Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.
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APPENDIX TO PREFACE.
The interment of the most high, most puissant, and most excellent Princess Mary the First of that name, late Queen of England, Spain, France, both the Sicilies, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Milan, and Brabant, Countess of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol, who ordained to her executors and overseers as followeth, viz.:
It is to be remembered that the said Princess departed out of this transitory life and world on Tuesday in the morning between five and six of the clock, the xvij day of November in the year of our Lord God 1558, and in the vj year of Her Highness's reign, at her manor of S. James's, beyond the Charing Cross; who after her departure was perused by the Lords of the Council and Ladies of the realm, and after opened, cered, and tramelled in this manner.
First, her Grace's physicians, with the surgeons, did open her, and took out all her bowels with the heart, the which was afterwards coffered and buried sumptuously in the chapel; her heart being severally enclosed in a coffer covered with velvet bound with silver, which was also buried in the said chapel. And after that the surgeons had done their parts as aforesaid, then the clerk of the spicery with the officers of the chaundery came and cered the said royal corpse with linen cloth wax, and with a number of spices, very costly. After the which the said corpse was coffined, and then the sergeant plumber enclosed the same in lead, the which coffin was covered with purple velvet and laid over the seams with lace and nailed with gilt nails. The said noble corpse being thus cered and coffined was brought forth into the Privy Chamber and there remained in this order.
Item; the said Privy Chamber was hanged with black cloth and garnished with scutcheons of arms over buckram in fine gold of her arms and the King's in pall within the Garter, and some of her own arms within the Garter. And in the same chamber stood the corpse upon a table with two trestles covered with a pall of rich cloth of gold, and over the said pall were fastened vj scutcheons of sarsnet in fine gold of her arms within the Garter. And there were attendant every day, gentlewomen which did pray about the same with lights burning and watch every night with Dirige and Mass every day, and there remained till Saturday the tenth day of December that order was taken for the removing of the said corpse to the chapel, as followeth.
Item; this done aforesaid, the Archbishop of York, the Marquis of Winchester, the Earl of Shrewsbury, the Earl of Westmoreland, with others, were appointed to set to take order for the funeral and for the bringing down of the said corpse into the chapel. Who, having commission to do the same, sent for Garter principal King-of-Arms, for to understand the order and what was to be done; who declared unto them in all points the order and what was to be done therein. Then they took order for the furnishing of the foresaid chapel in manner following.
Item; it was hanged with black cloth and garnished with scutcheons in metal as aforesaid. The High Altar was trimmed with purple velvet, and in the Dean's place was hanged a canopy of purple velvet, and in the midst of the said chapel there was made a hearse four square, of xlvj great trappers, the which did weigh xx lb. weight the piece, being wrought with crowns and roses of the same; and beneath the same trappers a valence of sarsnet with the Queen's word written with letters of gold, and a fringe of gold about the same valence, and within that valence another valence of buckram with a fringe of black silk. The said hearse was richly set with pencils and scutcheons of arms in metal. There was under the said hearse a majesty of taffeta with a dome gilded, and four Evangelists in the four corners of the said majesty. The vj posts were covered with black velvet, and over every post a scutcheon of sarsenet in fine gold. The rail of the said hearse within was hanged with broad cloth and the ground within both rails covered with black. Also the outer side of the stalls, which was instead of the rails, on each side was hanged with black. At each end there was made a rail overthwart the said chapel, which was also hanged with black and garnished with scutcheons. Within the rails stood xv stools covered with fine black cloth, and over the same xv cushions of purple velvet, and under the feet, to kneel on, xv cushions of black cloth. At the upper end of the hearse without the rail there was made an altar, which stood on the left hand of the quire covered with purple velvet, which was richly garnished with ornaments of the Church. Which chapel being thus furnished, order was given to the sergeant of the vestry for the safe keeping of the same till such time as the said royal corpse was brought down into the said chapel.
Item; all things [being] in arediness as aforesaid, on Saturday the x day of December the corpse was brought down in this manner. Warning was given to all manner of estates having black to give their attendance the said day at Dirige, and about three of the clock, when all things were ready, the great chamber with the stairs and the court to the chapel door was hanged with black and garnished with scutcheons. Then the Lords and Ladies assembled together in the Chamber of Presence and Great Chamber, whereat all the officers of the house stood with torches, with divers of the Lords. Then the Bishop of Worcester, the Bishop of Chester, the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and the Bishop of Exeter, with the Queen's chapel went up to fetch the said corpse, and the chapel stood in the Great Chamber, and the Bishops went into the Chamber of Presence and censed the corpse and said diverse prayers; and after the said corpse was taken up by viij gentlemen and all the other sat in order, that is to say, first the Cross, and on the other side a white branch. Then the chapel, then all the gentlemen and squires with the chaplains of no dignity, and on each side went the foresaid officers with torches and the said guard also, then all Knights and after them Councillors, then Barons and Bishops not in pontificalibus, then the overseers, then Earls, then the executors, then the Kings-of-Arms, then the corpse covered with a rich pall of cloth of tissue; on each side the corpse two noblemen, viz., the Marquis of Winchester, the Earl of Westmoreland, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the Earl of Derby, which touched the corpse with their hands. Over the said corpse was borne a canopy of purple velvet with vj blue stars with gilt knops, borne by vj squires, viz., Mr. Garrat, Roger Manners, Leonard West, John Arundel, William Forster, and William Babington. Then the chief mourner, the Countess of Lennox, assisted by the Earl of Huntingdon and the Viscount Montague, her train borne by the Lady Catherine Hastings assisted by the Vice-Chamberlain, then the other mourners two and two, viz.:—
And after them other ladies and gentlemen, and after them followed the guard, and in this order went into the chapel, where the corpse was placed within the hearse, and the mourners on each side vij, and at the head the chief mourner, kneeling at the stools with cushions that are before named. Then the assistants with the executors and all the other Lords were placed, then the beads were bidden by Norroy King-of-Arms. Then the Dirige began, sung by the chaplains, executed by the Bishop of Worcester, and there was also Dirige said at the little altar before mentioned. The Lessons were read by the chiefest of the chaplains, and the three last by three Bishops, that is to say, the vij by the Bishop of Exeter, the viij by the Bishop of Chester, the ix by the Bishop of Worcester. And the said Bishop of Exeter censed the corpse, being in pontificalibus. The Bishops at the reading of the said Lessons had copes and mitres, but none had crosiers but the Bishop of Worcester, which did execute, and the Bishop of Exeter, which did assist him in doing the same. The Dirige done, the mourners went up again in order, the chiefest first, where they had a great supper.
Item; after supper there was a solemn watch, both of Lords, Ladies, [and] gentlewomen, which Ladies sat within the rails of the hearse. Also there did watch a herald and a pursuivant every night, which had their allowance in the Court of meat, fire, and all other things according to the order of the Court. Also there did watch certain of the guard with other of her servants, who did hold torches. Every night about x of the clock service began, which was said by one of the Queen's chaplains, and so continued in prayer all night till the morning that they were revived with Ladies, and when they were so revived they had their breakfast served according to their degrees. Then began the Mass of our Lady executed by the Bishop of Chester, the Lady Latimer chief mourner, and that done, the Mass of the Holy Ghost executed by the Bishop of Exeter, the Viscountess Montague chief mourner.
Item; on Sunday about ix of the clock the said noblemen and ladies mourners which were at the Dirige the night before, came forth of the Great Chamber in order on this manner. First, all gentlemen, squires, and Knights, then the officers of arms, then Barons, then Bishops, then viscounts, then the overseers, then the executors, then Garter, then the chief mourner, the Countess of Lennox, with the rest following, as at the Dirige the night before, and so proceeded into the chapel, where they were placed as before. Then Norroy King-of-Arms bade the prayer, then the quire began the Mass of Requiem. The said Mass was executed by the Bishop of Worcester, the Bishop of Exeter, and the Bishop of Chester assistants as Epistoler and Gospeller, with deacon and subdeacons, besides their assistants in copes. Then the Mass proceeded till the offering, at the which offering when the Bishops turned them the mourners turned them, the mourners stood up and the chief mourner came forth, having certain noblemen and the officers of arms before her, the rest of the mourners following, her train borne, went to the altar where there was laid by a gentleman usher a carpet and a cushion, on the which she kneeled, and having her offering delivered unto her, offered, and then rose up and returned to the hearse again, who after her obeisance made to the corpse, having but one officer of arms before her, without her train borne, offered for herself and returned. Then offered the two noblemen assistants, then the other mourners ij and ij, and after them the other Lords. The offering done, the Mass proceeded out to the end. The Mass done, they departed from the chapel in the same sort as they came thither up into the Chamber of Presence, where they had a great dinner, and all other officers there giving their attendance had great fare in like manner. The dinner done, they departed to their chamber for a season to repose themselves till three of the clock; then they all assembled in the Chamber of Presence, and when they were all met then they went to the Dirige in the said order as they went to the Mass of Requiem. And the said Dirige was executed by the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. At Magnificat the corpse was censed by the said Bishop and the Bishop of Exeter. The vij lesson was read by the Bishop of Carlisle, the viij by the Bishop of Exeter, the ix by the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, the which Bishops when they read the lessons had copes on their backs and mitres on their heads, and they that censed had their crosiers borne before them. The Dirige done, they departed from the chapel to the Chamber of Presence, where they had a great supper, and after supper the watch was charged and service said as on Saturday at nights in all points.
Item; on Monday in the morning the watch was revived as before on Sunday morning, and after the reviving the Bishop of Chester began the Mass of the Holy Ghost; that done, the Bishop of Carlisle began the Mass of our Lady. At the offering of these two Masses the chief mourner offered, and no more. The ij Masses done, the said mourners departed, and the great Estates mourners came down as on Sunday to the Mass of Requiem and there offered and used themselves as they did at the aforesaid Mass on Sunday, which Mass was executed by the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and after Mass returned to dinner, and after dinner about three of the clock they went to the Dirige as before on Sunday, the which was executed by the Bishop of Winchester. The vij lesson read by the Bishop of Worcester, the viij by the Bishop of Exeter, the ix by the Bishop of Winchester aforesaid, the corpse censed by the Bishops of Winchester and Worcester. The Dirige done they went to supper, and after supper the watch was charged as the night before in all points.
Item; on Tuesday the Mass of the Holy Ghost was said by the Bishop of Exeter with his assistants; the Mass of our Lady by the Bishop of Worcester with his assistants, the Mass of Requiem by the Bishop of Winchester, the two foresaid Bishops as Epistoler and Gospeller, with deacon and sub-deacon and their own assistants in copes. To the which Mass came the foresaid noble Ladies mourners as they did the day before, and offered in the same manner, and after Mass to dinner. When dinner was done the heralds gave order to all sorts of people having black to give their attendance and to keep their places as they were by them set in order; during the which time of their setting in order the corpse was brought forth and set into the chariot and the pall laid over the same and ahigh on the said pall lay the presentation. In the mean season the Lords and Ladies made them ready, and when they were ready they proceed[ed] to the Abbey of Westminster in this order following.
APPENDIX TO PREFACE.
Then the standard of the Dragon borne by Mr. Henry Poole, his horse trapped to the pastern with iiij scutcheons of arms in metal on buckram, and a chamfron on his horse, furred in a long gown, his hood on his head. On each side pursuivants of arms to see the proceedings kept.
Then followed the chariot drawn with v horses, the which were trapped with black velvet and on every horse iiij scutcheons of arms and a chamfron on the forehead, and on every horse a page of honour in a long gown, his hood on his head and a banner in his hand of several arms. And on each side of the said horses from the fore horse to the chariot there rode v gentlemen on horseback with their horses trapped and garnished with scutcheons as aforesaid, which bare great banners of damask of the Queen's descents painted in fine gold.
The chariot, covered with rich cloth of tissue, black, with fringe of gold, and within the same a majesty of taffeta with a dome and iiij Evangelists, and at either corner a banner of arms of damask, the corpse laid in the bottom of the same, and upon the corpse a pall of rich tissue, with a cross of white tissue, and over the same was laid the presentation, apparelled in robes of estate, with a crown on her head, the ball and sceptre in her hand, her fingers being richly set with rings, and in the same rich stones, her sceptre and crown garnished in like manner.
|The Countess of Oxford.||These iiij following on horse back, their horses trapped to the pasterns and led by one in a black coat.|
|The Countess of Worcester.|
|The Countess of Huntingdon.|
|The Countess of Bedford.|
Then the first chariot covered with black velvet and garnished with scutcheons of sarsnet in fine gold, drawn with iiij horses trapped with black cloth down to the pastern, with iiij pages riding on the same horses, with gowns and hoods, and in the same these ladies:—
|The Viscountess Montague.||In mourning apparel according to their estates, viz., mantles and their barbes above their chins.|
|The Lady Clinton.|
|The Lady Morley.|
|The Lady Dacres, of the South.|
|The Lady Latimer.||Their horses trapped to the pastern with black cloth, and led by one in a black coat.|
|The Lady Stourton.|
|The Lady Lumley.|
|The Lady Windsor.|
|The Lady Borough.||In mourning apparel according to their estates, viz., mantles and their barbes above their chins.|
|The Lady North.|
|The Lady Anne Grey.|
|The Lady Huntingdon's daughter.|
|The Lady Cornwallis.||Their horses trapped to the pastern with black cloth and led by one in a black coat; they in mourning apparel, viz., a mantle with a small train, their barbes on their chins.|
|The Lady Jerningham.|
|The Lady Peter.|
|Mrs. Clarenciulx.||In mourning apparel according to their degree, a gown without a train, and their barbes under their chins.|
Item; the body of the church from the west door to the quire door was hanged with black cloth and garnished with scutcheons. Also the quire was hanged within the stalls with black and garnished with scutcheons of paper in metal, and between the steps going up to the altar and the quire door there was made a very sumptuous hearse of viij square with nine principals double storied, having in lights to the number of a thousand and more, garnished with xxxvj dozen pencils of sarsnet beaten with gold and silver of the Queen's badges, the viij hatchments hanged double with valence of sarsnet written with letters of gold and fringed with silk fringe. On the same hearse many scutcheons in metal, with many small scutcheons of wax. On the upper part of the viij great posts stood viij Archangels of wax, and under them viij great scutcheons of arms within the garter of wax. All the eight square of the hearse was garnished and set with angels, mourners, and queens in their robes of estate, made of wax. Under the hearse was a great majesty of taffeta lined with buckram, and in the same was made a great dome of painter's work with four Evangelists of fine gold. Dieu et Mon Droit, and arms in the same made to stand in the midst of every square having a fringe of gold a quarter deep. About the said hearse above, under the said great scutcheons, went a valence of taffeta, a quarter of a yard deep, written with letters of gold, and within that a valence of black taffeta with a fringe of black silk quarter deep. The eight posts were covered with black velvet and over every post a scutcheon of sarcenet wrought with fine gold. The rail of the same was hanged on both sides with fine broad cloth, and set with scutcheons of buckram with fine gold. Within the said frame of the hearse the ground was also covered with black cotton, and without the said hearse, round about went a rail iiij foot and more from the said hearse, the which was hanged with black velvet on the utter side, and on the hind side with fine broad cloth. In the midst of the said rail against the High Altar was made a small altar, which was covered with velvet and richly garnished with plate. Between the hearse and the said rail the ground was covered with broad cloth, where there was set xv stools covered with fine broad cloth, and at every stool a cushion of purple velvet and a cushion of black velvet. Without that rail was a rail which was made for the keeping forth of the people, which was hanged also with black, and the ground between the said two rails was also covered with black cotton. All the which was had and received by the officers of arms.
Item; from the steps to the High Altar of a great height was hanged with black cloth and garnished with scutcheons, and the High Altar richly garnished with ornaments of the church. Also the way from the hearse to the chapel where the said noble Queen was buried was also hanged with black and garnished with scutcheons, and the said chapel was hanged and garnished with scutcheons in metal. The church with the chancel, the hearse and chapel thus furnished, the corpse was received at the west door in this manner.
Item; at the west door the corpse was taken out of the chariot and borne by xij gentlemen, and at the said door of the church stood the Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of London, and the Bishop of Worcester, who censed the corpse and cast holy water over the same. After that the corpse was brought up to the hearse and set under the same. Then the mourners were placed, the chief at the head, and on each side vij other, then the other noblemen, as the executors and overseers, with all the standards and banners, were placed and set in order. Then (fn. 1) . .)
Of your charity pray for the soul of the most puissant and excellent Princess Mary, by the grace of God late Queen of England, Spain, France, both the Sicilies, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Milan, and Brabant, Countess of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol. Pater Noster.
Item; this prayer was said at every Kyrie Eleeson, and at Magnificat and Benedictus. Then the Dirige began, executed by the foresaid three Bishops. The first Lesson was read by the Lord Abbot of Westminster, the ij by the Bishop of Carlisle, the third by the Bishop of Chester, the fourth by the Bishop of Exeter, the v by the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, the sixth by the Bishop of Worcester, the vij by the Bishop of Winchester, the viij by the Bishop of London, the ix by the Archbishop of York. At Magnificat and Benedictus two of the chiefest Bishops aforesaid censed the corpse thrice about. Then the Dirige proceeded out to the end, and when the Dirige was done the mourners departed from church to the Lord Abbot's house, where they had a void of spices and wine, after the which they departed for that night.
Item; in the morning about vj of the clock the mourners met at the said Abbot's house, and when they were ready they went to the Mass of our Lady, having gentlemen esquires, knights, the officers of arms, and others before them, and so proceeded to the hearse. And when they were placed, the Mass began, sung by the quire by note with organs, executed by the Bishop of London, with deacon, sub-deacon, and assistant. And at the offering time the chief mourner, assisted and her train borne, with the other mourners following her, offered, and no more, and then returned to the hearse again. Then the Mass proceeded to the end, and when the said Mass was done, Mass of the Holy Ghost began, executed by the Bishop of Winchester, with deacon, sub-deacon, and assistants, sung by the quire as aforesaid. And at the offering the said chief mourner offered as at the other Mass before. When the said Masses were done then the mourners departed in the said manner that they came to church to the said Lord Abbot's house, where there was prepared for them a breakfast, after the which they prepared themselves with all the other noble personages to go to the Mass of Requiem, who went to the same in this manner:
Then all other ladies and gentlewomen, ij and ij, and in this order proceeded to the hearse, where they were placed as at the Dirige the night before. The beads were bidden as at night before. Then the Mass of Requiem began, sung solemnly by the quire. Then came forth the Archbishop of York in pontificalibus and iiij other Bishops in like manner, ij as Epistoler and Gospeller, and ij as deacon and sub-deacon with their assistants. And so the Mass began and proceeded according to the order of the Church till the offering, which was done very solemnly, as hereafter shall appear.
First, the chief mourner, having before her the officers of household and the officers of arms, with the noblemen, her train borne and assisted, her assistants going with her, went to the altar and offered, the said offering being delivered to her by the Countess of Oxford, having a carpet and a cushion laid for her by a gentleman usher. And after she had offered, she returned to the hearse again, the other mourners following her ij and ij.
Item; when the said chief mourner was come to the hearse then she made obeissance to the corpse, and having officers of arms before her, went to offer for herself, without train borne, or assistants, and returned to the hearse again.
Then the man of arms, the Lord Sheffield, came in riding, armed at all pieces saving the head, with a pole-axe in his hand, and lighted at the quire door, and being led from thence to the High Altar by ij noblemen. offered the said pole-axe, and after went to the vestry and was there unarmed.
Item; the ladies stood up within the hearse, and the Lady North came forth to the rail at the head, unto whom Garter delivered two palls, who with the officers of arms before her, went about the hearse, and at the fee the said lady offered the said palls, the which were received by the foresaid Garter and laid on the feet of the corpse, across. And when she had so done she returned to the hearse again.
Item; the chief mourner having the officers of household and the officers of arms with the noblemen before her, being assisted by the ij assistants, her train borne and assisted, received of Garter at the head of the hearse vij palls, and went about the hearse and offered the same as the first lady did, and [they] were laid over the feet of the corpse in like manner as before.
Then the corpse was taken up by them that before bare the same and was carried to the chapel which was appointed for her burial, and there the foresaid Archbishop with the other Bishops said all the ceremonies. In the meantime of the saying of these prayers the iiij gentlemen ushers took away the pall, then the corpse was let into the grave and the Archbishop cast earth on the same.
Then came the noblemen, being officers, to the grave and brake their staves over their heads and cast the same into the grave; as the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Chamberlain, the Treasurer and Comptroller, the Sergeant Porter and the Gentlemen Ushers, their rods, and then they departed again to the other noblemen. And the burial ended, the Archbishop and the other Bishops did unrevest themselves. The ceremony of the burial done, as is aforesaid, of the said noble Queen (whose soul, God pardon!) the Noblemen and Prelates then there assembled, having with them the officers of arms, then came forth unto the face of the people, and Garter, principal King-of-Arms, assisted by ij Bishops, did declare the style of the Queen's Majesty in this manner.
"Of the most high, most puissant, and most excellent Princess, Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.; God save Queen Elizabeth." Unto the which word all the noblemen held up their hands and caps, and the trumpets standing in the Rood loft sounded; and this done all the estates and others departed to the Abbot's house to dinner.
Note; there was no dole given at the church, for that there should be no resort of poor people for the annoyance of the Estates, but there was money given by the Almoner for all the parishes in London and also in Westminster, and to every church also for saying of Dirige and Mass. And thus endeth the ceremony of the Interment of the said Queen Mary, [on] whose [soul] Jesu have mercy!
List of the Queen's Navy, 20 Feb. 1559–60. (fn. 2)