Addenda: Miscellaneous 1583

Pages 648-705

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 17, January-June 1583 and Addenda. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.

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Miscellaneous 1583

1583. [Early in January.] 699. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
Empire.—The Diet in Hungary is to be “rejourned” until February, then to be kept in Possonia (Possovio) and to continue after Easter, despatching many things left unperfected in the former one.
Rome.—The Emperor has asked the Pope to lend him 200,000 crowns, to be employed in necessary provision for Hungary, lest next spring the wars may be renewed; but the Pope has not yet acceded to the demand. Signor Alfonso Ciccarelli has been imprisoned here, “for that it was given forth how he had found the original bull granted by the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius unto the church of Rome, so as the Romish ministers were desirous to know the truth thereof.” [See p. 9 above.]
The Pope has ordered the collector of the spoglie in Spain to pay every year 4,000 ducats to the Jesuits in the provinces of Japan, in the East Portugal Indies, to maintain their proceedings in those parts.
Venice.—The Signory have revoked last year's ordinance in the matter of the Comediantes, and are now at liberty again to grant licences (at their good pleasures) to them to play their comedies after their accustomed manner.
The Venetian nobility have of late often entered the Great Council, to treat of causes touching their public government, which have been confirmed to the contentment of the whole estate.
A chaus has arrived at Venice and had audience of the Signory, to treat concerning certain heritages now fallen to the office of Cataveri.
Italy.—The Duke of Ferrara having sought by money to get into his hands the castle of Rolo, “which confineth upon” Carpi, Correggio and Mantua, could never obtain that grace of the Emperor. But now, to be safer from the incursions of the banished men, he has sent Signor Vespasiano [Gonzaga] with a troop and some artillery, who have surprised the castle, to the great displeasure of many princes near adjoining and especially of the Emperor, because the owner of the castle was under his protection.
The viceroy of Naples has sent a courier to inform the Spanish King that he intends to change all the offices in that kingdom, and to demand King Philip's consent thereto.
Spain.—It is confirmed that Don Diego, eldest son of King Philip, departed this life the 21st of November; being carried on the 22nd by twelve gentlemen of his house, accompanied by five friars, into the monastery of the Escurial, not far from Madrid, where he is to be interred. So that now, besides his two daughters by his third wife (this French King's sister) his Majesty has but one son about five years old, very feeble, and so subject to sickness that the physicians do not judge he can live long. The King's going into Castile is to be deferred, for several public and private causes.
Poland.—The King wishes to match a niece of his with the King of Sweden's son, alloting for her dowry certain towns in Livonia; but the Polonians seem unwilling to dismember this province, so that some disagreement may ensue between the King and his subjects, if the matter be not pacified. The ambassador sent to the Emperor is much discontented that he has yet no answer to his demands on the King's behalf.
Turkey.—The war between the Persian and the Turk continues and a great overthrow has been given to the Turks; for certain of their bands, returning to camp after succouring the town of Tiflis, were assaulted by an ambush of the Persians, and lost all or almost all their men, amounting to 4,000, or as some report, more.
Endd. 2 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 6.]
[Early in January.] 700. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
Rome.—The Pope has committed the cause of the Archbishop of Cologne to M. Buonhuomo, nuncio resident with the Emperor. A courier brings news that the Archbishop has openly professed to be of the Augustan confession, “having uttered many words of reproach against the Pope” before witnesses; and is thought to have intelligence with the protestant princes. The banished men are beginning to gather in great troops, and it is said Piccolomini intends to invade the Pope's territories, threatening many outrages if his possessions are not restored to him. The Spanish ambassador is expecting orders to honour the Duke of Ferrara with the title of Serenissima.
The Pope has caused seven bulls of his predecessors to be published against those who hold castles, lands or livings belonging to the Church. Likewise, statutes by Popes Gregory and Leo will shortly be set forth, concerning the tenure of ecclesiastical lands, which will greatly vex many gentlemen and noblemen.
Cardinal d'Este has lately had audience, whereon a courier was presently despatched into France. It is judged that some new promotion and election of cardinals will shortly ensue, the said cardinal being more earnest in this than any other. But the Pope makes some difficulty in allowing the Cardinal of Bourbon to resign his legateship of Avignon to the Cardinal of Guise.
Naples.—The citizens purpose to give the Catholic King 2,400,000 crowns, if he will grant them certain privileges, and are daily expecting his answer. Seven gallies and some galliasses are to be sent to Spain, for the service of the army. The viceroy of Sicily is making no preparations of defence against the Turks, being advertised that all the Turk's forces “are bent to make wars in Persia.”
Spain.—The King has prohibited all transport of ready money out of his dominion, “but by bills of exchange.” His Majesty has been at Belem (Ballen), to celebrate the funeral obsequies of the last two kings of Portugal, whose bones were brought to Belem by boat from Almerino, with those of Don Luigi, Don Duarte, and others of the blood royal. He met the coffins, clothed in mourning apparel and using many solemn ceremonies, being followed by all the clergy of Lisbon.
Turkey.—Osman Bassa has discomfited 8,000 Persians, slaying 2,000 and taking 800 prisoners, including two principal captains. It is again said that the great Turk will go in person against the Persians.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters XCV. 7.]
[Early in January.] 701. Advertisements from Sundry parts.
Empire.—The Bishop of Liége and Archduke Charles have come to Vienna, and commissioners from Venice were expected to confer about the confines between the Emperor and Venice. Possevino the Jesuit is also there on his way to Poland, having order from the Pope to treat with the Emperor to agree to the King of Poland's demands as to Silesia, not by restoring the same territories, but by compensation otherwise. The Emperor's brothers are content to receive “some reasonable entertainment” without partaking in their father's patrimony.
The Queen Blanche [i.e. reine blanche] widow of France, solicits permission for the speedy erection of a nunnery, where she intends to live solitarily. An ambassador has come to the Emperor from the Great Turk, demanding matters of great importance.
Rome.—M. de Foix, the French ambassador, has taken the orders of priesthood, having been consecrated by the Cardinal of Sens. The banished men spoil and rob the passengers between Rome and Naples, putting them to ransom. The corsairs do much harm in the Levant seas. The cities of La Marca and other provinces of the Romish church have sent to complain to the Pope of the extortions of his ministers. Cardinals Paliotti and Borromeo have earnestly entreated the Pope to give his parents and kindred in Bologna leave to resort to him and enjoy his presence, to show that he does not continue his ill-will towards them for causes which happened when he was in mean estate. And Cardinal d'Este has sued for favour for Count Pepuli. “But these Cardinals could obtain no grace in any of these causes, he remaining still in his accustomed hardness and malevolence.”
The new viceroy of Naples has been received with great honour, and the people have sought to gather 200,000 crowns [sic] to present to the Catholic King, but it was not agreed on.
Spain.—King Philip has declared to the Portuguese that he meant to depart from Portugal and go into Castile, giving them very loving admonitions to live united and continue their obedience vowed unto his crown, and promising to pleasure them in all their just occasions. He was leaving there the Marquis Santa Cruz to prepare a strong sea army, and there are four gallions newly built, with some great ships of war. The King will go by little journeys to Madrid, to hold his Lent there. The Biscayans have offered him fifty ships of war, promising to scour the seas and to defend his territories against Don Antonio, but under certain conditions which his Majesty has not yet ratified. The Duke of Medina Sidonia has brought to the court the body of King Sebastian, to be solemnly buried in the chapel of the Kings of Portugal.
Poland.—A diet has been held at Warsaw [see p. 13, above], whereat the King of Poland was present, requesting that one of his nephews might be declared his successor, but it was not agreed to by the Polonians. The differences between the King of Poland and Sweden are appeased, and the King has “licensed” his men of war. He has commanded the new calendar, sent from the Bishop of Rome, to be observed in all his dominions.
Endd. 2 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 8.]
Jan. 5/15—18/28. 702. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Rome, Jan. 28 [N. S.] 1583.—The Cardinal Archduke has been named by the Pope legate a latere to Portugal, his Holiness telling the College that having refused this grace to the Catholic king for a whole year, and it now being prayed for by the king and the clergy of that kingdom, for reasons of state, he could no longer refuse it, but has granted it for two years only and with very limited powers, as a nuncio rather than a legate. The king being about to depart, this legation will greatly promote the quiet of that kingdom, and it is a great honour to this senate that a Cardinal should be lord of such an Empire. His predecessors, for less needs, had granted a legate to Portugal.
Upon which proposal, the cardinals, astonished and surprised, gave their voices separately, and ten of them boldly alleged many reasons why his Holiness should not do this new thing, there being no doubt that France, the Empire and Poland might reasonably have demanded a like grace, to the great detriment of this Holy Chair; and on this side the chief of those who voted were the Cardinals Gambara, Dolfino, Commendone, Santa Croce, Sans, Madrucci, Albani and Este, which last reminded his Holiness that many times he had been promised by him, when giving legates to the kingdoms was discussed, his Excellency treating openly and boldly all which touched the most Christian King. The Pope replied that the case was very different, because Philip demanded only a legate for Portugal and not for the whole of Spain, for which there was need, while in France there appeared no such necessity; in fine the differences were many. With these votes and opinions many of the Cardinals agreed entirely, who have no other aim but the conservation of this State, but the will of the Pope prevailed, he being resolute in his desire for this legate in Portugal to the wonder of all, seeing the results which may follow from this innovation.
The actual votes were given in Latin. Dezza [de Deza] did not say a word, six other cardinals gave the placet, others, not being ready in the Latin tongue were silent as to their opinions, which cannot be gathered from the silence imposed upon and observed by the cardinals, especially in a matter of such weight. There were not present in this consistory, Savelli, Perugia [Fulvio della Cornia, formerly Bishop of Perugia] Simonetta (Sermoneta) and Altemps was despatched for Carthagena in Spain, Malines in Brabant and Tournay, having received two-thirds of the payment for the expedition, the rest to be paid within a year. When there was a discussion concerning the churches of Tournay and Malines, Cardinal Sans made a digression all in praise of King Philip, judged by many to be uncalled for. And so, this affair ended, the Pope, riding away with a good mien, went to the Vigna of Cardinal d'Este on horseback.
It is believed that the city of Naples means to give a present to the Catholic King of two million, four hundred thousand crowns, provided that his Majesty will concede certain privileges to them. The reply is expected from Spain, whither the expedition of the legate of Portugal has already set out.
It is said that the Pope has placed in the hands of M. Buonhuomo, his nuncio in Germany, 25,000 crowns for the business of Cologne. The banished men are increasing much hereabouts, in order to turn us out of this city, and it is believed that Piccolomini is arming in great force, in case the states and lordships should not yield to him.
Many notable lies are spread concerning the trial of Count Hieronimo Pepoli, in his favour and against the legate Cesis and the auditor del Torrone, who, at the last ridutto made the other day before Cardinal San Sisto [i.e. Buoncompagni] was reduced to confusion and terror by the procurator and the judge-delegates of the cause—to the great wonder of everybody and of the Pope, who hitherto has believed quite the contrary. It is said that at Easter the legate will return here.
The city of Algiers is said to be given into the power of the Catholic King, but there is no confirmation of this. It is said that shortly the Catholic ambassador here will have orders from his King to honour the Duke of Ferrara with the title of Serenissima and Altezza, which he has refused to so many other great lords. The treasurer of the Pope affirms that soon they will have the corn of Sicily, the Pope wishing to keep it at five crowns the rubbio in this city.
The Pope has lately published seven bulls of six pontiffs against detentor¸e terrarum, castrorum, locorum et luxium sanct¸e Roman¸e ecclesi¸e and will shortly issue also the Gregorian and the Leonine, both in relation to feudal matters, which will give some gentlemen cause for reflection.
This morning ten thieves, street assassins, were hanged, and while the people, to the number of more than 20,000, stood watching, many robberies were committed; in the night, in sight of those who were setting up the gallows a shop was robbed, and in the liberty of the Duke of Sora there were yesterday taken six other thieves, in vile upper habits, but beneath, adorned with silken stuffs and well armed with harquebusses.
We hear from Florence that the Grand Duke is going to arm four more galleys to send frequently to cruise about, which will be eight in all, well armed. From Paris they write that Don Antonio was there secretly and had once been visited by the King, who was preparing another fleet for him, and that the Duke of Alen¸ on would send him from Flanders 16 great, armed vessels.
Antwerp, Jan. 5.—The taking of Eyndhoven by treaty is confirmed, together with the castle, not far from Bolduc, which place was the defence and bulwark of all the champaign country and especially of the city of Bolduc; the passage of provisions being now closed to all the lands held by the Malcontents in that country. The soldiers of the garrison of Brussels have also taken the land of Almó;t but not yet the castle, which is very strong and well-garrisoned with good Albanese soldiers. They hope, however, that it will soon surrender, some great pieces of artillery being planted to batter it.
On the 2nd instant, the French and Swiss soldiers who have lately come into this country passed the Scheld near to this city, all fine young people, well armed. They are lodged in the villages about here until they are mustered and receive their pay, which will be very soon, and then will be sent on some enterprise.
The soldiers of the Prince of Parma suffer so much from hunger and cold that they are found dead in great numbers here and there in the country, and therefore his highness has been forced to withdraw the rest of the army into Louvain, Tournay, Oudenarde, Courtray (Caltrai) and other places, in hopes that they may not be ruined before the spring. He himself is at present in Tournay.
Cologne, Jan. 10.—To-morrow the States of the province of Westphalia will begin their diet, summoned in this city, which it is hoped, will bear good fruit.
Duke John of Deuxponts with the other ambassadors sent here from Bonn by our archbishop have not obtained any thing with the magistracy save the liberation of some burgers of the Augsburg confession, imprisoned for having preached during the past months, outside the gate of the city, contrary to the orders of the magistracy, which has promised, in the future, not to keep in arrest any of the said confession, but as for the demands made by the said Duke and the ambassadors that they should concede places in the city where those of the confession may hold their exercises, the said magistracy would not consent to it, it being a thing of great consequence, and refers the whole to the will and disposition of the Emperor and the Electors and Catholic princes, with which resolution, the Duke and his ambassadors returned on the 5th instant to Bonn to report all to the archbishop. It is said that Count Adolf of Neuenahr (Neuenarde) has brought back to the devotion of the archbishop the city of Berche [qy. Rheinberg], a very strong post upon the Rhine, and that he has already put in a garrison of good soldiers, endeavouring to do the same with the city of Neuss (Neis), four leagues from here, a place of great importance, on the Rhine. The Chapter has raised 6,000 gold florins, and the archbishop has done the same, so that each seeks to be the first to sieze the entrance to this Criesa, where there is fear of war between the Chapter and the archbishop; the magistracy and the community meanwhile remaining in accord together, and resolved to live as Catholics.
We hear that Don Antonio of Portugal is at Boulogne by the sea, in order to embark for Antwerp.
Endd. Italian. 2¾ pp. [Newsletters XCV. 9.]
Jan. 12/22—19/29. 703. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Vienna, Jan. [12–] 22.—The Emperor is very well and has begun to give audiences. The last was to the Polish ambassador, concerning compensation to his King for the castles occupied by Maximilian, which is agreed upon, though not yet publicly known. On Friday were executed the three men who came from the Prince of Parma to murder Count Landi, and the Emperor having ordered that they should dispatch many of the imprisoned malefactors, they often put to death five or six and send about sixty to the Venetian galleys.
The apostolic nuncio is making ready to go to Cologne with the legates who are expected from Rome, to arrange as well as may be the new matters there, which weigh much upon the Emperor, he not being able to do what he ought for fear of greater evils, and therefore waiting to see if the Chapter will resolve, as is believed, to elect a new Archbishop. He would be glad that the Prince of Parma should, with his people, stir up those of Cologne in case the new Archbishop should wish to attack it.
It is held for certain that in a few days the new calendar will come into use, and since the Duke of Saxony will have it observed in his States, the other protestant princes cannot do less than do the same. On March 1st, the diet in Hungary will certainly begin, in the presence of the Emperor, and meanwhile they will make the bridge over the Danube, by which he will pass into that kingdom.
The presents which ought to have been sent long ago to Constantinople are to be got ready, but slowly, for want of money. There being sent hither Signor Vespasiano Gonzaga with a full relation of the matter of the Castello di Rolo, it is believed the Emperor will send orders to the Governor of Milan to put the true owner again in possession, which the subjects of the Duke of Ferrara will oppose. We hear from Spain that the business of the marriage of the daughter of that king with the Emperor goes on coldly, in consequence of the demands made by the Spaniards to the Catholic King that the eldest daughter should not leave the kingdom, because of the ill health of the Prince.
Antwerp, Jan. 29, 1583, according to the new calendar.—The Duke of Alen¸on, after the unhappy issue of his design, went to the monastery of St. Bernardo on the 20th instant, whither the magistracy of this city having sent four commissioners with provisions for two days, and not having found him, because he had gone thence with his people towards Duffel, a place between Malines and Lierre, they returned on the 21st with the said provisions and report that they found on the road more than 300 French soldiers dead of hunger and of the wounds received in this city.
News has come that on the 22nd Alen¸on arrived at Vilvorde, where the said city and those of Bruges and Ghent sent commissioners to consult with him, and to pray him to withdraw to Brussels and there to treat with the States upon all things past and future, which was refused by his highness, he saying he did not wish to treat with the States unless they gave into his power the territories of Newport and Ostend, seaports of Flanders, and that he might make his residence in Bruges, and that all the French prisoners in Antwerp should be liberated, with which reply the commissioners have returned here, and although the Duke demanded of the commissioners that an absolute resolution should be given, not later than the 23rd, no answer was sent. For want of provisions he left Vilvorde and went to Dendermonde and on his way was nearly drowned under his horse and only saved by the help of some peasants, who threw him pieces of wood, by means of which they drew him out of the water. And his highness ran no less danger in passing the river between Duffel and Vilvorde upon a bridge made by the peasants out of some boats, which broke; and in the two places there were drowned more than 400 French and Swiss.
Those of Flanders do not wish by any means to consent to the Duke's demands to the States, and particularly those of Ghent, who have already thrown down and dragged on the ground his arms, placed in his honour in several parts of the city as Count of Flanders, and those of Bruges, intending to recruit 800 Flemish reiters to guard their city.
Yesterday, fresh commissioners were sent to the Duke, who was still in Dendermonde. It is said that the Prince of Orange wishes his highness to remain in these countries. Those of Artois, Hainault and the Prince of Parma have written to the magistrates of this city and other cities of Flanders, offering good terms if they will return to their obedience to the Catholic King, and especially promising liberty of conscience to all of the Religion, except that they should not have public exercises. To which offers it appears that those of Flanders and even a good part of this city lend an ear, with an inclination to embrace them, so that in a short time we expect to see an alteration, one way or another; those of Holland and Zeeland not wishing in any way to treat with the Duke, or acknowledge him in the future as their lord.
It is confirmed that in the affair in this city more than 1,600 French were killed, not counting the wounded who died afterwards. Of the burghers, 160 were killed and 80 wounded.
Those of Bruges have turned eight companies of French out of their city, those of Alost two companies and those of Malines three who were in garrison in these cities, so that there only remains in the power of the Duke the lands of Bergen St. Winoc, Dixmude and Dendermonde in Flanders.
It is said that those of Ghent have liberated from prison Monsieur de Champagny, brother of Cardinal Granvelle, and sent him together with eight of their principal counsellors to treat with the Prince of Parma for an agreement with the Catholic King, their natural lord. The same has been done by those of Ypres.
Guelderland (Gheldria) and Friesland (Frigia) do not wish for the Duke of Alen¸on, and those of Holland and Zeeland say that they will never have him for their lord, whence it is believed that all the united provinces will come to terms with the Catholic King.
The Italian and Spanish soldiers of the garrison of Lierre, hearing that the French were gone, sallied out by night to Borgerhout, where are still stationed the disbanded German reiters of the States, of whom they killed several and carried off 150 horses. Monsieur d'Hautepenne (Altapenna) and the Count of Mansfeld are gone with their men to the siege of Eyndhoven, where there are 800 French in garrison; and some say that the Prince of Parma is gone to the siege of Dunkirk (Dunchelque). It is also said that the Queen of England has sent a galleon to the Duke of Alen¸on and invited him to go over into that kingdom.
Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 10.]
Jan. 24. 704. Advertisements from Cologne.
On the 28th of this month the Diet will begin in this city, there being summoned by the Chapter 4 counts, 300 nobles, and the deputies of 17 cities subject to this archbishopric. They are still expecting the ambassadors of the Emperor and the Pope, and the Chapter treats meanwhile of the matters which are to be proposed in the Diet.
In favour of the archbishop, the Duke of Deuxponts has returned to the city in company with the ambassadors of the electors and princes and with the other counts and lords who were in Bonn. There have likewise arrived the ambassadors of the Landgraves of Hessia, of the Duke of Würtemberg, of Duke Augustus, Elector of Saxony, and of the Marquis of Brandenburg. Duke Casimir will not fail either to come in person or to send ambassadors; towards the which duke all the princes and especially the Duke of Saxony have a great dislike, going so far that the Chapter for the time being will only elect a coadjutor who is not a prince, in conformity to the agreement made between the members of the Chapter in this archbishopric. Cologne, 24 January, according to the old calendar.
Italianp. [Newsletters XCV. 10a.] On the same sheet as the preceding.
Jan 24. 705. Letter from Cologne. (fn. 1)
I have heard nothing from you since yours of Dec. 30, not even a reply to mine of Jan. 7, which I hope you received safely, with my opinion of the French pretensions, which that very day were evidently manifested to their confusion (thanks be to God). The same evening that the news came of this terrible tragedy of the Duke of Anjou, I was in the company of some men of letters and well versed in affairs of state, not biassed on either side but only desiring the quiet of Christendom, where we were talking of what had happened at Antwerp, and what was preparing for England, in recompense of the honour and advancement given to the Duke by means of her Majesty, in the possession of the Low Countries; they declaring that her Majesty was the sole cause that a personage learned and versed in the state affairs of all Europe (named Lanquett), whom I have known well, went to him in France and persuaded him to accept the offer of the States; who afterwards died of regret at Antwerp, before the arrival of the Duke, foreseeing the ingratitude which has ensued. Moreover that this was the cause of his having lost his good repute amongst the princes of Germany, especially the Duke of Saxony, from whom he drew yearly 500 dollars, and by favour of bearing the title of the said Duke's counsellor, as he himself confessed to me, his life was spared at the massacre in Paris. One of the said personages, a man of great experience in state affairs and politics, told me in confidence that the last league made with the Turk (against the King of Spain), countermines things in a fashion unlooked for by the confederates, and that the bolt will fall upon England if her Majesty do not quickly decide what she will do, by means pleasing to God and Godfearing men, and profitable to herself and her posterity. He whom you caused your man to seek for when he last passed here, has told me that the said personage has communicated these things to him. He salutes you, and both for his affection to you and the good he desires for your country he would gladly go to see you, to inform you of many things. The gast of the Signeur Lister has also told me that he would like to make the journey. He salutes you and prays you to remember what he wrote to you when the Duke of Anjou was in England to build up the fine league under pretext of marriage, and you will see if the result has not followed and that the rest of the poison, still hidden, will not fail to spread. Matters here remain in suspence until the Chapter and nobles of the diocese, together with the deputies of the princes on both sides are assembled, who are beginning to come into the town, ready for the opening on Monday. God give good result! There is more appearance of war than of amity, for it seems that the Chapter claims to remove the Archbishop from his dignity, who by no means wishes to quit it. The result will make us wise. The Duke of Saxe Lauenburg, head of the Chapter, opposing the actions of the said Archbishop, some days since seized and unloaded a boat passing by Somst, a town of the Duchess, going from Kaiserswerth to Bonn, laden with a great quantity of oats, beef, powder and bullets.
The Venetians have lately written of the victory of the Persian over the Turk before Tiflis, which the Persian was besieging and has since taken, and to the aid whereof the Turk had sent Osman Bassa with a great force, whom the said Persian has defeated and forced the said Bassa to retreat to Osdran, whence he has accused Sinan Bassa, whom the Turk has degraded and would have beheaded, but for the prayer of his mother. Also his great Captain of the Sea has revolted, and made himself master of Argeyl [Azila or Argilla], which they say he will give(?) to the King of Spain. Cologne, 24 January, 1583, stilo vecchio.
Copy. Endd. Fr.pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 2.]
Jan. 25.–Feb. 4.
[Latest date].
706. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Venice, Feb. 4 [N. S.]—Letters of the 27th December from Lisbon say that on the 20th, the King went to Belem, whither he had caused to be carried the bones of King Sebastian, who died in Africa, and where were performed solemn obsequies with much honour from the Portuguese nobility. On the 1st of February, his Majesty was to leave for Madrid, having summoned the Cortes of Portugal on the 15th of January at Lisbon, to take oath to the prince, Don Filippo, in which, as was understood, the Portuguese demanded from the King the confirmation of the articles offered them formerly and since the death of the Cardinal King; but his Majesty having been forced to conquer the kingdom by arms, claimed to alter them as he pleased. The Commendador Major, formerly viceroy of Naples, had been declared Major Domo Major in place of the Duke of Alva. In the Cortes there was treated an agreement for 400,000 dollars with his highness of Tuscany and in Barcelona there was joined to it other 400,000 to send to Italy on the galleys which are to escort the Duke of Terra Nova. The fleet for Terceira was being prepared in most powerful manner with great provision of artillery and artfully designed pieces, of which the King took great pleasure in seeing the various effects.
The French ambassador (by letters from Madrid of the 5th) was to leave within a week, and it was believed that Don Antonio had, in France, 100,000 dollars, part in money and part in jewels, brought upon some ships that came from India.
Cracovia, Dec. 10.—The King was expected there within a week, who as soon as he left Warsaw had sent away the chiaus by whom the Turk had sent to him to demand the Moldavian, and the money which he carried, with reply that his Majesty having found that the said Moldavian had wished to pass by force and as an enemy to his kingdom, he could not but in justice have him beheaded, and that as to the money, he had not known that he carried with him any amount of importance and that therefore he could not send to the Grand Signor either the one or the other. It remains to see how this reply will be received in Constantinople.
Paris, Jan. 7.—It is heard from Flanders that M. de Laval (la Valle) remains a prisoner, with many of his chief men, the Prince of Parma having made an ambuscade for them. That the Prince's camp was between Brussels and Alost, holding those two cities encompassed, so that they had nothing to eat except what they had provided within their walls.
That Colonel Birago issued often with his people from under the walls of Antwerp to skirmish with the enemy, the Spaniards having always the worst of it. Don Antonio was still in Paris, and doing his utmost to procure aid from the King, but met with only a cool response. It was certain that war with Spain would not break out, and that with all the incursions of the Prince of Parma over the frontiers of France the King would do nothing in reprisal, but would promote the affairs of Flanders, as he has done up to now. They were expecting at court to have festivities and dancing as usual, although Madame de Joyeuse (Gioiosa) was struggling with death for life; for whom the King was having prayers offered.
The creation of the nine knights of the Holy Ghost was on Jan. 1, viz. Charles de Lorraine, Due d'Aumale; Anne, Due de Joyeuse; Jean Louis de Nogaret, Due d'Epernon; Jean de Moy, Signeur de la Meilleraie [Mayelleraye] and one of the governors of Normandy; Philippe de Volvyre, Baron de Ruffec and Santa Brigida; Francois de Mandelot, Sieur de Passy, governor of Lyons and the Lyonese; Tannegui le Veneur (il cacciatore) Count de Tillières, one of the governors of Normandy; Jean Jacques de Luzane, Conte de Servi and Tristan de Rustin, Baron de Breci. The evening after “the Kings” [i.e. Twelfth night], Madame de Vitri, a most lovely girl, was made “Queen of the Bean.” From Avignon, that the King of Navarre and the Prince of Condé having stayed for some days in those parts, there arose great suspicion in the city and country for fear of some Huguenot plot.
[Venice.]—Tuesday the vigil of the Purification [N.S.], the Prince with the Signory, accompanied by the ambassadors of the Emperor and France, went on foot to solemn vespers at Santa Maria Formosa, to the astonishment of all, he being 94 years of age, and having been indisposed; and Wednesday, the morning after, his highness, for the aforesaid festival, and with the same company, went to the church of St. Mark to the solemn mass. The same morning the Imperial ambassador gave a banquet to the legate and the French ambassador.
Cardinal Borromeo arrived at Ferrara on the 28th of last month and left the following day for Parma, and while he remains in that city there will be no masque or any sort of amusement, by order of the Duke.
It is said that M. de la Noue (Nua) a prisoner of the Prince of Parma in Flanders died many months ago, either naturally or by violence.
Letters from Constantinople, dated December 23, bring news that the Grand Signor had at last had Sinam Bassa strangled, the favour of the sultanas not being sufficient to save him, to whom he had given all his most precious things, and it was added that his son had also been deprived of a certain post which he held, and the grand falconer likewise of his office, as being a follower of Sinam. There do not want some, however, who hold that Sinam is not really dead, but only that the Grand Signor after having deprived him both of his rank and power, had sent him word that he might go and end his days in any place whence no tidings of him would come to the Porte. Osman Bassa was expected in Constantinople from the borders of Persia, at whose arrival there would be concluded or rejected the peace with the Persian ambassador; the which Osman (as some judged) would be made Chief Vizier, though others held for certain that the office would remain with Thiaous Bassi, as being a kinsman of the Grand Signor, and to whom, on Sinam's deprivation, the seal was at once consigned, with the whole administration. It was said that near Domircapi, Osman had defeated 12,000 Persians, 4,000 of whom were killed and 800 taken prisoners, including two of their chiefs, but later news was much less good, and it appeared that though the Grand Signor still desired to go in person to that war, yet the provisions for those parts remained in abeyance, and also those for the fleet, which it was believed would go out but with only a small number.
Vienna, Jan. 8.—The Archduke Matthias had kept the Feast of Kings alla Fiaminga, creating a King with his officials by lot, the thing being then resolved into a sumptuous supper, at which were all three of his brothers with other lords and ladies, and after supper they danced until the middle of the night. The Sieur Paul Store, chamberlain of the Bishop of Liége and Prince of the Empire, on the 7th renewed the fief of that city in the name of his master, with the usual ceremonies. The Catholic King has written to the Emperor that for less expence, he might send a deed and not a personage into Spain for the betrothal ceremonies, and that with it might be sent the commission to the ordinary Imperial ambassador at that Court.
The ambassador of Poland has not very earnestly solicited his business of the castles of Transylvania, it being said that between his King and the Grand Turk there had grown dissatisfaction, for as much as the Grand Signor at the instance of France, would not give him the title of King; a young man, nephew of Ambrosino Fossato, has there killed himself by a blow with a dagger, being suspected of ill-conduct with the concubine of his uncle, who since, in consequence of the death of the nephew and jealousy of the lady, wished to drown himself, but was prevented by one of his servants.
The Venetian galley which conducted the Proveditore Contarini as far as Zara has returned.
From Nuremberg they write that in that city and other places in Germany there would presently be recruited people for the affair of Cologne, on the one side and the other.
Sinam Bassa was not really dead according to the last letters, of the 4th of January, but some say that the Turks do not wish to publish his death. They are to make great preparations for the war with Persia, with whom will go two Bassas, and the Grand Signor has created a sixth Bassa, one called Ferrat, having been formerly Aga of the janissaries and then Beglierbey.
From Vienna it is said that although the nuncio had orders from his Holiness to proceed to Cologne, he would not move until the Emperor said his going there was necessary. The diet in Hungary was summoned for the first of March. The ambassador from Turkey was expected in that court, as is written, and the Venetian commissioners have had audience of the Emperor.
From Poland, that the King had arrived in Cracovia on the 20th of December.
Since the election of the ambassador Dolfino for Poland, the King of France has tried several times by his ambassador to work upon this Signory not to send him, to the end that he should not prejudice his own pretentions in that kingdom, but finally the Prince has replied to the ambassador that since they have made the election they cannot but send him, so much the more as it is said that the Polish King has already elected his ambassador to be sent here, and that soon the preparation will be made for his lodgings.
Endd. Italian. 3 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 11.]
Jan. 29. 707. The King of Poland to Queen Elizabeth.
Stating that there is now detained as a prisoner in England James Bosgrove, a divine of the Society of Jesus, professor in the University of Wilna, and a man of great piety and learning; for no other cause, so far as he can learn, than that having drunk in the Roman Catholic religion with his mother's milk, he still zealously professes it.
Does not doubt that her Majesty will understand of what consequence it is that a man so excelling in piety and learning should be so long absent from his university, by which it is easy to perceive how much the cause of learning is injured; wherefore he urgently prays that she will send him back freely that he may continue in his appointed station to teach piety and letters, which will be of such benefit and ornament to the church and commonwealth. Assures her of his willingness to allow freedom to those of her subjects who go into his kingdom, and hopes that by her benignity and clemency, the like freedom may be granted to the Catholics in her dominions. Niepolomice, 29 January, 1583, in the 7th year of his reign. Signed, Stephanus Rex.
Add. Endd. Seal. Latin. 1 p. [Poland, I. 21.]
Jan. 30. 708. Advertisements from the Low Countries.
Monsieur, seeing that the treaty with the States would not end so soon as the needs of his men required, and that his person and forces were in danger about Vilvorde, hastened to Dermonde, where he lies, and his troops “thereabouts.”
Their intent was to have got into the land of Waes, but those of Flanders have so beset and “empeached” all the passages that they cannot get in.
Mr. Norreys is chief of the States' men there, 2,000 soldiers and five or six thousand boors well appointed, and so resolved to fight, that they daily pray to be allowed to pass the river and seek their enemy. The writing between Monsieur and the States continues with small effect, his claim to keep certain places making the people so jealous of the French that they know not how to trust them. It is said that Monsieur sent Mr. Norreys word that if he hindered the French troops he should account him his greatest enemy, and that “Marshal Biron and Rochepot, chief authors of the pretended and failed murder, braved as if they would pass over the river perforce and set upon Mr. Norreys,”to which he answered that he would perform his charge and stand to his defence, whoever should assail him.
To know the Prince's and States' pleasure he came to Antwerp on Friday, and returned on Sunday. Money from all the provinces is come for payment of the troops and other needs. None of the commissioners who have been with Monsieur will go to him again.
Marshal de Villiers, sometime governor of Bouchain, returned with the States' answer, and is come again to accompany Monsieur de Laval, by whose arrival it is thought his highness begins to yield to the States' demands.
Dermonde was provided for a year, but “thereupon his people and train spend all this while, so as it cannot long continue.” At Brussels the soldiers mutinied for pay and imprisoned the governor, but all is now appeased. Montigny and the Viscount of Ghent sent trumpets to demand its surrender, offering conditions of agreement, but Brussels sent the trumpet to the Prince and States for his answer, who, it is thought, will delay the answer, and feed the enemy with compliments. Eyndhoven is environed by the enemy afar off, but the States have sent into Guelderland and Friesland for forces, hoping to rescue it. It is said the Prince of Parma will come to Lierre, and parley further with the States. A gentleman has arrived from the King of France to the States, who was so received by the people that if he had not, by the help of the burghers, got back to the ship, he “had been mischiefed.” Afterwards he was safely conducted to his lodgings by one of the town colonels and some shot. Middelburg, 30 January, 1582.
Endd.pp. [Newsletters I. 55.]
Feb. 8. 709. Rudolf II. to the Count of Embden.
We have received your second letters touching the English Adventurers at Embden, and perceiving the doubt you seem to have of the continuance of our decree last given in that behalf, we do by these presents again command you to follow the same as equity requireth, hoping you will show yourself herein dutiful and obedient, and not give us occasion more earnestly to take order therein, whereto (if there were any further complaints by the Hanse towns) we shall be forced. Of which our resolute determination we thought good to let you understand. Vienna, 8 February, 1583.
Endd. as is that to the Queen on p. 672 below. English translation. ½ p. [Germany, Empire, I. 46.]
Feb. 9/19. 710. Advertisements from Venice.
From Lisbon, letters of Jan. 10th tell us that the Cortes of the kingdom were summoned to that city for the 20th, for the Prince to take his oath, and to discuss other matters of the kingdom. The King was then to go to Madrid, accompanied by many noble Portuguese, of whom he would carry with him a special council for the affairs of Portugal. The Duke of Candia had begun to execute the charge of his generalship, to the great satisfaction of the Portuguese. The preparations of the fleet for the Terceiras were going on very briskly in that city, in Seville and in Barcelona, and the King, hearing of the arrival of Don Antonio in France, had sent for the Marquis of Sta. Croce, and the appointed captains for that enterprise began to appear, to take up the charge of the expedition; and orders were given in all the maritime places, for great quantities of bread. They were diligently arming two galleasses come from Naples, which with two galleons in good order will be sent out very shortly. The grandees of Castile did not approve of the appointment of the chief major-domo, in the person of the Commendator Major, formerly viceroy of Naples.
The French ambassador [Saint-Gouard] left Madrid on the 13th of January to return home, leaving behind him the character of a brave and prudent cavalier.
Cardinal Borromeo has summoned from Milan his doctor, Signor Zacaria Caimo and Signor Giovanni Battista Chiodo, his surgeon, both much esteemed, who left on the 7th to assist in the cure of the Princess of Mantua at Parma.
Letters from Paris of Jan. 25 say that the King and Queen returned there the previous Saturday, looking very well. That the Pope had finally agreed to let his Majesty dispose in pensions of the fourth part of the revenues of all the benefices, convents and abbeys in the kingdom, but only by letters, not by bull, which favour was praised by the courtiers and blamed by the priests. Others thought it right, hoping that it would aid the business of the publication of the Council [of Trent] in that kingdom, for which there are frequent assemblies. Don Antonio is lodged with the Abbot Guadagno. They say that by the spring he will have a fleet of 80 vessels; 40 English, 12 Flemish and the rest French.
On Sunday morning Zacaria Salamone, newly elected Proveditor of the fleet, went on board with a splendid equipage, and a show of great quantity of money. He is to start for the east on the 1st of next month.
On Monday morning there returned from Spalatro, on the galley called the Seven Columns, the Proveditor Contarini sent about the business of Clissa, who, they say, has had executed three accomplices of that conspiracy and has tried others. The following morning he went to the College to make his report. On Saturday the ambassador of Savoy returned from Turin, by whom it is understood that the Duke will take to wife the daughter of Lorraine, with a dower of a million of gold; but others say that she will give herself to the Prince of Cleves.
A special courier sent from Antwerp on Jan. 29 on account of the bankruptcy of a German merchant in that city for 90,000 crowns, brings news of the departure of the Duke d'Alen¸on and his French and Swiss people from the monastery of St. Bernard near Antwerp, taking their way towards the territory of Liége in order to return to France. There remain in the service of the States the Germans, English and Scots who have renounced the oath taken to the Duke, and sworn fealty anew to the States and Prince of Orange; and some add that while the Duke was in St. Bernard he sent to beg provisions from those of Antwerp, who sent him only half an ox, a wether, and ten pair of fowls, with bread and wine for his own table only. And at his departure thence, his people cut in pieces 300 English and Scots, because they would not follow them and help them to make themselves masters of Antwerp. Letters of the 10th of February from Genoa tell us of the arrival of the Duke of Terranova and the galleys in a port above Savona; whence he was expected in Genoa from hour to hour. The French ambassador was at the College on Monday, to discourse upon the late events at Antwerp. The couriers from Rome and the letters from Constantinople have not yet arrived.
Endd. Italian. 1¼ pp. [Newspapers XCV. 12.]
Feb. 2/12—16/26. 711. Advertisements from Sundry Parts.
Antwerp, Feb. 12, N.S.—The Duke of Alen¸on is still at Dendermonde, in great want of money and provisions. Almost every day he sends commissioners here, amongst them M. de Laval and the Count de Rochefoucault, to treat with the States. The reply given to them is that all this negotiation is referred to the resolution of the United Provinces, viz. Flanders, Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, the bishopric of Utrecht, Guelderland and Friesland (Frigia); it being believed that the people will no longer accept the Duke (seeing that it is plain to every one that what happened in this city was planned by the French, who intended to do the same in other places), unless his highness will restore the cities and places which he holds, with the further condition that he shall reside in Brussels, with his Court and a guard of 400 Swiss, who must take oath to the States, and that M. de Temple shall remain governor of the city with the present garrison; but it is not known whether those of Brussels will agree to this course.
Some wish that no positive resolution shall be taken before the arrival of the English Ambassador, who is on his way. The Queen being much dissatisfied by this action of the French, it is said that she has dismissed the ambassador of the Duke and those of the Kings of France and Spain, demanding from the Duke's ambassador a good sum of money which she had paid to him a few days before to send to his Master.
Two ambassadors have come from the King of France to show his great displeasure concerning his brother's proceedings against Antwerp, and that as a sign of this, he had not detained or given any hindrance to the Flemings in his kingdom; and it was yesterday published here that the French merchants stayed with their goods should be released, and be allowed to go about their business as formerly, but the soldiers who were made prisoners have not yet been liberated.
The Malcontents remain quiet from great dearth of provisions, but almost every day write to those of this city, Brussels, Ghent, Bruges and Alost, exhorting them to be reconciled to the King of Spain. Up to the present time they have received no replies at all, the people not being willing to trust themselves to the Spaniards, in respect of religion.
The Catholics in Scotland wished secretly to send their King into France, but the plot was discovered and the principal authors of it taken. Of fifteen Flemish merchant ships returning from Setubal and Lisbon, ten are cast away.
Cologne, Feb. 17, N.S.—After many and long consultations concerning the Archbishop, the major part of the States of the bishopric have consented to an agreement with the Chapter, but with the condition that the Archbishop shall be proceeded against by way of the laws and without provoking a war, and with permission that all protestants of the said States may have liberty of conscience. And in that manner, on the 12th instant the Diet came to an end without giving any other reply to the propositions of the Archbishop or the protestations of the princes, counts lords and ambassadors who support him. Upon this on the 14th instant he left Bonn with all his adherents for Dillenburg, a town and strong castle of Count John of Nassau, brother of the Prince of Orange, a day's journey from Frankfort, having on the Sunday espoused the Countess of Mansfeld publicly in the church of Bonn, in the presence of Duke John of Deuxponts and many counts, nobles and ambassadors of princes, and carrying with him all the writings, the seal, jewels and other property of the archbishopric. The same day there arrived here letters from the Electors Palatine, Saxony and Brandenburg to the Chapter, and one separately to the States of the archbishopric, exhorting them not to oppose the good proposition of the archbishop, otherwise they should be compelled to assist him, and give him aid as to their dear brother and friend.
The Elector of Saxony has likewise written letters to Duke Frederick of Saxony, one of the principal members of the Chapter and suffragans of Cologne, exhorting him with high and threatening words not to consent to allow anything to be done against the Archbishop; so that it is thought certainly that in the spring there will be war in these countries, seeing that Casimir, the Bishop of Bremen, and many other protestant lords are ready with their colonels to gather 8,000 horse and 10,000 foot in favour of the married archbishop, and the opposite party will not fail to strike also.
The three bishop-electors have likewise written to the Emperor, who ordered the Chapter of Cologne to keep the married archbishop in his dignities and electoral and episcopal authority, but it is believed that the Emperor will do nothing further, and so much the more it is doubted there will be war.
Since the close of the diet, the Chapter have recovered the land and Castle of Kaiserswerth (Caisersvert), the captain left there by the archbishop having departed, and it is hoped that those of Bonn may do the same by the persuasion of the Chapter, and also by their expectation of being attacked by the Prince of Parma, whose troops lie on the frontiers of Bonn by request of this Chapter. For the guard of that city there have remained Hermann Adolf, Count of Solms, the Lord John of Winnenberg and Charles Truchsess, brother of the archbishop, with some few soldiers.
Rome, Feb. 26. n.s.—On Thursday morning there was some dispute in the Congregation of the Holy Office, before his Holiness, on account of the Paleologo, amongst the cardinals, a part of them wishing that he should be put to death, and the other part not, but the vote of the pontiff prevailed, which was that the execution should be put off for awhile, and that in the meanwhile with the continued assistance of the pious divine of the Cardinal d'Este, who converted him, he should write to his ill-taught followers in Germany of his apparent false heresy, printed and preached to them, as he has already begun to do and write; and they are revising his works, two of which, one in Latin and the other in Greek will remain published against the perfidy of the Hebrews. It is the opinion of many that this man has cost the Pope more than 20,000 crowns to get him into his hands.
Yesterday there came a courier from Parma to Cardinal Farnese, to announce (as is said) to the Pope that the cut given to the princess is mortal, and that even if she lives the doctors doubt whether the results will be lasting. This courier has brought the writings made concerning the occurrence, which displeases everybody. Cardinal Farnese has let it be understood that as the said princess might be forced into a monastery she had this operation in order not to give up her life.
Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 13.]
Feb. 712. [Walsingham] to Alberto Baranoviski, Secretary of Poland.
Her Majesty's envoy in your country has written to us much about the willingness of your people in the matter of establishing a free seat of English commerce at Elbing and so cementing the ties between the two realms by a closer bond, but more especially he speaks of your good will and zeal in the matter in such a way that I can easily see that you have used no less prudence than kindness and that you are largely responsible for the fact that your people seem willing at last to satisfy her Majesty's desire. This it is that impels me at this time, since her Majesty has sent letters to your King and the noble Senate of your realm, and the rest of her Council have done the same to some of the most eminent men of Poland, to choose you as the most fitting person to whom I can signify how welcome were these kindly offices conferred on our nation. Moreover, as it seems that from these beginnings may grow (as we most earnestly desire) a glorious alliance between the two princes and their realms, let me in accordance therewith make use of the blessing of private friendship (for that is the most powerful factor in conciliating men's minds), since I hold the same station in the state as yourself,—let me, the Queen's secretary, make friends with you, the King's. To sum up, if I have power, favour or wit, be firmly persuaded that when any occasion shall arise of doing a favour to yourself or any of your people, I will not willingly omit anything that could be desired from the closest or most obliging of friends. Likewise I most earnestly beseech you to use all the authority with your King which you possess, as we well know, by reason of your consummate prudence and loyalty, to keep his Majesty, as he has begun, in a state of willingness to satisfy the demands of her Majesty and show favour to the English nation; so that, since nothing is asked inconsistent with equity or the King's dignity or his subjects' well-being, a conclusion may be made to this matter with the consent of all parties. London.
“To Albert Baranovio, knight of Poland, chief secretary, no[minated?] bishop of Premislien” [Prenzlau].
Endd. Feb. 1582. Draft. Latin. 1 p. [Poland I. 22.]
Feb. 28. 713. Occurrents from Cologne.
The arrival of the Cardinal of Austria is daily expected, who brings the dismissal and deprivation of the Archbishop, but the deprivation is still doubtful, as I have heard from a person of quality, “where” I had the fortune to meet le Lusque, (fn. 2) the secretary of the Cardinal of Trent, Demutius, who has brought letters from the Pope to the Archbishop to divert him from his enterprises, and one Curtius, agent of the Emperor, who has brought letters from his Majesty to the senate of this town, exhorting them to remain faithful to their ancient customs and religion, and the like letters to the Chapter.
In this said company there lacked not divers discourses on the present times, and amongst them, of the tragedy at Antwerp, and the Valois perfidy, which will not cease to conspire, seconded by the seditious spirits of the country itself, at least of Brabant and Flanders, who are considered already in France to belong to that crown. And that notwithstanding these first practices they will find means to radoubter their fault by good promises and oaths, even that the Queen of England will assist, in order to nourish the war between France and Spain. From France we hear that the King is sending 200,000 crowns to his brother, and that the Queen Mother is getting ready an army for Don Antonio.
The assembly which the protestant princes and towns of the Empire are to hold at Ulm or Worms on Dominica Judica, which is a fortnight before Easter, on the business of the bishopric fait mettre le leawe [qy. la lie] au vin du Chapitre, and even to their designs.
This assembly of the three circles, Upper, Lower and Westphalian, is in order to finish off the matters left over by the diet of Augsburg; where as usual, there will be much noise and little done. You shall learn all that passes there. Last Friday, the 22nd, the Count d'Aremberg, a vassal of this bishopric and in the service of the chapter, approached Bonn in order to prevent provisions reaching it, and intending to besiege it with two German regiments and one of Walloons and 500 lancers, all in good order, but starving.
He was in this town on Saturday, dining with the Duke of Saxony. The Chapter has sent ten messengers with letters to the Princes of Germany to inform them of the crimes committed by the Archbishop, which are the cause of their depriving him, but it is believed that his declaration will neutralize them all. Cologne, 28th February, 1582 [old style (fn. 3) ].
Endd. Fr.pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 3.]
March. 3. 714. Occurrents from Cologne.
The commissioners of the three circles, Lower, Upper and Westphalian, have gone, having only consulted amongst themselves what it will be well to propose at the Journée of the Empire (“pour restat” of the diet of Augsburg), which is to be held at Frankfort next May, where they will discuss matters concerning money, justice, the towns estranged from the Empire, the extermination of freebooters and the like. The Squint-eyed has added his pretensions [margin: “he meaneth Dr. Suderman and the Hanses' causes”] to which he has received little response so that he despairs of the issue, saying that the said Journée is his last refuge, in which however he foresees little good. Amen !
On the 25th of last month Count d'Aremberg withdrew his men who were hanging round Bonn, for want of artillery and pay, which the Chapter cannot give them, for they are as much and more in need of money than the Archbishop. They have only withdrawn about two leagues, eating up the country people, while waiting for better things. Meanwhile, the Archbishop is at Arnsberg (Ansbourgh), the strongest town and castle of Westphalia, held from the diocese, for whom all the nobles and commons of Westphalia have declared themselves, having unanimously embraced the Religion. On the other side, the Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg is trying to surprise divers places, and amongst others the castle of Hulsraet [sic], belonging to the diocese, but held in gage by the Count de Moers, who supports the Archbishop, wherefore the said Duke thinks to take advantage of the opportunity and has summoned the soldiers of Aremberg, who are said to be marching thither to-day.
This is the day appointed for the assembly of the protestant imperial towns at Heilbronn, to consult, and then report their opinion to the Journée which the protestant princes are to hold concerning the business of the Archbishop, who, it is said, will certainly be supported and maintained in his episcopal dignity and electorate. The assembly will be at Ulm, Dominica Judica, a fortnight before Easter.
On the same 25th ult, there arrived a gentleman from the Emperor, who at once took post to go to the Prince of Parma.
The Prince is at Tournay, waiting for 400,000 crowns which have arrived at Besan¸on. Meanwhile he mixes himself up in the Alen¸on factions, which the clear sighted believe will bring about a tour de gascons of which the States and their neighbours will feel the effects. Cologne, 3rd of March, 1583.
Endd. March 3, 1582. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII, 4.]
March. 7. 715. Advertisements from Cologne.
We are here looking for the Cardinal of Austria, who brings the dismissal of our archbishop, and it is thought will pass first by Liége, where peradventure the said dismissal will be published. Which, however, the Archbishop will take no account of, being assured that the princes and cities of the Empire will maintain him in his dignities and the authority of the electorate, in order that henceforward the protestants may have the plurality of voices in the election of the Emperor. This is the object of these changes. But the Elector of Saxony has promised the Emperor that he will not meddle in the matter, and the like hath the Duke of Wirtemberg done; and by the instigation of the Pope, who made the peace with the Muscovite, to the King of Poland's advantage, the said king has notified to the Elector of Brandenburg that if he declares for the Archbishop he will spoil his country. But notwithstanding all these practices and threatenings, papal and imperial, it is known that these give aid to the Archbishop, underhand, whereof the effect will shortly be seen.
The day before yesterday there arrived in Bonn 200 reiters and 400 lansquenets. The Archbishop is expected there very shortly, with good troops. The regiments of the Count d'Aremberg are retired down towards Somst, to meet the Duke of Saxe Lauenburg, who, it is said, means to besiege “Hulsraet.” The affairs of Monsieur d'Anjou are doubtful and the issue hazardous. He makes show of treating with the Prince of Parma to bring the States to his side, and especially in order to withdraw the French prisoners; and having these, will declare himself more openly. Cologne, 7th of March, 1582, old style.
Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Newsletters XXVII. 5.]
716. English translation of the first part of the preceding. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid, XXVII. 6.]
March. 7. 717. Letter from Cologne.
I yesterday received yours of the 1st of this month and the 22 of February, this last having been intercepted, with all the ordinary post, by those of Lierre, but (thank God) not opened. I have been well pleased to hear their contents, and especially the entrelasse in the vulgar tongue, which I have at once imparted to the gast de Leyster, who was much pleased, seeing the diligence which you use for the services of those who merit it, and for which he labours to the utmost of his power, without regard to the hate which some bear to him. He will not cease, for all the tempests which may ensue, to go on doing the services required, which from his youth up have been printed on his heart, even to the risk of his life. But he has desired me to acquaint you that he cannot before the middle of April absent himself from these parts without losing the knowledge of several negotiations of importance which are in hand, and very necessary to be known for the safety of the services required. He wishes me to go with him, which I cannot refuse for the sake of my old friends, but in order to this I must pray you to consider how my wife for more than a year has been confined to her bed, deprived of the use of her limbs and given up by all the doctors, who believe that she will remain so all the days of her life, to my great sorrow and expence. I cannot leave her unless she has sufficient attendants and what is needed for her and their subsistence, which I lay before you that you may bring it to the right ears, and some good provision may be sent me, so that I may go on my way with a more easy mind, and bring the work commenced to a good end. This being done, be sure I will do good service and you need be under no apprehensions, for the journey of the said gast will be found very needful. If they give you this provision, it may be changed at Antwerp, consigning it to him who sends me your letters. As to the pretensions of the Squinteyed [Sudermann, see p. 669 above], they are as I wrote to you before; he is in despair from one day to another, fearing a disjunction, or at least that they will let all fall under their feet; for some of the principals who have contributed to the expences of the proceedings have said to me, and declared to the said Squinteyed, that henceforward they would be at no more expence and will be content with what they can do by friendship. From my last you will have learnt the intercourse I have with le Lusque and those intimate with him. Cologne, 7th March, 1583.
Copy. Endd. Fr.pp. [Newsletters, XXVII. 7.]
March. 11. 718. Letter from Cologne.
By my last, of the 7th inst., you will have learnt of the satisfaction of the gast de Leyster in reading in the vulgar tongue that your honour has done the part of a loyal servant, for which you need have no doubt but that you will be recompensed in due time. For his coming thither will not only be agreeable but very necessary, and I pray you not to fail to send him speedily the necessary means, for be assured the journey will deserve much more, and it should not be delayed beyond the middle of next April. The same day, the 7th, Squinteyed [Sudermann] came to the bourse, which he seldom does, and found me speaking with one of the principal of his Company, who has resolved to contribute no more, and whom le Lusque is trying to call back to his support. He took us both to dine with him, where we urged him that one should not let fall and tread under feet the benefits acquired by ones ancestors three hundred years ago, and when he had so many powerful friends who will support him and bring his claims to a good end. He replied that this will be ad calendas grecas, for the opposite party are too strong, and will not be constrained or forced in their houses, and that the best was to let them peaceably enjoy the benefits which their neighbours leave to them, and seek to gain some advantage by friendship, for by force one would gain nothing; and it would be but trouble and money thrown away. This is the determination to which the gast de Leyster has brought them, and he will not cease to confirm them in it, not doubting that discord will in time ensue. Cologne, 11th March, 1583.
Copy, on the same sheet as the preceding. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII. 7a.]
March. 11. 719. Advertisements from Cologne.
The Cardinal of Austria arrived at D¨sseldorf on Saturday and went to the Duke of Cleves, who holds his court there, accompanied by the Bishop of Liége. As I hear, he will remain there until Duke Augustus of Saxony, the premier protestant prince, has declared his resolution upon the embassy sent by the Emperor to him, and likewise to the Archbishop of Cologne, to both of whom his Majesty has represented that the constitutions of the Empire and the Landfriede which they have sworn to observe and cause to be observed for the public quiet and welfare, contain (among other things) the following: When the magistrate of a state shall require to have the Religion in conformity to the Confession of Augsburg, it will be permitted to him, and likewise to the ecclesiastics of the Empire to marry, on their renouncing and giving up their benefices. Now there are certain crimes imputed to the Archbishop which are (as the Chapter has announced to the protestant princes) very odious, and it is asked if the said princes with conscience and honour can or will maintain the transgressor of the said laws and constitutions. Upon this their definite replies are awaited, in order to proceed in the accustomed manner.
Meanwhile the Duke of Saxe-Lauenbourg besieges Hulkraet, intending to batter it with cannon in as much as they will not surrender upon composition. It seems that the Count d'Aremberg is going with his men towards Eyndhoven.
There are divers speeches as to the affairs of the States and the marriage of his Excellency and also of his daughter. Many prophecy the ruin of Antwerp, to my great sorrow; this French alliance will bring nothing but misfortune both to them and to their neighbours, if matters are not seen to very speedily. Cologne, 11th of March, 1582[–3].
The mignons of Ba and La [margin, the Emperor's and Cardinal Granvelle's ministers or commissioners] have gone to the said Cardinal, who, from there will go towards Ca [margin, Spain] about Easter, as he has told me en amys per advyso.
After I had closed my letter, one came to tell me that the Bishop of Liege arrived here last evening with 30 horse, and that the Cardinal will be here to-day or to-morrow. Also that the Archbishop is holding the Estates of Westphalia at Arnsberg, to decide with them what they shall reply “a cette venue Cardinalienne.”
Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII. 8.]
March. 22. 720. Rudolf II. to the Queen.
We doubt not but that your Majesty's messenger “at the last meeting of the Empire” has declared to you what the Princes and States of the Empire “did decree to be executed to the propounded griefs of the Hanse cities, concerning the restitution of their privileges” in England, as also the monopolies of certain of your subjects trading within the Empire, and what we thereupon answered to your messenger's complaint on the 27th of September; “yet sith hitherto neither the required restitution of the Hanses' privileges nor revocation of the said monopolies, as we hoped, is happened, the rather for that many of the States and the Hanses have thereunto warned us and do urge execution of our said decree,” therefore we have thought it part of our office imperial to communicate this unto you, that your Majesty, following the steps of your predecessors, and renewing to the Hanses their privileges, may take away all occasion of complaint. Vienna, 22nd March, 1583.
English translation from Latin. 1 p. [Germany, Empire, I. 47.]
This letter is printed in the “Correspondance du Cardinal de Granvelle,” X. 468.
March. 25.–April 4. 721. Don Antonio to Walsingham.
As the Doctor will bring this to you, I refer myself to him, only assuring you that I shall never fail to be grateful to you for your good-will and affection to me, and praying you always to hold me in your favour, and when occasion offers, to bring me a little to her Majesty's remembrance. You will learn from the Doctor the state of my affairs, and my resolution therein.—Dieppe, 4 April. [No year date.]
Signed “Rey.” Add. Endd. “1582, 26 [sic] March. Don Antonio.” Italian. 1 p. (Portugal II. 6a.)
[Almost certainly 1583, when, towards the end of March, Dr. Lopez was sent with letters to Don Antonio, then at Dieppe.]
March. 27. 722. Letter from Cologne.
I have communicated yours of the 25 and 21 of March to le gast de Leyster, who thanks you for your good affection to him, and hopes to repay it by faithful services.
The dangers, and the charge which he will leave behind him are more than he can declare in writing, and he leaves them until he can declare them by word of mouth. The great and incurable malady [of his wife], (fn. 4) the nurses [gardes] which he would have to support and leave for this cause, joined to the great dangers and perils of the way, would demand that he should have some fair liberality, both for provision for his family and the expences of the journey, so that if he met with disaster, his family would not be deprived of all, both of their chief bread-winner and of the means which God has given them. He assures himself that the weapons with which he will be furnished and which are most necessary for the safety and the preservation of his country, will be found useful and grateful.
I can assure you of it, provided there is not too much delay, and if he can speak with you and your friends in April, which is the best season. But without liberal provision, he will not go. This is the plain speaking (rondeur) which he uses towards us, relying entirely on your friendship.
As to the means for disunion, which, without doubt will follow, he prays you to wait until he can speak with you, when he is sure he can satisfy you. It is wonderful to hear the lamentable discourses of the Xe [qy. Sudermann] foreseeing future separation, and the ridiculous inventions which he proposes to keep in play those who are discontented. As to your desire to hear if there is any intelligence between the merchants, Bi [The K. of France] and Bo [Queen Mother] you may be assured there is, but with great dissimulation. This is why the mignon of La [Granvelle] is starting five days earlier than he intended to go to the said Bi and Bo and thence into Ca [Spain]. This traffic is a part of the weapons of the said gast, which he desires to discharge in Ci [England] and to show the true way to forestall them all, by an honourable and healthful path, both for the present and for posterity, which is a thing of no small consequence. Hec tibi soli.
A.D. 1583.
Concerning the troubles here, tending more and more towards war and ruin of the surrounding country and of the Roman ecclesiastics, you will have learnt by my last of the 21st how the Electors Palatine and of Mayence had sent their ambassadors to the Chapter and to Count Aremberg to cause the foreign gendarmerie to retire from the territory of the Empire, who had received but poor response. But on the part of the Emperor (he having felt that the Turkish contribution would not fall into his hands unless he did what pleased them) there arrived orders to the camp surrounding “Hulqueraet” to withdraw at once, which they did, without their having received a penny from the Chapter, but having robbed and eaten up the peasants on the lands of the said Chapter, the Duke of Cleves and the Count d'Alpen [qy. d'Haultepenne], without respecting one more than the other.
The Comte d'Aremberg colours his retreat by the necessity of aiding those of Miedlen near Nymegen, who have for long been pressed by those of Gueldres, and thence going towards Eyndhoven to prevent help reaching it. The Comte de Reifferscheit (Riverschiet), a Domheer, having levied some Liégois soldiers to protect his lands, and hinder the proceedings of those of Bonn, had put his lieutenant into a village of his called Mylem [Mehlen], above Bonn, whose company being drunk or asleep were awakened early in the morning by the soldiers of Bonn, who killed 50 or 60 of them, carried off some as prisoners and burnt part of Wylem (sic). Count Salentin, Captain-General of the Archbishop, does not move, waiting for the coming of the Cardinal, who will be here very shortly.
The Archbishop is at Dillenburg, awaiting the resolution to be taken at the assembly of protestant princes, which was to meet yesterday at Worms, and where the chiefs who will take his part will be declared. He has asked for aid from the King of France, offering to resign to him some place in the diocese which may be useful to him to prevent the carriage of provisions from hence into Hainault.
Duke Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg, who married a daughter of Sweden, has been here and was lodged with your host. He has gone to the States to offer his services. The said host would not have been so favourable to you if he had known who you were and what was your business, as I have discovered since.
It is rumoured that the Queen Mother is coming to Dunkirk, and that 40 companies of French are near Hesdin. Cologne, 27th March, 1583, old style.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 9.]
March 31. 723. The City of Elbing to the Queen.
In our former letters (which we hope were rightly delivered) we remember having pointed out what was then our opinion of this privilege we have obtained, and what was our expectation as to the declaration of the royal will of our King. After we had waited long for this declaration, we received letters from the royal Chancery containing almost these exact words, 'that his Royal Majesty would decide nothing until the arrival of an envoy from your Majesty on the subject, and that, too, after summoning this city and others perhaps interested in the matter.'
Now these words, although they seem to agree in wish and hope with your Majesty's intention, approved by us, of sending an envoy, have yet caused us great trouble and anxious thought, because we understood that by the words `others interested' the men of Dantzig were meant, whom we know to be not only using all means at the King of Poland's court to hinder the present system of free commerce and the fixing of the seat of English affairs in our city, and to be enticing by various allurements the English nation, alienated from them by many past insults, but also, in the hope of gaining their end, to have not so long ago transferred to the King a half of their port dues (portorum), which they promised him long ago but had not yet granted. By which means they have made much progress with his Majesty, but still leave nothing untried whereby the seat of affairs may be stopped from being in our city and transferred to themselves.
And in this they are said to be helped in some degree by certain Englishmen, who favour the city of Dantzig rather than Elbing and prefer the advantages of the former to the liberties of the latter, and who have gone so far as to sow certain discords between their English fellows who are at Elbing and to oppress those who from the beginning of the present treaty and alliance have ever been most friendly to this city. Therefore, although we have no doubts of the kindly intention of our prince to us and our cause, or of your Majesty's good will, which indeed has long been clear to us, or of the mutual and constant zeal of your subjects and the whole society, and see no need for anything except a certain amount of haste, we pray your Majesty most humbly to be pleased to counteract in good time the obstacles and hindrances we have mentioned, and to send your envoy as soon as safely may be, well furnished with commands and powers to put the long desired end and crown to the things which remain to be completed, both among our community and with his royal Majesty, touching certain heads of our privilege. We will suffer nothing to be lacking in us for the accomplishment of the matter.
Moreover, we would have your Majesty know that the Papal Legate, who is much at our King's court, is circulating letters of certain religious or priests of the society of Jesus complaining that they are most cruelly imprisoned in your Majesty's realm and are afflicted for their religion's sake with grievous and exquisite tortures, as will be seen by the enclosed copy which our intermediary in the King's court had communicated to him at his own request by a man of high rank (to whom the legate had given it to be handed on to the King, maybe), in order that he might learn the truth from the English and inform him thereof. And so, since we consider the thing to be untrue and that your Majesty is wronged by complaints of this sort, we have thought best to certify you of the matter, so that the envoy you are sending may be instructed in this affair also and be able, if occasion demand, to unfold the truth of the business and confute the accusations of adversaries.
We pray your Majesty to receive in good part what we have set forth in loyal zeal and to follow up to its desired ending the business of the present interchange of privileges. Elbing, 31 March, 1583.
Latin. 2 pp. [Poland, I. 23.] Enclosure wanting.
April 1. 724. Advertisements from Cologne.
At the Journée lately held at Worms, near the Rhine, it was settled between the electors and the other lords and also the cities of the Empire belonging to the Religion to support the quarrels of our Bishop of Cologne, and to protect him against all who would remove him from his estate. They have chosen Duke Casimir to be the head of their army, and he is assembling reiters and soldiers in all parts. They have ordered him money for his army for six months, and I hope by God's grace we shall see a good issue both there and here, for in the wars of the Low Countries, these German countries are also much interested, the fairs of Frankfort, Leipzig and Strasburg not being half so good as they used to be, since the merchants are afraid to travel.
The war in our Chapter increases from day to day, but I hope that M. de Croeninghe [margin, “a savoir, den couronne van de Pape”] may give a better bargain when Duke Casimir begins to march.
Those of Bonn, under Count Charles Truchsess lately defeated a party of the Comte de Reifferscheit's men near the village of Mehlen, and brought back some prisoners and some of their flags, which are placed on the gate of Bonn. The Spaniards are still in Count de Meurs' country, where they treat the people very badly.
The Cardinal coming from Rome has not yet arrived. Duke Casimir would not give him passage, and he comes by Lorraine and Metz. With him are his conductor, Polviller [qy. Baron de Polveillers], the nuncio of the Pope [the Bishop of Verceil], the Marquis Malaspina, and several priests.
Duke Casimir, the Bishop of Cologne and the Landgrave were openly in Frankfort last Wednesday in the Holy Week. Cologne, 1st April, 1583, old style. Signed, “Le tout vostre que cognoissez.”
Endd. Fr.pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 10.] [This letter, unlike most of those from Cologne, appears to be the original.]
April [5]. 725. Memoir of what the States General desire Mr. Somers, ambassador from the Queen of England, to lay before her Majesty.
1. To thank her for her affection towards the Low Countries.
2. To excuse the furnishing of interest by Palavicino and Spinola, because of the present necessities of the States General; praying her Majesty to have patience for a little time, as it is impossible for them to do it now.
3. To recommend to her Majesty the request of the merchants of the Low Countries trading to England.
Endd.: “Memorial delivered by the States to Mr. Somers. Received, 22 April, 1582” [sic]. French. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. (4a).]
(Somers' mission was in 1583. He was not in the Low Countries in 1582.) The States' answer was given to him on April 5. See p. 245, above.
April 6. 726. City of Elbing to the Queen.
Although we recently showed your Majesty by our letters what we had found out as to the good will of our King towards the seat of free trade in our city and as to the zealous efforts of the men of Dantzig to thwart us, nevertheless, since there is another person to whom we may safely entrust our letters and also certain things have become more clearly known to us in the meanwhile, we have thought best to apprize your Majesty of the same.
Every day we learn more and more from trustworthy warnings that the men of Dantzig by their envoys in the royal court are leaving no stone unturned to accomplish by royal authority the removal from us either of all freedom of commerce or at least of the seat of English affairs. Of these, the former, that of the freedom of commerce, his Majesty will not change since he has once approved it by public authority, but the latter he still leaves undecided, either because he awaits the arrival of your Majesty's envoy or else because he is still doubtful as to one of the reasons by which the men of Dantzig are striving to persuade him not to allow anyone to be bound down to a fixed place and seat of trade, namely, that such restricted trading may seem to have the appearance of a monopoly for those benefited and to tend to the weakening and detriment of the royal port dues and the city of Dantzig.
And, indeed, they have as supporters, not only some of the English who prefer to be men of Dantzig, but some patrons in the royal court, and are in hopes that when once the seat of English affairs in our city has been taken away, it will not be long before all the English and all their trade must needs return and flow back to Dantzig. So we have made it our business and have decided to instruct by reasoning the mind of his Majesty, perhaps wrongly informed in the matter, and to confute the arguments of our opponents. But we trust that your Majesty, for the sake of your good will towards us and the business in question and for the sake of your royal authority, will effect that the Residency as it is called, established in our city, to protect which your Majesty has the greatest power over your subjects and the most weighty reasons, be not after all transferred (to our shame!) to those who have been most hostile and injurious in many ways to your Majesty's subjects and to us. Your Majesty has no lack of causes of offence or of reasons for avenging injuries, and there will not be wanting a way whereby not only the suspicion of a monopoly may be removed but also that there may be no failure either as to our King's port dues or the affairs of your Majesty's subjects.
Wherefore we earnestly and humbly pray your Majesty to be pleased to preserve and continue to us the clemency and royal kindness you have already shown us, by protecting this seat of free commerce now established, with difficulty indeed but with sufficiently happy auspices, not only among your own subjects, but with his Majesty of Poland, with whom you have the greatest influence both in mediation and authority; if indeed your Majesty has known us to be reverers of your august name and true and zealous lovers of your subjects, and hopes us to be the same henceforth.
Moreover, we pray you to be pleased to send your envoy, of whom you have given us hopes, as quickly and safely as may be, in order that, after settling with us those heads of this privilege of ours which are not yet absolutely agreed upon, he may then go straight to our King to get the same confirmed and utterly refute the objections of our adversaries. God willing, we will be with him by our own messengers, that nothing be found lacking in us which may seem to belong to our zeal and obligations, or to prove the constancy of our affection to yourself and your subjects (from whom we expect a similar return). Elbing, 6 April, 1583.
When this letter had been written and sealed, by good luck it happened that letters of his Majesty of Poland were delivered to us, requiring us to hand the enclosed letters to some trusty messenger to be carried to your Majesty by the first ship sailing, because they concerned a matter that would not brook delay, and to take good care that he should have an answer at the earliest opportunity. Accordingly, we have given them, together with our own, to this bearer, William Watson, hoping and praying that he will reach his destinaton quickly and safely.
Add. Endd. Latin. 2¼ pp. [Poland, I. 24.]
April 6. 727. The city of Elbing to Walsingham.
Your honour's well known virtues and fame, together with your high dignity, influence and favour with the Queen of England, have long made us desire to commend ourselves to you in a separate letter, and also to establish our regard [observantiam etiam nostram constare]. For we well know of what importance it is to us, and what weight it will have. But so far, we have been prevented from addressing you personally, by our knowledge of the press of business which the greatness of your kingdom must involve, and also because we know that the correspondence between your Queen and us is well known to you, and engages your attention; and are firmly persuaded that your opinion and desire touching our affairs are identical with those of your Queen. But we now think well to write this to you, because we are anxious lest, in the confusion of these times, letters of ours dated 31 March, which we gave to an Englishman for delivery, both to the Queen and the society, might perchance have been intercepted. We therefore enclose copies of the said letters, so that if they did not reach her Majesty, their contents may now be communicated to her. Elbing, 6th of April, 1583.
Add. Endd. Seal. Latin. ¾ p. [Poland, I. 25.]
April 8. 728. Letter from Cologne.
By my former letters of March 28 [sic] and April 1, your honour will have learnt of the intentions and the goodwill of the gast de Leyster, who prays you to reply as quickly as possible. He will not be satisfied until he has visited you and your friends, to declare matters on which depend the ruin or the salvation of many. He fears lest avarice or timidity will cause the loss of these good opportunities, in which case, when men repent of having neglected his representations, he will at any rate be able to say “I told you so.” [For letter of April 1, see p. 264, above.]
Yesterday the mignon of La [Cardinal Granvelle] set out for Bi [K. of France] and Bo [Queen Mother], and from thence into Ca [Spain]. He of Ba [the Emperor] meant to start four days ago, but was stopped by a letter from Hu [Elector of Cologne, i.e. the new Elector]. You will have heard that a nuncio and a popish bishop, the Marquis de Malaspina, have arrived, with powers to depose the Archbishop by authority of the Pope, but dare not openly pronounce the sentence, putting it off to the coming of the Cardinal of Tirol, which is very uncertain, owing to the Palatine ambushes, which cut off all the roads. You will also have heard the resolution of the protestant princes and cities at Worms to support the Archbishop. Their army will be 20,000 foot and 8,000 horse, and part of it will shortly be in the field.
The King of Spain has offered all favour and aid to the Chapter. The Prince of Parma and his forces have encamped this side of Maestricht, where his council will reside. We shall see if the French bands in Picardy will not make him change his mind. The Archbishop of Treves has warned them that 1,500 Frenchmen and Lorrainers are descending on this side under the Sieur du Buy, brother, I believe, to M. de Plessis. On Easter Day, the town and castle of Lynne [or Linn, near Crefeld] surrendered to Frederick, Duke of Saxony, the captain there having a quarrel with the Comte de Meurs (Mors), his master, who in revenge has taken a town of the diocese in Westphalia and besieged another.
Count Salentin is still here, probably in order to give up his charge of Captain-General of the diocese, fearing lest his country should be the first to be sacked. It is rumoured that Casimir has intercepted letters of the Emperor, showing the league between him, the King of Spain and the Pope against the protestants. They are to be printed. From some escaped soldiers we hear that Eyndhoven is succoured, and that Count Mansfeld, Haultepenne, Hollock and several captains have remained [dead] on the place. The old Count Mansfeld passed by Liége to be at the feast. Whether he will arrive too soon or too late I cannot say.
As to the affair of le Lusque it goes from well to better. Cologne, 8th April, 1583.
Copy. Endd. Fr.pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 11.]
April 11. 729. Letter from Cologne.
Yours of the 3rd came to me yesterday. I cannot thank you enough on the part of the gast de Lyster for your affection and wise counsel. I doubt not that when he sees you he will give you all the satisfaction you can desire, and that you will confess that his presence is necessary and the sooner the better. It seems to him a hundred years until that day, but for the reasons he has already given you he cannot yet start.
Meanwhile I thank you for your news. All our friends rejoice that the towns are rendered into the hands of the States, and believe they will be better advised in the future. Many believe that his Alteze will not stay long at Dunkirk, but will return into France. It seems that the Archbishop is to be treated with in order to persuade him to resign, with an annual pension. The Emperor endeavours to bring him to this, and so, if possible, avoid war, which may God grant.
At the wedding at Weimar on the fifth or sixth of May there will be all the greatest of the Empire, as I wrote to you on the 1st [see p. 264 above] praying for your advice that I may settle my affairs, all which I would leave to go to you, knowing that this touches so nearly my friends and country. The Archbishop Gebhardt is at Heidelberg (if he has not returned to Dillenburg) consulting about his affairs. The Bishop of Liége is still here, and Count Salentin, keeping the Chapter in play and waiting for the Cardinal or at least for his authority in order to proceed with the deprivation. The Count of Meurs, having taken Renclinhausen, thought to do the same with the town of Dorsten on the Lippe, two leagues from Wesel, but hearing that the Duke of Saxony was approaching it, fled. It is believed he will do the same as to Renclinhausen. Those of Bonn hold on well as long as they are left in peace.
The Count d'Aremberg has withdrawn towards Eyndhoven, from whence we hourly expect news of the issue. The French raised by the Sieurs de Slernan and du Buy are in no haste to come down, for want both of means and of goodwill. As to the German, he never hurries too much, and is in no haste to pay out his money. Cologne, 11th April, 1583.
Copy on the same sheet as the letter of April 8. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. Ibid. 11a.]
April 15. 730. Letter from Cologne.
By mine of the 11th you have learnt the intentions of the gast de Leyster, who the same day was with M. Curtius and Baron Prenner, both sent from the Emperor to Archbishop Gebhardt, when there arrived the man who was sent in all haste from the Emperor to the Prince of Parma about six weeks since, and who left here the next day to return to the Emperor, named Waydener, but vulgarly by the Court, Arnandilla, whom you may recognise.
The gast was very pleased to have met him so opportunely, and to hear from him and the others, very important, remarkable and needful things. He only awaits your determination according to what he has roundly declared to you.
The Prince of Parma is certainly coming with his forces and his Council to Maestricht. The German gendarmerie for the aid of the Archbishop tire a longue, but meanwhile the country of the Count de Meurs is being ruined by his enemy, the Count de Reifferscheit, who eats up and spoils everything in it.
They are still waiting for the Cardinal or some like authority to proceed to the dismissal and new election.
The Count Salentin, formerly elector and archbishop, is as you know made captain general and administrator for the Chapter. On April 10th, in full Chapter, he made a declaration to them containing a confirmation of the said warlike administration for some years, and declaring that the dismissal of Truchsess is just and fair and that the war against him and his allies (whom he draws to his side on pretext of religion) is founded in equity, so that in it he is ready to expose his life and all that God has given him, hoping to defend them against all the strength which the other may bring against him, always provided that they would guarantee and hold ready the necessary means for paying the soldiers, who, being in truth soldoiés, he intends to keep very strictly under military discipline and not to suffer them to use any extortions whatever towards the subjects of the diocese or its allies.
And as he could not doubt but that while he was in the Chapter's service his country, being open and undefended, would be pillaged and wasted by the enemy, he prays to be indemnified of all such damages, which the Chapter has promised and assured him. When he was archbishop, he governed so well that he is beloved by all, and especially by the common people, whom he has always supported and relieved. But he is a great zealot for the Roman Catholic religion, for which he will live and die. Cologne, April 15, 1583.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII. 12.]
April 22. 731. Letter from Cologne.
I am much troubled that your honour has not replied and given your advice in relation to my letters of the 1st and 8th of this month, not knowing how I ought to arrange my own small affairs, and the rather that the wedding day of one of the Princes of Weimar to the Duke of W¨rtemberg's sister is approaching, when all the great ones of the Empire will assemble, and the merchants hope to do a trade. This is to be on the 5th of next month. Always believing (the gast of Leyster) that those on your side ought not to lose such good and needful occasions of visiting your friends. It seems to him a thousand years until he can see and talk with them on those weighty matters upon which their ruin or safety depends.
He is resolved to send his man to the said festivities, with other merchants who are going thither, but he himself will not stir from hence until he has your decision. He asks me to tell you this, and that he marvels not to have heard from you since the 3rd of April. The disjunction goes so well forward that we could desire nothing better. I may venture to say to you that if it were not for his affection to his native land and to your friends, and his desire to prove this, and to gain honour, reputation and mercede, he would keep out of the way of anything so dangerous; et hec pauca sufficit. You are also to be in the midst of festivities, according to report, between the daughters of his Excellency [the Prince of Orange] and the Counts of Hollock and de Laval. God grant that all may tend to his glory, and to public quiet.
I heartily regret, amongst other calamities, that of Pu, which goes on step by step, and by those who ought to defend it. When I think of the plots which are brewing, my heart burns. They say that Ce [the Queen] is sending into Ca [Spain]. That is not the path in which to find the hare, he is too much hidden. The letter of Fi [qy. mistake for Bi, i.e. the French King] and Bo [Queen Mother] deserves to be examined closely.
On the 20th (the day before yesterday) a nuncio arrived in this town with full papal authority, so that we believe they will soon proceed to the dismissal of Archbishop Gebhardt and the election of a new one. Then we shall see who will act, on one side or the other. The relations and friends of the Archbishop are persuading him to come to terms without proceeding to arms, fearing lest his allies may fail him in the hour of need.
Everything is very languid in Germany. On the same day, the 20th, the young Duke of Cleves, Bishop of M¨nster, was to arrive at D¨sseldorf. Some think that his father wishes to resign the government to him, or at any rate to establish him in the Conté of Meurs and land of Beber, before it is ruined by the soldiers on both sides. Six days ago, there passed by here ambassadors of Duke Julius of Brunswick and of his son the Bishop of Halberstadt. I saw and spoke with them. They have gone to the court of Cleves, as it is believed to treat of a marriage. These last four days there has been a report spread among the commons in this town, which has been greatly excited about it; viz. that the ecclesiastics, by means of the Bishop of Liége and Count Salentin had a design to massacre those of the Religion, and for that purpose had hidden soldiers and arms in the monasteries. In the end it was found to be false, and invented by some seditious persons who only desired a riot (remue ménage). Cologne, 22nd April, 1583.
Copy. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII. 13.]
April 25. 732. Letter from Cologne.
I told you of the arrival of a grand nuncio, the Bishop of Verceil (Versel), who has full authority from the Pope for the dismissal of the Archbishop Gebhardt, and the confirmation of another, to be elected at the next assembly of the States and Chapter, summoned for May 22. Then we shall see what the allies of Duke Gebhardt will do, who have hitherto shown themselves very cool, except that some of little consequence try to make a commotion and noisily proclaim that they will do marvels.
Your honour has heard likewise of the eviction of several burgers of this town, who having conceived an ill opinion of Count Salentin, who is levying men for the defence of the Chapter in this city (which it is permitted to do in all towns of the Empire) were persuaded by some seditious persons that he had hidden a great number of soldiers in the monasteries to massacre those of the Religion. Amongst others, a soldier and two burgers having declared it to be true (although by visitations made the contrary was proved), yesterday those most intimate with Count Salentin were made prisoners. Men of quality and worthy of belief have assured me that he wishes for nothing but the entire peace and repose of the commonwealth and that above all, he desires to relieve the commons and especially the bourgeousie here; that when he was bishop, he showed himself for a time the enemy of the “Messieurs” of the town, but has since confessed his fault and that his error proceeded from evil counsellors, and ever since has been the intimate friend of the town. The Emperor is at Pressburg in Hungary to hold the States there. He has taken with him the Archdukes Mathias and Maximilian, to leave one of them in that government. Cologne, 25th April, 1583.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Newsletters XXVII. 14.]
[April.] 733. “Presents sent for the Grand Seignor and others, by William Harborne in the Susan of London.
l. s. d.
For the Grand Signor. Six pieces of rich material of various colours. Total cost 271 7 0
Satin and fringes to garnish the same, an embroidered scutcheon with the Queen's arms and tassels of silver and gold 18 15 4
“A very fair clock made with sundry devices garnished with stone, pearls, and much work of silver and gilt 255 0 0
plate (cups, flagons, basins, candlesticks), with a silver gilt parrot and a silver gilt hawk 369 0 6
Total 914 2 10
For the Viceroy. Half as much cloth as for the Grand Signor, and plate 205 10 1
For the Admiral, cloth and plate 155 11 2
For the Janissary Aga, cloth 107 7 6
For the three Bashas, cloth (each) 88 7 6
For Mustafa, the dragoman, cloth and a gilt cup 50 5 0
More damask to be bought at Scio 216 0 0
£,913 19 1
Endd. “Estimate of the present sent by the merchants to the Turk.” 3 pp. [Turkey, I. 5a.]
Harborne reached Constantinople at the beginning of April, and presented the gifts to the Grand Signor on April 24. See Hakluyt's Voyages, ii, 289–291, ed. 1810.
[April?] 734. The State of the King of Navarre and his Party in France.
The King of Navarre ought to be estimated, first by the position in which, by God's grace, he was born, and secondly by that to which it has since pleased God to call him, that is, as first prince of the blood and head of the house of Bourbon, and also as chief of the reformed church in France.
In the first of these, his authority is ever increasing and cannot decrease, the King being (as is supposed) without hope and Monseigneur very unlikely to have children, the one having been so long married and the other not married at all. Thus all the good Frenchmen begin to cast their eyes upon him (Navarre) and try more and more to gain his favour. Moreover, the evils which they feel in the present government of 81 (the King) and which they expect from 21 (Monsieur) in the future (fn. 5) in view of the examples he has already shown, gives great lustre to 51 (the King of Navarre) who has given cause of complaint to no one, and cannot be accused of having hitherto shown cruelty, perfidy or oppression.
Our peace has caused the people to forget the wounds caused by the civil wars, of which they always caused us to bear the odium, and they have suffered so much from the new imposts of 81 (the King) and the extortions of 21 (Monsieur's) troops, that they have succeeded to our odium, and the King of Navarre to a certain extent to their good-will, seeing that they have cause to complain of everyone except of him.
One thing would greatly increase his credit, if it could be done; that the King of Navarre might approach the centre of France, being a prince agreeable, skilful, and endowed with all the parts requisite to attract the hearts of the nobility. And probably in this case, most of them would approach and like him.
For as for the favour of Messieurs de Guise towards the people and the nobility, it decays before our eyes. It has been seen how they have been at the court in Paris, well-accompanied, in the midst of their friends, and never dared to say a candid word for the reformation of the government. That when all these iniquitous and burdensome edicts have been made, and the parliaments over-ridden in their authority, they have gone down (plongé) before Epernon and Joyeuse like ducks before spaniels and have endured a thousand humiliations to secure some vile advantage. That they have curried favour by meanly humouring all the vices, enormities and fantasies which of late, the parliaments, the Sorbonne, the University, the convents and the preachers have condemned and proclaimed against, loudly and clearly. Thus has been shown to all that they have but a mask of valour, that their only endeavour was to make a profit out of public calamities, and that if they were raised into authority, the sign of the tavern would have been changed, but only perhaps to drink worse wine there.
The religion of which the King of Navarre makes sincere profession is certainly a hindrance to his gaining a speedy entrance to the hearts of the people.
But the wisest do not fail to say that a prince who has a settled religion is worth much more than one who has none at all; that affairs are reduced to this point in France, that they cannot be at peace without the two religions, and there is no doubt that if the King of Navarre was seen as well allied and supported outsie the realm as he is well established inside it, that many notable personages of all qualities would join both the Religion and his party, who are utterly weary of the abuses of the Roman church and the present corruptions of the State.
In the person of the King of Navarre, all remark an almost incomparable vigour of body, vivacity of mind, and grandeur of courage. These are what make the greatest princes. He has had many hard knocks and rubs; has been in many hazardous enterprises both of peace and war. These are the exercises which bring to perfection the well-born prince. Moreover, for some years it has been his custom to commit himself entirely to the counsel of the best men whom he could choose and collect from all parts of France, which gives reason to hope that God will do great things by him and for him.
As to his patrimonial properties and means, they have been much damaged both by the bad management of his predecessors and by the ruin of the civil wars, but he still has 300,000 crowns of rent a year, and, by the diligence of his servants, his house is in splendour and good order. The abovesaid properties consist partly in sovereignties and partly not. He holds a part of the kingdom of Navarre, called Navarre Basse, the country of the Basques and of Domesan, which are all the passages from France into Spain; the land of Bearn, two days' journey square of rich and fertile country, in which are Oleron, Pau, Lescar, Orthes, Nay, Morlans, &c., and above all Navarrenx(Naverreins), a place of importance and well fortified, in which is an arsenal well furnished with artillery and all munitions of war. The seigneur de St. Geniez, a gentleman of high rank, virtue and experience commands the country, with the title of Lieut.-General. Monsieur de Sales, an old chevalier, is governor of Navarrenx; and in case of need, there can be drawn from the country three hundred gentlemen well equipped and 6,000 harquebusiers well armed. There is a university at Orthes, well provided with learned men, and where he supports always fifty scholars in theology, each one for ten years, to serve in the ministry of the gospel.
By homage to the King of France, he holds the Comté of Foix, which stretches almost from Toulouse to Spain, and in which are Palmiers, Foix, Mazères, Saverdun, Madazil [Le Mas d'Azil], all strong by art and by nature. The people are for the most part of the Religion, and furnish at least 6,000 harquebusiers. He owes the King only the simple baisemain, and has all the royal rights there.
By the same tenure he holds the Comté of Bigorre, whose capital is Tarbes, a great town but much damaged in the civil wars, and the ViComté of Marsan, where are the towns of Mont de Marsan, Roquefort, Villeneuve, &c.; also the duchy d'Albret, which stretches from Bayonne to Bordeaux and even on this side of the Garonne and the Dordogne (Dordonne), and in which are Albret, Tartas, Casteljaloux, Nerac, Millan [Meilhan], Castel Gironde, &c., Condom and Lectoure (Lestour), episcopates, Euzan, Isle Jourdain and many other towns. Also the countries and Comtés of Rouergue, Perigord, Limoges, &c., where are many towns and castles subject to the said King, and all the gentlemen his immediate vassals.
In fine, excepting a few towns, he [Navarre] holds the whole land from Spain to the Dordogne, and from the ocean to Languedoc; and in Auvergne from the west to the east, more than six days' journey, containing many noble families. And those who have read the histories of France and England, namely Froissart, know that there were in the time of Edward III. a Comte de Foix, a Comte d' Armagnac, a Due d'Albret, &c., when the countries were by no means so rich and so cultivated.
The said provinces are also all under the King of Navarre as Governor and Lieut.-General for the King in Guienne, and in each country there are certain gentlemen who have the government under him, as in the Comté of Foix, the Vicomte de Pailhez, the Seigneur de Mosans [sic], grand seneschal, the Baron d'Audoz (Odoux), the Srs. de Lerin (Leyran), de Brigneux, &c. In Bigorre, the Baron de Benac (Beynac), the Sr. de la Roque de Benac; in Marsan, the Srs. de la Case and d'Aby and Captain Mesmes. In the duchy of Albret, the Sis. de Podems [qy. Poudenx], de Favas, de Pinans, and de Melon de la Leau [qy. Melun de la Loupe], and on this side the Baron de Montferrant and Langoiran (Langoram), the Baron de St. Aulaye, and the Srs. de Longez, Barière and Larmandie; in Armagnac, the Baron de Fontrailles, the Vicomte de Labatut, the Baron de Panjas (Pangias) and the Srs. de Bourgoignan and de Santmont (sic), &c. In Rouergue, the Vicomtes de Panat, de Montclar, de Bourniguel and de Pantin; in Perigord, the Barons de Campagnac, de Boisse, de Salignac, the Srs. de Madaillon, de Bellehouse [qy. Bélus], de Boisdemain, de Boiscoullant, and in the neighbouring country, the Vicomte de Laverdin, the Baron de Cabrieres, the Sr. de Guiscard (Giscar), &c., all gentlemen, vassals or immediate subjects of the King and professors of the Relgion. In the country of Limosin is the ViComté of Turenne, where is the impregnable castle of Turenne and other towns, and many noble families.
On this side the Loire the King of Navarre has also large territories, as the country and duchy of Vendosme, the country and duchy of Beaumont, the Comté of Marle and the ViComté of Chateauneuf and Thimerais, in which most part of the nobles hold to the Religion, notwithstanding that during these last wars they had no retreat. They are all very well-affected towards him. For superintendent in Vendosme he has the Sr. de la Meziere, and for governor the Sr. de Fontenailles; in the country and Comté of Marle the Sr. de Crecy; in Thimerais the Sr. de la Roque. I do not here touch upon his great pretensions nor his property in the Low Countries, where he possesses good and important towns.
All his properties are administered under four chambers of accounts, who report to his privy council, resident with himself, where are the Sr. de Grateux, his chancellor; the Sr. de Segur, superintendent of his household and finances, and other notable counsellors, masters of requests and secretaries. And as the said territories are situated under three parliaments, viz., Paris, Toulouse and Bordeaux, in each of these he has a paid council, presided over by one of the chief parliament men; for Paris, he has made choice of Monsieur du Ferrier, formerly ambassador to Venice, one of the greatest personages in Europe and whom the late Chancellor de 1'Hospital alone judged fit to succeed him in that office. We fear that he will not dare to accept, because he desires from this time to make open profession of the Religion, and should live in a place more safe and free for the exercise thereof.
As chief and protector of the reformed religion in France, the King of Navarre is also assisted by many lords, gentlemen, captains, provinces, towns and corporations of France, whose strength and means are growing from day to day, and the more that they see him increasing in resolution and constancy, watching and working more and more for their preservation.
Then, besides several strong places belonging to the said King connected with his hereditary domains, which have always held to his party (as Bazas Episcopale, Puymirol, &c.), and where he is much beloved and revered by his subjects and vassals, we find, towards the east or Languedoc, the land of Quercy, containing four châtellenies, viz., Cahors, Figeac, Montauban and Lauzerté (Lazerte). Of these, Figeac and Montauban are entirely in the hands of those of the Religion; Lauzerté is common to both; Cahors was given up by the peace after the last wars, having been taken so valiantly by the King of Navarre. And under these are several small towns of the same party and profession, as Cansade, St. Antonin, &c. At Figerac, there governs the Sr. de Meausse (qy. Meaux), an old captain; Montauban is ruled by its mayor and bailiffs as is La Rochelle. The chief men watching over the country are the Baron de Taride, Vicomte de Serignac and Vicomte de Gourdon, who have given proof of their fidelity and valour through all the troubles. On one side is the country of Lauragois, which is entirely for the Religion, where is Laurens, the capital town and others. This is the country where all the woad (pastel) grows. On another side, 1'Albigois, where is the town of Castres, large and well fortified, supported by several forts and castles; and on yet another, the country of Foix and Rouergue, &c., patrimonies of the said King. And all these countries, otherwise called Bas Languedoc, either border or are interspersed with his own, and could easily be joined with those of the churches of Languedoc, Dauphine and Provence.
In Bas Languedoc, the churches hold Nismes and the Senechaussée; Montpellier, the seat of the chambre des comptes, Aiguesmortes and the Salines, Usèes (Uzex), Alez [qy. Alais], Alesby [qy. Albi], &c., episcopal towns, Lunel, Aimargues, and others. Also the countries of Cevenne (Sevennes), Vivarez, Velay, Givaudin, &c., where are several rich little towns, impregnable to assault. And now, enjoying the friendship “est quite” of M. de Montmorency, to whom theirs is necessary, they may assure themselves, two or three places excepted, of the whole province of Languedoc, which is the richest and most important in all France, being assured of Beaucaire on the Rhone and the Senechaussée of Beziers, Pezénas, Carcassonne, Agdé, Leucate and other important places both in Low and High Languedoc.
From this province, those of the Religion (I do not speak of the others) can bring into the field (the towns being furnished) 6,000 harquebusiers, as was lately seen when M. de Chastillon wished to go to the help of Geneva, but not more than 400 horses, because the country is not inhabited by so many of the noblesse as some others. Here M. de Chastillon, a lord of great hopefulness, son of the late admiral, watches over the conduct of affairs, aided by the Sr. Dandelot, his brother, and assisted by many notables, as the Sr. de Bouillargues, Grenian, Porcheres, St. Cosme, de Vignolles, de Clausonier, &c. Chastillon is governor of Montpellier, Grenian of Aiguesmortes, Porcheres of Lunel.
In Provence, the churches multiply before our eyes under the peace. At Arles and Aix, which are the archbishoprics and seats of parliament, even at Marseilles, where four years ago there was not a known man of the Religion, but where there are now more than 200 good families. Several towns there are at the disposal of the King of Navarre, but only one openly and with the consent of the King, viz., La Tour de Seine, according to the edict of 1577.
In Dauphiné things had been much decayed during the last war, for the churches were left helpless, and were forced to accept the faith of the Duke of Maine, from which there are great evils. Since then, the churches have been happily rallied by the vigilance of the Srs. Dediguieres, de Morges, de Cugy [qy. Cugis], de Blascons, de Mirabel, de Chabert and other chief gentlemen. There are, in this province, more than 400 gentlemen of the Religion, who have taken horse in all the wars, and the towns being furnished, would bring out 4,000 harquebusiers, with the consent of the King. They hold there the towns of Nyons and Serres, high and low, and secretly several others. The principality of Orange borders on them and has always supported them in case of need. From the Pyrenees one can travel all the way to Savoy by the said provinces, that is from one end of France to the other, lodging always in places friendly to or belonging to the King of Navarre. We must not omit to say that the port of Aiguesmortes is a leur devotion, where frigates and gallies may be armed to spoil the coast and disturb the traffic of the Mediterranean Sea.
Going from the south towards the north, and leaving the hereditary territories of the King of Navarre, between the Garonne and the Dordogne, is the country called “des deux mers,” almost entirely of the Religion, where I have seen 4,000 harquebusiers levied in four days. Where are Bergerac, Ste. Foy, Castillon, Jouzac [qy. Cusac], and beyond that the countries of Angoulmois, Saintonge, Poitou and Aunis (Ouix), whence will come out at least 300 gentlemen of the Religion and 6,000 harquebusiers. Over these the Prince de Condé keeps guard, residing at St. Jean d'Angeli, whose piety and valour are well known. He takes council with the wisest and best experienced lords and gentlemen of the country, the principal of whom are the Comte de la Rochefoucault, the Baron de Montaudre [qy. Montaudier] and Montguyon, the Barons of La Roche, Alez, Monlieu and Plassac (brother of M. de Miraubeau), the Srs. de Son, des Ageaux, de Boisrond, de Vibrac.
Then in Poitou, the Sr. de Vexar [qy. Veziers], the Baron de Tonne, the Sps. de St. Gelais, de Vaudore [qy. Vaudre], de la Boulaix, de St. Estienne, de Vieillemagne [qy. Vieillemont], de la Fromentiniere, de Tifordiere [qy. Thibaudière], de Montfernier, des Essars, &c., whose names are well enough known in the wars of Poitou. And, amongst other towns and castles, they have for refuge Pontz, St. Jean d' Angeli and La Rochelle. At St. Jean, the governor is M. de Suresme, a very wise and experienced gentleman. As to La Rochelle, it is governed by the mayor and bailiffs. The mayor at present is Gargouillant, well known in the siege of the place; through these countries one may journey from the Pyrenees to Brittany.
In the countries on this side the Loire, the party of the King of Navarre is not so considerable, although there are in each province a good number of the important lords and gentlemen who are of the Religion; amongst others, M. de Rohan, prince of Brittany, the Comte de Laval, M. de Rieux his brother, M. de Clermont, Marquis de Galande, the Comte de Montgomery and many others, besides a great number of all ranks ready to embrace both the Religion and the party if they saw they could do so safely. But since the St. Bartholomew, they have had no refuge, and have seen no safety save in the armies, which they could only join with much difficulty, unless they came down from Germany. Yet they do not give up an order and manner of conduct, although very secret, and there is not a corner where there is not some able and notable gentleman, who, when needed, would be followed and obeyed by the rest. And they are now so much the more attached to the King of Navarre that several of them have sought refuge under his highness's wing, of whom they hope for neither favour nor support in the future.
Thus, in each and all of the above mentioned provinces, there are councils established for the direction of affairs of the Religion, who report everything to the King of Navarre's own council, which is distinct from that which manages his hereditary affairs. In this are M. de Rohan, M. de Chastillon, the Srs. de Clervant, de Segue [? Ségur], de Guitry, de Lusignan, du Plessis and a Secretary of State, viz., the Sr du Pin. The deputies of the principal provinces reside near the King at his request, partly being of the short robe and partly of the long (i.e. secular and ecclesiastical) without whom he does nothing, and with whom he does everything, and as they cannot all be there all the time an arrangement is made for their coming in turns. Of this council are also M. de Laval, M. de Turenne, M. de la Noue, whom may God of his grace bring back again.
This party of the King of Navarre and the churches of France is now so strong that the power of the realm of France could not destroy it without being itself destroyed. For it has recovered from its many losses and defeats, and even from the day of St. Bartholomew, which seemed to have overthrown it at one blow, although since that day it has been very little helped by its neighbours, and on the contrary has been assailed not only by the forces of France but by a part of those of Germany, Switzerland and Italy.
But whereas it cannot carry on a campaign against such a force, and is obliged to remain on the defensive, this party, though with great loss to its assailants, yet, lacking the means of recruiting its army throughout the provinces, has been enfeebled by all the wars, as was seen when in 1577 it lost La Charité, Issoire and Brouage; and in 1580, La Fère, L'Aunière and some little towns (bicoques) in Gascony, and in the peace itself gave up many of its safeguards and advantages; it being certain that he who in a war can only defend himself is always injured, as in a duel, where he who only parries, ends by being thrust by his enemy.
These are the evils which the King of Navarre has endured for lack of a good army, by means of which he might take the offensive. And yet he would rather gain both peace and time by giving up places apparently necessary to his preservation, than enter into another merely defensive war, that is purely passive, for want of an army. Although he does not ignore the inconveniences which may arise, yet by giving up these places, he loses but themselves, and by defending them without hope of succour, he would lose both the places and his men.
In the month of September next ensuing, the places are to be surrendered, and the chief men of the religion are much perplexed in the matter. They have been given as a security against distrust, but the causes of distrust still endure, seeing that the edict is not executed in one single article; seeing that in vain complaints are made of all the contraventions thereof; seeing the treacheries which one daily sees practised against those of the Religion; seeing also the preparations and levies being made in Switzerland and Germany, the munitions which are being collected at Lyon, to be poured down suddenly by the Rhone, and the troops which are being sent into Gascony. Since then the causes of distrust remain and multiply, the reason for keeping them remains also in its entirety.
But even as in surrendering them, we dispoil ourselves, and in despoiling ourselves, tempt our enemies, who see so good a chance of accomplishing our ruin, yet, by not surrendering them, we bring down upon ourselves their forces, already all prepared, and hazard, by refusal of two or three, the loss of many others, which they might snatch from us.
In the fair occasion that we have to delay the rendition of these places, if we saw ourselves assured of a good army of reiters, who might carry on the campaign, and draw away the war from the centre of our provinces towards the outer parts of France, it might be easy to resolve to put off the surrender. And if our enemies should feel that we should be supported, they would accept our just reasons and remonstrances.
For this object, the King of Navarre would spare no means whatever. But he is weary of bearing the burden alone. It is time that those for whom in part he carries it should relieve him, if they do not wish one day to carry both his burden and their own.
If he sees no more chance of help from without than he has hitherto done, he will resolve, by advice of the churches of France, to satisfy the King; will hazard, or rather commit to God the issue of the rendition of these places, and will endeavour all gentle though perilous ways to conquer the goodwill of his enemies, since he cannot keep it by stronger methods. And will seek in fine (like Samson) the honey in the throat of the lion, if means are refused him by those for whose conservation he labours no less than for his own, and who are not less interested in his own than he is himself.
It is a thing perfectly clear, that States cannot be esteemed strong or feeble in themselves, save in relation to their neighbours and to the proportion which they hold towards them.
And this is why the Queen of England should be above all reputed powerful, who has seen for the last twenty years those whom she had most cause to dread, either become enfeebled in themselves, or employ their efforts elsewhere.
Now, if she wishes this good fortune to endure, she must continue the causes thereof, either by strengthening her alliances in the same degree that her enemies rally, or by raising up troubles and work for them, which would divert their thoughts and means somewhere else.
Formerly, they told her that her only need was to be allied with the greatest princes of Christendom, as 36 (Spain), 81 (France), &c.; alliances which, in the opinion of all good politicians are worth more on paper than in effect, and, what is worse, bring more hurt than profit.
He who is allied with one stronger than himself loses his liberty and his advantage, and the stronger always makes the affairs of the weaker bend to his own. The histories are full of it. The former league of the Venetians with the King of Spain against the Turks cannot last, notwithstanding their mutual need, because Spain thinks herself a degree above the other, and wished to have all the profit and the honour. On the contrary, one who leagues himself with one less strong than himself, becomes half master of his property, counsels and forces; as it is seen that France has never had a more useful and helpful alliance than that with the Swiss.
I leave the point that the difference in religion does not permit of sincere leagues between princes who have divers aims, forasmuch as the plans of most part of the Catholic princes are refined in the furnace of Rome, and directed to the aim of the Pope, which tends always to the extermination of the Religion, as is seen well enough by his practices discovered in England, of which he designed to make the said princes the executors.
The Queen thought to have found a prince who would hold both parties in check, and by all honest means believed herself to be assured of his friendship; that is Monseigneur the Duke of Anjou. And if this had been successful, the advice was not bad. But by what he has done in the Low Countries, he has been obliged to hate and ruin all those of the Religion, and with them, has cut away all hope, so that apparently he will throw himself headlong into the arms of the Catholics, and will espouse the factions of the Pope, who henceforth will make him his right arm, and the executor of his most pernicious designs.
And whoever knows his humour, restless and suspicious, will have no doubt on this point; for having in the person of the people of that country, insulted and injured all those of the Religion, he can no longer rely upon them, and seeing himself deprived of this party, he will desire to support himself on the other.
This is to make himself either the chief or the principal instrument of the ruin of those of the Religion, and while he could not disguise the matter of Antwerp (otherwise detestable to all men) except by feigning zeal to lift up again, at whatever cost, the party of religion, yet it is certain that if it had not been for the arrival of M. de Bellievre, he was about to treat with the Prince of Parma for surrendering to him the places which he held for the States, which he persuaded him [not to do?], in order to save the prisoners, who were in danger of losing their heads, to the great shame of France and the desolation of many notable families.
For as to the agreement made between him and the States, it is apparent that his only intent was to bring off his prisoners safe and sound, seeing that every day he draws nearer to himself those who are most disagreeable to the States, as Fervaques, La Ferté, Aurilly, &c., while slighting those who had in any way retained belief and reputation as regards the people by not having joined in evil counsels, and whom formerly he had in his service.
Let us grant it as certain that he will return into France, where the King his brother will doubtless fear that he will raise a party of malcontents against him, for which there is material enough, seeing that the number grows and multiplies every day. What would be more plausible than to put into his hands (or at any rate into his head) some design in England and Scotland, thus at the same time freeing the King of France from suspicion and the King of Spain from anxiety? And I know that since last year the King of Spain has treated underhand with him for this, by a certain Italian who serves as engineer at Lisbon, whose letters have come into my hands. Now also, the Queen his mother is going to treat with him the marriage with the daughter of Lorraine, in order to unite him with this house, the foe of Christianity and particularly of the State of England? For which, considering the ordinary practices of Guise's people in Scotland, 6 (the Queen of England) should find a remedy.
For as to making 21 (Monsieur) chief of the war against those of the Religion in 72 (France), 81 (the King) his brother is so suspicious of his practices and his troops, that he will not let him carry on a campaign in France. And, on the other hand, he so much mistrusts the King, that he would never take command of an army which was not at his disposal, and that, to all appearance, the King would never permit.
57 (England) I know well is not so easy to conquer. But she is easy to disturb. The marriage of 21 (Monsieur) alone, pleasing to some and odious to others, divides the country into factions, and puts the Court and the council in a flame. He is, moreover, a young prince who, without examining much into them, lends his ears and his heart to all quarrels, as has been seen in the affair of Antwerp, of which he had not really designed either the beginning or the result, and which, as the best which he could have hoped for, brought his ruin.
To fight against this evil, the Queen of England (I leave out the question of methods at home) ought to strengthen herself without by alliances more secure than have been recommended to her hitherto. With the Protestant princes, affairs might be now very well arranged, for, in order to succour the Archbishop of Cologne, the most weighty have allied themselves together, and one could treat not with each separately, but with this body. And without doubt, they would not refuse the support of England, forasmuch as they see the Catholics and Austrians plotting a very heavy one against them. By means of this alliance, there would be created a King of the Romans other than of the house of Austria, which otherwise will engulf all Christendom, seeing that there is only one son in Spain, very feeble and sickly, and if he dies, the Emperor, by the marriage of the daughter of Spain, reunites the authority of the Empire and the might of Spain. He [the new King of Romans] would be, besides the Queen, aided in his need by the forces of Germany, as formerly England was, very fortunately, by the maritime towns, and could always send out from there an army of reiters, to throw them upon the country of whoever wished to trouble her at home.
To this end, it would be needful for her to have a considerable sum of money deposited in Germany, which would keep those of her party in play, and her opponents in fear. And this alliance would be no sooner made than many neighbouring princes and States would join it; Christendom to-day being so disposed that it only needs some eminent prince who will make an overture, and give a signal to the others to think of the common welfare.
Her Majesty does very wisely to renew the alliance with Scotland, whence blows the most troublesome wind for her estate. But she should also consider that this young prince is much sought after in marriage, and that the marriages of princes are marriages of their States, and consequently should take heed that he allies himself in a quarter which is well disposed toward England. This being done, she breaks the designs of her enemies, both for marrying him in good earnest and for other things under this pretext. While the party of those of the Religion remains firm both in 72 (France) and 99 (the Low Countries), the 81, 36 (Kings of France and Spain) will have small means of doing her harm, thus she must not let them be ruined. And, for the 99 (Low Countries) if from the beginning she had held to the league which was arranged, things would not be where they are now, and would not have been where she has been very sorry to see them.
As to France, the King of Navarre and the Prince de Condé are princes of merit, whom, in truth, she has not treated as was due both to their position and her own. She has abandoned them in their need and left them a laughing stock and a prey to their enemies, and has even treated them unworthily in their persons and those of their friends; she who is gracious and honourable towards all others, and those not of such quality as they. It results that they dare expect nothing more from her friendship, which they have so often sought in vain, and they know not if it would please her for them to offer her their service. It has been said to the Queen that she has done wonders, and sometimes they talk of ingratitude, but she may recollect that since the year '70, she has not spent a penny for them, although they have never had so many affairs on hand, or passed through so many perils. And even what she did in the year '79 was for [i.e. with the security of] certain rings. For as to the moneys lent in the year '76, it is for Monsieur, who had them, to acknowledge them. And since then he has had divers great sums, which perhaps might well have been as usefully employed elsewhere, if she has any interest in their preservation. And perhaps it would be permitted to them to preserve themselves, without having this man to have his share in it.
And this is, in effect, to return to the two points proposed, viz., the means which she may employ both to strengthen her alliances, and to divert the efforts of her enemies, without much inconvenience to herself.
Endd.: “A letter touching the estates of the K. of Navarre.” 11½ pp. [France IX. 98b.]
[Written in 1583, before Anjou returned to France. The most probable date is April, when Navarre made overtures to the Queen for help, and it was proposed to establish a fund of money in Germany. See p. 282 above; also p. 235 for the Queen Mother's efforts in relation to the Duke's marriage.]
May 2. 735. Advertisements from Cologne.
The sentence of dismissal passed at Rome against Archbishop Gebhardt has been registered in the Chapter, containing, as is said, about forty articles without touching his marriage or change of religion, which will be put up on the doors of the churches. I have been promised a copy which I will send you.
The election of a new one is to be on the 22nd instant, who, it is supposed, will be the Duke of Bavaria, who every day gives sumptuous banquets to the Nuncios, Domherrn, and Capitulars, as also to the Senate and counsellors of the town, and he will probably carry the vote, for the diocese finding itself in arrears, has need of one who has means whereby he can live without touching the revenues of the bishopric for some years to come, during which Count Salentin will have the administration, in order to restore them; he being well-beloved, wise and a good manager. This is how men propose. We are still expecting the Cardinal of Tirol (who, it is believed, will be Bishop of Liége) and the Duke of Saxony from M¨nister. As to the late archbishop, it is rumoured that he will go to the wedding at Weimar to beg the aid of the princes, who, so far, do not stir except by letters.
If the gast had sooner received your last he would have gone thither instead of sending his man.
The Duke [Ernest] of Bavaria is levying in his country of Liége a regiment which, it is believed, is to support him in the future in his new estate. It is much reported that Verdugo is coming into Westphalia on one side, and the Count d'Aremberg on the other, to retake what belongs to the diocese. And that the old Count of Mansfelt is coming with 80 companies to seize the Meuse, the Waal, and the Rhine, and build a fort in some fitting place to hold them. As to the stir amongst the burgers of this town, it is quieted since the apprehension of a soldier who was the author of it, of whom it is discovered that (with several others) he was suborned by some partisans of the said Truchsess, who intended to put this town into a tumult and then pillage it, as appears daily from others who are apprehended. Cologne, 2nd May, 1583.
Copy. Endd. 1 p. Fr. On the same sheet as the advertisements of April 25, above. [Newsletters XXVII. 14a.]
May 10. 736. William Waad to Walsingham.
The nearer I approach the place “which giveth occasion of news” the greater uncertainty I find, therefore I can give your honour no certainty of the estate of the Bishop of Cologne. “In France I perceive they advance the news, howbeit I find good dispositions in the princes affected to religion, but the Duke of Saxony not so forward as was given forth. The 22nd of this month the election of the anti-archbishop is to be made. Amongst the canons are divers, or the most part, of the Religion. If they needs must, to satisfy the Emperor, make new election, they cannot light better than of Bavyer [Bavaria] because he is so hated at Liége as he is not greatly to be desired at Cologne. There had lately like to have been an uproar at Cologne through a rumour given forth that the clergy secretly had hidden in their houses arms and men, whereupon a search being made, there were found more concubines than soldiers. The Duke of Lorraine, in favour of the Bishop of Liége, hath caused to be put to the sword as many as could be caught of the French that passed through his country to assist the Archbishop, insomuch as passing by, we saw the trees more laden with men than fruit.
“Sturmius still remaineth, as it were, in banishment, though divers princes have vouchsafed this town their letters in his behalf.” I beseech your honour to excuse my hasty manner of writing. Strasburg, 10th of May, 1583.
Add. Endd. Sealed. 1¼ pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 48.]
May 15. 737. William Waad to Walsingham.
From Strasburg I wrote to your honour “traveller like, still rolling, that we can gather no moss. The dispositions of the princes of Germany inclineth to the Archbishop, except the Archduke and Bavaria. Lately the Archbishop and Casimir were with the Duke of Wirtemberg at a castle called Aspurge, not far out of the way where we passed, and there have had assurance of all favour of the Duke. The canons are so wrought as they persist to make a new election the 22nd of this present, which is now at hand. They have sent to the Pope one in their name, and two days sithence passed by this way in his return a baron of Germany, sent to the `Domeherrs' from the Emperor. So as it appeareth that the cause is solicited. Howbeit, the general opinion is that the matter shall be pacified, the Bishop taking the name of the Administrator of the bishopric, a thing practised in Germany long sithence, and therefore the easier to be conceived. The Pope is struck (struque) by their calenders and writings, for the Star men here do calculate this conjunction to foretell the utter fall of the ruinous seat of Rome, and that this Pope shall be the last. Besides, have exactly considered the nativity of the Bishop, wherein is that conformity with the general constellations as they note him for the instrument that shall beat down that huge building. And these kinds of predictions are better believed at Rome than the rock of that faith whereon they say their church standeth. . . .
“Hitherto we have felt no drop of rain, and extreme heat.” Ulm, 15th May, 1583.
Add. Endd. Sealed. 1 p. [Ibid, I. 49.]
May 12 and 23. 738. [Harborne to Walsingham.]
“Sundry have been the speeches and surmises touching our coming, every one interpreting the same after their own humour, some ill-willers particularly, and all arch-papists generally in their prejudice, none of them crediting former true advices out of England, for that our honourable receiving here in the name of ambassador hath annulled that report, of whom, through these their vain conjectures, her Majesty shall be the more feared. The French and Venetian have to the uttermost opposed themselves against us, but their malice contraried, the Venetian denieth such his proceedings and dissemblingly pretendeth friendship, having personally visited us, and the French now reporteth it was only for prerogative of the banner, according to his master his order, and hopes upon receipt of his second letters to renew former amity; but as they attend to expell their venim, when occasion of any unhappy hour through some sinister chance (which God defend) may happen, so the doubt thereof will cause us ever have them justly for suspected. Notwithstanding, we wish to have the French for some good causes hereafter, rather an interior dissembling friend than an open professed enemy.
“As for the ambassador of the Emperor for Hungary, he in all respects hath showed himself very friendly, offering all courtesy in his Master's name. . . . The Grand Signor most gratefully accepted and highly esteemed the present made him in her Majesty's name, commanding the vice-re especially to favour our proceedings, who contrariwise, complained secretly of his as not sufficient, We suppose his hollow heart, filled up with the Venetian their gold, is in such sort putrified as we expect at the best nought else but forced favour of him, unless we should drive one nail out with another, which in some respects we account over hard for us, notwithstanding, hereafter Cerberus must have his sop for a time to cease barking.
“The fifth Bassa of the bench, named Ferat” has gone, in place of Synam, returned general for Persia, to join Osmond, the lieutenant, with about 30,000 men, mostly Spahis, between whom and the Janissaries there happened a quarrel on the way when many of both sides lost their lives, but the rest passed on. Amongst them are said to be ten thousand free masons, “architectours,” to build fortresses in the ruined city of Cervan, and after as they hope, at Ruan. Herberto, this man, buying over dearly the wasted Media and part of Assyria, with the destruction of an infinite number of his, now would be content (enjoying the same) to conclude peace, but his opponent will not hear of it except with recovery of what he has lost, “whose ambassador resteth here prisoner in his house.” The wisest say that never have wars of the Christians so much impaired this estate, nor do they think his abovesaid pretence will take place. “The forced soldier, wearied with the extreme journey and half famished, daunted of courage, attending hourly glad news of return, which their master, otherwise than to rest with the conquered, nothing less mindeth. Their harms being our happiness, God continue.
“The league with Hungary is prolonged other eight years, from Christmas last past, paying the accustomed tribute of 60,000 dollars, besides the present, being half so much more.”
Extract. 1½ p. [Turkey, I. 8.]
May 22. 739. Advertisements from Cologne.
You will have heard that the Chapter of Cologne are proceeding to the election of a new archbishop, which will be to-morrow, according to the Papal bull for depriving Gebhardt Truchsess, although the Emperor has written to the said Chapter not to go further without other orders. The citizens are appointed, as is customary, to be in arms at the cathedral and at the corners of the streets. Yesterday letters were delivered to the senate from the Elector Palatine, Duke Casimir and Deuxponts, to the effect that having sent their commissioners to the Emperor at Pressburg to learn if his Majesty has deprived the said Truchsess, and he having replied that not he but the Pope had done it, under pain of excommunication, which he could not well resist, but that he hoped to arrange this difference so that both parties would be satisfied:—For this cause they warn the said senate not to consent to the new election, or to recognise any other than the said Gebhardt, until resolution is taken by the Estates of the Empire. For if they do so, it is to be feared that the citizens of Cologne throughout the Empire will be seized, both body and goods. Moreover, Baron Charles Truchsess, governor of Bonn, has in like manner written to five gaffels [guilds] of this town, to wit, the furriers, merchants, coopers, drapers and wheelrights (huielreicks) urging them not to consent to this new election, forasmuch as it is not permitted by the empire, and if the burgers do not prevent it, he will declare them enemies and will take them wherever he can, and that just at this time, he holds back four boats laden with wines belonging to the burgers. It is feared this will be the cause of a great uproar, one of the council having heard the letters, by pretending that he would not consent to this new election, and it is his opinion that the town will neither take oath from, or offer it to, the newly elected. What will ensue we shall know to-morrow. The Archbishops of Bremen and of Strasburg are not arrived, which encourages the Bishop of Liége that he will carry the vote. Count Salentin, accompanied by three cornets of horse, went to Br¨hl, to see the Duke of Saxe and to prepare an abode for the future bishop. Yesterday they returned together and to-day have dined with the Bishop of Liége. Cologne, 22nd May, 1583.
Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Newsletters XXVIII. 15b. On the same sheet as that of May 31 below.]
May 31. 740. Advertisements from Cologne.
Although I this morning sent you a duplicate of this by the messenger of Cologne, I now send this also, by request of the gast de Leyster, to recapitulate mine of the 9, 13, 16, 20, 23 and 27 (fn. 6) of this month, which we understand have gone astray or been detained on the way, seeing that they write from Antwerp that they have received no letters from Cologne since those of May 6, for which cause the gast thinks it necessary to send this by water (though tedious) for safety.
On the 12th we heard that the mignon of La [Cardinal Granvelle] has “written and assured here” of Bi [King of France] Bo [Queen Mother] Fo [Anjou] and others, as to their firm alliance with Bu [King of Spain], and even that he has knowledge of two provinces which are of the party, and of great consequence, which will not fail to bring about a marvellous and dangerous change; and that Hu [Elector of Cologne (fn. 7) ] has sent into Ca [Spain] Counsellor Rocvardon, (fn. 8) a mere creature of La [Card. Granvelle] with advice to proceed against Ce [Queen of England], Ci [England] Fi [P. of Orange], and Mi [Zeeland (fn. 9) ], which they will not fail to do if God prevent them not; and the more easily that there are some of the party who are in the middle of the body of Ci [England] eating the bread of Ce [the Queen], which the said gast regrets deeply. If he were near your friends, he would tell them the rest, and show them the drugs needed to compose a useful antidote to this dangerous poison, which cannot be done in writing. He prays that you will not throw his advice to the winds, for he knows and has seen.
As to Squint-eyed [Sudermann], he may obtain what letters he likes at his own cost, but they have told him plainly they will spend no more, and as the two provinces (fn. 8) will not fail to bring about the most dangerous change that has ever been seen, to the prejudice of Ci [England], Ce [the Queen], My [? Zeeland] and Ya [not deciphered] and others, this should have been provided for long since, for even Emde (fn. 8) will not be safe. There are means of reaching To [Hamburg] if one wishes, as may be learnt from some of the principal Xu [Hanses] here, and there one could advise the gast to show in all ways and everywhere that he is their very affectionate servant. Be speedy, if it please you, for there is need.
Notwithstanding divers letters sent by the Elector Palatine and the Dukes Casimir and Deux Ponts to the Chapter, exhorting them not to proceed to a new election, and to the senate not to permit it, together with letters from Baron Charles of Truchsess, governor of Bonn, to five gaffels, exhorting them to prevent the new election, yet on May 23, Ernest, Duke of Bavaria, Bishop of Liége, was elected, and with sound of bells, Te Deum was sung in all the churches. On the third day, according to custom, he left the town to take possession of Broelle and other places. But the said Baron has fortified Bonn, and has paid his soldiers, promising moreover that before the month is out they will have Casimir for General, who will come down with large forces very shortly to aid his brother. This last is assured of Westphalia, they having taken oath anew to acknowledge no elector but himself. So that there is a great schism throughout Germany, which will not be ended without deadly war, unless God send remedy.
The Prince of Parma plays his part in Brabant, reckoning (as the Malcontents say) to be master of Brussels and Mechlin before the St. Jean, and to light a fire of discord in Antwerp which will not easily be put out. He is expecting the King's resolution upon the proposal sent by the President of Artois, Richardot, who will have arrived in Spain in the nick of time to be made President of Flanders, seeing that (as I have heard from the Bishop Count of Malaspina) President Foncq died at Lisbon on March 3rd. The said Malaspina departed yesterday, leaving here the nuncio Franciscus, Count Bishop of Vercelle, who has full powers from the Pope, by virtue of which he has deprived Hermann Adolf, Count of Salms, and John, Baron of Winnenberg, of all their ecclesiastical dignities (on account of their change of religion). He will not stir from here during these changes.
The Ritmeister Ulrich Klever, a Bremois, with 300 reiters and 100 harquebusiers, has arrived in these parts for the service of the Chapter. There has been a report that Count Salentin would at once besiege Bonn, but he is in no hurry. Ce n'est pas un chat pour prendre sans mouffles.
The Count de Moers does what he pleases at Berck with his English and Scottish soldiers, whom he pays from the toll which he levies on all merchandise going up or down the Rhine. Cologne, 31st May, 1583.
Fr.pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 15.]
June 7. 741. Rudolf II. to the Queen.
Her Majesty's letters have been given to him by Mr. William Waad, who has also diligently explained what was committed to his charge.
Does not now answer her Majesty at length, for (as he has before declared to her) the matter being rather common to the Estates of the German Empire than particular to himself, he has communicated to them both what her Majesty has written, and the complaints which the Hanses have repeatedly made to him of the withdrawal of their privileges, and the injuries and monopolies of the Adventurers. After the matter has been deliberated, he will reply to her Majesty. Ebersdorf, 7th June, 1583.
Copy. Latin. ½ p. [Germany, Empire, I. 50.]
June 7. 742. Letter from Cologne.
I have not been able to despatch the above, as the bearer did not dare to venture. On Tuesday the soldier who was the cause of the revolt in this town was beheaded and his body quartered. And to-day the nuncio, the Bishop of Verceil, has served the sentence of deprivation of all their prebends and [ecclesiastical] dignities upon the Count de Salms and the Baron de Winnenberg, and has cited to appear within nine days George de Sayn (Sein), Count de Witgenstein (Wigstein) Domprobst, who is the best and most liberal of all the prebendaries and with the best connexions in Germany.
Many marvel thereat, but as they believe that no one of great quality will stir in Germany, they do not fear the little wolves who have no teeth with which to bite (as they say); and all those who come from above (d'enhaut) declare that there is no sign of levying men of arms. Notwithstanding this, Baron Charles of Truchsess gives out that it is so to his captains in Bonn, resolute to await a siege, which is being prepared very slowly, waiting for what is most necessary, viz. soldiers, money, artillery &c. but occupying the villages and country round Bonn, encountering sometimes some from Bonn, who, going out to plunder, have retaken the house of Popersdorf, a league from the city. Gebhardt is at Werle in Westphalia with about 400 horse and 600 foot, who are beginning to disband for want of pay. If good aid does not shortly come to him from above, he will be in evil case. It is said that large succours are coming from Holland.
Those of Bonn yesterday made a sortie, passed the Rhine and burnt some villages of the Chapter. These are the fruits of war. The nuncio received the day before yesterday letters from Ci [England] which have pleased him much. Cologne, 7th June, 1583.
Postscript, written at the top.—There is a report that the Marquis de Montigny has taken some forts near Cambray.
Fr. ½ p. On the same sheet as that of May 31, above. [News letters XXVII. 15a.]
June 10. 743. Advertisements from Cologne.
On the day of the election, Duke Ernestus gave a dinner to the burgermasters whom he desired to allow him to reside for three months in the town, by reason of the dangers without, but could not obtain it, and, according to the old custom, departed on the third day, the 25th, and escorted by his nobility and two troops of lancers, went to dine at Br¨hl, and from thence to Liquenick, between Curpe and Bonn, a strong place in good air. Thereabouts, in the villages, are the soldiers of Counts Salentin and d'Aremberg, waiting for artillery &c. in order to besiege Bonn, if Gebhardt does not determine after all to accept the offers made to him, viz. 18,000 dollars, to go up to 25,000 dollars annually for his life, rather than plunge into war, giving up the places occupied by him. The three vessels with wine, stayed at Bonn, are released. There are others which dare neither go up nor down, and it is even said that Duke Casimir has detained merchandise belonging to the burgers of Cologne going to Strasburg, and that he is gathering soldiers, but this I cannot yet believe.
On the day of the election protestations were attached to the doors of the Dom (dhome) on the part of the Elector Truchsess, declaring the election nul and void, which were quickly torn in pieces. Those of Bonn thought to surprise the Count d'Aremberg the day before yesterday, but were forced to retire with some loss on both sides. The burgers of Cologne do not dare to go out a single step without risk of being taken, either above or below. If the princes of the Empire do not interfere (ne mettent la main à la pâte) in another fashion than they have done hitherto, the good Gebhardt will find himself very weak, and soon a piedt. Germany is liberal only with letters and with sops (souppes), but as to disbursing a penny for the republic, no such thing is heard of. I fear avarice will be the ruin of many, for the Roman beast fears no menaces unless in effectu. The Jesuits are prevented from building a new church in the form of that of Antwerp, which is almost finished; a true augury, according to some modern mathematicians, that they will not long be possessors of it. Cologne, 10th June, 1583.
Postscript.—The King and Queen Mother of France are at Mezières on the Meuse, in order to be nearer to Spa (Sap), for drinking the water.
Fr. ½ p. Copy. On the same sheet as the letter of May 31. [Newsletters XXVII. 15c.]
June 18. 744. William Waad to Walsingham.
This day sennight I spake with Herr Trawson, the President of the Council, only to solicit my dispatch, who told me that his Majesty's answer was ready, and the same day or the next following I should look for it. Yet I am deferred from day to day, and from one office to another. Meanwhile, I have managed to get the copy of the letters, which I thought it convenient to send to you beforehand. I suspect the Lubeckers procure this delay, to gain time to work the electors; and the Emperor and his brother, Archduke Ernest, being absent, the chief officers take leave to withdraw themselves.
Trawson told me that the Lubeckers followed this cause with great importunity; whereby I took occasion to let him know so much of her Majesty's reasons “as he professed before not to have understood, and seemed to allow of, saying the matter was of great weight, and that there should not want in the Emperor goodwill to satisfy her Majesty.” They chiefly complain of the Earl of Embden, and I doubt will so aggravate the matter to the electors that they will make an impression not easy to be removed, therefore I pray that her Majesty's former letters, and what was propounded by Mr. Gilpin, may be sent to the said electors.
The Emperor is despatching an ambassador to Cologne, i.e., Prenner, who was last in England, and lately come from Cologne and the Duke of Saxony. Truchsess (Truxes) and the Bishop of Liége have both sent their deputies to the Imperial Chamber, to plead their right.
We hear that the Count of Aremberg will besiege Bonn, which the brother of the Archbishop holds “with that assurance as the other suspect he is assured of help, howbeit they do give forth that the princes of the Empire already withdraw all their favour. Those of Liége do call their Bishop to be there resident, else that they will proceed to the election of another. Yet there is more preparation than hostility, but, coming to that, I doubt the Archbishop will be too weak. The Duke Casimir did open the letters lately sent hither, which is evil taken.”
From Italy they write that the 20 companies from Spain will remain at Milan, and others of the garrisons be sent to the Low Countries. The Pope levies Swisses and Italians, as they say, for an ordinary garrison about Rome, which seemeth to have some other construction.
The King of Spain has given his order to the Prince [of Parma] and sendeth the same to the Emperor, the Archduke Ernest, and the Dukes of Savoy, Florence and Mantua.
A ship is arrived out of the East Indies very rich, and others looked for, with millions. His fleet of 40 sail is gone from Lisbon to the Isles of Terceira, “wherein many of the nobility are embarked, stolen away to show their forwardness. . . .” Vienna, 18th June, 1583.
Add. Endd. Sealed. 3 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 51.]
June 11 and 25. 745. [Harborne to Walsingham.]
Yesterday came hither, from Venice, the Secretary and Master of the house of John de Marigliani (Marilano) who concluded the three years' truce for the King of Spain which expires at Christmas next. It is said they require a passport for their master to come to renew the truce, which is not likely to be denied, both because of the necessity of the time and also because of his excessive liberality to the vice-re and other counsellors, which is of more force with them than their duty and allegiance to their Prince.
We remain equal with the French [ambassador] in every way; and are said to have more favour with the Grand Signor, and though the vice-re is much addicted to him and the Venetian, yet neither the long continuance here of the first, or the great liberality of the other, has yet harmed us in any way. We doubt not in time to draw the vice-re towards us, and thus end their attempts in our prejudice. The Venetian outwardly shows us much courtesy, and offers his service in the conveying of our letters, so that if we were not informed of his secret proceedings, we should have more than sufficient cause to think well of him. Du Germigni hath of late been very quiet, and says he is sure, upon his master's answer, we shall be great friends. Since his protest he has attempted nothing against us, but we shall neither trust him nor ever accompany him, “respecting, according to duty, her sacred Majesty's ancient prerogative, higher title and more excellent pre-eminence . . . Both shall be best welcome furthest off, and best thought of, using silence.”
The Emperor's ambassador, of the ancient family of Prinards (fn. 10) in Germany, has hitherto, so far as we can learn, deserved well of us. He is reported to be a courteous, wise, well learned, liberal and very personable gentleman, whose brother and uncle, as he says, having had the like honourable charge in England, he greatly extols the noble courtesies of your honour and her Majesty's other worthy counsellors.
[The rest of the extract, beginning “Sundry complaints against Achmet Aga” repeats the news calendared on p. 396 above.]
Extract. 1½ pp. [Turkey, I. 8a.]
[June, between 22 and 26] 746. Certain news of the siege of Dunkirk by the Prince of Parma.
Montigny's “regiment” has 4,000 horse and foot; La Motte's 1,000; M. Mondragon, 27 ensigns of Spaniards and Italians, and 20 cornets of horse. M. Busseau has 2,000 Allemaynes and 5 ensigns of Scots, English and Irish; M. de Rue, governor of St. Omers, 1,000 horse and foot.
Sixteen cannons and four culverins have come out of Gravelines, St. Omers &c. They are well provided with powder and shot, timber, chains to stop up the mouth of the haven &c. There is a fort between Berquisse [Bergues-St.-Wynock] and Dunkirk called Milbrigge, well provided and with two good pieces of artillery, but upon sight of the camp coming down the men fled without any resistance. The Duke arrived at Calais last Wednesday [June 19, o.s.] and departed on Thursday towards Boulogne. That same night the Prince of Parma's camp was round Dunkirk.
On Friday night two Frenchmen came out of the town to where there were above a hundred of the Camp a-swimming. They rode into the water, killed two and hurt another, and retired into the town without hurt.
Endd. 1 p. [Newsletters, I. 56.]
June 26. 747. Advertisements from Cologne.
The deprived Gebhardt is master of Westphalia, and thus has 4,000 foot and 1,000 horse. It is said he will bring them to succour Bonn, which is only besieged at a distance, for lack of of money to provide more men and artillery, as I wrote to you on the 21st.
Ording and Berch do and will hold out bravely against the Bavarian forces, if the Chapter are not more liberal than at present, when they will not hear of disbursing money, and this will be the cause of their ruin. If Duke Casimir descends with such an army as is reported, several counts will tempt fortune, viz. those whom the Pope has deprived of all their benefices, as Count George de Witgenstein (Wigensteyn) and Thomas, Baron of Créange (Krebinge).
The Emperor and the Archduke Mathias are interposing to settle the differences between the two Archbishops. The King of France, with the Queen and Queen Mother, are at Mezières, where the Queen is using the water of Spa. A magnificent ambassador has arrived at Paris from Spain, the Duke of Natara, who brings from his King either peace or open war as the King of France shall choose.
The Prince of Parma has sent the Count de Berlaymont to Mezières, and it is believed some marriage is in hand. The Marquis de Santa Fiore (Sainte Floure), a Milanais, having sent a cartel of defiance to Count Charles Mansfeldt, the latter has killed the gentleman who brought it. It is said that Baron Charles Truchsess sent a like cartel to Count d'Aremberg, proposing to fight, forty on a side, which Count Aremberg accepted, but nothing has come of it.
Those of Bonn three days ago made sallies, but were repulsed by the besiegers, with the loss of about 24 killed and 12 made prisoners. Some soldiers of Count Salentin holding intelligence with the town have been imprisoned, and one of them quartered. Cologne, 26th June, 1583.
Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Ibid. XXVII. 16.]
June 28. 748. Acquittance from Richard Herd, Collector, to Lord Burghley for the payment of 26l. 13s. 4d. towards the relief of Geneva.
Endd. ¼ p. [Switzerland, I. 7.]
The following were found (mostly amongst papers of a later date) too late to be put into their proper place among these Addenda papers:—


  • 1. The originals of these letters from Cologne were apparently addressed to Gilpin, who sent copies of them into England.
  • 2. Evidently the person whom in the next letter he calls “the squint-eyed,” i.e. Sudermann.
  • 3. These letters from Cologne are sometimes dated 1582, sometimes 1583, but the contents show that they all belong to this time. They are all old style as regards the day of the month.
  • 4. Cf. letter of March 7, above, This shows that the writer is himself the gast.
  • 5. The passages given in italics are underlined in the document. The decipher of the figures is interlined.
  • 6. For the letters of May 16 and 20, see p. 367 et seq. above.
  • 7. If this is correct, it must mean the new Elector.
  • 8. These words are spelt out, letter by letter. The two provinces are Flanders and Brabant.
  • 9. This sentence is deciphered:—Ce (Q. of Eng.), Ci (P. of Or.), Fi (left undeciphered), Mi (Zeeland). But as Ci is deciphered below (and elsewhere) evidently correctly, as England, Fi is no doubt the Prince of Orange.
  • 10. Or Preyner: Casper Preyner was sent to England by the Emperor in May, 1559.