject our honourable demands. Of this we have no fear, and therefore will use no more words. July, 1582.
Copy. Latin.½ p. [Poland, I. 16.]
July. 659. The Queen to the Magistrates of Elbing.
Although the matter of the privileges claimed by our subjects in your city has hitherto been held in abeyance by the more pressing warlike occupations of the King of Poland, and the recall of our envoy in those parts, yet, not to seem to be neglectful of your prayers and the honourable petition of our subjects, we have employed the interval of time in having prepared, by some of our Council, a formula of the heads of the privileges now granted by you, and of others which it will not be derogatory to the honour of your King to concede. This formula we have thought well to send to his highness for inspection by him, and his assent if he thought fit, so as to break through the tedious discussions and failures of conferences; and we now send it by this our messenger, with a copy thereof for yourselves, from which you will learn how entirely in accordance with your wish, and with what open recognition of your liberality, we are proceeding in the matter, undertaking, whenever occasion shall arise, to make good what we faithfully promise in the said formula. It only remains for your King to do the same, and we do not doubt that you will lend your hearty aid to that end. July, 1582.
Endd. Copy. Latin.p. [Poland, I. 17.]
Aug. 1. 660. Asheby to Walsingham.
Your honour's of July 7th I received on the 30th by Mr. Gilpin, the day before arriving in this city, and, according to your request, I have, from time to time, imparted to you such occurrences as this assembly did yield.
I send you the Emperor's propositions “in the same language they were recited.” Since then nothing has been resolved but the contribution to his Majesty, granted by the electors and princes, to the sum of two million gilders, to be paid in five years, beginning in 1583, when the grant to Maximilian ends, and adding a million more, if there grow suspicion of the Turk, for such preparation as shall be thought requisite upon the sudden.
To this grant the free cities will not as yet agree, unless his Majesty will confirm their liberty, especially of religion, “not only to those which received it in the time of Charles V, but also that such as sithence have, and daily begin to receive the gospel, may enjoy the benefit of the interim then granted for the Confession of Augsburg, wherein his Majesty showeth himself somewhat unwilling, being loth to permit and suffer anything, if otherwise he could avoid it, contrary to the Church of Rome.
“Further, his Majesty is not satisfied with the grant of the electors and princes, for that his hope was, they would have had the same consideration of him that they have had heretofore of Maximilian his father, to whom they granted, in the last Diet at Ratisbon in Bavaria, six millions to be paid in six years, wherefore ... he said to this effect, that considering the great debts he is burdened withal by his predecessors, and the charges he hath been at sithence the beginning of his reign, and is still daily forced to, in fortifying and maintaining frontier garrisons against the Turk, besides the presents and gifts yearly sent to him; and [as] that which he doth is altogether tending to the defence of the Empire against a mighty and puissant enemy of theirs and all Christendom, his request is that they would better think of this so weighty a cause once again, and vouchsafe him at the least the like contribution that his father Maximilian received of their benevolence heretofore. . . . And further, whereas the cities seem to draw back and not to consent to the grant of the two higher houses, the electors and princes of the Empire, he doth not a little marvel what their meaning should tend unto, knowing that their denial is not available according to the constitutions of the state, and for that also, as he then added, they shall find him willing and ready to confirm the acts of his predecessors heretofore by them allowed; but this last clause the cities hardly believe . . . for that it is thought the Legate putteth it into his head that the interim had his force no longer than till the general Council of Trent, and comprehending besides none but those cities which then had made profession, excluding all which followed the same steps afterward; and seeing withal he doth prohibit the exercise of religion to the protestants in Austria, in his peculiar jurisdiction, they fear he would go further herein, if ever opportunity shall serve him, which may easily happen in this division for religion in these parts, which is the key to ruin, as we see in divers kingdoms of the world at this present.
“Of religion little hath been handled, neither once mentioned amongst the articles the first day propounded, and that at the request of the Legate, who would not have those causes handled in these assemblies, for that their side is the weaker in these parts, and to this end his presence here tendeth.
“Of the Low Countries there hath been no consultation, as far as I can understand, but thought it will be left to every man's disposition, wherein the House of Austria, for interest to the right, for affection to the Church of Rome, and the hatred to the French, as their ancient enemies and competitors, they must needs favour the cause of Spain in what they may, but from these parts let them look for the most help which are the best monied, for the German is indifferent on what side it falleth, readiest to help the party that is best able to entertain him, and mercenary in all causes without respect of religion.”
We think the Duke of Saxony's pomp to be meant only to show his greatness above the rest, “for in banqueting and feasting the Emperor and the princes, in garnishing himself, his wife, his son and his young daughter-in-law with pearls, with diamonds, with rubies, with emeralds, and other precious jewels, he far exceeded all the rest; in number of followers, in horse and men well furnished, and all in good order ... his train is such as his charges here riseth to 1,000 florins a day.
“The Emperor banquetted the princes the 30 of July, where was plenty of dainty dishes, plate curiously wrought, and heavenly music during the feast, but no drinking alla tudesca. In the midst of the banquet entered Fame, with a comediante or two, discoursing pleasantly to delight his Majesty and the princes, but the Dutch liked not these Welshes' tricks, for the bowls ceased in the meantime, which is the chiefest entertainment of their tables.
“There hath been some controversy this Diet for the precedency of the Administrator of Magdeburg and the Bishop of Salzburg; the one party not acknowledging the Administrator as a primate of Germany, for that he hath not received his mantle from the Pope. This controversy betwixt them was referred to the Emperor, whose answer was to the Marquis that he could not account him a primate of Germany, not receiving such a dignity of the church without such ceremonies and compliments from the Pope as the calling required. Upon this answer, the Marquis, greatly discontented, departed from this city suddenly the 29 of July, not staying, being invited by his Majesty to his feast, made to all the electors and princes here present, the day following.”
Since my last letter, there have arrived here the Duke of Würtemberg, the Bishop of Liége and a second brother to the Marquise of Baden, and last of all, July 17, the Archbishop of Trier. There are departed from the Diet the Archduke Charles, the Marquise [sic] of Brandenburg and Administrator of Magdeburg, eldest son of the Elector; the Duke of Mecklenburg and the Duke of Würtemberg.
The ambassadors from the Duke of Brabant are expected daily; it may be they will waken up the article of the Low Countries, not yet consulted of.
As I had written the enclosed I received yours of July 16 from Nonsuch, concerning Mr. Roger's cause, wherein my diligence shall not be wanting, “being desirous to see him delivered out of this purgatory, which the poor gentleman hath suffered so long. I would be the gladder it should have good success that I might seek him out in my way homeward, to cross the seas together. Not a month before him, in the same country, upon the river of Rhine, I escaped the like danger. The boat wherein I and Mr. Throgmorton were was attempted and boarded by ten or twelve shot, but it was our good haps to repulse them, and so, by God's help, avoided their fingers.
“Pasquil beginneth to counsel in this Diet as freely as in Rome, as appeareth by these few verses thrown abroad in this assembly. The party showeth more collour [qy. choler] in him than wit.” (Enclosures wanting.) Augsburg. 1st August [15]82.
Add. Endd. 5 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 21.]
Aug. 2. 661. Gilpin to Walsingham.
On the 17th of the last I wrote to you from Nuremberg and have since received two packets, the one of July 7th (enclosing letters to Mr. Ashby and your servant Chevalier Maycott, whose answers I now send) and the other of the 17th by an express, who made such speed that he arrived yesterday. Mr. Ashby and I have had conference together, and resolve to employ our endeavours to accomplish your expectations.
Mr. Sturmius has written to me, and withal sent several letters to Duke Casimir's and the Duke of Deux Ponts' commissioners, as also to two of his particular friends of Strasburg, likewise here in commission.
The matter of the Hanses will be one of the last points they deal in. I requested access to his Majesty to present her Majesty's letters in that behalf, but am required by Herr Rumff (whose means I use) to have a little patience, his Majesty being so busy in matters of very great weight about the Diet, that my desire could, as yet, not be moved. “I understand the Hanses not only find themselves grieved in respect of their late enjoyed privileges in England, but also of those they heretofore had in Denmark and Livonia, so as the King's commissioners that are here be likewise occasioned to oppose against them.”
I have scant stirred abroad or conferred with any since my arrival, but Mr. Ashby and Mr. Maycott are privy unto such few things as I know, and have advertised you of them. Augsburg, 2nd August, 1582.
Chevalier Maycott's letters were not ready ere the post departed. This day the Emperor dines with the Duke of Saxony, “whom he maketh very much of in every respect.”
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 22.]
Aug. 4. 662. Intelligence from Divers Places.
On June 27 the Emperor entered Augsburg accompanied by the Duke of Bavaria, where he was received by the Electors and nobles and brought into the city under a canopy carried by 12 nobles of the city. The 2nd of July was the “first proposition” of the Diet. The Elector Palatine has sent his ambassador, not being able to go in person “through the indisposition of one of his legs.” The other Electors were daily looked for.
June 23, the Prince of Bisiniano [qy. Bisignano] came to Rome, fleeing from Naples upon some displeasure of the Viceroy. It is thought they will be reconciled by the Pope and Cardinal de Medicis. This cardinal has been named by the Pope protector of Spain, and Cardinal Colonna of Flanders, at which time he absolved the Great Master, deceased, of all crimes imputed against him, and declared it unlawful for the knights of Malta to deprive their Great Master without his licence.
Cardinal de Medicis labours to be in favour with the Spanish ambassador, and by his means to prevent the practices of the Duke of Tuscany (Thoscane) for possession of the state of Florence. The King of Spain and Duke of Florence have joined “to accord in the election of the next cardinals, thereby to place a pope at their devotions and to impeach Farnese.” The differences of the Patriarch of Aquilea are determined.
At Palamos in Catalonia “divers strange sights have appeared in the air, in form of lions, bears, wolves &c., which were driven by the dean of the cathedral church there with crosses and sacrament into a marsh ground and a meadow, the grass whereof immediately withered.”
The two galliasses set out from Naples with 8,000 soldiers are returned greatly spoiled by tempest. 150,000 crowns have been sent from Naples to Milan to pay the horsemen to be sent into Flanders. The Naples galleys are sent to sea to resist the Turkish rovers; afterwards they are to transport Italian soldiers into Portugal, “being better favoured there than the Castilians. The Bishop of Liége hath brought the Inquisition into his bishopric, which the commonalty and magistrates of Liége refuse to allow of.”
The Duke of Ferrara labours a marriage between Don Alfonso d'Este, his next heir, and a niece of the Duke of Venice, with condition that she may become an adopted daughter of St. Mark, which the Duchess of Florence opposes.
Aug. 1.—Précis of Sir Henry Cobham's letter of this date. See Cal. S.P. For., 1582, p. 207.
Aug. 4.—Précis of John Cobham's letter of this date. See Ibid. p. 219.
pp. [Newsletters IX. 16.]
Aug. 12. 663. Rudolf II to the Queen.
Acknowledging her Majesty's letter of July 17th, concerning the capture of her servant Rogers. Has hitherto heard nothing certainly of his seizure and detention, and does not even know where this Anhalt lives and to what quarters he belongs, but has written to the princes of Parma and Juliers, urging them to do their utmost to procure Rogers' liberation and speedy return to his own country, Augsburg, 12 August, 1582.
Signed. Countersigned, A. Erstenberger. Svieheuser. Add. Sealed. Endd. “To her Majesty from the Emperor. What he hath done for the release of Daniell.” Latin.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 23.]
Aug. 16. 664. Gilpin to Walsingham.
I have dealt thoroughly for Mr. Rogers with the Vice-Chancellor, who, having imparted her Majesty's letter to the Emperor and the Council, told me this morning that earnest letters were to be written to the Duke of Cleves, “but as for the Baron of Anhalt, said not to know what he was or under whose jurisdiction, although I before . . . had showed unto him so much as might have reasonably satisfied therein; so as I doubt the conclusion of your honour's own hand-writing touching the Emperor's affection may fall true, but until I see the copy or know the effect of his letter, cannot further advertise,” only that I intend to urge the assembly at this Diet to deal in the cause, towards which no endeavours on my part shall be “slacked.”
Her Majesty's letter touching the Hanses was sent to the Electors' place of meeting, and, being read, is to be copied and distributed to the other houses, so that to-morrow or the next day, I trust to hear how and when they will deal with me and hear me. I perceive they mean that commissioners shall be appointed by his Majesty and them to handle the matter, hearing both the Hanses' objections and what I have to oppose to them, and, after their report made to the general meeting, the latter will determine the matter. I will do my utmost to discharge my duty in the matter. The second part of the proposition has been handled, and, notwithstanding the King of Spain's offers, the issue is not fallen out according to the expectation of himself and those who favour his side. His declaration “tended to inveigh against the Low Country people and make odious their late accepting of the French, against which nation he showed his grief, with the danger and loss of and to the Empire, if the other should possess and settle so near them, which to meet, he not only offered the according of that which heretofore belonged to the Empire,” but also would bear all the charges of money, armour and munition, and all other necessaries thereunto, without any cost to the Empire further than to countenance that action. This sounded so well to the assembly (whereof the most number are spiritual, or inclined to that side) that it would have been carried, but one learned man fetched the matter so about, with sundry reasons, that it was determined to the effect following:—
“Considering the likelihood that the King of France hath intelligence with his brother in the Low Country action, there might be wars moved against the Empire by France, as also the Turk, who is friends with the Persian, ergo it is best not to intermeddle, and for the redress of the invasion and spoil of the places and jurisdictions under the Empire, ambassadors to be sent to the Prince of Parma and to the States, requiring their commandment to those in their service to desist such disorder and evil usage, either by land or water, &c.
“And to keep and defend the limits, certain men to be levied and placed in convenient places for such purpose, the charges to be born by the Electors, the princes along the Rhine stream and those of Westphalia with the other borderers. This or to like effect I understand the resolution to be; nothing liked of by the Spaniards and their friends.”
The delay of Monsieur's ambassadors has vexed many, for though report goes that they are stayed by the Emperor (without knowledge of the assembly) because he will hear none that come as from the Duke of Brabant, yet it is thought the Estates will hear them “if they stay not till the Diet be ended,” which it is said will be shortly after the first point is accorded, for now the Spaniard hath not his will, the clergy begin to prepare their departure.
The Duke of Bavaria, it is said, “will away” in two or three days. His brother the Bishop left before the second point was dealt in. The Archdukes Mathias and Maximilian are gone, the one to Genoa, the other to Vienna. “There hath been some speeches moved about religion, and thought some towns will get liberty for exercise, as Cologne, though by their request they hindered their desire, for they requested only for the Lutheranism, and wrote after a sort against others, the favourers, of which should chiefly have been their assistants. ... Assuredly the Duke Casimir his deputies do use themselves notably in all these negotiations, and procure to their Master and themselves fame immortal. God send good success to all that advance his gospel and glory.” Augsburg, 16th August, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 24.]
[Undated.] 665. A torn scrap, in relation apparently to the disbursement of 400,000l. for an extraordinary camp.
French.¼ p. [Germany, Empire, I. 25.]
Aug. 18. 666. Defence for the Merchant Adventurers of England against the calumnies and accusations of the Hanse towns, addressed to the Emperor, Electors and other Princes and Estates of the Empire, assembled at Augsburg. Exhibited on August 18, 1582.
Copy. Endd.: “Of the causes between the Hanseatics, complainants, and the English merchants, defendants.” Latin. 11¼ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 26.]
Aug. 22. 667. Gilpin to Walsingham.
I have received the Emperor's letters to her Majesty, the Prince of Parma and the Duke of Cleves, and have committed the bearing of them to Mr. Ashby, who will take the Duke in his way, and see what he will do for Mr. Rogers' delivery. The letters are not so effectual as was desired, as Mr. Ashby will show you, who will also tell you all that has passed here. I have imparted a copy of the said letter to Duke Casimir's and the other Princes' commissioners, “who agreed with me in opinion to send them, since they were as much as would be gotten of the Emperor,” and if after consideration it were needful for me to make further suit to the assembly, it might be done notwithstanding the despatch of the letters. The letter to Parma, Mr. Ashby will deliver to Steven Lesieur to convey, if needful after they have had conference together and seen what the Duke will do.
Touching the Hanses' cause nothing is done but that her Majesty's letter is copied and distributed to all the Estates, after whose opinion given it will be resolved how to proceed further. Augsburg, 22nd August, 1582.
Add. Endd. Sealed. 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 27.]
Aug. 29. 668. Account of the fight before Ghent.
The leaguer lying within a Dutch mile of Ghent, the Malcontents sat down at a place called Kover [qy. Kirkover] Castle, a league distant, and intelligence of their approach was brought to Ghent, where the Duke and Prince of Orange were.
The General, Mr. Norris, and many other of our English leaders being in the city, were ordered to the leaguer, where they arrived between nine and ten at night. The word was given that the camp should rise, and forthwith the carriages were made ready, and every man in his arms. The English had the vanguard, though 140 pikemen were drawn out and commanded to stand fast, all the rest of the leaguer being marched towards Ghent, excepting about 200 French shot. “In right, all the rest of that nation should have had the rear-guard, but the poor Englishmen are always put at the worst.”
By sunrise, the aforesaid pikemen were drawn out and “set in a battle,” and the Frenchmen were placed in ambuscades. Within an hour the enemy approached, “in a battle, within caliver shot, making a bravado,” whereupon we marched away and fell into a narrow lane, hedges and ditches on each side. The Malcontents offered us a charge at our rear-guard, some few Frenchmen discharged their shot, and the enemy made a stand.
The General, being always in the rear-guard, commanded to march, “the word no sooner spoken, presently the enemy giveth a charge freely at the rear-guard,” and for an English mile and a half, we marching in the lane, the enemy charged us at least twelve times, and every time the battle was forced to stand. Coming to the lane end we drew out into the open fields, in the face of the town, where the enemy with a great force charged us hotly on every side, whereupon we retired to the town walls. All this while, our English shot were before us, with their ensigns, but without powder or shot, though urgently demanded, seeing how our armed men were slain and hurt for want of it. The Frenchmen ran away for the most part.
Old Captain Morrys, seeing the great loss of men, on a sudden, he being with the munition waggons, ordered the head of a barrel to be struck out. Those in charge refused, insomuch as he was forced to do it himself, and so our English shot were provided, “who served most bravely, otherwise had the whole leaguer been overthrown before we could recover the town walls. Colonel Morgan was all times among the companies, and encouraged them with great government.”
The skirmish continued from seven in the morning till four in the evening. Many of the Frenchmen who ran away were drowned in the river. Their ensigns marched away likewise, leaving the English companies alone. The General of the leaguer would not suffer our English horsemen to charge. All this time the Duke was with the Prince on the walls and “saw the running away of his nation, whereupon, by report, he rent his glove with his teeth.”
The enemy is now supposed to be about Cambray, to the number of 18,000, lying in wait for the French force; 4,000 of the enemy are gone into Friesland, County Mansfeld (Mansell) named to be their chief. Dated at the top.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters, I. 54.]
[This account was enclosed in Martin Couche's letter of Sept. 21, 1582, in which he states that he certifies the whole matter, being himself there from beginning to end. See Foreign Calendar under that date.]
Aug. 30. 669. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Mr. Ashby departed last week with the Emperor's letters to the Duke of Parma and Duke of Cleves, and the answer to her Majesty, and I doubt not will be with you ere this comes to your hands. He will tell you that all possible means were used to get something more.
The Emperor's second motion, about the Low Countries, “hath not taken place,” a like answer to the former having been made, not a little to his Majesty's and others' discontentment, who favour the King of Spain. They would now drive it to such a point that none might serve from these parts in any foreign country without his Majesty's licence, but their travail herein will come to nothing. As yet the first point is not passed, for the towns will not trust to promises, believing that his Majesty, if he got their grant, would put their and all other causes off to another meeting day, termed in their language, “Deputations Tach” [sic], or else commit the matters of the towns to commissioners, which will not be accepted. The Emperor has dealt particularly with eight commissioners appointed at his request by the rest of the towns, but it has been without success.
Duke Casimir's and the other Princes' commissioners have also been treated with by his Majesty, but they stick hard to their opinions, and will have no other than present redress of their grievances, thinking they are deferred of purpose to see what will fall out in Belgia. And no money will be granted by the cities but on the condition aforesaid, “so as there will ensue hereupon some further matter, for as a principal man told me, he saw things grow to those terms, and the Pope and King of Spain and their confederates and favourites in these parts bare such sway, that in time, if matters were not the sooner foreseen and redressed, would overrule and attempt to bring all others to their subjection.”
The Duke of Bavaria and Bishops of Mentz, Trier and Würzburg were on their departure, but were stayed by the Emperor, “to whom they stick as hard as ever they can, and, is doubted, will breed both dissension and further troubles.” No other causes have been or are dealt in, so as it is an ill time and place for private suitors.
The Pope's Legate, the King of Spain's ambassador and others bestir themselves on all sides, and do such offices as you may imagine well enough.
As to the cause I was sent for, I am promised erelong to understand further. I would send you copies of all that has passed in writing at this meeting, but the uncertainty of conveyance is such that I keep them until my own coming. Augsburg, 30th August, 1582.
Add. Endd. Sealed. 2 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 28.]
Sept. 4. 670. Stephen, King of Poland to the Queen.
Our opinion of your Majesty's worth and prudence is such that there is not, nor ever will be, any place with us for the feeble calumnies of any persons whatsoever, and we will never suffer our good will towards your highness to be taken away by the talk of ill-disposed men. Therefore, as to what your highness writes in letters delivered to us on the 30th of April by William Salkin, touching the hostile attitude of certain Hanseatic cities towards you, be sure of this; that no ill-feeling is strong enough to disturb our brotherly affection towards your highness, and we promise ourselves, in our turn, that you will cherish a like good feeling towards us. Such being the case, we shall, as far as is in our power, take care that your subjects shall experience from us, in all things just and honourable, the goodwill we profess, and trust that our subjects shall have the like from you.
As to what your highness writes concerning the lately established treaties of commerce between the men of Elbing and your subjects, that no zeal or goodwill has been lacking on our part is proved by the fact that the hearing of the whole cause was entrusted by us to two of our senators some time ago, and it is only owing to the death of one and the promotion of the other to the chief place in our senate that the matter has seemed to languish in some degree. Since however, in the meantime, the recovery of the port of Riga and of the navigation of the Düna has opened a fuller and more convenient opportunity of treating on and concluding this matter, we send our chief gentleman of the chamber (cubicularium) Stanislaus Ossowinski, with letters to your highness, and do not doubt that your highness will also send some one to commend the proposals made by you. Warsaw, 4 September, 1582. Signed, Stephanus Rex.
Add. Endd. Latin. 1 sheet. [Poland, I. 18.]
Sept. 6. 671. Gilpin to Walsingham.
The Bishops, whom in my last, of August 30, I said to be stayed by the Emperor are still here, “though never a whit thereby the more effected in any cause.” The point touching the Low Countries has been canvassed on all sides, and his Majesty, with those affected that way, has used all means for the King of Spain's advantage but nothing more has passed, only it is referred to the Emperor's pleasure “for the sending or writing to the Prince of Parma and the States of the Low Countries, as also for the keeping of the frontiers and passages of and to these parts from the enemy's invasions and attempts. To which end his Majesty may appoint commissioners and the time to meet at Cologne . . . as also for the contribution and partition towards the charges.” His desire for confirming an order for none to serve any foreign prince without a licence “could not neither would be harkened unto.” It is thought he will stir no further therein, as there is no likelihood of his obtaining it.
The towns will not yet be induced to yield as regards the first article, unless his Majesty will either now redress their grievances or nominate a certain day for doing so; and to this they stand, although he has at times dealt with sundry commissioned by them. Notwithstanding this, the Diet draws to an end. The third article is passed over with the second, and little touched; the fourth and fifth are referred to the meeting at Spires on the 1st of May, and so, it is thought, the rest will be. Some particular causes will be despatched, and the Diet will probably break up within ten or twelve days at the furthest, the Emperor meaning to go before Michaelmas to Vienna, and not to Prague, for the plague is so extremely there that they die in great numbers.
“As concerning my business, I understand by a private friend that though the towns have given their opinions agreeable to the Hanses' petitions, the electors and princes last Tuesday resolved that I should not need to be further heard (as I had shown what the merchants' trade was, and the cause of their adversaries' complaint), but that deputies should be sent to her Majesty, to end the controversy or to make a report. It is believed that his Majesty will not dislike this, and though there are certain who would gladly have done evil offices, yet I (be it spoken under correction) have so bestirred myself among them that her Majesty's favourable dealing and the Hanses' ungrateful requitals sufficiently appear.
I have talked with the Duke of Cleves' commissioners about Mr. Rogers, but they have heard nothing from their master and judge that I shall not obtain more than I have got from the Emperor.
Divers of the protestant commissioners have met privately, but it is thought nothing will be yielded unto touching religion, and so per contra, the contribution granted will be so conditionally as it will be of no use either to the aid of enemies to the gospel or any like purpose.
The Jesuits last week feasted the bishops and Pope's legate, the Duke of Bavaria and others, and most of them since invited to the legate's. It is said that most of those who served the Duke of Savoy will come to the Prince of Parma; also that certain are to be sent to the Kings of Sweden and Denmark about the complaints against them mentioned in the Emperor's second article. Augsburg, 6th September, 1582.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 29.]
Sept. 12. 672. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Since my last, of the 6th instant, the Emperor has returned the resolution of the assembly for their further consideration, with his opinion. What this is I cannot certainly learn, but gather “the chief cause to proceed about the bearing of the charges which the Estates would have laid on the Hanses, and they unwilling and loth to yield thereunto.” Within a day or two I hope to certify you certainly, if I be not myself despatched before that time. Meanwhile, it is evident that some seek rather “to move dissension and trouble than the establishment of friendship.”
On Monday next, what has been determined at the Diet will be published, and all will prepare to draw homewards. The controversy between the Emperor and the towns is not yet ended, for his Majesty will not yield a whit and the other side stand for their demands, whereby the contribution will be lessened ten or twelve hundred thousand gilders a year; and what is more, many think that the earls will stand with the towns. Some of his Majesty's council would have the towns accounted of, others the contrary. The Bishops of Mentz, Trier, Würzburg and the Duke of Bavaria are departed, leaving commissioners; the Bishop of Mentz (as was credibly told me), having fully showed the Emperor his opinion in the foresaid question, “wishing that it were quietly ended, for if any quarrel fell out about religion (as no doubtedly there would) these countries would be full of greater troubles and extreme wars than any other hath been, and therefore desired that example might be taken of by the neighbours, who had many years continued in civil wars and nothing thereby effected but the princes impoverished and the people and country spoiled, besides a number of other miseries.”
The Cardinal Madrucci, who is the Pope's legate and hath played his part here, is said to depart on Monday next. Here is daily looked for an ambassador from the King of Poland, but the cause of his coming not known. The Emperor stayeth only for money to discharge his expenses at this meeting. Augsburg, 12 September, 1582.
Postscript.—"The assembly have passed their opinions that the King of Spain is to restore to the Marquis of Fynall those places he keepeth from him, and the Emperor to see the decree put in execution, who is cold in any matter that maketh against the said King, and is thought will do nothing. The question between the Dukes of Savoy and Florence, for preference, I also hear to be passed, and given to him of Savoy.”
Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 30.]
Sept, 13. 673. Schwartz to Walsingham.
About two years ago, I was sent by the Archduke Mathias to the Emperor and the six Electors to pray for peace, in the Diet then to be held at Nuremberg, and since then, I have been always travelling or at the Emperor's court in Austria. But as I am now resolved to retire to my own home, I shall not fail to inform you frequently of occurrences in our parts, praying you to excuse my having been so long without writing, for the reasons abovesaid.
Mr. Gilpin will have told you what has passed at this Diet, and how little of importance has been done, either in the matter of religion or justice; all being referred to an assembly where the princes and the deputies will meet to determine the differences and difficulties complained of by many of the Estates, and especially by the imperial towns, who are unanimously resolved to contribute nothing to the subsidy which the Emperor has obtained from the princes unless his Majesty gives them satisfaction, although they have several times been remonstrated with and almost threatened, in the Emperor's presence. There is to be another negotiation to-day, and it is said that consent will be given to their being included in the public article of peace for religion, which, until now, the Emperor would not hear of.
Also the towns and certain of the secular States are earnestly demanding that the Emperor will settle the affairs of the town of Aix, touching the exercise of the reformed religion and their safety. What will come of it we shall know within three days, for the Diet will speedily come to an end.
The subsidies which the Emperor has obtained, chiefly by means of the Duke of Saxony, amount to 400,000 German florins, to be paid within five years, but if the towns will not contribute, he will lose at least 130,000 florins, and other estates may probably follow their example.
Before my departure, I will inform Mr. Gilpin of everything, who will report to your honour. Augsburg, 13 September, 1582.
Add. French. 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 31.]
Sept. 18. 674. The Queen to Stephen, King of Poland.
We give you hearty thanks for the letter which we received from your highness at the beginning of this month, in which, besides the assurance of your goodwill to us, was contained an intimation of your kindly inclinations towards establishing and settling an emporium of our merchants in your royal city of Elbing and granting them that free access with their merchandise to all places under your rule, with security of trading therein, which we demanded last year by our envoy, John Rogers, and from your friendly answer to him, confidently promised ourselves. For which we render you most hearty thanks, and entreat of you to continue in that path of goodwill to us and our nation as far as you can without repenting of your favours. To obviate such a possibility and to prevent any inconvenience arising to your royal dignity, or any loss to your subjects, from your liberal concession, we sent your highness three months ago, about the beginning of June, a copy of the privileges sought by us in our subjects' name, marked out by such principles and circumscribed by such conditions as we can truly say to be ancestral, that is to say, granted to us by the liberality of your ancestors, and which we learned from our envoy would not be unacceptable to your highness or burdensome to your subjects. When your highness is going through the list with the advice of your council, if any redundancy, deficiency, obscurity or inaccuracy is found, commissioners can be mutually appointed (if your highness wills) to decide disputed points, define their decisions and make final decrees for the honour of ourselves and the advantage of our nations. We have no manner of doubt as to the fairness of the concession claimed, and if it has reached your hands (as we hope it has) your highness will no doubt forthwith decide as to what we claim and what is to be granted. We appeal to the good will of your highness in this matter most earnestly, demanding a proof of your kindness speedily, because all the advantage of such a business lies in the speed with which it is carried out, more especially for the reasons which we pointed out in our earlier letters and which are found in the oath of the men of Dantzig and the other Hanse merchants. Oatlands, 18 September, 1582.
Endd. Draft. Latin.pp. [Poland, I. 19.]
Against the date is written in the margin: “Leave a window for the place and day.” On the blank pages of the sheet are scribbled various efforts in caligraphy, including the following lines:—
“The gods on high that rules the sky, did send his only friend"; “semel in anno ridet Apollo"; “Quamdiu te Catelina,” &c.
Sept. 19. 675. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Notwithstanding all I could do (upon the Emperor's opposition to the sending of ambassadors to her Majesty) to let nothing pass against her Majesty or the merchants, until I was heard, yet contrary to law, equity or reason, the assembly, as I hear, have altered their first opinions, and by a plurality of voices have counselled his Majesty as, by the copies I now send, will appear to you. There is, I believe, also a later “passed” which I hope to obtain before my departure. To repeat the dispute and odd allegations would be long to commit to a letter. I cannot yet learn the Emperor's resolution, in spite of all my endeavours, but the Emperor's vice-chancellor has promised it shall be imparted to me, that if I see cause, I may reply to the same. When despatched, I shall make as much speed as possibly I can, being wearied with their longness. I send the Company a copy of a supplication from the Hanse committees to the Emperor, to be translated and then shown to your honour.
“I cannot sufficiently marvel at their dealings hitherto, that being sent of purpose to give them satisfaction . . . they never required to hear what I could say, and yet proceeded to definition upon the contraries' complaints.”
There are no more meetings in council, but the towns sometimes assemble to consult of their matters. They have been dealt with by his Majesty sundry times, “and their griefs in a manner voided, save that for Aquisgrane [Aachen], which is the chiefest and concerneth the exercise of religion, which, by another request presented on Monday last (where the commissioners of sundry princes with most of the towns were present) they desire to have freely according to the tenor of the Religions freidt [i.e. friede], and that the towns may be from henceforth absolutely taken as comprehended in the same,” which, if not granted, they will depart “with protest against his Majesty, who beginneth to bend and useth more mildness, though it very near toucheth his Majesty in respect of his profession.
“Certain protestants of Styria, under the government of the Archduke Charles, have also exhibited request for free use of religion, and are not unassisted, so as that point will be driven thoroughly, or else will fall out to some troubles. The recess should have been published on Monday last, all being ready, if his Majesty had not stayed it in hope to end with the towns.”
Certain resolutions passed by the assembly and not yet put in execution by his Majesty are desired by many to be ended, and amongst others the cause of the Marquis of Fynal, whom those of Geneva, if they have command from the Emperor, offer to set again in his government at their own charges.
Also, that the Duke of Bavaria should restore to an earl certain lands detained by force from him; and that the question be resolved between the Dukes of Savoy and Florence, “who, for [that] the Duke of Savoy is taken as a prince oriundus ex imperio, must yield the place"; besides other like lately passed determinations.
“At Vienna of late the Archduke Ernest caused certain citizens to be imprisoned for baptizing their children out of the town by a minister, whom he also took and kept awhile, for that he preached and ministered the sacraments to such as came to him, but is again released. . . . The Archduke Maximilian is appointed governor of Hungary. The Poles ambassador is not yet come, whose message is thought to be for restitution of the towns of Zockmar [qy. Szathmar], &c., which were his in Hungary, and some doubt also of Slesia, and in case of refusal to use other means. The legatus a latere is still here, and cannot get hence for fear the petitions for free exercise of religion should be obtained and take place.... Divers depart, and leave to others their voice and opinions. Amongst others, those of Brandenburg rode away yesterday, and would not subscribe to the recess, though the occasion is yet not known.” It is believed the towns will depart without any agreement, as the Emperor will not yield. Augsburg, 19th September, 1582.
Postscript.—"Here is news that the Bishop of Cologne should be married with a Countess of Mansfeld, and is in practice to keep the bishopric, though he of Liége use that (sic) possible means for the place. The recess was read this morning at the court, contrary to the accustomed order, which was that it should have been published where the proposition and meeting was; and is not a little disliked of many.”
Add. Endd. Sealed. 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 32.]
Sept. 20. 676. Abschied or Recess of the Free and Imperial Towns of the Empire, at the close of the Diet.
Stating that these towns have found it necessary to hold a separate Stadt-tag, to discuss certain points and articles. As to the question of how far the city of Augsburg is responsible for the driving away of the Imperial Marshal Pappenheim, they claim that this must be brought before a regular court of law and there fully deliberated and settled, so that in all future Diets, the cities may be able to protect themselves from unjust decrees, such as that by the Emperor of the 17th instant. As to the differences between the masters and craftsmen of the tawers' trade in Augsburg and Ulm, by reason of which there has been much litigation and expense, the parties have produced their writings and the matter has been carefully examined, and such resolution taken as, it is hoped, will put an end to these differences not only in Augsburg and Ulm, but elsewhere, so that there may be an amicable correspondence between burgomasters and burgers of the trade, especially as regards Ulm, upon which such disturbance of their trade as has been long borne by Augsburg would fall very unbearably.
Amongst other matters brought before them, one Abraham Meures, black-dyer, has complained that his son, Hans George Meures, desiring to enter the above craft at Augsburg, has not been allowed to do so except by payment of very heavy caution, whereupon it is unanimously resolved that the city of Augsburg should be requested to desire the members of the black-dyers' craft to admit the said Abraham Meures' son, as an honest man and a master's son, to be registered in their company like other honest and honourable members, without the demanded caution.
Finally, resolutions are taken as to the payments of travelling expences and extraordinaries of the commissioners, the provision of money in due proportion by the cities to meet all expenses, and for the meeting at Speier in the following year, with the list of the towns who are to send commissioners to the said meeting.
German.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 33.]
Sept. 27. 677. Gilpin to Walsingham.
I have not yet received the Emperor's determination as to the assembly's decree in the Hanses' cause, a copy of which decree I have sent to the company at Antwerp with orders to impart it to your honour.
I had not time to write myself, “news being brought unto me that my adversaries had of new exhibited a request to his Majesty, who purposed to ride to-morrow abroad a hunting, and doubtful whether his Majesty mean to return hither (so ill is the liking or contentment of this place and disposition of the people), and I therefore . . . found most requisite to ply the time here while they are present,” humbly beseeching you to pardon my fault in not writing.
When the recess was published at court on Thursday last, his Majesty and all the assembly sitting or standing every one in his degree, “the vice-chancellor began with a short oration of compliments, and then the chancellor of the Archbishop of Mentz read the said recess; which finished, the said vice-chancellor used speeches of thanks and such like, and then the Emperor himself `adhorted' them briefly to the accomplishment and execution of that so generally agreed.
“The question between the Emperor and towns not being ended, they protested against his Majesty, and have made a particular recess amongst themselves, as by copy herewith sent in high Dutch [see preceding paper] with the other recess, whereunto I could not for want of time add the names of the princes and ambassadors, &c., your honour shall see.
“There is some protest also made by the Earls, who on Friday last, assisted by the Palsgrave's, the Landgrave's of Hessen, Duke Casimir's . . . and other commissioners, exhibited another request for the exercise of religion, but no answer followeth.
“Those of this town having protested or rather insinuated an appeal of the sentence here passed by the Emperor in favour of the vice-marshal of the Empire, viz., the Baron of Papenheryn (sic) like hath been done to the Duke of Saxony's commissioners (because his Excellency is arch-marshal) so well by this said town as others of the chiefest, for so much toucheth their interest and superiority. The legatus had long audience of the Emperor on Sunday last, and was met by his Majesty and again accompanied along three chambers, even to the very stairs, which was not a little noted and marvelled at.”
The same day there were like to have been troubles fallen out here, for those of the town, having ordered certain halbardiers of the vice-marshal to lay aside their weapons and charge, the Diet being ended, and the order not being obeyed, took the said weapons and turned the men out of the town gates. Also three or four of the legate's men entered a church where the Lutherans have their sermons, with their swords drawn; whereupon the hearers in fear sought to get away, and some of the burgesses there present, getting their weapons, ran to the legate's house, (where the parties to save themselves were entered) and if one of the chief rulers of the town had not by chance passed that way, all in that house, as also the Jesuits and Papists here had been in great danger. The people were appeased by delivery of the offenders to the provost, since which they are released by intercession of their master, and on Monday with him departed, “to the greater discontentment of this people.”
That day also, in the Emperor's chapel, discourteous words were used by a follower of the Italian ambassador to the caster of their holy water, for not keeping the accustomed order; and at several times there have been petty stirs between some of the court and the townsmen, which cause his Majesty to hasten his departure, now proclaimed for Monday next.
The Bishop of Cambray, one of the sons of Barlaymont, arrived on Saturday, and that afternoon the Polish ambassador had audience but spoke only compliments, referring his Majesty to his letters, which, it is said, the Emperor “liketh so evil” as he hath put him off for answer till the coming of the court to Vienna. Augsburg, 27 September, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 34.]
678. The Emperor's answer to Mr. Gilpin.
“Unto his sacred Imperial Majesty, our most gentle Lord, those things have been read which the messenger of the sovereign Queen of England did propound and require by writing against that which the cities of the Hanse society did complain to the Emperor's Majesty, and the States of the Holy Roman Empire, concerning the abrogating of the immunities and privileges hitherto obtained in the realm of England certain years past, as also of the monopolies of certain English merchants, with all what the nobles of the said Empire did judge to be appointed in this matter.
“And in the beginning truly the sacred Imperial Majesty could have wished that of so many and such complaints as of certain late years have for that cause been brought to his Imperial Majesty, and also to the said most sovereign Queen, from as well the said cities as very many other cities of the Empire, and thereof intercession used by his Cæsarial Majesty, such regard had been had as that it might have been altogether unnecessary now for this cause to have troubled the States of the Empire, who are otherwise sufficiently occupied in matters of the commonwealth. For then this matter whereof the said messenger complaineth, might have been forborne.
“But because the said cities could not hitherto obtain the restitution of their ancient rights and privileges, neither by prayers nor intercession of the Emperor, and in the meantime, the English merchants in the confines of Germany regarding their private gain and challenging to themselves new liberties, to the great detriment of the commonwealth of Germany: it is in the end brought to pass that the States be enforced to think of a remedy for the rights of the said cities, which, if it seem harder to the said most sovereign Queen than is requisite, her Highness must regard that the States, not moved with light causes but against their wills, are fallen to that deliberation.
“But that it may be, that sith the sacred Cæsarial Majesty, together with the electors, princes and estates of the Empire, do require nothing more than that between them and the most sovereign Queen of England, the most strong and firm bands of amity and neighbourhood may always remain, and doubteth not but that the said sovereign Queen doth equally desire the same: Therefore the Emperor's Majesty, as well in his own name as of the whole Empire, desireth her Highness to be hereby thoroughly warned and hopeth, for the said often recited causes, her Majesty will so do:—
“That unto the Hanses the privileges and immunities obtained of her predecessors, Kings of England, with great labours and costs, may be restored, and hereafter be kept sure and strong, and that they which practice against the same for their private lucres and monopolies may be revoked. If which be done (as truly equity requireth to be done) no doubt hereafter the States of the Empire will alter their counsel, and so both the Emperor's Majesty and they will use all studies and offices of familiarity and good-will to the said sovereign Queen and the realm of England. Otherwise her Highness of her ingrafted wisdom may easily perceive that the Imperial Majesty, at the instance and request of the States of the Empire, may not let slip that which herein belongeth to his Cæsarial office. All which his Majesty willed to be answered to the said messenger to his propositions. Dated at Augsburg, 27 September, 1582.
Endd.: “The Emperor's answer to Mr. Gilpin at Augsburg, Englished.” 1½ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 35.]
679. Original of the above.
Imperial seal. Signed by A. Erstenberger and Svieheuser.
Latin. 2½ pp. [Ibid. I. 36.]
680. Copy of “the Emperor's decretal answer to her Majesty in the cause of the Hanses"; i.e., the preceding document.
Endd. Latin. 2 pp. [Ibid. I. 37.]
Sept. 27. 681. Rudolf II. to the Queen.
Letter on the subject of the Hanse towns. [See below.]
Signed. Countersigned by A. Erstenberger and Svieheuser. Add. Latin.pp. [Ibid. I. 38.]
Sept. 27. 682. English translation of the preceding.
“The letters of your highness lately written in the calend of April unto us in the controversies of the Hanse cities against certain merchant adventurers, your highness' messenger hath presented unto us, neither did we prœtermit any time, but presently communicated the same to the princes, electors and the States of the Empire then present (to whose deliberation this selfsame cause was referred). And that which in this business seemed good by the same States to be done in the public council, which we had regard to see answered unto your highness' messenger, your highness shall (no doubt) by his relation more largely understand. So it is, that as we and the States of the Empire require nothing more than to cherish and conserve perfect and sincere amity, so may it please your Majesty in this case to be careful that unto our people and subjects, the rights, immunities and agreements begun and granted by your highness' predecessors, may now and hereafter be kept firm and stable, and that (whilst your highness doth regard the profits of certain of your people) our subjects, together with a great part of the commonwealth of the Romans, may not be injured. Augsburg, 27 September, 1582.”
Endd.: “The Emperor's letter to her Majesty, Englished. By Mr. Gilpin.” 1 p. [Ibid. I. 39.]
Sept. 683. A list of the princes (with the members of their families accompanying them) and bishops present at the Diet of Augsburg, with a precis of the matters resolved upon during the assembly.
Endd.: “Advertisements concerning the Diet held at Augsburg this present year, anno 1582.” 2½ pp. [Ibid. I. 40.]
Sept. 684. “Articles of agrievances, with the means for the repairing of those inconveniences, considered on by the princes and free cities of the Empire.” Anno 1582.
Endd. Latin.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 41.]
Oct. 1. 685. Memoir of Pierre des Roues.
Touching the privileges which I demand for myself and my heirs and successors for ever, I pray that the following clauses may be inserted:—
1. That we may have the tenth part of all the profits proceeding from the treasury of the Roues. (fn. 5)
2. That no subject of the Queen of England may introduce into her towns or government the custom of la rente des Roues without favouring me in such manner as her said Majesty will do.
3. That of this tenth part of the profits, I may dispose by will or otherwise as seems good to me, and that after my decease, my heirs may have the same power.
4. That I and my heirs may be accounted as natives of the kingdom of England.
5. That I and my heirs male, or those lawfully married to my daughters or other feminine issue of myself or my heirs, being in England, may be preferred to offices in the said treasury.
6. That in each treasury of the Roues one of the officers should know what profits it has received during the year and should send or give my tenth part to me or my heirs.
7. That her Majesty will be pleased to give orders that this privilege be put in such good form that the tenth part, granted to me and my heirs, may come to us certainly and without any difficulty, under the hand and seal of her said Majesty.
And I also pray for a privilege apart, that no one may print my work on the treasuries of the Roues, save such as I permit to do so. Augsburg, 1 October, 1582.
Signed, Pierre des Roues, dit à Rhotis, docteur es droicts.
Endd.: Copy of the memoire given by Pierre des Roues, Docteur es droicts, to George Gilpin. French. 1¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVII., 72c.]
Probably enclosed in Gilpin's letter of Dec. 1, 1582. See Cal. S.P. For. for that year, p. 480.
Oct. 5. 686. Stanislaus Ossowinsky to Walsingham.
Stating that when he was at Elsinore, a town of the King of Denmark, a certain citizen and merchant of “Hullen” asked him that, when he came into England, and had liberty to speak to the Queen, he would pray her Majesty that the said merchant might have liberty to ply his trade in Poland.
This he performed, according to his promise, but when her Majesty asked him the name of the merchant, it had entirely slipped his memory, whereupon she directed him to give it to his honour. The name is Gregory Pormorth, and for his goodness and integrity he is a man whom, together with his business, he heartily recommends. Hopes that the business may be promoted by the noble Lord Peregrine Willoughby (Vilibium), “our ambassador,” with whom this good man was in Denmark. Gravesend, 5 October, 1582.
Signed. Add. Endd.: “The ambassador of Poland.” Latin. 1 p. [Poland, I. 20.]
Oct. 7. 687. The Town of Geneva to the Queen.
By your Majesty's clemency and liberality towards those who in their distress have had recourse to you, you have gained the reputation of being the only refuge of the distressed, and especially of those of the reformed religion, which is our excuse for our temerity in applying to you, and seeking some relief by informing you of the evils and calamities with which it has pleased God to visit us this year. But while making us to feel his hand, he has also let us experience his favour and help, by raising up friends, who seeing the wrong done to us, have come to our aid.
It is no new thing for the house of the Duke of Savoy to try to encroach upon us, being urged on by those who wish to see our religion totally abolished and the Council of Trent entirely carried out. For otherwise they could not show that we kept back anything belonging to another, or that they had any right upon us. Moreover, we have never refused to submit ourselves to the judgment of Messieurs the cantons of Switzerland, which have been often chosen to arbitrate by both sides, although without result.
Now, although they have often made attempts against us, it has always been rather by hidden enterprises than manifestly; and even now our enemies have endeavoured to oppress us, having got certain intelligence in our town, which, however, was rendered futile, by God's mercy we having discovered it. But this has not put a stop to their desire to harm us, for thinking to obtain by open violence what they could not do by subtle means, they have encamped their army before our town for the last five months, and pillaged the country all round. God, however, has preserved us from the hands of our enemies, who have been forced to retire with shame and confusion. We have suffered by being put to great expenses, beyond our small means, to furnish ourselves with men and other things needful for our defence, which has so much impoverished us that, without the aid of some great ones, it would be difficult for us to endure another attempt, with which we are continually threatened.
In this case, we cast our eyes towards all who might help us, that is towards those joined to us by the same religion, amongst whom your Majesty holding the first place, we have had the boldness to address ourselves to you, to lay before you our need, and to pray you (since it has pleased God to bless your realm with temporal and spiritual benefits) to assist us in our necessity by a sum of money as a loan or by some other supply, and to permit, if there are any in your kingdom who, moved by our afflictions, would help us by a loan or otherwise, that they may do it with your good-will; that so, if necessity presents itself (of which there is much appearance) we may be stronger and more ready to meet it. If it please your Majesty to listen to our prayers and extend your liberality to us, the Seigneur Mailliet, our citizen and a member of our great Council, whom we have sent express, will bring it to our hands, and this benefit will be acknowledged by us with such gratitude, that, for ever, we and ours shall feel that we owe a part of our preservation to your Majesty. Geneva, 7 October, 1582.
Add. Endd.: “From the syndics and council of Geneva to her Majesty, touching some relief which they request in the extremity they presently remain [in] by the D. of Savoy his attempts against their state.” French. 2 pp. [Switzerland, I. 2.]
Oct. 7. 688. The Town of Geneva to Walsingham.
To the same effect as that to the Queen; praying him to support their cause to her Majesty.
Add. Endd. French.pp. [Ibid. I. 3.]
Oct. 7. 689. The same letter, addressed to Cobham.
Copy, endorsed by Cobham, as received by M. Maillet. French.pp. [Ibid. I. 4.]
[Mentioned by Cobham in his letter of Oct. 27. See Foreign Calendar for 1582, p. 416.]
Oct. 27. 690. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Until the 1st instant, the day of the Emperor's departure, I could not get his resolution for my despatch, when it was delivered to my man by Secretary Erstenberger's (Ernsterborgher's) clerks, being a closed letter to the Queen and an open decree under his Majesty's seal, signed by his vice-chancellor; both which I have sent to the Company, now at Middelburg, for conveyance.
If my success here be not fallen out as could have been wished, my endeavours and pains have not been the less, which I humbly beseech may be weighed accordingly.
The Emperor departed about seven o'clock in the morning by coach, accompanied only by the ordinary court train, “which was very slender, and so ill in order as it was strange to remember his entering into the town and see such his departure.” He is to stay awhile at Linz, where the Archduke Mathias keeps court, and thence go to Vienna.
The ambassador of Poland required restitution of Zockmar and another strong place, heretofore taken from him by the Emperor, which demand caused such dislike that his answer is deferred. The protestant princes are said to have appointed a meeting where many other of their confederacy will appear, but the place is not yet known.
At Cologne, the canons (or “Domme Herrn” as they term them) were resolved to meet about the setting and altering of their bishop. In this action, the Bishop of Liége is the great stirrer, and has left no means untried to effect his purpose, hoping to get into the place himself; but it is rather thought it will fall to the Bishop of Bremen, although he is also reported to be married and of the Religion. “He of Liége laboured also hard with the Duke of Cleves, as well to have his aid for that bishopric as also of Munster, which the said Duke his son liketh still so well of, as if he marry, yet may chance to keep that place, and turn the title of bishop to administrator.”
The merchants here that trade to England diligently solicit the States for satisfaction for her Majesty, and hope to effect something speedily. Next week I am to follow the Company to Middelburg, unless you see cause to the contrary.
I send by this post a book which one Melissus, a poet, of the late Elector Palatine's Council, entreats may be presented to her Majesty, offering his service to write anything that she may command him; wherefore (knowing his sincerity in religion and his honesty), I pray you to further his desire. Antwerp, 27th of October, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 42.]
691. Note of the contents of the preceding.
Endd.: “Advertisements out of Germany by letters from Antwerp of the 27th of October, 1582.“½ p. [Ibid. I. 43.]
Oct. 31. 692. Rudolf II. to Count Edzart of East Friesland.
You are not ignorant of what more than once we have commanded you, and lastly by our letter of Feb. 20, 1581[–2], “concerning the abolishing a certain English fellowship newly with you established, naming themselves Adventurers; like as we have not forgotten what your allegations and defentions (sic) were there against, together with that of our loving sister, the Queen of England, for your benefit.”
And according to your own last request (though without the same) we resolved to call a general meeting of the Imperial States, at which assembly (lately having met at Augsburg) the matter was laid before the Electors, nobles, &c., &c., with all the produced writings and arguments, and their opinions and judgments required, which they gave as follows:—
That forasmuch as the traffic of the said fellowship tends to the hurt and overthrow of the Hanses and other Dutch towns' privileges, they are not to be suffered longer upon any part of the holy Empire, nor permitted to trade by land or water, “and therefore you, upon a great pain, should be also commanded wholly to suppress the same. Whereunto, now considering our former commandment, . . . we have much more cause, without any further warnings or signifying the tenor thereof against you to proceed, like as we have signified unto the said Queen's Majesty, by her servant at Augsburg. And doubt not that you are ignorant of such the States' meaning. Although we with such execution rather would ease you (as otherwise gladly to see good neighbourhood planted between us, the States of the Empire, and the Crown of England and subjects of the same), yet nevertheless it is not to be doubted but you are now of yourself . . . sufficiently resolved, so as such straight execution should not need. Which hitherto we have stayed, and first have thought good graciously to signify unto you what in these causes (during the said meeting) hath passed, with this special earnest charge and commandment: that you will have therein such careful consideration as, according to our former writing, the complained upon, untollerable and common hurtful society with their monopoly trades with you should be wholly displaced, in such order as you or they give no further cause unto any of just complaint.
“But if by you the same should not be put in execution, and for your own private commodity (to the common hurt of many towns and commonalities) you shall further seek to uphold and retain such people; then can you lightly consider what we there against by our office and authority are to execute, and how heavy the severity of the foresaid decree will be unto you, according to which you are to frame yourself, and from damage and hurt to defend you.” Vienna, last day of October, 1582.
Endd.: “The Emperor's letter to Count Edzart, Englished. To dismiss our merchant adventurers.” 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 44.] Translation by John More, enclosed in his letter of Dec. 20, below.
[Nov.] 693. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
The Emperor reached Vienna from the Diet of Augusta, on Oct. 12, after a stormy passage down the Danube. The violent winds have cast down houses and steeples, especially the Iron Eagle above the Emperor's palace at Vienna, “to the great admiration of all the city.”
The Archduke Mathias is looked for at Vienna, and it is said Archduke Maximilian is going to Cassovia [Kaschau], as governor of the frontiers of Hungary, and Archduke Ernest into Italy, to accompany the Empress at her coming out of Spain, and afterwards to be governor in Bohemia.
The Polish ambassador follows the Emperor's court and is said to have procured some amity with his master; but he is believed to seek to compass other matters, which may breed further inconveniences. The Emperor is having houses built for his brothers, intending to reserve his palace to himself.
The Pope is alleging against the heirs of Cardinal Giustiniano, the bull of Pius V, against bastards, so as those children are like to lose the rich possessions which otherwise would have descended to them.
Cardinal d'Este and M. de Foix, the French ambassador, lately had two hours audience of the Pope, and kissed his foot on the part of the French king, thanking him for his favour to the Grand Master of Malta and requesting that his adversaries might be chastised. Then they showed the Pope how greatly offended the French king was with the Marquis Sta. Cruz' extraordinary cruelties to the French gentlemen in the Isle of St. Michell. During this declaration, “the Pope cast his eyes towards the heavens, with shrinking his shoulders, giving thereunto no other answer.”
Afterwards they complained of the injuries his Majesty had received of the Catholic king through the practices with the Marshal Bellegarde, in the Marquisate of Saluces, as also the treason discovered in Marseilles (Marcillia). Moreover, how King Philip “with money had waged Casimir” to enter France; and lastly the practices at Bruges by Salcedo and others against Monsieur and the king, with many other griefs; inferring thereby that the French king had just cause to make war with King Philip.
Cardinal Borromeo went on foot to the seven churches of Rome and the same day preached “at a very extraordinary hour in the church of St. Prassede.”
La Signora Accorambona, accompanied by her mother and many friends, was released from the Castle, with orders to leave Rome within three days and retire to Ugubbeo, where her ancestors were born, without further punishment, at the intercession of Cardinal Borromeo. The cardinals of Este, Paleotti, Santa Croce, and Farnese, dining with Cardinal Borromeo, agreed to intercede for the heirs of Cardinal Giustiniano, “so as” the Pope has granted that on payment of 8,000 crowns, the heirs shall enjoy the benefit of the will.
M. de Resca, “referendary of both the Pope's signatures,” is going as nuncio to Poland, to give orders for the erecting of those colleges and seminaries in Poland, on the frontiers of Muscovy, which the King of Poland has granted to be made there, at the Pope's pleasure and disposition.
It is believed in Italy that a league is made between the Pope, King Philip and the Duke of Florence, for defending their estates in that country. Venice is sending their proveditors into Candia and other islands and is giving orders for their galleys, from which it is supposed that they had news that peace is concluded between the Persian and the Turk, and likewise that the Turk is preparing to send galleys into the Levant seas towards Christendom.
M. de Maisse (Mes), the French ambassador, has been honourably received at Venice, and had audience on Nov. 12, when he delivered his letters, containing licence for M. du Ferrier (de Ferriere) to return, and his own commission to reside, with ample demonstration of amity; also private letters from the King and Queen-Mother. M. de Maisse spoke to the Duke in very good terms, and the Signory were much satisfied. Next day the Duke sent the Procurators Moresini, Foscarini and Thiopoli to visit M. du Ferrier in the name of the Signory. He was also privately visited by John Soranzo, Alberto Badoaro, Lorenzo Priuli and other senators, “in such manner as the like favour hath not been showed unto any ambassador.” He was presented with a chain of 1,000 crowns and with 2,000 crowns in money, besides 300 crowns given to his secretary. They have reappointed Zaccaria Sallamone to be proveditor of their army by sea.
The ambassadors sent from the Duke of Savoy and the town of Geneva to the Swiss Diet at Baden are returned without any conclusion made, the matters being referred to another diet, to be held after Christmas.
The Prince of Parma has agreed that if his daughter, married to the Prince of Mantua, cannot bear children, the Prince may marry elsewhere.
The King of Poland is said to be putting harder compositions on those of Dantzig than they will agree to, and it is thought some war will happen, Dantzig being supported by Bremen, Hamburg and other free cities, and also by the King of Sweden.
There have been brought to Constantinople 7,000 children to be trained to fill up the number of the Giaours, “with great lamentation of their parents.” Synam Bassa and Ochiali (fn. 6) are often together in the Arsenal, giving orders for the sea army, so it is thought the peace with the Persian is concluded.
Endd. 3 pp. [Newsletters XCV, 3.]
[End of Nov. or beginning of Dec.] 694. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
Rome.—Cardinal Giustiniano died in the end of October last, making up thirty cardinals deceased since Buon Compagno entered into the Papal dignity, when there were threescore and six of them. This Giustiniano has left his chest of jewels and much money to a son of his, and his other goods to some of his kinsmen. He left 7,000 crowns at the hour of his death, and in Mount Saint George in Genoa 25,000 crowns, the yearly profit whereof is to maintain his poor kinsfolk. “Since the reformation of the calendar was printed at Naples, they have advertised the Pope of a great error in the same, wherewith he is much displeased.” (fn. 7)
Farante Sigura, who three months ago was imprisoned for giving a blow to the Abbot Palistro (the Queen Mother's agent here) has, in the presence of great numbers of honourable personages, unsaid the words “whereby he affirmed how all Frenchmen were Huguenots, whereon the Abbot gave him the lie, and he thereon the blow unto the Abbot,” confessing that he has since heard that the Frenchmen at the Lady of Loretto had accomplished more vows this year than any other nation. After so saying, he was returned to prison.
Padre Possevino, lately come from Muscovy, has given the Pope a massive gold clock, “with a rich tymber (fn. 8) of sables and a cup of crystal furnished with gold,” which the King of Poland gave him.
The marriage is concluded between the Marquis del Guasto (of Vasta) and the daughter of Marco Antonio Colonna.
Venice.—Signor Johanni Michaele, Procurator of Venice and Johanni Griti, principal gentleman of the Signory, are sent to the Emperor, to deliberate concerning the confines. M. de Maisse (Mes), on his way from France to Venice, visited the Duke of Mantua, the Marquis of Mirandola and the Duke of Ferrara.
Spain.—King Philip has given the Marquis St. Cruz (Crosse) in recompense of his services, “a commendary di Lione (fn. 9) in Castilia la Veccha,” with a rent of 10,000 crowns, and created him viceroy of Catalonia. In Lisbon they are preparing feasts and triumphs of rejoicing for the victory, in which “there shall an Olephant fight with a Rinoceranti (being beasts deadly enemies to each other).” This is done to content the people. The surrender to King Philip of Araz (a haven in Barbary) is not accomplished. Some think the captain is suborned by the Turk, others that the King of Fez himself did not intend it.
Marco Antonio Colonna has gone to visit the fortresses of Malta, and, as it is judged, to assure the island to King Philip. The King is appointing a new governor for Milan. The Marquis of Pescara, a young nobleman of courage and great expectation, is going to Flanders as an adventurer, without any particular charge. The Cortes of Portugal are to be held at Ebora.
Naples.—The king's visitor has discovered so many faults in the king's officers there that their offices are to be confiscated. The nuns of the order of the Annunciata have valiantly withstood certain masters, who would have visited their monastery and taken from them their means of living. Thirty of them, with staves and other like weapons, resisted the officers, and two nuns were slain, whereon the Archbishop, Pope's Nuncio and Regent came together and have put in prison one Lelio Carracciolo for the death of those nuns.
Divers pasquins have been cast abroad in the viceroy's palace, “importing foul and dishonourable matters to his prejudice,” whereon sundry are imprisoned. The nobles and gentlemen of Naples are preparing to receive the new viceroy. King Philip's daughter is not to go to Germany until the spring. The king himself was going into Castile.
Cologne.—The Italians in Flanders, being ill-paid, and without hope of booty, slip away by twenty or thirty at a time. The Prince of Parma is going to make forts about Menin.
Constantinople.—Nothing is known of the conclusion of a peace between the Persian and the Turk.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters XCV. 4.]
Dec. 10. 695. A. S[t´nden] to Walsingham.
Being here when Thos. Broke was to close up his despatches for London, has given me occasion to write these few lines.
I have received advices from Constantine's city of the 4th of November, stating that there is great working in the Arsenal there, and no less conjecture that next spring the Armato is to come forth. That Olouche Ali much solicits the Great Turk thereunto, and that the Vizir, Sinan Bassa, himself, and the French ambassador have daily conference together.
Of the peace with Persia they have great hope in that court, one chaus having already arrived with tidings that the other three were upon their despatch from Taurus (Tawris) to accompany another Persian ambassador, who is bringing the last conclusion, believed to be the old articles whereon they have stood so many months, i.e. about the restitution of Tiflis and the province of Servan. However that be, the peace is held to be concluded, because the Persian ambassador resident there, heretofore imprisoned, is now at large and much made of. There is order for making 300 new galleys, and if this peace falls out, it is held for sure “that France will take off his vizard and declare war upon Spain; and so, while the French and Spaniard lie one upon the other's pallet, their neighbours may be sticklers if they like.”
Spain makes more provision (in his dominions here) for sea than for land, and at Genoa, great provision of cannon, bullet and mariners, all for Lisbon, and the world says it is for la Terceira.
The Bassa of Argier is in great disgrace at the Gate [i.e. Porte] for his robberies and extortions in Barbary. He is accused of having twice retained the tribute of Jessa, and the janissaries have seized on his person, expecting orders from the Gate to strangle him, “an ordinary matter, as your honour knows, with those brute beasts.” There were found coffers filled with money, gold cups, weapons and many fair pearls and diamonds, besides 300,000 pieces of gold of Jessa, very fine gold and of the values of our angel. Many marvel how this man, in six years government, could heap so much treasure together.
His disgrace is no small discredit to Olouche Ali, as “the rulers on the coast of Barbary are his creati, as this man, called Assan Bassa, a Venetian renegade, was, and much favoured and bolstered by the General of the sea, because he brought the water to his captain's mill.” Pisa, 10 December, 1582.
Add. Endd. Seal.pp. [Tuscany, I. 3.]
Dec. 20. 696. John More to Sir Nicholas Woodruff, Governor of the Merchant Adventurers.
Being appointed by the company here, together with Richard Best and Richard Mold, to repair to Grave Edzart at Aurich, to obtain his consent for Mr. Harte, our preacher, to preach amongst us, and in the mean space a messenger coming on the 17th instant, with summons from his Grace to repair to him forthwith, we set forward that same day, and next morning were sent for to his presence, when he signified his pleasure to this effect:—
That it is not unknown to us what letters have been written to him by the Emperor, for abolishing us and our trade from this town of Embden, and how great pains and charges he has sustained in defence of the same; also what recompense he has had, “which he could wish were better considered, the rather for that Grave John, his brother, enjoyeth a great yearly pension of her Majesty, although in these our causes against the Hanses he hath done nothing,” so as the whole burden has been upon his own back, against many potentates and great Estates who would be glad to work him displeasure (he being but a poor Grave) for his upholding of our cause, which otherwise hath been very slightly regarded. Adding, that he marvelled her Majesty would admit the sending of so slight a messenger on her behalf and the Company's to the assembly at Augsburg, considering its worthiness, her Majesty's renown and the weightiness of the cause. The King of Poland sent a very noble embassage and he wished her Majesty had better resolved in that behalf, for “as the messenger was, so were our suits heard and regarded, who at the said assembly was termed to be but a notary or such like and therefore not accepted or accounted as the ambassador from so noble a Queen, which animated the contrary parts, their complaints being better regarded and our defences and causes esteemed according to the person by whom they were solicited.”
Now the Emperor has, by his letters of the last of October past, earnestly commanded his Grace to put his commandments against us in execution, which letter he read to me, saying that he imparted the same to me because he wished me in secret wise speedily to inform your worship of it, that her Majesty may know thereof and take such order as the cause demands, so that with all speed he may have answer thereupon, which (as he says) must be within a month, or else he must proceed against us. He hopes her Majesty will agree with the Hanses, “otherwise our trades would be further wholly debarred out of all Dutchland, . . . yea not to be suffered in any part of the Low Countries.”
I humbly thanked his Grace for his great pains taken, and prayed for his gracious perseverance, as we nothing doubted that her Majesty would so consider the same that he should not any way be damnified, nor his pains left unconsidered by the company.
I send enclosed a copy of the Emperor's letter, which, if time permitted, I would have translated into English, but cannot by reason of the ship's readiness to depart. The premises I have imparted to the worthy Mr. Deputy, this bearer, and none other, who now departeth in the said ships. Embden, 20 December, 1582.
Postscript.—The wind not continuing good, I have translated the Emperor's letter [see p. 640 above], “and although the Grave so much misliketh her Majesty's messenger (namely Mr. Gilpin) . . . yet by report of his doctor and licentiate, who were also at Augsburg, the said Mr. Gilpin omitted nothing that lay in him; having both painfully and carefully employed himself in such his commission. And therefore although (as my duty is) I signify such the Grave's speeches, yet not meant of me to reproach or discredit the same Mr. Gilpin.”
Add. Sealed. Endd.: “10 December, 1582. From Mr. Gilpin (sic) to the governor of the Merchant Adventurers.” 3½ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 45.]
(The date is almost certainly 20, not 10, the first figure being formed exactly like the 2 in the year date.)
1582. 697. Forces for the aid of Geneva.
Duke Casimir—8,000 lanz knechts, 6,000 reiters.
Marquis of Brandenburg—6,000 reiters. Swiss.
Berne.— . . . 20,000 (sic) footmen.
Soleure, Zurich (Seurich), Schaffhausen (Shafenz), Basle, and the Grisons, each . . . 2,000 footmen.
The Valaisans (Valesence) of the valleys—4,000 footmen.
Bienne and Millouze—each 500 footmen.
M. de Presigné, Baron of Lanckes, with the bailiff of Vitry—2,000 foot, 400 horsemen.
M. de Chatillon—5,000 foot, 400 horsemen.
Gascons to be conducted under several captains—7,000 footmen.
La Merle—250 horsemen.
There is within Geneva—100 horse.
More within the town fighting men—4,000.
Endd.: “The note of the forces prepared for the aid of those of Geneva, 1582.” 1 p. [Switzerland, I. 5.]
[About Christmas?] 698. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
Germany.—The Archduke Maximilian was solicited to go into Hungary, because the Emperor suspects the “overmuch goodwill” of the Hungarians to the King of Poland. The said king seeks to appease the wars between the Muscovite and the King of Sweden. After these holy days, the Emperor means to go to Possonia [Pressburg] in Hungary to hold a Diet.
The Elector of Cologne has been in Westphalia (Vesfalia) to visit certain of his territories, where the Bishop of Bremen, the Count Neuenart and divers other lords, subjects to the bishopric of Cologne, have had conference with him, and caused a minister of the religion to preach before him. At his return, he put garrisons into many of his towns. It is discovered that he means to marry a lady either of the house of Mansfeld or of the Landgrave [of Hesse], and yet to continue Archbishop and Elector; whereon the canons of the Chapter of Cologne are divided, intending to choose a new archbishop, but he has many friends among them, and it is conjectured that the Duke d'Alen¸on, Prince of Orange, Bishop of Bremen, Count of Nassau, Duke Casimir, the Landgrave and many other princes, favour his intention.
Rome.—The patriarch of Aquilea is come again from Ancona to Rome, desiring that he may have his cause ended and return to Venice with the Signory's good-liking.
Besides the grant which the Pope made to King Philip of the tenths of the spirituality, he has given him the tenths of all ecclesiastical livings and dignities in temporal men's hands throughout his realm, and of the knights of the orders.
The Pope is sending Resca, a Pole, to be nuncio in Poland (see p. 642 above). The Cardinals Borromeo and Paleotti have asked of the Pope whether they might lawfully say their mattins walking, but the question remains undecided.
Venice.—The Signory have sent Clarissimo Johanni Delphino as resident ambassador to Poland. A gentleman of the Prince of Parma's chamber has been at Parma, taking order that the young Princess of Parma, married to the Prince of Mantua, should retire into a nunnery and not return to Mantua.
The Duke of Ossuna, now viceroy of Naples, and the commandador Major of Castile, late viceroy, have had long private speech together in a chamber in the garden of Signor Fabritio Sanguinio at Gaeta, debating their differences and parting with “resemblance of good friendship"; but the commandador would not visit the Duchess, because she does not rise out of her seat to receive any, nor will give them the title of Signoria.
Spain.—The Duke d'Urbino is said to have obtained from King Philip the same charge and entertainments that his father enjoyed, and which he has sued for these past seven years. In Lisbon there are great preparations for an army by sea, 30 ships being already in order, and ten more arrested (whereof four are Venetian) besides gallions which are armed. The Marquis of Sta. Cruz is to be general, the King reposing great confidence in his valour and wisdom. The Cardinal Archduke Albert is appointed Governor in Portugal, “being one grateful enough unto that people.”
King Philip has published sundry ordinances; “as that none should cry Spain or Portugal,” or draw sword to fight, or even to part an affray except the officers of justice, with others tending to keep the Portugals in obedience. He has sent Otto of Brunswick to levy two regiments of Almains for his service in Flanders.
The returning of the Empress into Germany with the eldest daughter of King Philip to be married to the Emperor is confirmed.
Poland.—The King has made his nephew, the Prince of Transylvania his general in Livonia, and a marriage may perhaps ensue between that prince and a daughter of the Muscovite.
Turkey.—The Prince of Wallachia has been admitted to the Great Turk's presence, and thus put in further hope that he may recover his father's estate and be Vayvode of Transylvania. A great army is preparing, whereof part is to be sent to Africa, and the King of Fez is ordered by the principal Bassa not in any wise to make exchange with King Philip for his town of Araca [or Araz] with that of Arsilla, which is in the Spaniard's hands. A chaus has been hastily sent to Algier to strangle Assa Aga, because the Great Turk understood he had intelligence with the Spaniards, and had suffered some Spanish slaves to escape. His house in Constantinople was searched and rifled and 500,000 sultanini found there were put into the Treasury.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters XCV. 5.]


  • 1. Probably the Queen of Scots and her son.
  • 2. He was released in May or June, 1582. See Cobham's letter of June 13. (Cal. S. P. Foreign, 1582, p. 85.)
  • 3. Campion, Sherwin and Briant had suffered at Tyburn on Dec. 1, 1581.
  • 4. The Pope's letter, dated Jan. 21, 1582, is printed in Dodd, ed. Tierney (Vol. II, Appendix No. LVI.).
  • 5. The census Roticus.—See Cal. S.P. For., 1582, pp. 479, 480.
  • 6. The Turkish admiral. His name appears in many forms.
  • 7. See letter of Lobetius of Nov. 19.—Cal. S.P. Foreign, 1582, p. 455.
  • 8. A certain number of skins, usually forty.
  • 9. i.e. Léon. See letter of Cardinal Granvelle, Dec. 1, 1582.—Correspondence de Cardinal Granvelle, IX. 391.