Elizabeth: September 1585, 1-10

Pages 1-16

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 20, September 1585-May 1586. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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September 1585, 1–10

Jacques Valcke to Davison.
Recommending the bearer, a friend of his own and brother-in-law of Roels, pensionary of Zeeland, to whom he has given letters to take into Zeeland, but who has found no opportunity of going thither. Begs Davison to allow him to cross thither with himself, and to make use of him if he can be any way serviceable.—[London.] Undated.
Add. Fr.. ½ p. [Holland III. 49.]
[Found in the volume of papers for October, 1585, but Davison left England about the last day of August.]
Sept. 1/11. Rossel to Walsingham.
[The letter is much damaged by damp, but the following appears to be its purport.]
The enemy is much dismayed, seeing the English forces arrive à la file, so greatly to the contentment of the people as is hardly credible, and not a town which is not willing to receive them. Those of Flushing are expecting as many as may be thought convenient. It is true that some brouillons would willingly keep some of the companies now there; this, however, is not thought fitting; but that the whole garrison must be English. Those of Utrecht have taken in nine hundred and are ready to take more in the future. Only those of Tregaut [Tergoes] have refused.
The Prince of parma has been making preparations for some exploit, but they are suspended, though urged by those of Bruges, to whom the said Prince has said that it was needful to provide for more urgent matters. Two facts retard his designs, one that his forces daily decrease (?); the other that he fears disturbances amongst his troops, because of the little pay they have had since the taking of Antwerp, from whence all expected great riches. Another reason may be the matter of provisions, which seem scarce in all parts in consequence of the barrenness of the year. The enemy will be greatly incommoded if the late prohibition of sending victuals is duly observed, but I do not find that it is or will be, unless her Majesty intervenes with her authority.
The Prince of Parma set up again the law in Antwerp on Sunday the 8th instant, new style. His troops are scattered in Flanders and Brabant, wherever they find means of getting victuals. The bridge over the river and the stockade are broken and taken away, and there is no hindrance to the passage, nor to any who desire to go or come, of our side, with all their goods; a thing which many think very suspicious. It is true they do not permit their return except by passport.—Middelburg, 11 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holland III. 50.]
Sept. 1. Colonel Morgan to the Privy Council.
On my departure from Antwerp, my determination was to repair into England, to certify your honours both of the siege and yielding up of Antwerp and of the disorders in my regiment during my being there, “and consequently to have justified myself of the false reports” which I hear have been made against me,leaving my cause to your wise judgment when the proceedings of some of my captains shall be made known to you. ”At my arrival here” [sic], I found Mr. Norreys with her Majesty's forces, who having declared to me her Majesty's and your honours' good opinion towards me, “I have accompanied the said Mr. Norreys our general hither into Holland,” where being likewise come Mr. Stephen Le Sieur, embarking for England, I send these rude lines, leaving to him to declare the state of these countries and my dealings with the Estates in Antwerp and my regiment, and hoping that you will interpret all my actions “to tend wholly” for the service of my prince and country.—
Delft, 1 September, 1585, stilo antiquo.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. III. 51.]
Sept. 1. Dr. van Holtz to Walsingham.
My letters have been delayed by a contrary wind, which has blown for two months. As autumn is approaching, and navigation is constantly becoming more risky, it would be well for the Queen to appoint one or two persons at Hamburg to whom I might give a full account of everything; and especially all the Acts which I obtained last year from the Imperial Chancery—Acts worthy to be seen and known by the Queen and her Council—and who might at the same time be ordered to attend my approaching wedding. The appointment of George Gilpin for this service would be most welcome to me.
If these favours are granted to me, I shall be prepared to carry on my good offices for England throughout Germany, but would rather do so from Hamburg than from Friesland, where the treatment of liberal minds is apt to be uncivil and sordid. Moreover, who would wish to live in such an atmosphere of fraternal dissension as exists there? And it is to be feared that the feud may be carried on indefinitely by the five sons of Count Edzard.
Also, the air there daily becomes more unhealthy, owing to the unceasing summer rains; the plague has broken out at Embden, and is prevalent throughout Friesland; the insecurity of the Ems grows worse and worse, and trade is disturbed everywhere in the country. The Malcontents attack the commerce of friends and foes impartially, not sparing even the cities of the Empire which have taken no part in their quarrels.
[Account of a late seizure of a thousand cloths bought from the English at Embden by a citizen of Hamburg.]
Merchants scarcely dare send their goods anywhere outside Embden either by land or sea. Plunder and rapine are carried on under the very eyes of Count Edzard. English shipping and trade in Friesland will not long be secure, any more than at Middelburg, especially as Antwerp is taken. And lastly, the English privilege of residence at Embden will expire towards the end of February next. I therefore advise that an agreement be concluded with the Hanse ambassadors, and that the English trade may be transferred to Hamburg.—Hamburg, I September, 1585.
Add. Endd. Latin. 4 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 17.]
Sept. 2. Stafford to Burghley.
I wrote a good while ago to your lordship in behalf of certain French merchants, named Peter Chambellan, Thomas le Gendre and others, especially recommended to me from the King, and who had his letters to her Majesty for obtaining execution of a sentence given by Dr. Lewis on their behalfs against one John Callis and others, who had spoiled them at sea. Their procurator when in England finding no such expedition as he desired, has since his return home made great complaint to the King's Council of the small justice done him, and has obtained his Majesty's letters patent for the arrest of our merchants' goods to the sum of 4,000l. sterling, with costs and interests; which the King has the more easily granted on receipt of M. Mauvissiere's letters, of which I send you a copy [not now with the letter], informing him that he could get no answer from her Majesty, “notwithstanding the great instance he made for it.” I sent to Pinard to stay the execution, which I have obtained for two months (as appears by the copies of the King's letters and the sentences given by his Council which I send you) beseeching you to send me direction how to deal in the cause. Paris, 2 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [France XIV. 78.]
“Extracts of Chambellan's process for his ship spoiled by Callice and Court Heggenbrood, September, 1585.”
The decree of the Council of State at Blois, 3 October, 1584— on request of Michel le Quesne, tutor of the children of Peter Chambellan, captain and master of the Saviour, spoiled by the English—granting letters of reprisal to the sum of 40,000 francs.
Decree of the Council of State at Paris, 7 December, 1584—finding that judgment had been passed in the English Court of Admiralty against the spoilers, bearing date June 6, 1578, and they condemned to pay 4,000l. sterling to the plaintiffs and their bodies imprisoned, but that they had been enlarged by means of Lord Charles Howard; and being certified from M. Mauvissière and M. la Mothe—Fénélon that the plaintiffs had never had execution of the said judgment—that the letters of reprisal should be granted, but suspended for two months that the Queen's ambassador might procure them satisfaction; and the King ordered them to be stayed till he received answer from the Queen, to whom he would write in that behalf.
“Order of the King's Privy Council, bearing date 16 August, 1585,” upon consideration of the premises, that the two former decrees should stand in force, and letters of reprisal be granted, but the execution respited for two months, and notice given to “ our ambassador there” that if the money was not satisfied in that time, they should proceed to the seizure of English goods, according to the letters of mart.
Dated in endorsementSept., 1585.” 1 p. [France XIV. 79.]
Sept. 2. Colonel John Norreys to Burghley.
Since my last of August 24, I have had conference with the burgomasters of Sluys, and find that the castle there is well furnished of men, but wants victuals, for which purpose they came to the Council established at Middelburg, by whose means I hope they are sufficiently provided. I did not think it good to send any of our English troops thither, seeing it needed more victuals than men, and also that our soldiers may be easily conveyed thither in case of need.
The States and whole country of Holland seem greatly comforted to hear from their deputies that all things are concluded in England according to their desire; so that, in the judgment of most, nothing is now more needful than that her Majesty should settle some order of government here, both for the better disposing of the treasure, of which they are said to have some store, “as for the setting up of a camp to keep the field,” to hinder the enemy's enterprises.
The forces and garrisons to be maintained here at her Majesty's charge may be very well supplied out of the troops already arrived, without any new levies in England; “so as the whole English troops being then at her Majesty's pay, the soldier, who already beginneth to repine that they receive not so good entertainment and so ready pay as the rest, shall find himself better contented and will be kept in much better discipline.”
I find these countries well stored with able horses for service and at better rates than if furnished out of England, and if I may have warrant to deal herein, “I trust my travail will not be misliked.”
The States mislike that their deputies have not treated for the transporting hither a thousand pioneers, who are most necessary for the service. They have accorded with me what pay they will make to the officers monthly, “and will allow for every man 13s. 4d., if the charge of the levy shall amount to so much.” I pray you to hasten them, for daily we shall have great need of their service.
“By reason our English troops . . . came in scattering manner, one after another, they have been placed here in several towns distant asunder” and no general muster could be made, but they are all to be at Utrecht in a few days, “which being done, I will send you a note thereof.”
Such of the nobility as are employed in the States' service will be more encouraged in their affection to her Majesty if she will write favourable letters to them. I have mentioned this to Mr. Secretary, naming to him Count Hohenloe, now general of the States' forces, and the Counts de Mœurs and William de Nassau, governors of Guelderland and of Friesland.
I have also asked him that the galley lying at Gillingham may be sent to remain “in the river towards Antwerp,” where it would do great service, and that he would take order at the port towns that no soldiers coming from hence without my passport might be suffered to pass unpunished; wherein I beseech your furtherance.—The Hague, 2 September, 1585, stilo Angliœ.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland III. 52.]
Sept. 2. Colonel Norreys to Walsingham.
[The first part of the letter is to the same effect as that to Lord Burghley, above.]
Aldegonde is still in Antwerp, “making great suit to be permitted to come hither, and withal offering to justify himself . . . but as yet no passport is granted unto him.”
I am informed by the captains that many of our soldiers steal over secretly into England. I pray you give orders that all without my passport may be stayed and punished; otherwise, we shall hardly keep them from disbanding.
Concerning the proceedings of the Prince of Parma since his entry into Antwerp, I refer you to this bearer [Le Sieur], who is come lately from the place.—The Hague, 2 September, 1585, stilo Angliœ.
Signed. Add. 2 ¼ pp. [Ibid. III. 53.]
Sept. 2. The Commissioners Of The States to Walsingham.
When, some days ago, we went to salute the Lord Treasurer, he showed us the draft of her Majesty's Declaration concerning her assistance to the Low Countries, and said that the Act would be despatched by your honour and signed in due form. We pray that this may be done, in order to advance the business and our return home.
We have just been informed that a considerable quantity of salt is lading here for Calais or the neighbouring places, and as it is not permitted to send salt into France, we fear that this may be for our enemies, and pray you to take order in the matter, as my Lord Treasurer informed us that her Majesty has already begun to provide against such abuses.
Signed by Jan vander Does; Jacques Valcke; Paul Buys; H. Aysmall.—London, 2 September, 1585, stilo veteri.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland III. 54.]
Sept. 3. The Queen to the States General.
Since the departure of your deputies, we have determined, for the support of your affairs in their present dangerous state to grant you a succour of 5,000 foot and 1,000 horse, to be entertained at our own charge during the troubles; and to send you a nobleman of quality, not only to take the charge of our said forces, but to assist you by his advice and counsel in the government, as you have required of us; and for your greater assurance of the accomplishment thereof, have ordered that two of our Council, to whom we have already given power and commission to treat with your deputies, shall sign and seal an Act by which the draft of the treaty is now on our part ratified and confirmed, which obliges you also reciprocally to accomplish the offers on your part therein contained. Which Act we have sent to Mr. Davison, our ambassador there, with orders to deliver it to you, provided that, at the same time, you put into our hands the towns of Flushing and La Briele, according to the tenor of the said treaty; as by this present we desire and require. having authorised our said ambassador to receive them in our name, and to protect them with such garrison as General Norris shall ordain by our commandment, until we shall despatch some other well qualified persons to take charge thereof.
Copy. Endd. with date. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. III. 55.]
Sept. 4. Davison to Walsingham.
Yesterday afternoon I arrived at Flushing, but stayed not above two or three hours to visit the Princess and confer with the magistrates, because I heard that Count Maurice and the Council of State were to depart hence as to-day towards Holland, “and thought it not convenient to let them pass unsaluted.” This morning I sent to ask the Count when I might wait on him, “who, being then in Council, immediately after his rising prevented my duty and came into my lodgings.” Having presented her Majesty's letters, I imparted to him the substance of what I had in charge, adding such testimony of her Majesty's favour to him as I thought convenient, to encourage him to join and concur with the rest, “especially in the case of Flushing, because of the interest he pretendeth. Wherein I cannot find that he is backward or an enemy, albeit he note some lack in the commissioners, that have in their treaty set down no words of provision touching his right.”
So soon as he departed, the Council of State resorted to me, and immediately after, the States of Zeeland,” to congratulate my welcome and to feel what good comfort I brought unto them; wherein I left them very well satisfied; who on their behalf assured me that her Majesty should find them ready in all dutiful sort to conform themselves to her good pleasure.”
After this, I sent for such of them as I thought could best inform me of the state of things, especially in the point of caution for the towns demanded; wherein both by the magistrates of Flushing, the Council and the deputies of the States here, “I am borne in hand there will be no difficulty,” if her Majesty send such a governor as may be grateful to them. The deputies returned have given some hope of Sir Philip Sydney, whom they have greatly recommended, and if her Majesty send him, I think the town will without any difficulty be delivered into her hands. It behoves her to decide the sooner, because some her are working underhand to draw hither St. Aldegonde, on pretext of his justification, hitherto denied him; the “sequel” being suspected if he obtained it before things were well settled with her Majesty, considering the presumption that his journey tends to the propounding of some general reconcilement. In the matter of the Brill, I expect to find them no less ready than here to submit to her Majesty's pleasure.
The loss of Antwerp has wrought the less alteration in respect of her Majesty's succours, which alone have prevented a very dangerous one; “albeit they take themselves not yet sufficiently assured till they see their confused government reformed by her care and authority.”
The General Estates are now assembled in Holland, and the deputies of Zeeland go thither next week with their resolutions, so as I hope to have no long stay for my answer.
The enemy has attempted nothing since the loss of Antwerp, but we hear that he now makes head towards Ostend, where it seems by letters from Mr. Edward Norrys that they expect a siege. Others think he will next attempt Barrow. He has provided sixty or eighty vessels and will suffer none to come from Antwerp without caution for their return, which breeds suspicion that he has some enterprise upon these islands, and especially, I fear, upon Tregose, where Temple and other suspected instruments have been busy to prepare the way for him.
Mr. Norreys is to pass his musters at Utrecht within two or three days.—Middelburg, 4 September, 1585.
Postscript.—“Here is some bruit of her Majesty's intention to send Sir John Smyth to the Prince of parma, whereof some bad instruments seek to make their advantage.” Some of good judgment here—considering in what terms things stand between her Majesty and them, and especially that they are to commit the keys of their estate into her hands—could wish that she forbore to give so public matter of jealousy, whereof those maliciously affected might take advantage; and that in regard to her own honour, it might “be very well spared towards him whose master hath denied audience so lately to her ambassador.” Wherein they have entreated me to write a line or two to you, as a matter worth the considering.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 ½ pp. [Holland III. 56.]
Sept. 4. Walsingham to Davison.
Desiring him to confer with Mr. Norreys how, after the expiration of the three month, the 4,000 men already in her Majesty's pay may be made up to 5,000 from the voluntary men in the States' pay without any new levy “here,” and also how some of the horses may be furnished there, as only about five hundred can be sent over. The lords wish the Act to be “interchangeably signed” by the deputies here, who like very well of it, but may make some difficulty to sign it until they hear from the rest of their colleagues, from whom they are now divided; “unto whom I suppose they will send it, or else I mean to do it myself.”—Nonsuch, 4 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. III. 57.]
Sept. 5. Walsingham to Davison.
“What is her Majesty's pleasure to be done for the possession of the two towns, her own letters can best show you. I doubt greatly until there shall be more forwardness here in the sending over of a nobleman, and that they shall know the persons to whom the said towns shall be committed, they will make no delivery.
“I see not her Majesty disposed to use the service of the Earl of Leicester. There is great offence taken in the carrying down of his lady.
“I suppose the lot of the governor will light on the Lord Graye. I would to God the ability of his purse were answerable to his sufficiency otherwise.
“Here we are but luke-warm, and yet from sundry quarters we hear of great practices against this poor crown. The revolt of Scotland is greatly feared and that out of hand.”—At the Court, 5 September, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. III. 58.]
[This letter is quoted by Motley (United Netherlands i. 317). On p. 318, l.. 15, “luke-warm” is misprinted “book-worms.”]
Sept. 5/15. G. De Prounincq “dit de Deventer” (fn. 1) to Davison.
Commending himself humbly to his lordship, and repeating his thanks to God, the Queen of England and his honour for the success of their cause, towards the fulfilment whereof he can only offer his small services, truly very small, as God has not given him either the good fortune or the means to prove his affection.—Utrecht, 15 September, 1585, stylo novo.
Add. Fr. ¾ p. [Holland III. 59.]
Sept. 5. The King of Denmark to the Queen.
A letter, the principal points of which are given in the “Extracts” (p. 14 below). With postscript saying that when Mr. Bodley brought a little book in the English language, giving an account of the treason plotted against her Majesty, he [the King] could not but have it translated into German, which being now sent to press will shortly be published, and by which it will be plain to all from what great and present danger our Lord God has mercifully delivered her Majesty.—Vordingborg (Wardenburga), 5 September, '85.
Signed. Add. Endd. Latin. 3 pp. [Denmark I. 58.]
Copy of the above.
Latin. 4 ¼ pp. [Ibid. I. 59.]
Sept. 6/16. Power of attorney from Michell de Castelnau, Lord of Mauvissière &c., to John Florio of London, gentleman, to act as his procurator in all things, with power, if necessary, to appoint a deputy. Signed by Mauvissière and by Cornelius Ipirink, public notary.—London, 16 September, 1585.
Below, in Mauvissière's hand: Note that this is left with the Sr. Jehan Florio that he may be able to reply to such as may demand anything after his (Mauvissière's) departure, who owes nothing at all except to a baker.
Parchment. The deed in English. [France XIV. 80.]
Sept. 6/16. Certificate by Guillaume de l'Aubespine, Baron de Chasteauneuf &c., that upon the good report made to him of Jehan Florio, a native of England, and on the Sieur de Mauvissière's testimony of the good and continual service rendered by him to the legation, he has accepted and taken the said Florio into his ordinary service and avows him as one of his servants, even though perchance he may not be actually resident in the house, from which he is dispensed both on account of his household (menage) and of the small means there are to lodge him fittingly in the said house.—London, 16 September, 1585. Signed and sealed.
Fr. ½ sheet. [Ibid. XIV. 81.]
Sept. 6. Davison to Walsingham.
I have received a letter from the Count of Neuenaar in favour of one Bertrand Combes, a Frenchman, bound into England with letters from the said Count to your honour and others. “The man has confessed to me that he was solicited to take upon him some enterprise against her Majesty's person, which, as he saith, he excused, but being moved to the like against the King of Navarre undertook it. He hath been heretofore an intelligencer to the Prince of Orange, and was taken in the last wars of Cologne prisoner in the town of Bonn; and because the time is such, and the life of her Majesty a jewel so precious as would require good watch and circumspection how far such a companion were trusted, how innocent soever of the intent,” I send you this warning, wishing he may only have access to yourself, be well used and returned with all speed, “our country being an unfit harbour for such guests.”—6 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland III. 60.]
Sept. 6. Commission from Colonel General John Norreys. Whereas it is thought expedient and needful at this time that no English soldier, either horse or foot, should serve under any colonel or captain of any nation other than English; to which end his Excellency, with the advice of the Council of State, has accorded and published an Act to the same effect; this is to give all men to know that he has appointed Barnabie Palmer, gent. (a man well known to him for his ability to do service and for his long experience in these counties) to assemble and gather together all English soldiers serving in Friesland or Over Yssel and to press them for her Majesty's service, requiring them to repair to such place as be shall assign to them; that having passed muster they may be disposed of as shall be thought best for her Majesty's service.—The Hague, 6 September, 1585.
With note that the like commission was directed to Daniel Chadsey for Guelderland and the county of Zutphen.
Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. III. 61.]
Sept. 7/17 Mauvissière to Burghley.
I cannot sufficiently thank you for all the kindnesses I have received from you, as from my father, during my long residence with her Majesty, where if I have deserved some little praise for having preserved peace and friendship with the King my master, it was what was my duty to do, and in part the result of your good advice and prudence, which I shall ever have in remembrance, honouring you as a Nestor of my time. I pray you to keep me always in her Majesty's good graces, and to thank her humbly for the noble present of silver plate which she has been pleased to make me and which deserves rather to be in some fine palace or rich mansion than in mine, which I shall have to make in a tent or under a bush, since I am stripped of my government where I had worked for twenty-three years, and thought to spend my old age in honour and safety. If it had been lost by my fault I should have regretted it less. I should have been glad to bestow there her Majesty's beautiful gifts, which I hope to leave to my children as a perpetual souvenir of the honour which father, mother and children have received from so great a princess.
I know not, Monsieur, how I can thank you enough for your hospitality and extreme kindness, all unmerited, or for the two beautiful horses you have sent me, one for war, the other for peace. I shall keep them as a perpetual remembrance, and thank you for them if I can in some other way, either to you or yours.—London, 17 September, 1585.
My wife and I humbly salute Madame the Countess, Madame de Vere and Messieurs de Cecil, your dear children.
Add. Endd. by Burghley, “Monsieur Malvasyre, after that he had been at Theobald's.” Fr. 2 pp. [France XIV. 82.]
Sept. 7/17. Pierre De Villiers to Walsingham.
Mr. Steven [le Sieur]'s arrival has been very opportune, both releasing me from writing a long letter and enabling me to say to him things which I did not wish to write. As to M. de St. Aldegonde, there are some things in which I do not desire to excuse him, but there are many that I know to be false, and wherein they do him much wrong. In any case, they ought not to refuse to hear him, and if they continue in this determination, much evil will come of it, if he should so far forget God as to do what is contrary to his duty, which I do not believe, although I know his poverty to be so great that I cannot tell what will become of him, which greatly moves my pity. I pray you and all good men not to take it ill if I love my friends in their adversity. I fear moreover that many of this country may receive harm thereby, if he defends himself in writing, as he sends word to his son that he will do.
As to what you write to me of his lack of discretion in discourse on religion, forgive me if I do not understand it, for in this treaty I do not see that any such discussion occurs; but I know he has not hitherto approved those who against their oath and promise have done many things without order or authority, and has told them that God would punish them for it. For the rest, I pray you at least to do him no prejudice. I have reason more than any other to be dissatisfied with him, but at this hour we must rather aid him to set himself straight again.—Flushing, 17 September, 1585.
Postscript.—In my haste I have forgotten the chief thing, viz. that M. Segur, passing by this town, gave me letters from the King of Navarre, desiring me to counsel him as regards his business in this country and Germany. I advised him, seeing the terms we are in of treating with her Majesty, to go forward without saying anything to the States, for if they agreed with her Majesty, treating with her he would treat for both; that, moreover, they would give him no answer, and finally that the King of Navarre should not enterprise anything save by her advice. He believed me; nevertheless he has left me letters to show Prince Maurice of Nassau and the Council what he has in charge, and has also left me his instructions signed. The principal is, to demand a succour of ships to aid Rochelle and for other matters which might present themselves; being assured, as he said, that her Majesty would do the same. But the business with her Majesty being as it is, I do not think it yet advisable to make any overture (as I wrote to M. de Merle), but rather that the said M. de Merle should pray her Majesty to help us and also write to the States of Holland and Zeeland asking for their aid. All which I write to you under your correction and better advice.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holland III. 62.]
Sept. 7. Dr. John Schulte to Burghley.
I thank you for your private letter to me, on comparing which with the joint letter to me and my colleagues, and with an unsealed and unsigned letter delivered by Robert Beale, I gather that the whole question amounts to this:—That the Queen and her commissioners do not consider themselves free to enter into any further discussion with the Hanse Commissioners until the Residence at Hamburg has been finally restored to the Merchants Adventurers, and in fact that the decrees promulgated in England after the expulsion of the English from Hamburg will not be abrogated until then; but that, when the said residence has been restored, the Hanse merchants will be admitted to the same freedom of commerce as they enjoyed some years ago; pending a broader settlement of the question at some suitable future time.
This attitude is diametrically opposed to that taken up by the Hanse Towns, who consider that the abrogation of the decrees and the Residence at Hamburg must be treated separately. [Arguments adduced :—(1) The Hanse towns decreed the abolition of their decrees in 1581, and the English should do likewise. (2) The sense of the 2nd article of the messages given to the Alderman.]
The Hanse towns are determined on no account to grant the Residence at Hamburg until either their ancient rights in England are restored, or at least they are allowed to enjoy as full rights in England as the English desire to have at Hamburg.
I fear that this fundamental difference of opinion may ruin the negotiation. The whole matter should therefore be very seriously considered. If only the English will abrogate their decrees, and enter upon a careful revision of the rights of the Hanse towns, I doubt not but that their action will have such an effect on the minds of the said towns, that any favour they desire in Hamburg will be granted.
And also I would inquire concerning the additional number of cloths to be allowed to be imported by the Hanse towns, the hope whereof has been held out to us, but nothing definite mentioned, Friendship between England and the Hanse towns is almost a necessity; as the former, both in time of peace and war cannot expect from any other source more help in commerce and defence than she can get from the latter; and for my own part I protest that I shall always, so far as my oath to the city of Hamburg allows, be a friend to this realm and desirous to do all service to her Majesty and to you, her honourable lords, the props and pillars of the kingdom.—London, 7 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. Latin. 6 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II, 18.]
Sept. 7. Harborne to Walsingham.
My silence this last month proceeded of sickness, to which, since my last coming hither, I have been often subject for want of wonted exercise. I trust you will give order for my return, the time appointed me being now expired.
Since my last, of July 15, advices have come of Osmond's proceedings, who, finding himself at Esrome with 800,000 men or more, has sent 200,000 of them under Hassan Bassa towards Derbent, to keep the tributary Georgians in obedience and to restrain those not yet subdued from succouring the Persians, or making sudden invasions upon the camp, as they often did in the time of Ferat Bassa.
This Hassan is the son of the late Mahomed Bassa, Viceroy, “slain in the Divan, sitting in audience, by a device, six years past; and for his good service with one Cigala, a renegate of Sicily (taken with his father, a valiant captain deceased here in captivity) be both made the year passed Bassa Viziers of the Bench.” Cigala is sent with 100,000 men to the confines of Tartary, to “foresee” the proceedings of the two Tartarian brothers, that the main army of Osmond may rest without fear of these two ancient enemies.
Osmond went from Esrome the beginning of June to assail the Persians in Tiflis, but being two days' journey on his way, all his private provision of victuals for himself and his was taken forcibly from him by his spahis and janissaries, “constrained with penury” by the Persian policy of leaving his country clean bare of whatever might relieve man or beast; wherefore Osmond maugre himself returned to winter at Esrome, frustrate of means to attempt any worthy exploit. Such is their famine that a bushel of barley in his camp is worth 30s. and not to be had, wherefore is to be doubted that the ancient spahis and janissaries, not able to support such a charge of their small pay, must leave him and return hither.
This great oversight of not making due provision for so huge an army some attribute to Osmond, but most to the chief officers here, who have not performed what they promised him at his departure, but rather maliciously envying his glory, by this means seek to discredit him and procure his overthrow.
In my judgment, unless this prince make peace with the Persians, which some say Osmond “now procureth,” he is like to be driven out of that already conquered and hereafter to be more troubled than ever formerly; having exhausted most part of his treasure and destroyed great parts of his countries in Asia, which the needy soldiers have utterly spoiled.
“Moreover, these eight years of continual wars causeth both the spahis and janissaries wearied to murmur; . . . their pay of aspers nothing increased and the ducat of gold and dollar mounted in price to half or more than the accustomed value; but especially those of the roba longa cry out openly against the King, alleging that the Persians, of their law and circumcision, ought not to be thus persecuted as an enemy,” but any differences between them decided by learning, not by the sword, which should be used only against the Christian, their utter enemy, as his predecessors had done, to their great glory.
From Christendom “by means” of the death of the Duke of Venice, no couriers have come these two months.—Rapamat near Pera, 7 September, 1585.
Decipher. Endd. 1 ½ pp. [Turkey I. 44.]
Original of the above, in cipher.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. I. 45.]
Sept. 8. Wilsingham to Davison.
Desiring him to stay the delivery of the Act for ratifying the treaty until he hears further, as there are a few words omitted in it “necessary to be supplied.” Hopes to send directions by the next post.—Court at Nonsuch, 8 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland III. 63.]
Draft by Walsingham for the above, somewhat differently worded.
[Ibid. III. 64.]
Sept. 4–8. “Extracts” of the King Of Denmark's Letters.
Sept. 4. “Ready to do anything her Majesty desireth at his hands. Having written according to her request to the princes of the Empire to have care of the Church of France and King of Navarre, receiveth from two of the chiefest answer nothing to his desire. Sendeth the copies of their letters to him and of his to them. [This letter is not amongst the State Papers.]
Sept. 5. “Glad by her Majesty's letters sent by Kirkman to hear of her good health, wherein he so rejoiceth as one that setteth up his rest in her Majesty's goodwill towards him.
“Thanks for his hounds, and to the Earl of Leicester for making choice of so good to be sent from her.
“Received Kirkman into his Court only for that he was an Englishman, which he would never have done in case he had known him to have offended her Majesty as he did.
“Kirkman delivered not but concealed her Majesty's letters to the Chancellor there, which concerned himself.
“Hath committed Kirkman, and sent a ship now hither only to know her Majesty's pleasure, whether she will have him sent over hither or send anybody thither to prosecute against him; where that shall be done her Majesty will.
Sept. 8. “Having received the Landgrave [William's] answer touching the French causes, which is good, sendeth the copy thereof.
“The Landgrave and Casimir concur in persuading the best they can the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg.
“The others to whom he writ will follow that which in this cause shall be agreed on by the greater part of a general convention or diet.”
Endd. 1 p. [Denmark I. 60.]
Sept. 8. The King Of Denmark to the Queen.
A letter of which the substance is given above.—Vordingborg, 8 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. Latin. 1 ½ pp. [Ibid. I. 61.]
Sept. 10. Jacques Valcke to Walsingham.
The letter which Mr. Gilpin will deliver to you is an advertisement just received from Flushing, which I am sending to Messrs. Buys and Ortel, to communicate to your lordships; but in case they have left the Court, I pray you to open and read it, and to promote the matters therein contained by the kindness which you have always used in that regard. Having taken medicine, and my colleagues being at Court, who will do it very well, I beg you to pardon me for not coming myself.—London, 10 September, 1585, stilo Angliœ.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland III. 65.]
Sept. 10. Count Newenar to Davison.
Having heard of your return, (fn. 2) I send you this short letter to say how greatly I should like to spend half a day with you, but for the present am prevented by the arrival of her Majesty's troops in my governments; wherefore I pray you to excuse me and to give favourable audience to M. Clut, governor of Nuys, and my Councillor Werestein, concerning the dispute between the Elector of Cologne and myself. I also pray you to commend me to her Majesty, in respect to whom I continue in the service of these provinces so sadly troubled, with the firm hope that by her embracing of their affairs, all will be made right again.—Utrecht, 10 September, 1585, stylo consueto.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. III. 66.]
Sept. 10/20. Count Maurice Of Nassau to the Queen.
“Si j'ai oncques eu occasion de louer et remercier nostre Seigneur Dieu pour les biens et benefices de luy reçeus, je doibs confesser librement que ç'a este lors que recepvant en toute humilite les letters dont il a pleu a vostre Majesté m'honorer le xiij. du mois passé, j'ai clerement cognu que le grandt desastre par le deplorable trespas de feu de tres heureuse memoire Monseigneur et pere, a moi et a mes autres freres et soeurs advenu, n'ait pas seulement en riens alteré la debonnairete et faveur tres grande que par tant de bons effets il at toujours pleu a votre Majesté demonstrer a feu Monseigneur et pere, mais que vostre Majesté se souvenant encore de la sincere et entiere devotion qu'il avoit au treshumble service d'icelle, daigneroit par sa clemence continuer aussy vers moy l'honneur de si grandes faveurs, faisant vostre Majesté en cecy d'autant plus paroistre sa magnanimite et bonte naturelle que parmy si grans et tres importans affaires dont sans aucun relasche vostre Majesté se trouve continuellement empeschee, il luy plaist trouver bon que suivant le commandement q'incontinent apres la mort de feu Monseigneur et pere il pleust a Messieurs les Estats Generaux me faire, je me suis employe pour leur service, estant bien marry que mes actions ne peuvent correspondre a l'ardent desir que j'ay de faire tres humble service a vostre Majesté et ces pays, en quoy touteffois je veulx esperer que mon bas eage me servira d'excuse, et que cependant encore que je me trouve foible et debile pour la charge a moy imposee, dieu touteffois me fera la grace (ce que je luy prie aussy de bon cœoeur) qu'au maniement d'icelle, et l'execution des commandemens dont je pourray jamais estre honnore de vostre Majesté, je m'efforceray a faire que ma diligence et sincere intention supplient au deffaut des autres parties qui en moy seroient requises et necessaires pour deuement m'acquitter de mon debvoir au bon contentement de vostre Majesté, et suyvant les obligations infinies que j'en ay, qui s'accroissent de plus en plus pour luy faire toute ma vie tres humble service, suppliant dieu m'en donner les moyens et a vostre Majesté qu'il luy playse croire que pour luy en faire par les effects telleu preuve que son service requiere, je espargneray jamais ma vie ni rien qui en depende. . . . —La Haye, 20 September, 1585.
Holograph. 2 pp. [Holland III. 67.]
[The substance of this is given by Motley, United Netherlands i., p. 325, but the date is wrongly given as October 10–20.]
Sept. 10. Walsingham to Davison.
[Concerning St. Aldegonde. Begins: “I hope St. Aldegonde's repair into Zeeland is to no evil purpose,” but the first page is too much damaged by damp to be intelligible.]
Refers Davison for news to “this gentleman,” the bearer, whom he begs may be furnished with money if he needs it; for which repayment will be duly made.—The Court, 10 September, 1585.
Holograph. Add. 2 pp. [Ibid. III. 68.]


  • 1. Made burgomaster of Utrecht by Leicester. He always signs as here, but the English usually called him only “M. de Deventer.
  • 2. Davison landed at Flushing on Sept. 3–13; which shows that by “usual style” Neuenaar means old style.