Elizabeth: June 1585, 6-10

Pages 530-537

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 19, August 1584-August 1585. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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June 1585, 6–10

June 6/16. “A Plain Confession of the Christian Faith . . . set forth by the order and commandment of the most reverend lord, John Hauchin, Archbishop of Mechlin,” caused by the Prince of Parma to be sworn at Ghent, Bruges, Yper, Audenarde, Dermonde, Brussels and other places under his yoke, “against the true Christian, Evangelical, Apostolic religion and liberties of the country.” In Antwerp. Printed A.D. 1585, 16 June, “for a warning to all true lovers of the true Christian, Evangelical religion “against the Spanish inquisition and tyranny. Also by John Maes, in Louvain, “with privilege of the King's Majesty.”
The Confession begins “I believe and confess, with a firm and well deliberate faith, all that which the Holy Catholic and Romish Church doth believe.” Here follows the Apostles' Creed, and a declaration of belief in the Apostolic ordinances and observations of the Church, with all the Scriptures “as the same by the Holy Romish Church are received “and by the holy fathers understood and expounded; in the seven sacraments; transubstantiation in the Mass; the ceremonies of the Church; purgatory; intercession for the souls of the departed; invocation of the Saints, reverence to their relics and images, indulgences by the Pope and Bishops, the “Catholic Apostolic Romish Church “as the mother of all Christian congregations; the “Pope of Rome” as the vicar of Christ on earth and successor of St. Peter; acceptation of decrees of the Councils, including that of Trent, “forsaking and detesting all heresies . . . specially all Anabaptism, the doctrine of Calvin, of Luther and others”; ending with a vow to steadfastly keep this faith until death, and to persuade and teach others thereunto. Signed, John Molanus.
MSS. copy of title page and declaration. Endorsed in much later hand,” 1613.” 4½ pp. [Flanders I. 29.]
June 6/16. News From Divers Parts.
Prague, 11 June.—On the 4th the Sieur Arach [Harrach], a new knight of the Golden Fleece, gave a banquet to the ambassadors and the chief of the Court, and the Wednesday following the Sieur de Rosenberg banqueted the Archdukes and duchesses with great pomp. Thursday there were the jousts in open field with superb costumes, and in the evening the Emperor gave a banquet to all the princes and princesses, with many of the Bohemian ladies; where after supper, his Majesty danced gaily, to the great pleasure of himself and of all.
Signor d'Asson[le]ville, Chancellor of the Golden Fleece, has received presents from all these new knights [details given], and the herald who brought the Fleece has also been well rewarded. [Movements of the Archdukes.] It is said that the Elector of Cologne has been here, but incognito.
Antwerp, 7 June.—Those of Holland have written that they will never abandon this city, and will presently return in force to attempt to open the river, whereupon these are putting ships and all other things in order, but the Malcontents being very strong upon the dykes, it is feared that they will do nothing.
The burghers have presented a supplication in the great Council, that since no way is found to succour the city with victuals, they should devise some plan to prevent the people from perishing with hunger; to which no reply was given, but to obviate this, order was given that all the grain should be carried to the usual house, granting, however, that those who have none shall have a sack for each person. They have turned out of this city all the poor people, there not being so much provision as was believed, and although many of the principal men incline to an accord with the Prince of Parma, on the same conditions as those made at Brussels, yet M. d'Aldegonde with his followers will not consent, saying that aid will shortly come from England, which, however, is rather doubted than believed.
On the 17th of last month those of Holland and Zeeland sent deputies to the Queen of England, to offer her those two provinces, but it is not thought that she will accept them.
Mechlin is in no less danger than Antwerp, some of the soldiers there having imprisoned the governor and their colonel, because of the lack of victuals, and that they cannot get their pay.
Cologne, 15 June.—The Prince of Parma's victory on the Cowenstein dyke is confirmed, upon which his Highness wrote to the magistrates of Antwerp that he would send his commissioners, who would propose such an accord as would be satisfactory to them. To which they replied that they could do nothing until they had advised the States General of Holland, as they were doing by their commissioners, who will report that they should stand out bravely, as they will not fail to succour Antwerp with all their power.
Letters from the camp of June 6 say that four of the States' companies being gone out of Bergen-op-Zoom were attacked by the Malcontents, who killed the most part and chasing the rest, came to a hospital at the village of Millenburg, which they burnt, with about 300 sick who were in it.
The burghers of Mechlin having sent deputies to the Prince of Parma, the Calvinists of Brussels wrote to them saying how badly they were treated by the Spaniards and exhorting them not to make any agreement; which being discovered by his Highness, he has taken away the arms of all the Calvinists in Brussels.
The bastard son of Duke John Casimir's sister finding himself at Trier, entered the church of the Predicatori [? Dominican friars] with eight companions, and took away the silver cross, with the tabernacle in which was the Blessed Sacrament, but he was presently taken and sentenced to be burnt to death. Duke Casimir, however, hearing of it, petitioned that Elector so earnestly that he was only beheaded.
Frankfort, 16 June.—It is reported here that the new Bishop of Cologne and [sic] Duke Ernest of Bavaria, going from Andernach towards Bonn, have been taken by the Count of Mœurs, but it is thought to be a fable.
Paris, 8 June.—The accord between his Majesty and the Leaguers is not yet concluded, although it is believed it will follow, the King being well-inclined to it, but it is hindered in the Council by some who desire to see fire rather than water, and moreover the King is not willing to concede to these Leaguers all the places which they demand; but this may be moderated and then the accord would be concluded, that they may go against the Huguenots and thus would follow a most cruel war.
Lyons, 15 June.—On the second feast day of the Pentecost, M. de Mandelot, the governor, summoned all the conservators and the chief men of stranger nations to come next morning to their usual chamber, when he gave them a letter from the King consenting that the citadel should be dismantled and the garrison increased by 300 men, but demanding 80,000 crowns in gratitude, and they are now discussing the raising of them. But God knows, if the accord is made, they will have to build up again what now they break down, and having begun the design in the name of God, it may be done over again in the name of the devil.
It is said that M. de Vins, the chief baron of Provence, having gathered 6,000 arquebusiers to serve the League, was attacked, while passing through Dauphiny by Capt. Laligera[qy. Lesdiguières], chief head of the Huguenots there, in order to prevent them crossing a river, but after fighting a long time, Laligera had the worst of it and de Vins passed into Burgundy, where all the forces of the League are assembling.
Italian. 3 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 18.]
June 7. Ortell to Walsingham.
I send by the bearer, Capt. Zudermann, a memorial of about forty persons, living and trading in this realm, who belong to no church, and whom it may please you to exhort, by Messieurs Bellam, Killigrew, Aldersey or others to make a little contribution. I find, by the judgment of men of estate and quality that they might easily provide amongst them for aid of the town of Ostend [figures torn] without any charge upon the churches, and thus effectuate what her Majesty promised them, that if they showed themselves willing in regard to Colonel Morgan, they should be spared, and those belonging to no church made to contribute.
I doubt not but that at the request of the Council or yourself, the aforesaid gentlemen would act heartily and effectually, calling the parties before them, and showing them in the first place, that this is done for the preservation of the said town, and consequently of the common cause and of the little which still remains in Flanders; secondly, how hurtful it would be to traffic by sea, if that town fell into the hands of the enemy; and thirdly, how much her Majesty will be pleased to hear of their goodwill.—London, 7 June, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holland II. 38.]
June 8. Adrian Saravia to Walsingham.
Although you will have had from Mr. Davidson full intelligence of the state of these provinces, and I doubt not but our ambassadors will supply anything else which affects our common safety, yet such is my zeal for Christ's church and my loyalty to her Majesty and the realm of England that I thought well to write briefly to you.
My first point is this. That the honourable, advantageous and necessary course for England is for the Queen to undertake the rule, or at any rate the defence of these provinces, rather than leave them either to fall back again into the power of Spain, or if they hold out until the end of the French war, once more to have recourse to France. That they should yield to these would be a disaster and peril not only to these churches and this people, but to England and all who profess the purer religion. By these wars which rage sometimes here and sometimes in France, it is certain that the realm and life of her Majesty and of all of you are threatened. For the end of the strife here and in France will be (if our common adversaries can compass their wish) the beginning with you. This, I doubt not, you see clearly. So the goal of our endeavours must be that all the professors of the Gospel shall join forces to secure its defence. If we perish, you will not long be able to stand unharmed.
Ambassadors are being sent from hence to England to implore her Majesty's aid; on what conditions I forbear to say. One must not contend with kings. This one thing I wish to impress on you; that whereas the embassies to the French were undertaken against the will and with the opposition of the people, this one to England is approved of by all the best people and is not displeasing to the commons. Some evil genius has attempted to delay the matter with the Zeelanders, but the affair is now settled, and whatever fault there may have been, it must be buried in oblivion for the sake of the common safety.
As I do not think we shall be deserted by her Majesty in the perils which now surround us, two points will necessarily come before you in deliberation. Are you to undertake the defence only of these provinces, or will you undertake the rule of them ? One of these courses must be chosen by her Majesty, and she and her Councillors must be the judges of the advantages and disadvantages of both plans. I pray that what they in their wisdom decide to be safest and most advantageous may succeed. Yet, if I may write freely what I think, I have my fears that mere alliance and defence, according to treaty, however welcome and useful to these parts at first, may, in the long run bring harm to both parties; a result which I think there is very little cause to fear if these provinces are joined with England under the sway of one prince. My reasons for this opinion you will learn from Mr. Davidson. God in his providence has brought things to such a point to-day that the Queen has granted to her a rare and surpassing opportunity of at once defending herself and her people, and preserving her neighbours from their most bitter enemies. Your office and still more your piety, will constrain you to give such counsel as shall tend to the glory of God's name, the defence of Christ's church, and the safety of the Queen and realm.— Leyden, 8 June, 1585.
Add. Endd. Latin. 1⅓ pp. [Holland II. 39.]
June 9. Segur-pardeilhan to Walsingham.
I pray you let her Majesty know that our enemies grow stronger every day, and that the King of Navarre is persuaded he will not be abandoned in this time of need. Until some foreign forces arrive, he must refrain from taking the field, but as soon as he shall see a certain succour, he will show that he has a great multitude of followers. Now is the time for her Majesty to prove her good will to us. If by any other means we could withstand the rage of the Leaguers we would not importune her, but we believe she cares for the preservation of this prince and of ourselves, and therefore apply freely to her, and beg you to lay before her a memoir which I send you, containing the number of Germans and Swiss of whom we have need and the money necessary for levying and bringing them into France. Less than this would be useless to us; 200,000 crowns are a small matter to her Majesty; and the King of Navarre has means to repay them, and to do her a thousand times more service. I pray you for a speedy resolution to aid us and that I may have means to go into Germany, to proclaim the Queen's goodness and seek means to crush our enemies. I send you the numbers of the forces of the King and of the Guisards.— London, Wednesday, 9 June [o.s.], 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XIV. 6.]
June 10/20. News from Divers Parts.
Prague, June 18, 1585.—The Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles have departed, the latter for Gratz, the former for Bavaria, to invest that Duke with the Golden Fleece. Archduke Ernest and the Sieur d'Arach have gone to Vienna, intending to arrive on the vigil of the feast of the Blessed Sacrament in order to be at the procession the following day.
Some days ago there arrived the Prince de Landi, and was well received by his Majesty, who lives with the usual guards and precautions, with a thousand suspicions, both of those inside his house and those outside it; yet he treats those of his house with as much affection as if they were all his brothers, to win them to him.
Cologne, 20 June.—We have no news from Antwerp this week, but letters of the 12th and 14th from the camp and Tournay say that the people there are much discontented with M. d'Aldegonde, to whose house there went about 3,000 persons, including women and children, exclaiming that he and his party were the cause of the ruin of Antwerp and all that country, and that he must arrange an agreement with the Prince of Parma, otherwise he and his companions would be very roughly handled. Moreover, that the chief burghers and most part of the artisans have sent three commissioners to his Highness, desiring an accord with him, although M. Aldegonde has somewhat heartened the people by saying that presently there would be aid from the Hollanders, who (as we hear from Middelburg) have now ready 150 vessels to attempt once more to open the river. From Brussels comes news that the Prince will shortly send to Antwerp the President of Artois, his chancellor, and two other personages, and that, on the other hand the magistrates are to send M. d'Aldegonde and Sieur Theodore de Werne to the camp as hostages, to make an accord, so that it is hoped the city will presently fall into the power of Spain. Some, however, say that Aldegonde will not go, but will try by some means to escape into Holland or England, when he sees roused against him the fury of the people of Antwerp, where is now the greatest poverty and lack of victuals; a piece of black bread of the size of a dollar selling for two pence.
It is said that the Prince's people have taken the great ship called by those of Antwerp La Fin de la guerre, and also the fort of Villanesca, which they have garrisoned with 160 Spanish soldiers; wherefore the soldiers of the States in some other fortresses seeing no aid appear, have gone over to the service of his Highness.
The magistrates of Mechlin, in consequence of the great dearth there, sent out great numbers of women, children and old people, who arriving at the Malcontents' camp, his Highness let the women and children go on their way, but turned back the old men, ordering them to tell the burgers to send out no more such, or they should all be hanged, as happened to those of Brussels; upon which the magistrates there sent deputies to make an agreement with his Highness.
Col. Verdugo having battered for the whole of two days with his great artillery a fort below Nimeguen, it was finally surrendered, the soldiers coming out with white wands in their hands.
It is said that the Malcontents, with some peasants, have taken the entrenchment called Grave, with the death of three hundred men, in which place was Col. Schenk, who has abandoned the Spanish party. He was wounded in the right arm, but escaped to Bommel.
The new bishop entered Bonn on the 14th. He was not at the marriage of the son of the Duke of Cleves, but sent ambassadors. The Palatine Duke Philip Louis was there with 200 horsemen in very good order. The soldiers of the said bishop are encamped between here and Bonn, doing great damage, to friends as much as to foes.
France.—Letters from Lyons confirm the dismantling of the citadel; and the governor, Mandelot, having gone out of the city at night time, was informed by two citizens sent to him, that he could not do so without sending them word, to which he replied haughtily that he did not acknowledge them for his superiors but that he was in charge there for the service of his Majesty. They answered that if a page of the King himself had been with him they would have to have testimony of his sincerity, from which it is understood that in the end, those who have the bridle of the city in their hands, will so act that the King will deprive him of his government.
Eight thousand Swisses from the Catholic cantons have passed through Arona (Rona) on Lago Maggiore safely, for the service of the Duke of Guise. The Duke of Epernon has presented 500,000 crowns to the King for his present needs. M. de la Valette, as Marshal in Piedmont, having given escort to the Swiss marching towards Paris, has gone into the Marquisate of Saluzzo, to see those parts again, and especially Carmagnola (Carmignuola), being suspicious, it may be, of the Spanish and Italians who were being enlisted in the State of Milan, the bruit being that they are for Flanders. In France, it is said, that between the King and the Leaguers there are 80,000 soldiers in arms, but that peace is concluded or on the point of being so.
Italian. 3 pp. [Newsletters XCV. 19.]