Elizabeth: May 1585, 16-20

Pages 476-487

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 19, August 1584-August 1585. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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May 1585, 16–20

May 16/26. Count Maurice to the States of Holland.
We have to inform you that arriving yesterday early at the fleet, we found Count Hohenloe with all his men of war very resolute to attack the enemy, and to take by main force the forts on Cauwesteyn dyke, which they this morning early (by good agreement with those of Antwerp) effected with such courage that by the grace of God they not only became masters of the said dyke but pierced it in three places, fortifying themselves there for the time being. And as our duty demands that we should take every opportunity of victualling Antwerp, our instant prayer to you is that you will collect and send hither as much corn and other victuals as possible. The better to accomplish this, we think it well that you should diligently publish in all towns that already many of our ships have gone through the dyke towards Antwerp; and that the ships to be sent may more easily pass, it will be best to load the said provisions upon flat-bottomed boats.
As we write this, news is come that our people have gained and surprised the great fort called in “thyois” the Ztobarte Schantse, which the enemy had on the said Couwensteyn dyke, from which they were at first repulsed, but the second time they became masters of it.
Counsellor Brasser will tell you more particularly what has happened.—Lillo, 26 May, seven in the morning, 1585.
With note that below was written by Meetkerke, As his Excellency was not at hand, this has not been signed with his own hand.
Copy. French. 1 p. [Holland II. 11.]
May 16/26. Capt. Thomas James to Walsingham.
This is to tell you what has happened since my last of May 7, for the cutting of 'Colestenne' dyke. “The Count of Hollock having good proof of the dyke, being once a land before with the loss of many brave soldiers “[see p. 436 above], sent into Holland and Zeeland for provision for the enterprise. There were seven flat bottomed hoys with a cannon in the prow, thirty small galleys and divers small boats for landing the men. Of soldiers and sailors to the number of 3,000. He departed on May 25 at ten at night, “having two great hoys made most cunningly with fireworks for the setting of two great forts afire standing on the dyke, which took none effect.
“He landed on the dyke between the hours of two and three in the morning, being Sunday, we finding the enemy all in arms [they] charged us and put us to retire to our ships, where there were drowned M. Haultain (Hauttine), governor of Zeeland, with a great number of his soldiers. The fleet of Antwerp, which lay on the other side of the dyke, taking the 'larum came up to the dyke with their whole fleet, landed most bravely, M. St. Aldegonde (Sant Alegundo) being one of the first. Our English men coming to charge came to the push of the pike with Italians and Spaniards, put them to retire and killed a hundred of the bravest of them. They were at their retreat about an English mile on the dyke, where we fortified very strongly with such provision as we had, making trenches which was thought sufficient to defend the enemy and leaving the Hollanders and Zeelanders for to defend the trench up to the enemy's camp and the Scots between us and them, thinking all to be sure. We remained thus some three hours; when the Count and Aldegonde went to Antwerp with two small galleys, thinking all things to be so sure, the enemy with his whole camp came on. Our galleys lying at the head of our trenches put off to have more room to play on the enemy. The Hollanders and Zeelanders seeing the enemy come on so hotly, and thinking our galleys would leave them, they abandoned their strength (?); the Scots seeing them to retire left their strength, the enemy pursued very hotly, the English men stood to repulse and are put mostly to the sword. It is supposed that Colonel Morgan is either slain or drowned. Col. Balfour (Bayford), a Scotsman, likewise with him. In this shameful retreat there were slain and drowned to the number of 2,000; there was lost eight hoys of Antwerp, with divers pieces of artillery in them, to the great encouraging of the enemy, with all the provision we had. There is slain and taken divers brave men, captains and soldiers, whose names I do not know. The Count Maurice with divers of the States was here at the fort of Lillo.”—Lillo, 26 May, 1585.
Postscript.—” We had cut the dyke in three places, but left it most shamefully for want of commandment.”
Add. Endd.pp. [Flanders I. 23.]
May 16/26. Attack on the Couenstein Dyke.
A brief discourse of what happened at the enterprise upon the Cawesteyn dyke, the 26 May, 1585.
Yesterday morning before seven o'clock, after intelligence between those of Antwerp and our fleet, those on our side landed their men upon the dyke of Cauwesteyn; that is, the Sieur de Haultain with 500 Zeelanders, charging the fort (called Sobert scans), and Asseliers on the other side another fort, where after a long conflict they were repulsed, save that the said Haultain with 400 men still stood firm.
While this was going on, those of Antwerp, viz. the English, having broken the enemy's palisade did their duty so well that they gained the dyke and the forts, putting the enemy (for the time) to flight, who afterwards took heart again and returning furiously, seconded by all the forces they had in their camp at Stabroeck, at about ten o'clock assailed ours so vehemently that they drove them back, regaining the forts and the dyke, and forcing those of this side and the other to retreat in disorder happy those who could flee most quickly. M. de Haultain was killed, with a cousin of his, and many captains and officers, mostly Zeelanders, who are almost all killed or drowned, as, it is feared, are a great part of those of Antwerp, i.e. the English, who are said to have behaved splendidly.
It is feared the enemy has seized the water fort, as he has several of the Antwerp “plats,” which, the tide going out, were left aground and could not get away.
It is not known what has become of Count Hohenloe, some thinking that he is gone to Antwerp, in order to cheer and console the people there, who, it is feared will be grievously discouraged by this misfortune.
Those saved have come back with the galleys to Lillo, where were Count Maurice and his Council, diligently endeavouring to put matters into good order.
It is said that the dyke is cut in two or three places, and that three or four “playts” laden wth corn have passed through, but further particulars will be known on the return of those who are to be sent to make a report.
Endd. Fr.pp. [Holland II. 12.]
May 17. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Last night news came that the Cowesteensten dyke was taken, and this morning that the enemy, coming down with main force, has repulsed our men and given them a great overthrow. What particulars I could gather I send enclosed in French [probably the preceding paper] but hope to send you more certainty by my next.
These here are much amazed, yet not altogether discouraged, hoping for better success in their attempt on the bridge with their hulks, though it is not yet known whether Count Hollock be gone to Antwerp, taken, or slain, “the lack of whom at this side will be a great hindrance, as the only man of note and chief director in all the actions.”
I repaired to some of the States this morning to confer of these matters, using the best speeches I could to cheer them, and offering (if they wished to write of this loss to the Queen) either to send it safely or to go over myself.
They thanked me and said that they should consider thereof in Council that morning and either send for me or let me know their resolution. But I think they will defer it until some of the Earl's Council be come, who are expected this tide.
Want of men has been the cause of this disaster, and the hindrance why they could not keep the dyke and clean overthrow the enemy.
All well affected men wish that her Majesty would “presently” send hither some aid of men with able commanders, “to resume the matter and not to leave off till the river opened, or new passage made.” It would be a means to win the hearts of all this people.
The States here are expected to-night and will meet to-morrow finally to determine upon the treaty with her Majesty.— Middelburg, 17 May, 1585.
Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. II. 13.]
[May 17.] Davison to Walsingham.
The day after I despatched my last, I went to Utrecht, invited by the magistrates, but chiefly to visit the Elector, where I found the surprise of Nuys confirmed by letters from Count Neuenaar. Thence I went to Amsterdam, solicited also by the magistrates, and so into North Holland to see those towns. At my return hither, where I thought to find the deputies ready to depart, I found that those of Zeeland had arrived but yesterday, having kept the rest waiting ten or twelve days, in consequence of the bad offices of some who try underhand to impeach the course of this treaty, and partly also to await the success of the enterprise upon the ditch of Cowensteyn, “according to which they meant to accommodate their deliberation.” But even now we hear that having made the attempt as well on the part of Antwerp as on this side; recovered the ditch, possessed it for five or six hours, entrenched themselves and cut the same in three or four places, the enemy bending all their force and perceiving the water to abate, gave a furious charge on both sides in flank, his people wading up to the girdle; reinforcing the charge with fresh men from time to time, till the others, wearied with continual fight, overcome by the number, and annoyed by the artillery, which played upon them out of the house of correction near by, were constrained to abandon the place, with the slaughter of Haultain and his nephew and above 200 soldiers and mariners on this side, and at least three or four hundred on the part of Antwerp, amongst which are some of their principal commanders, as Balfour and others. And on the part of the enemy, as we hear, above 2,000, “whereof divers of his principal captains and commanders, amongst which is reckoned the old Count Mansfelt.”
On the back, notes apparently of the contents of a letter, but not this one. Rough draft. 1¼ pp. [Holland II. 14.]
May 17/27. Thomas Stokes at Antwerp to Thomas Stokes, merchant in London.
I perceive by your letter that my child is well, which I am not a little glad of. I cannot but marvel at Mr. Fitzwilliams' trouble. He is presently indebted to me, but I will stay for it awhile. Tell Mr. Abdy that I answered his letter long since, and that whatever becomes of me, I shall leave him enough to content him for my child, even if he had but his mother's portion. I cannot now write to him for very sorrow and heaviness of heart.
I thank you for your news. “God grant it may take effect with Holland and Zeeland, for I doubt no help can come to aid us in time.” May no friend of mine live to see and hear what I do.
Yesterday, the 26th [n.s.], “the Hollanders and our side with divers boats, plates and galleys, on both sides at three o'clock in the morning did assault Cowstens dyke and incontinent with great slaughter on both sides took in three loope scances of the enemy's, and fortified themselves strongly, and very near cut in the dyke in two places . . . and kept the dyke from three of the clock in the morning till ten of the clock, which was seven hours; and making sure of all and the English quarter being well fortified, the Scots and they being together toward the side of the Prince of Parma, and Hollock's men being toward the side of Stabroek; and being 2,000 'mofes,' had small courage, and seeing the enemy coming on with a new assault, ran away and fled upon our English men and Scots and French, in such order as no man could stand to fight, being a small dyke of fifteen foot broad at the most, one overran the other in such order as was most lamentable to see, so as there was drowned and slain of our side and of the Hollanders 2,000 men at the least; and of English men, I know there is not come away of 300 men not 20. All our old and brave captains slain, to wit, one Capt. Vaughan and Capt. Gwinne and Capt. Powell, with divers other brave soldiers of great valour. The Scots most lost, but Colonel Morgan with Capt. Lytellton, with Rickarde's lieutenant and Lytellton's ancient returned. There was slain at the taking in of the dyke M. 'Hawtaine,' governor of Zeeland, with his cousin or son. They were enemies to our nation. The number that are brought in the town 'maynd' [qy. maimed] is uncredible. There is taken an Italian, chiefest of all the enemy's horsemen. The victory was long ours, but for lack of good order we lost all. Colonel Morgan doth say that with 600 good men he would keep it against 10,000 men on that ground. If we had kept the dyke half an hour longer, we had brought victuals enough for corn to victual this town for one year, which now we greatly want.”
Captain Salisbury arrived yesterday with letters to the colonel. I am so full of sorrow for the state we and our children are in that I can write no more. God grant us better news from you, and that shortly, or we shall be hardly dealt with.—Antwerp, 27 May, 1585. Signed, T.S.
Postscript.—” Herein you shall receive the true counterfeiting of the bridge and how the enemy lies [wanting]. It is not here to be had but of friends, nor may not be sold.”
Add. Endd.pp. [Flanders I. 24.]
May 17. Extract from a Letter from the King of Denmark.
“His subjects the senators of Flensburg have informed him that by reason of some differences between the English merchants and those of Hamburg, they [the English] retired themselves to Embden, from which they are also minded to depart.
“In respect of the commodious situation of Flensburg, both for the ocean sea and the north sea within the Sound, . . . as also for the nearness unto Polonia, Estland, Pomern and Germany for the venting of our cloths, the goodness of the haven and cheapness of victuals, they have desired him to be a means to her Majesty that her subjects might settle their traffic there, where they shall receive all favourable usage from him.
“That it would please her Majesty to appoint some to confer with the merchants hereupon, and that they would send some experimented man to make a survey of the said place and the commodious situation thereof for their traffic.
“He desireth it for nothing more than that it will be an occasion of a more strict and inward amity between both their Majesties and their subjects.”
Endd. “Extract of the King of Denmark's letter, . . . 17 May, 1585. 1 p. [Denmark I. 50.]
May 17. Tomaso Sassetti to Walsingham.
For more than eight months I have been in bed, tormented by the gout, which is the reason that I have been able to do you no service, but since the fault is not mine I pray you to be satisfied with my goodwill and desire to serve you. As my good lord and master, I have recourse to you both for favour and aid, and therefore tell you that I have been advertised that the officer of the quarter where I live will put me in the list for the subsidy ordained by Parliament; but finding myself exhausted of every favour of fortune, with little means to live, on a sick bed, and without any income at all, I pray you to interpose your authority to make the officer for this imposition understand that I am a stranger soldier, exiled from my country, the image of necessity, and only living on what is granted me of her Majesty's kindness through your means. It will be more easy to obtain that I shall not be put into the list, than when I am put there to have it annulled. M. Jacopo Mannucci will tell you more fully of my desire, and I pray you not to disappoint me of your favour.—[London], from my house, 17 May, 1585.
Add. Endd. Italian. 1 p. [Italy I. 12.]
May 18. Harborne to Walsingham.
Since my last, of the 30th past, there came hither, on the 1st inst. the new ambassador of Venice, of the family de gli Bernaldini, the three years' time of “the ancient” being now expired; but hitherto, neither has been admitted to the Grand Signor nor it is thought shall be, before the promised restitution of the galiot of Romadan Bassa, with her contents, “and so many Turks freed as shall equal the number of the Christian captives released at the taking.” The galiot, having left Corfu to come hither, was so alarmed by a vain report that she is returned thither, wherewith the Grand Signor is highly displeased.
As Oluchiali has the pre-eminence in maritime causes, they have by great rewards so insinuated themselves into his favour that he travails both openly and secretly with his master for their reconciliation, though hitherto in vain.
I cannot pacify Oluchiali's malice towards me for complaining of his renegate Hassan, King of Algier, though all honest means have been secretly practised. “If, at the arrival of the next ship, by liberality I do not prevail, it will be a hard matter for ours to continue safely into these parts their traffic, the African pirates respecting more his letters than the Grand Signor's commandments.”
Five days ago, by order of the Grand Signor, there was a general prayer for rain. When they were in the fields, ready to pray, a priest of St. Sophia said to the viceroy and “Calde lesquire” : “Wherefore come you now to pray hither amongst us and the rest of the people, whom God will not hear for your extortion, bribery and 'powling' the people, whom you buy and sell for money; wherefore return to every one that taken unrighteously from them, execute true justice, and then God will hear you. And so turning to the Mufti, in degree of a pope, asked if he had said well, which the other affirmed, and although therefor he was three days imprisoned, yet after set at former liberty.” Next the Turks, the Papists made their prayers, then the Greeks, the 'Arminedies' and lastly the Jews; and “although their prayers be not acceptable unto the Almighty, unto whom can [be] no access but through Christ our Saviour, yet for his mercy's sake . . . since hath refreshed the earth with many sad showers.” Yet great scarcity is feared, so that where I should have sixty-five loads of hay gratis for my thirteen horses, I cannot this year have more than thirty; and so is it with others of my degree; and as for the pensioners and all others of this Court except the Bassas, “their accustomed provision is taken, and two ducats at the least for bread corn.” Yet though all the realm want, this city will be served at indifferent price, for chaouses are sent into all parts of the kingdom, who forcibly take provisions at wonted prices.—Rapamat, 18 May, 1585.
Decipher. 1 p. [Turkey I. 38.]
Original letter in cipher. Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. I. 39.]
May 19/29. Depositions taken in France touching the taking away of the Duke of Joyeuse's ship.—29 May, 1585.
Endd. Fr. 5 pp. [France XIII. 127.].
May 19. Ortell to Walsingham.
Has sought through his papers for a copy of the last articles presented to the French King, but can find none, they having been resolved on since his return. Ships from Holland say that the deputies were to embark on Tuesday or Wednesday, that is yesterday or to-day. Mr. Warde [qy. Waad] has left the town because of indisposition, so has had no further conference with him. Prays that if in Sipion's confessions there is anything concerning their State, he may know it, in order in time to give the required notice, as he has already done in what relates to Amsterdam and Flushing.—London, 19 May, 1585.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holland II. 15.]
May 19/29. G. de Prounincq, “dit de Deventer” to Davison.
I have so effected what you commanded me at my departure towards the escoutette and burgomasters of this town, that they know not how to thank you for your courtesy, and declare that they always have been and will be your and her Majesty's faithful servants. As to myself, having found you a gentleman so accomplished, learned, lover of all virtue and virtuous people, I hold myself as most happy in your acquaintance, and pray God that we may meet again, and that he will grant me opportunity to prove how much I love and respect you, and to do some humble service to her Majesty, as the most worthy princess in the world, in whom God has planted so many and so excellent virtues, of which the whole Christian Church, and especially ours in Belgium is and ever will be sensible.—Utrecht, 29 May, 1585, stylo novo.
Postscript.—I hope next week to send you a little explanation of our state, which may perhaps not be displeasing to you.
Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holland II. 16.]
May 19/29. Maximilien de Hornes to Walsingham.
I send the bearer, Capt. Zuderman, with instructions which he has orders to communicate to you, praying you to give him credit and to favour him. My confidence in your affection for the common welfare of all these countries leads me to make this request and also to ask you to move the Queen, by her succour, to preserve them from the Spanish yoke, which cannot but redound to her greatness and to the good of her crown. For myself, I desire nothing more earnestly than to see us all English and the subjects of her Majesty. The continual hope of all these peoples to have her for their sovereign princess and to be united to the crown of England shows sufficiently their affections in this regard. May God guide all to his glory and the good of both countries.—Ostend, 29 May, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. “From M. de Lockre.” Fr. 1 p. [Flanders I. 25.]
Instructions for Capt. Zuderman, sent to the Earl of Leicester and Mr. Walsingham by M. de Locre and the garrison of Ostend.
To represent the state of the town, which is expected shortly to be besieged, it being impossible for the States to provide it with what is necessary, by reason of their great charges on all hands.
To beg them to intercede with her Majesty to send them five or six hundred men levied at her expense, to be distributed amongst the companies in the garrison; also munitions of war, victuals and money, without which they can hardly maintain themselves.
To say that these requests proceed both from the necessity in which they find themselves, and also and chiefly from their hope that God will inspire her Majesty to take these countries under her protection and be their sovereign princess, for which end they know that the General States will shortly make suit to her. And if she will succour this important place, which may well be called the citadel of Flanders, they will, in return, employ their lives in her service.—Ostend, 29 May, 1585.
Signed, Maximilien de Hornes. Endd. Fr.pp. [Ibid. I. 25a.]
May 19/29. The Spanish King to “Licenciado Scobar,” his Corregidor of the Signory of Biscay.
I have caused a great fleet to be put in readiness in the haven of Lisbon and the river of Seville; and there is required, for the transport of the soldiers, arms, victuals and munitions to be employed in the same, great store of shipping of all sorts against the time of service.
That choice may be made of the best, I require you, upon sight of this letter, circumspectly and secretly to take order for the stay and arrest of all shipping found upon the coast and in the ports of the said Signory; without excepting any of Holland, Zeeland, Esterland, Germany, England and the other states and seignories that are in rebellion against me, saving those of France, which being little, of small burden and weak, are thought unfit to serve the turn. The stay being thus made, you shall have a special care that all the merchandise brought by the said ships be taken out and the ordnance, arms, munitions, tackle, sails and victuals safely bestowed; as also that it may be well foreseen that none of the said ships or men may escape away. These things being done, you shall advertise me of your proceedings and send me a plain declaration of the number of ships you have stayed, whence they come, which belong to my rebels; their burden, number of men, what quantity they have of ordnance &c. [as above], that on sight thereof, having made choice of such as shall be fit for this service, we may further direct you what to do. You shall presently see this put in execution, and if there come any more ships thither, you shall stay them also, using such care and diligence as shall answer the trust I repose in you, wherein you shall do me great service.—Barcelona, 29 May, 1585.
Signed, Yo el Rey. Countersigned, Antonio de Erasso.
Add. Endd. Spanish. 1 p. [Spain II. 38.]
Three translations into English of the above. Endd. Each1 p. [Ibid. II. 39–41.]
May 20/30. The Bailly, Burgomasters and Echevins of Ostend to the Earl of Leicester.
As M. de Locres, our governor, is sending Capt. Zuderman to you, to pray you to intercede with the Queen that we may be aided with what is more than necessary for the maintenance of this town, we cannot omit to pray you to lend a helping hand in the matter, which will be more fully explained to you by the deputies whom we are shortly sending to her Majesty.—Ostend, 30 May, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Flanders I. 26.]
May 20/30. News From Divers Parts.
Prague, 25 May, 1585.—[Arrival or expected arrival of the Archdukes Ernest, Ferdinand and Charles.]
Archduke Maximilian has received the news of his election as Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. The Turks having marched into the frontiers of Transylvania further than usual, have been well repulsed by the people, though against the will of that prince, who cares for nothing except not to vex the Grand Turk and so to keep at peace with him; but just to make a show of bravery these Turks often advance to the frontiers, though caring little about them, and sending as many men as they possibly can to Persia, where the war goes on more hotly than ever.
The Emperor is going to Vienna for August, and may remain there a good while, having arranged the affairs of this kingdom for three years.
Cologne, 30 May.—Our only news of Antwerp is by advice from Middelburg of the 22nd, saying that the city had been closed for eighteen days, but the reason not known, and confirming the rout of the States' soldiers at the assault on the dykes of Cauenstein.
The post of Tournay has brought letters of the 14th of this month from the camp telling us that on the 21st [of April], eighteen great ships left Antwerp, with others, among which were four laden with fireworks, and being come near the rafts, they cut the cords of the anchors which held them together, each passing without hindrance towards the palisade, where, being arrived close to it, one of these ships exploded without doing any damage. The second grounded near the entrenchment of the States called La Villanesca, and not being able either to advance or retreat exploded there, destroying the entrenchment and killing all the soldiers who were guarding it. The third, having a prosperous wind, went straight towards the bridge, from which the Prince sent out two barks, which shooting at her, fired the powder and she went to pieces without doing any mischief. The fourth, in which those of Antwerp reposed most hope, arrived a quarter of an hour after the others, and being sent by the Malcontents, four mariners went out to her, risking their lives for the service of the King, and having boarded her, found the match which was to fire the mine, removed it, and guided the ship to the Prince, in which were found 800 barrels of powder. His Highness gave each of the mariners a hundred gold crowns.
The Holland fleet having learnt of this ill-success and not wishing to risk such manifest danger, returned home.
An ambassador from the English Queen has arrived in Holland with orders to make an agreement with the States General, as she had done with the French King, in case Antwerp surrendered to the King of Spain; but it is believed the people of Holland and Zeeland will not consent to it.
In Friesland, Colonel Verdugo has taken the castle of Schellenberg, the rampart of the country of Overyssel, and Tassis has taken two barks, of Campen and Deventer, upon which were many of the chief men of those places. It is bruited that Col. Schenk has taken the Count of Meurs prisoner and carried him to his castle of Bleienbeck.
The news is confirmed of the new Elector of Cologne being made Bishop of Münster, against the will of that city and of the barons of Westfalia; thus their differences will not be settled without war, especially as the Duke of Brunswick and Landgrave of Hesse will not wish to have the said Elector so near their borders.
The people of the new Bishop find themselves in good quarters round about Neuss, spoiling and robbing the poor peasants, without doing anything else, and the Spanish reiters have been recalled by the Prince of Parma, who were sent here to secure the roads about Neuss, the soldiers of which place, issuing forth by night, five days ago took a vessel laden with merchandise.
On the 26th, under the tower and gate of Santo Severino there were intercepted certain letters carried by a messenger to the keeper of that gate and others of this city; upon which the keeper with his family and other persons were at once imprisoned, without their knowing anything of the contents. The bruit runs that the Spaniards with the knowledge of the new Bishop desired to make themselves masters of our city, which however is believed by few, there being no appearance of any soldiers in the neighbourhood to attempt such an enterprise.
Paris, 25 May.—This is the day appointed by the Queen Mother and the lords of the League to terminate what they had to effect together, and many wish it may not be to do anything of importance; knowing the great desire of the lords of the League to keep to the propositions made by them, and moreover seeing and knowing certainly that for the last few days his Majesty has been making great preparations for war, which before he did not do, having given order that 70,000 crowns shall be paid to the Swiss colonels at Lyons, who are said to be already on the way hither with 15,000 men, and having also, as is said, sent to the Queen of England for succours of money and men.
It is also said that the lords of the League, aided by M. de Montmorency, have seized Metz; and if so, it would be of great importance to them to be able to retire within it, but the most part do not believe it, since the Duke d'Epernon is governor, and there are other men there who depend upon him, who would not easily be corrupted.
Add. To William Gent at Lyons. Italian. 3 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 16.]