Elizabeth: January 1586, 26-31

Pages 322-345

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 20, September 1585-May 1586. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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January 1586, 26–31

Jan. 26. Feb. 5.
Commission from the Earl of Leicester to “John Norreis, Baron, Lord President of Munster,” to be colonel general of all the English footmen in the United Provinces.—The Hague, 5 February, 1586.
Copy. Endd.pp. [Ibid. VI. 52.]
Jan. 26. The Lords of the Council to Leicester.
“Her Majesty hath been made acquainted with your lordship's late letters sent to me, the Secretary, in what sort on New Year's day last the States there by the mouth of Leoninus, made offer to your lordship to give you the absolute authority of government of their provinces upon sundry reasons by them alleged, and that your lordship should have thanked them in her name for the same, and alleged that there was no such thing contained in the contract, and therefore you could not accept it, nor knew how to answer the same. Hereupon her Majesty hath showed herself much offended with this proceeding, not allowing your giving of them thanks for the same, but findeth it strange that you did not plainly declare to them that they did well know by their Commissioners, how often and at all times her Majesty had refused to have any for her to take nay such government there, and that she had so always answered them peremptorily, and therefore there might be some suspicion conceived, it being known tot hem that she would never consent thereto, that by the offering on their part and refusal on her part, some further mischief might be secretly hidden by some odd devise to the hurt of the cause.
But in that your lordship did not flatly say to them, that yourself did know her Majesty's mind therein, that she never meant in this sort to take the absolute government, her Majesty is offended, considering as she saith, none knew her determination therein better than yourself, whom at your going from hence, she did peremptorily charge not to accept any such title and office upon you, and therefore her straight commandment now is that you shall not accept the same upon you, for she will never assent thereto, nor will avow you with any such title. And so you must let them know, that notwithstanding she hath heretofore and now also doth thus peremptorily for divers great considerations forbear to accept this their offer, yet considering they do allege sundry reasons that move them hereunto, for sundry great disorders happening, for lack of some one of credit to have power to direct their causes in other sort than they are, as their captains, their men of war, their contributions of money, their distribution thereof for the benefit of the public ; for these causes, her Majesty was always most willing that your lordship should, as a person authorized by her Majesty, and that upon free made to her, intromit yourself into the intermeddling with all their martial causes, and should require to be made participant of all that might any wise belong thereto, as what means they had to maintain their martial forces both by land and sea, how their collections were to be made, and to what sums the same should monthly amount unto, what forces they had, and where they were employed, and wherein so ever your lordship should upon your consideration, upon consultation and conference with them, find and judge anything meet to be in any part reformed, as in now choice of better officers for their contribution or in better employment thereof, or in placing of captains or governors of towns or any such like tending to their strength and defence of the country, her Majesty's meaning was and is, that they should yield to follow your advice and obey your direction and so she saith, the Commissioners did promise, that you as her lieutenant there should find the States and the Council of States willing and assenting thereto ; and in this sort her Majesty saith here mind was that by your direction, as her lieutenant, without taking any title to be their officer, they should be ruled, and the disorders reformed. In this sort we have at some length by her Majesty's commandment declared her pleasure to your lordship according to her speeches uttered to us, with very great earnestness, which she hath both declared at great length, and most straitly charged and commanded us to write in this sort unto your lordship.
Draft by Burghley. Endd. “26 Jan., 1585. M[inute of a] letter signed by the Lord Treasurer, Lord Chamberlain, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, Mr. Secretary. To the Earl of Leicester.” 31/2 pp. [Holland VI. 53.]
[Partly quoted by Motley (with some variations) United Netherlands, i, 390 ; where, however, the letter is ascribed to Burghley only.]
Fair copy of the above.—The Court at Greenwich, 26 January.
Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. VI. 54.]
Jan. 26. Thomas Wylsford (fn. 1) to Walsingham.
Because of the sudden departure of this bringer, I send you the copy of the letter I wrote to his Excellency of our actions here [see p. 321 above]. I understand that my lord governor of Flushing is made governor of all the isles of these parts. I hope on his return, the service may go forward.
I dare not write what weak estate our companies are in. I fear “the vile report of those that return hence” is the reason that none are willing to come out to supply them. I beseech you to remember the pieces I wrote for. “Thus in haste I end,” 26 January.
Postscript.—Since the cutting off of the trade from Holland and Zeeland and our good success in taking the convoys of the enemy, I than God we have victuals very plentiful, so that as yet we may spare England's relief. If I had two small men of war, I would scour the Dunkirkers.
“I have had much ado with our English cannoneers, being Thames (Tems) men, that have been daintily brought up and fed, and lain in beds. This alteration is strange, to the end the Master gunner began to rear a mutiny with his company. He will mend I hope, or else it will cost him dear. I have borne this fault because he is, as I hear, a very good cannoneer. Too well using of some men will harm them, and so, I doubt, mine did him.”
There is one John Palme of Flushing and also one in a boat called Doof Tonnekin of Ostend, now either in Sandwich or London to lade beer, who have been twice at Newport with victuals. If they were over here to be hanged (if they may not be hanged in England) it would do good service.
There is a Boote or Boyer (fn. 2) of Browershaven now at Newcastle lading coal, that has been at Newport divers times with victuals. At Margate in 'Tennet' there is a bogening officer who lets them take in their ladings. One of this town went purposely thither, and brought back but two tuns of beer and no cocket. “I much suspected him, but as yet I cannot bolt out any matter.”
If we could cut off victuals from the enemy, we should utterly undo him, and though I say it myself, it was never better done than of late here; and “if the loss of men were not so precious as it is to us, I would cut them a little better.” Should my band come over with my kinsman, I will venture out fifty or sixty more.
If I had 2,000 men and my port pieces mounted, “I would have the forts and Bruges, or else I would force all the Prince of Parma's power to come from my lord to the rescue of it, and then his Excellency might do what he would. . . . I have not a horse left here. If this matter might be followed now, we should enter into the bowels of them, which omitted, it had been better never begun.”
On the dorso, entries by the postmasters:
Ostend, 27 Jan., at night.
Sandwich, 29 Jan., 6 in the morning.
Canterbury, ibid, past 7 in the evening.
Sittingbourne [30 Jan.], 10 in the morning.
Rochester, 1 in the afternoon.
Dartford, 5 in the afternoon.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holland VI. 55.]
Jan. 27. Sir Thomas Cecil to Burghley.
I hope my letters from Middelburg have come to your hands. Next day I went to Armue, (fn. 3) and on Saturday, the 22nd, landed at Zyrycksea, the chief town of the island of Showen, where I was very well entertained, especially by the vice-admiral, Adrian Williams, in whose house I lay; “a brave gentleman, very hateful to the Spaniards, and wholly addicted, as he seemeth, to serve her Majesty.”
On the Sunday we went afoot to “Bommeny,” a place that was of great strength but now defaced, and belonging to the jurisdiction of Brill, though in Zeeland. We thought to have embarked there, but as the tide was spent before our coming, we lay that night at Browsers haven. The vice-admiral accompanied us to both places, where the towns defrayed my charges and I was very courteously entertained by the burghers. Browsers haven is not walled, but the Prince of Orange earnestly solicited its fortification, as a place most fit to give aid to Zyricksea. It is well guarded (being but a village) “by a watch of a hundred brave, armed townsmen.” On Monday I landed at a place “called Horvessluse” [Helvoetsluys], where, after I had gone two English miles afoot, mine own horses met me and brought me into the Brill. “Before the town gates I was met by the burghers . . ., and the secretary in the name of the whole town congratulated my coming, as sent from her Majesty.” There were bonfires in the chief street up to my lodging, and “besides the shot of the English garrison,” they made a ward of the armed men of the town, “who, if they carry as brace minds as they carry show, will shame all our bands that be here. Mr. Norris telleth me that the town is able, upon a sudden, to show a thousand armed men, which if it be so, your lordship may think we should have much to do, without their good wills, to command absolutely with these companies we have. The garrisons I find here seem to be very weak, both in furniture, apparel and number.” As soon as the weather will serve I shall take muster, but since my coming there have been such thick mists “as I could see nothing before me.” The town lies very low, and is very poor; the streets fouler than any I have seen yet.
I have not yet my own lodging, as the owner and the States cannot agree for the price, and unless she may sell it outright she will not “depart with it.” On the coming of the States' deputies to take my oath they say order shall be taken; but in the mean while, I lack half the rooms, which are occupied by a kinswoman of her who owns it.
Yesterday I sent my lieutenant, Mr. Clopton, with my letters to the Lord General. Upon his answer, I shall wait upon him “to know his pleasure in divers things whereof there is great want for the defence of the town.”
All things are excessive dear here, and my daily household expences exceed double my allowance, “so as I fear not so much the danger of my government as my charge, whereof at my return, I look for no consideration.”
I would gladly know what order will be taken for the other thousand pounds towards levying the fifty horses to make up my band, humbly beseeching you that it may be paid with some expedition, “for the sooner I receive it, the better cheap small I buy my horses,” which if not provided out of Germany before the spring, will grow to far greater prices.—The Brill, 27 January, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland VI. 56.]
Jan. 27./Feb. 6. “A Proclamation of the General Estates . . . concerning the government and captainship general of the same provinces committed to the right honourable lord, lord Robert Earl of Leicester, Baron of Denbigh &c.” Translated from the Dutch copy “now remaining” in the custody of the Archbishop of Canterbury, which was printed at Delft by Albert Hendritch, ordinary printer to the Estates, of Holland, 1586.—Dated at the Hague, Feb. 6, 1586.
Endd. “The Proclamation set forth by the States in publishing the Earl of Leicester's authority.” 3 pp. [Ibid. VI. 57.
Jan. 27. Dr. Lobetius to Walsingham.
I wrote to you by way of Paris on the 14th of this month, and also to Mr. Waad. I have not received anything from you since then. This is to advertise you that the Assembly at Worms has begun to negotiate and treat on the proposed points. Your ambassador, my lord “Willybe” is not yet in these parts, but in Denmark, as is said. The ambassador of the King of Navarre has been very kindly received by the Elector of Saxony, and sent back full of hope and promises. It is still said that the said Elector is entirely changed since the death of his first wife. You will have heard that his second marriage with the young Princess of Anhalt, sister of the Electress of Brandenburg and of the Princess of Montbelliard, was celebrated on the 3rd of this month.
At the same time another ambassador of the King of Navarre went to the Duke of Würtemberg, where they say he has been much caressed and that the theologians there have offered of themselves to confer. They hope those of Saxony will do the like. All see that this Pope is as angry with one side as with the other. We shall see what will ensue therefrom. Some think that the signs are good, and are made hopeful by it. It is said that the Pope, the King of Spain and the Duke of Savoy are working hard to draw away the Marshal de Montmorenci from the party of the King of Navarre; item that the five little Swiss [popish] cantons lean much to the side of Spain. Auri sacra fames &c. M. de la Noue is at Basel, but they say that he is going to Geneva, which expects a siege; at least there are great appearances of it. But the town will have friends and protectors, and such as have very great interests therein. We have not yet heard that the four or five thousand Spaniards expected at Genoa have arrived. I had almost forgotten to say to you that the ambassadors of the Protestant princes destined to be sent to the King are soon to take their way towards him, to exhort him to a peace with his subjects. God grant a good issue to their embassy. Their rendezvous before starting is at Heidelberg, and (as they say) Duke Casimir has the superintendance of the matter.
Mr. Sturmius is well and on his property all alone. He dislikes the world, and being very old, he withdraws himself from affairs, as it is very reasonable that he should be discharged thereof.—Strasburg, 27 January, our style, 1586.
If you would like me to write often, please let me know it.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Germany IV.. 3.]
Jan. 28. Lord North to Burghley.
Your honourable acceptation emboldens me to present you with trifles. My lord's want of footmen, and his horsemen being yet unarmed by reason of the bad weather, keeps him from the field, so I can give you no martial news save “that Verdugo was this frost time in Friesland, where he burned and spoiled the country, Count William, the governor, being here with my lord. Count William's lieutenant encountered Verdugo, where there was a hot skirmish. In that conflict, the lieutenant's band killed two sons of the Count of Berges, cousins to the House of Nassau, called 'Harman' and Oswold; which have heretofore fled to the Prince of Parma, and now served against their country. Howbeit, Verdugo so prevailed as he took Count William's lieutenant prisoner and sundry others. . . . Had not the thaw come as it did, the enemy had endangered Holland, for all rivers and other places were passable with any carriages.
“My lord was, the 25th, made by patent and openly published, absolute governor of the United Provinces. . . . They have most lovingly yielded to content him in all his reasonable demands. His government is without limitation of time, yet have they notwithstanding limited themselves to contribute money for no longer time than twelve months. . . .
“The havoc that hath been made of the soldiers which were first sent over is lamentable, which must be supplied and enlarged presently, before my lord can do anything.” He has offered special charge of voluntary men to Sir Robert Jarman, Sir Thomas Sherley, Sir John Conway and Mr. Digby, to each a thousand; Mr. Parton[?] five hundred, and to sundry others according to their quality; “which numbers, I suppose, will be hard to be gotten.”
Now as to my own particular, “wherewith I will a little trouble your lordship, seeing that it troubleth me”; her Majesty suddenly commanded me to go with my lord of Leicester, which I obeyed, and furnished myself with such a number that no man in our company has so great a charge. My lord said before my coming that all the offices of credit were disposed, and so it seems, “for I only am left without place or credit.” I have written to her Highness and besought her, if she think my years and place fit for no entertainment here (although I was of her sending hither) to licence me to retire obscurely for a year to some place where I may recover part of my charge and my honour, “which I suppose to have lost in this voyage.
“I mind not to beg of her Majesty, and my heart is too great to live of any subject's purse; but my chiefest care is not to consume that patrimony which God, in my good parents, blessed me withal. . . . If the honest suit of your loving friend may move you, then I heartily pray your lordship take knowledge from me that I live here without credit and to my intolerable charge, at 26l. a week; desiring nothing but that I may be entertained like a poor nobleman, her dutiful servant, or else that with her favour I may retire myself.” If you will do this for me, I will deserve it with any service I can possibly perform.
“I do hear of wise men that Dr. Clarke, the Dean [of Arches], neither proveth for his language nor distributing of his matter to that was looked for at his hand.
“There is a town in North Holland called Enchusen, of notable strength and unprenable, which governeth all that north part; as necessary for her Majesty to have it as the Brill . . . which I commend to your lordship's noble consideration; yet I say it were a good government."—The Hague, 28 January.
Postscript.—"Here is a pretty court of Princes; the Elector that was of Cologne, the young Prince of Portugal, with them of the house of Nassau.”
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland VI. 58.]
Jan. 28./Feb. 7. Proposition from the Earl of Leicester to the States General. Finding that the contributions granted him by the States do not by far equal his expences, and that now especially, at the beginning, everything is in arrears, he desires the said States to grant him 50 florins upon every hundred measures of salt; 2 patarts on each tun of beer and 12 patarts on every tun of soap.
Also that they shall give him an exact declaration of the means which they intend to put into his hands, and that the conveyance thereof to him may begin at once.
And seeing that the strength and preservation of these countries depend above all upon their navy, and that he is informed that there is not a sufficient number of ships, especially of those suitable for the rives, he desires that twenty-five more ships may be built, proper for war and to guard the ports; fully equipped and ready whenever the enemy may attempt anything. [Dated at the top.]
Copy certified by Aerssens. Endd. by Burghley. Fr.pp. [Ibid. VI. 59.]
Printed in full in Dutch, Bor, bk. xxi, f. 9(1).
Jan. 28./Feb. 7. Carlo Lanfranchi to Andrea de Loo.
Your two letters of the 5th and 12th of the last have been very welcome to me, from which I see that you had discoursed with a friend of yours, who having handled the matter with that Queen, had received her resolution that she sought nothing save the peace and preservation of her crown; to which end she had caused the book of her Justification to be printed and given forth, which I have seen very gladly, and although matters having gone so far gives some cause for suspicion, yet I believe that if her Majesty is contented with what is fair, a remedy will be found for all. But first it is needful for her to make up her mind that there shall be not treating of religion, for the King and the nobles of those countries desire no other than the Catholic Roman; and she ought not to demand of the Kinf of Spain that which she would not like him to demand of her; so that I do not think she should make any difficulty about this.
Since then, discussing this matter with M. de Ciampagni, he told me that when he was there, talking of this with that Queen, she went so far as to agree that she would not treat on this point, knowing that it was a thing impossible to obtain. In which case, it will be recognized that she desires only the quiet of the world; and the King of Spain being assured of this, I am convinced that he will not be behind her in making an honest and good peace.
But to come to this matter. If by the business of Don B[ernardino], or by what has happened until now in Zeeland and Holland, she should make some good occasion to treat with M. de Ciampagny, our governor here, and to open her mind and desire to him; or should get the affair negotiated by means of some merchant or other confidential person, under colour of his coming from thence on some other business, I will give such assistance to whoever should come hither, that she shall receive satisfaction. So that, this Queen giving an opening, by one or other of these ways to negotiate quietly, I am sure something good would come of it, the treaty being with this benign Prince of Parma, who loving the quiet of these countries and their concord with that kingdom, will not fail to do all that is possible, and will willingly take part in extinguishing the burning fire which is approaching.
Now, Signor Andrea, you know how matters stand, and the means which are fitting to take to bring this business to a happy conclusion. Beg your friend then, since he has done so much well, to do something more; to acquaint your Queen with what I have here said to you; hoping by God's grace and her clemency that her kingdom and these countries may be saved from the misery and destruction which is seen coming upon them. I and others are eagerly expecting your reply to this.—Antwerp, 7 February, 1586.
Endd. by Burghley, “Answer to And. de Loo.” Italian. 1¼ pp. [Flanders I. 54.]
[Enclosed to Burghley in de Loo's letter of Feb. 7 [o.s.].]
Jan. 29. Leicester to Burghley.
I have received your two letters, one by my cousin Sir Thomas Cecil, the other by my servant Atye, and am greatly beholden to your lordship for your good and constant friendship to me in my absence. I am right glad of my cousin's safe arrival, and hope within two or three days to see him here. He shall want no friendship I may show him, and I will take order for supplying the wants in his charge with all speed.
If her Majesty saw the need there is here of Sir William Pelham's service, I am sure she would hasten him hither. The long delay makes me in doubt least he will not come at all. I heartily pray you, if you think he will not very speedily be despatched, to have my lord Grey sent, “for it is more than high time that one of them were here.”
The float boats said to be preparing at Antwerp cannot do much at Tergoes, Ziricksea or any of those parts. Seventeen ships of war “lie alongst the rivers,” as if it were at Gravesend, or such like places, and no flat boat can stir but they will quickly meet with them.
I will have all convenient care of Ostend and Sluys. They are strong and tenable (“if they be men that be in them”) and they are well furnished with all things.
[Margin, in Leicester's hand. “There is one place that the enemy may take and make a fort, at the mouth of Escluse, to stop the havens, but I mean to take it before him."]
“Though I account well of Mr. Willsford, yet I wish you not always to give credit to his reports. I know Ostend to be in far better estate than he maketh it.”
I heartily thank you for your care in giving order for the provisions already sent, praying you to continue your friendship therein; although I hope we shall not need much from thence, we find the country here so well stored almost of all things.
The standard of the coin is not so well handled either in England or here as it should be, and here only for lack of good order, for I find “men of as good skill as Alderman Martin's man, or any in England.”
“No doubt but the King of Spain's preparations by sea be great, . . . but I know that all that he and his friends make are not able to match with her Majesty's power by sea, if it please her to use the means that God hath given her. But besides her own, if she need, I will undertake to furnish her from hence, upon two months' warning, a navy for strong and tall ships, with their furnishing and mariners, that the King of Spain and all that he can make shall not be able to encounter with them. I think that bruit of his preparations is made the greater to terrify her Majesty and this country people. But thanked be God, her Majesty hath little cause to fear him. And in this country they esteem no more of his power by sea than I do of six fisher-boats of Rye. I am glad that it is thought convenient to remove her Majesty's ships to Portsmouth and further into the west; your lordship knoweth it was always my opinion that those places were fittest for them.
[Margin, in Leicester's hand. “God send her Majesty to make all well in Scotland and at home, and truly the King of Spain cannot hurt her except there be too much contempt and negligence, for that being seen, may procure so great an enemy to take a sudden advantage and to do a great hurt 'or' ye beware. As for ships and mariners, doubt not here be as many as you will have.]
“I verily think that all the preparations he maketh are for Sir Francis Drake, and that he shall be surely fought with if he may be met; for against him, he may be in hope to do some good, and that is the string that toucheth him indeed; for whiles his riches of the Indies continue, he thinketh he will be able with them to weary out all other princes. Those [riches] taken away, himself will quickly fall. And I know by good means that he more feareth this action of Sir Francis than he ever did anything that hath been attempted against him.
“I was bold in the forest matters to crave the help of my lord Chancellor and of your lordship in my absence. The place presently most fit to be dealt with I think is the forest of Waltham, where we have begun already.” Mr. Crooke of the Temple, hitherto clerk in those Justice seats, can best give you understanding for those dealings.
I wish the Parliament had been kept at the appointed time, for though I hope her Majesty shall not need to be at greater expence for these countries than is agreed upon, it is not amiss for her to have money ready against all events in these troublesome times, and I think the time will now well server for gathering it.
“This country is full of ships and mariners, very strong and abundant in wealth and means to make money. So that, the King of Spain being the Queen's enemy, if it should but have stood neutral, what an aid had her Majesty been deprive of! But if it should have been enemy also (as without doubt it was like to have been if the occasion had not been taken when it was), I leave to you lordship's consideration what had been likely to have ensued. I hope her Majesty shall reap great benefit and strength by the good neighbourhood of these countries, whose people do honour and love her in marvellous sort. If we may be relieved thence but with men and countenance, I hope to give her Majesty as good a reckoning of this service as ever she had of any.”
Thus much to answer your letters. For the full declaration of our proceedings I refer you to Mr. Davison, who will be with you, I hope, not long after you receive these.—The Hague, 29 January, 1585.
Postscript in his own hand. “I have received your three letters also touching the matter Ortell hath dealt with you in, which he did also write to me of, and to the States here. . . . For victuals, I assure there is as straight order taken here as is possible; but some liberty the people here must have to utter their victuals, or else we shall quite undo them and make them mutiny, for all this country trade stands upon it. Yet is it thus ordered; that no man shall discharge or sell any on this side Newhaven in France, upon pain of death . . . and some hath been executed and none pardoned that are known to offend, nor will be, I see, all sorts against carrying victual to the enemy.”
Covering sheet wanting. 4 pp. [Holland VI. 60.]
[Partly quoted by Motley, United Netherlands, i. 365 et seq.]
Jan. 29. Essex to Burghley.
Could my service be as often employed by your lordship as you continue to be favourable to me, “I might answer some part of that debt which, since I can never satisfy, I will ever owe, and . . . desire to repay.”
News I can send none worthy your reading, “for we have been idle all this while, only preparing to be able this summer to look upon the enemy, and in the mean time every one to defend his garrison and the country about him.” When there is any good news I shall be most ready to advertise you of it.—The Hague, 29 January, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 61.]
Jan. 29. Dr. Thos. Doyley to Burghley.
My lord of Leicester on the 10th mustered his horsemen at the Hague, 600 lances in all. The frost continuing and the place not sure he went next day to Leyden. From thence he returned the 20th, and the young Prince of Portugal, Sir Thomas Parret [Perrot], Mr. Killigrew, Mr. William Knowles, came thither the 24th. “Next day, my lord was sworn governor of the United Provinces with all solemnity and bonfires: The 26th the Sieur de 'Gytrey,' ambassador for the King of Navarre and M. 'Seville' from the Duke de Bouillon came to the Hague; the 28th came the Comte de Mœurs, governor of Guelderland and Overyssel for the 'Estate'.”
As the enemy blocked Ostend and Grave with sconces, so does he now about Venlo in Guelderland; but before they were entrenched, Skenk, governor of Venlo for the 'Estate,' defeated the horsemen of Stralen as they were convoying victuals &c. to them, and carried the booty into the town. Verdugo coming into Friesland by means of the ice almost to Lewarden, and retiring hastily because of the sudden thaw, was met with by the regiment of Grave William between Sloten and Lemmer; “who trusting to the assistance of a thousand boors who were set to keep a place, the whole regiment was defeated, six hundred men slain, the lieutenant colonel either slain or prisoner. Some say that Grave Harman, eldest son to the Grave Van Berges, is slain on the enemy's part and divers others; but the thaw was so sudden that the enemy left their booty behind them."—The Hague, 29 January, 1586. [But o.s. as regards the day of the month.]
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland VI. 62.]
Jan. 29. Doyley to Walsingham.
To the same effect and almost in the same words as to Burghley, above.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 63.]
Jan. 29. M. de Quitry to Walsingham.
I have been for several days with the Earl of Leicester, where I have seen the happy setting forward of affairs which I pray God to bring to perfection. This cannot be done without pain and much labour, but virtue, accompanied by the benediction of God, will surmount all. I am going to Amsterdam to wait for Mr. Palavicino. If he has not yet left England, I pray you hasten his departure.—The Hague, 29 January [o.s.], 1586.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 64.]
Jan. 29. Lord Willoughby to Walsingham.
I wished, as things fell out, to advertise you of them, but my ill-fortune serves only to present them in a mass, the extremity of the weather having frozen up all the passages.
“Since I came hither, I received letters of M. Segur's commending unto me the King of Navarre's affairs to the princes of Germany, as her Majesty's ambassador, which he seemeth to take knowledge [of] by advertisement from you, but for aught I know, there is no such command or instruction for me, and therefore I hold my course for Flanders.”
These letters advertise “that M. Segur and Sieur Clervant, his assistant, have advanced the cause so far forth as the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg have promised to send their ambassador to the King of France, requiring him to ordain a secure peace in his realm, and to receive them of the religion as his loyal affected subjects,” protesting meanwhile to allow no levy of soldiers in their dominions against the King of Navarre or that cause. “Hereto are added good speeches delivered to those gentlemen to help the King their good cousin as soon as they shall understand these wrongs to be countenanced by the Catholics. The King of Navarre hath despatched letters to the King of Denmark to join his ambassador to the other princes.
“There is assembly held at Worms by the Protestant princes or their 'deputed' for despatching the said embassage for France. The 20th of this month, there came unto my hands a letter written from Venice, which, for the venomous and mischievous contents I send enclosed.” [Wanting.]
I am informed by honest and wise men “that about three months since, one Jacob Fesse of Amsterdam, sent from the Prince of Parma to the Grave [Edzard], devised with certain mariners for the knowledge and soundings all alongst the river of Ems, as also of those flats and places near the Fly and Tassel [the Vlie and Texel],” and sent the most expert to the Prince, giving them each 24 dollars. He also “practised with a Hollander, a Gueux who had been brought up with him, to betray Leyden and Tergoes (Traygouse),” desiring him to go to the Prince for further instructions and promising him fit instruments in both towns for the purpose. “The good man answered, his intelligence with the Prince of Parma would render him suspected. Jacob Fesse replied his access might be easy, under colour to procurate the causes of the distressed gentlemen, Gueuxes, of West Frise.” But the man feigned himself sick, “and protesteth himself ready to do as much against them as they conspired with him to practise against the Gueuxes.” He is not unknown to Hart, preacher of our English company, to whom he discovered an intention of the enemy to build a fort on Burckum island, and another at Roteram [Rottum], on the other side, to stop the passage of the river.
“The Prince of Parma, to draw the Grave of Emden into the action against the West Phrises, offereth unto him (as it is given out) two thousand men at his pay. It appeareth the Earl needeth no spurs, for a pique being between him and Dr. Miller, of Hambrow, sometimes his chancellor, Miller discovered the Earl to have a pension of 8,000 dollars yearly, by him procured out [of] Spain. To show himself therefore thankful an serviceable for the first benefit, he declareth by many circumstances his forwardness as followeth ; he detaineth the Gueux his ships to serve his profit or his pleasure, and freely dismisseth the enemies.
“Between Langher his coming (who is now present admiral of four ships to keep the river, that the enemy be not victualed) and another captain that came before him, they sent certain 'tonnboyers' set forth like men of war, which did convoy and wast over to Groningen land to the enemy divers vessels fraughted with corn and victual. Another time they made the captain drunk, and the while sent forth a tonnboyer laden with powder and munition to the enemy. To colour this withal, the same day that Langher arrived, they published an edict in the Earl's name prohibiting any of their ships to carry victual to the enemy, but giving the enemy free liberty to buy what they will here in the town.” This should have appeared six weeks before, but they smothered it till they saw that they could not escape the Admiral. “His lying in the river discontents them wonderfully, wherefore they have accused him and his unto me of many wrongs done to the town and to our English Company; requiring me to make relation of their insolencies unto her Majesty; for they intend jointly with their forces to procure the Empire's and the King of 'Sueve's' against these West Phrises, if they reform not themselves, or the ships retire not. But for their accusations, I see none proved by them, and our Company cleared before the Senate all such wrongs as they pretended by the West Phrisers to have been done unto us, specially of late.
“These Emdeners ordain a navy, levy soldiers by land, intend to fortify on the river, and give out, as soon as the Ems in unfrozen, they will drive away Langher, whom in my judgment is weakly appointed for them. As well these as they of Hambrow send divers fair ships for Spain; what inconveniences may grow of these premises, I commend to your excellent judgments at home.
“For my own self, as all my endeavours tend to the service of her Majesty, I have thus well profited in my travail, that within two or three months at the farthest, after her pleasure known and money received, I can bring to serve her two thousand horse of the most honest and principalest men that served the King of Denmark in his wars of Ditmarsche and Sueve; such as for their government and faith will hardly be found amongst such as 'rutters' are.” I have means to bring them as far as Emden, where they may be “fit” either for East or East Phrise, as is thought good.
I send these confused and tedious letters “by my French page, disguised, for I and my English servants are so well known and laid for as none of us can pass . . . till the river open."— Embden, 29 January.
Postscript.—The Embdeners require her Majesty or her governor of those countries to write to the West Phrises “to surcease their insolencies and nourish reciprocate good offices and peace between them, which will never be unless they may have the river open to victual the enemy.”
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3. pp. [Denmark I. 78.]
Jan. 30. Ortell to Walshingham.
Is just now given to understand that three ships of Biscay bound for Dunkirk have arrived at Southampton, laden with wool and, as certainly reported, good store of money. Informs him thereof, in case “it would please her Majesty to shorten their voyage and there to discharge them."—"From my lodging.” 30 January, 1585.
Add. Endd. English. ½ p. [Holland VI. 65.]
Jan. 30. (fn. 4) Paper endorsed by Burghley, “Conference with M. de Guytry at Greenwich,” containing the following notes:—
“For the certain sum that is in Almain.
“If Casimir shall not take the charge.
“For the manner of assurance from the King.
“Army must consist of 9,000 reiters; 1,000 Swiss, 2 regiments, 4,000 reiters. With this army, Casimir said he would march. Add to these 4,000 French.
“He promised if he might have 250,000 dollars, (fn. 5) he would arm this army without any further charge at all.
“Clervant. 32,000 dollars for his lands near Geneva. 20,000 dollars at Strasburg.
“Segur. 40,000 dollars, whereof he hath spent 15,000, so remains 25,000 at Franckfort.
“De Ballayne. Ital[ian] merchant at Geneva, for furnishing of the levy of 10,000 Swisses; which must come to 30,000 dollars.
“Duke de Bouillon is to pay for the levy of 2,000 reiters, by means of M. de Rombryck, the Grand Escuyer of Cleves, who shall be as colonel to the Duke of Bouillon, and the Duke shall pay the money upon lands that the King of Navarre hath engaged to him. The sum may be 25,000 crowns.
[Margin. Colonel Barnesston. Colonel Buck propounded the Duke of Pomerania.]
“Duke Pet. Perre [Petit Pierre] is to answer 700 florins [over “dallers” erased], of the value of 25,000 dollars that he shall have of the Duke of Lorraine for land sold to him, and 12,000 “dallers” that Casimir oweth to the Duke de Pet. Perry. Note. His son shall serve in this army, who hath married the Duke of Wurtemberg's daughter.
[Margin. “The Marquis of Baden hath married with the last Count Palatine's wife, sister-in-law to Casimir.]
“It will be two months from the time of the levy, before the army can be in France.
“M. de Syvile belongeth to the Duke of Bouillon; who came into France when Guytry came hither.”
Further notes.
“Marshal matignon, lieutenant to the King in Guyenne.
“M. St. Luc holds Brouage (Bourag).
“Young Lansac holds Bourg.
M. d' O holds Caen.
“Prince de Condé holds Taillebourg (Talebourg).
“Marshal d'Aumont [d'Omont] of his house is near Bluck [Balnc ?] in Berry. He followeth the Duke Montpensier. Duke Montpensier married the heir of the Marquis of Mezières.”
In Burghley's hand throughout. 1¾ pp. [Holland VI. 66.]
Jan. 30. Martin Laurence to Walsingham.
Hoping his honour has not forgotten that by his command he served under Sir Walter Ralegh in the “Vingandicon” voyage. Being now returned, he craves of her Majesty to deign to commend him to King Frederick II of Denmark, his master, by whom he had been recommended to her; and to relieve his necessities by her liberality, in order that he may depart more safely, in regard of the importunate extortions of those by whom he is here stayed for his victuals. Begs for his honour's powerful help in his necessity.
Endd. with date. Latin. 1 p. [Denmark I. 79.]
Jan. 31. John Douce to Walsingham.
Our commodities are not in request here, because the fair was far spent before I received them, the wind being contrary. “I shall be fain to stay for my market or else to take up money by exchange, which if I do, I make no good reckoning,” the exchange here being very high and the prices of goods risen because of the great traffic for Spain. “If I had converted my commodities in wheat or any other grain, tallow or leather, I should have made quicker return. I will do my best, staying for your answer.
At our landing we were had before the governor, who enquired of us whence we were; to those that were Englishmen or dwellers in England before the last edict he said little, “but to those that went away last and are now refuged in England for the Religion, and doth come over to traffic, as there was some with us before him then he willed them to depart for that time, but not to come any more except any did persuade themselves to go to the mass or to obey the King's pleasure.”
There went from Newhaven on the 12th of last month eighty merchant ships for Spain, laden with good commodities, and on Jan. 28, sixty great ships “for the Newfoundland a fishing.” Also there are ready there for Spain, only tarrying for their lading (?) from the fair at Rouen twenty-five sail of merchant ships well appointed. It is said the English merchants have a venture in most of them.
Some lately come from Spain say that the Duke of Guise's eldest son was there, but they could not learn the cause of his coming. Some said it was to command in the army that King makes for England this spring, others that it is as hostage for some great sums of money to supply his father's affairs, “because the Catholics of France are very [qy. weary] of so great charges as they have been at since the last turmoils."—Dieppe, “the last of January, 1585, after our reckoning.”
Add. Endd. 1 p. [France XV. 22.]
Jan. 31. “A debet from her Majesty to her forces.”
Due to the forces for one whole month ended
12 January last 11,334l. 15s. 0d.
Imprest to the companies in Zeeland 3,102l. 10s. 0d.
Remaining in the Treasurer's hands 5,017l. 7s. 5d.
“So that there is wanting for that month's pay” 3,214l. 17s. 7d.
Endd. ½ p. [Holland VI. 67.]
Jan. 31. Mrs. Wilforde to [Walsingham ?]
Captain Wilforde undertook to gather a band of voluntary men, but finds his countrymen coldly inclined to military service, wherefore his honour is prayed to grant a commission for levying forty or fifty armed men to furnish the said band with such expedition as is meet for the place where he now is, for, because of their absence, he is driven to retain there two other bands against their will.
Also, his honour may be pleased to understand the great danger to that place [Ostend] if victuals are not sent from hence, it being so straitened by land that no succour can come but by sea; also the provision sent from Holland and Zeeland “is so extreme dear, that the poor soldiers shall hardly maintain themselves with their pay,” and if the winds are contrary for fourteen days, they will have no victual left.
For the quiet passing of the victuals &c., if his honour does not have the Dunkirkers kept in by some barks or men of war, no passenger [boat] will “dare adventure to come unto them without great hazard.” The ships appointed may most conveniently lie in the haven at Ostend, where “they shall be always thoroughly manned with shot, without any great charge.”
Lastly, it may please him to command that they may take up sufficient shipping at Sandwich or Dover to transport the soldiers' furniture and stuff which Captain Wilford shall have need of; whereby the said Captain “shall be better able to answer that present service, and be singularly bound” to his honour.
Endd. “Ult. Jan., 1585. Mrs. Wilforde's requests.” 1 p. [Ibid. VI. 68.]
Jan. 31./Feb. 10. Resolution of the States General on this date, extracted from the Register:—Upon the petition of Joncker Everaerdt van Delen, deputy of Guelderland, and Mr. Dierick vander Does, formerly delegate of the Landraedt, concerning the debts assigned upon the “convoys” [customs] in the various provinces, the said States General have resolved and declared that notwithstanding what was treated with his Excellency touching the placing of the convoys in his hands, by the Act of 1st February last past; the Act of the 22nd of January, 1585, decreed on the petition of those of the Landraad on the east side of the Maas, shall remain in full effect; and his Excellency is hereby besought to exert his authority that the said Act in all points shall be duly executed.
Copy of certified extract by Aerssens. Dutch. 1¼ pp. [Holland VI. 69.]
Jan. Vicomte de Turenne to Walsingham.
Knows that his honour's piety will lead him to feel their afflictions, from the severity of the edicts. Hopes for the assistance which God never denies to his own, and that he will make use of the multitude of honest men who have arms in their hands, to preserve their alters (otels), the liberty of their country. The assistance which M. de Segur has had from the Queen will be of much service to them, and they will render to her, for it, all faithful services which she may desire. She has no more devoted servant than himself.
Holograph. Add. Endd. “January, 1585.” Fr. 1 p. [France XV. 23.]
Jan. Document containing:—
Copy of the oaths taken respectively (1) By the governor of Flushing and the Rammekins.
(2) By the captains and soldiers of the same.
(3) The oath of the men of war of the United Provinces made during the Earl of Leicester's government and having lasted until his resignation.
(4) Extract from the Treaty of Aug. 10–20, 1585, concerning the cautionary towns.
Endd. Fr.pp. [Holland VI. 70.]
[The oath to Leicester as Governor-General would be taken by the soldiers of the States from Jan. 25—Feb. 4, 1585–6. This document was evidently drawn up after his resignation.]
Jan. Estimate of the monthly charge of her Majesty's forces in the Low Countries. Sum total, 11,333l. 15s.
Endd.pp. [Ibid. VI. 71.]
Jan. List of the last pay made to the garrisons of Holland and there-abouts; viz. to Count Maurice, Count Hohenlohe, and 59 captains for their companies.
For the 5 cornets of horse at Bergen-op-Zoom.
For the quarter of North Holland, 10 companies, besides those in the towns, as Harlem, Delft, Leyden, Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
On the east bank of the Meuse, 7 companies.
N.B.—Col. Schenk has commission to levy 300 horse, not having yet passed muster; but has assembled 150 horse. Footmen, 30 companies.
Without inclusion of the companies in Gueldres and Overyssel; the English companies, either those of “Noritz” or others, or the companies of Zeeland.
[The names of the captains are given, and generally the place at which each is stationed. The dates and the amounts paid vary very much. The number of men in a company is generally from about 120 to 150. The lowest number is 82, the highest (Rodenburch's company at Amsterdam), 300. The earliest date of payment is Oct. 8[n.s.]. 1585; the latest Jan. 22, 1586. Most of them are in November or December. No totals are given of the sums paid.]
Add. Endd. Fr. 7 pp. [Holland VI. 72.]
Another copy of the same.
Add. Endd. Fr. 7 pp. [Ibid. VI. 73.]
Jan. State of the payment of the garrisons on this side the Meuse.
Ostend. 6 English companies. Horse company of Capt. du Bois, since sent to Bergen-op-Zoom.
This Colonel's company of the Sieur de Locres, governor. 8 other companies.
Sluys. The Colonel's company of the Sieur de Grunevelt, governor. 7 other companies.
Terneuse. Colonel Piron's company. 2 others.
Zeeland. 12 companies.
[Here follows a list of part of the companies of Holland, as in the preceding documents.]
Bergen. 8 Scots companies of Col. Balfour.
Cavalry. Prince d' Epinoy. 3 other companies.
Forts of Bergen. 3 companies.
Worle. Company of the Sieur de Marbais and another.
Gueldres, Utrecht, Overyssel. His Excellency will see by the “State” drawn up by the Council of State, resident at Utrecht, how the soldiers of these quarters have been paid; of which the Council of State in Holland has little or no knowledge.
Friesland: Horse company of Count William of Nassau, governor, at Leuwarden, and of Capt. Jarghes, in some town in Gueldres.
Footmen. The Governor's company, and 19 others.
[The amount of the payments, except in the case of Holland, are only occasionally given.]
Endd. Fr.pp. [Ibid. VI. 74.]
Jan. “Pays to a band of footmen in the Low Countries” for a month.
1. For a company of 150 and ten officers, plus 15 dead pays, 191l. 5s.
2. For a company of 135 plus ibid., 176l. 5s.
Over leaf, details of pay to a company consisting of captain, lieutenant, ensign, 2. serjeants, 4 corporals, clerk, surgeon, 2 drums, 12 muskets, 3 gentlemen, 47 armed men, 75 shot. Total, 170l.
Endd 13/4 pp. [Holland VI. 75.]
Jan. Memoire of what General Norris claims to be due to him from the State General for the English soldiers which have been at their charge.
The Colonel, from Sept. 1 to Dec. 31, at 2,000 florins
per month . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,000fl.
[Margin. The States say that it is only 1,200fl. a month according to the treaty, but the General says that 2,000 were granted him by the Council of State when at Utrecht.]
The Colonel's company of 100 lances at 3,000 florins per month, from Sept. 21 (the day of the muster) to Jan. 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,000fl.
Twenty-one foot companies, 3,114 heads, from Sept. 21 to Oct. 7, seventeen days . . . . . . . 20,026fl.
On Oct. 8 were taken out of the field and sent into garrison at the Brill, Flushing and Rammekins, nine companies-therefore only 12 companies remained at the States' charge, of 150 heads, less 34 wanting. From Oct. 8 to Nov. 22 n.s. . . . 29,422fl.
The States believe that these 12 companies ought to be rebated the thousands heads which according to the ratification of the treaty on Oct. 2, were to come into her Majesty's charge.
[Margin. The ambassador says that her Majesty is only to take these into her charge after Nov. 12 old style.]
From Nov. 22, new style, 766 heads, for two months, viz. to Jan. 22 . . . . . . . . . . . 17,320fl.
Captain Paul and his company from Oct. 29 n.s to
Jan. 29, at 142 heads . . . . . . . . . . 4,860fl.
For “transport-gelt” of the soldiers . . . . . . 10,000fl.
For the same for Capt. Paul and his company . . 852fl.
For 22 ensigns or flags at 40fl. and that of the General,
60fl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900fl.
For the pioneers, 1,037 heads.
[Margin. The States say they do not know the number of the pioneers and that they must see the muster rolls, which are at Utrecht.]
Pay from Nov. 1. to Dec. 1 for 1,000 heads . . . . 8,510fl.
For the rest of the time they were in the field, viz. one month to Dec. 31, half a month is counted as the number has much diminished. With officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,510fl.
From Jan. 1, nothing counted for pioneers, because of the prests made them in then towns. Transport money of the 1,000 pioneers comes to 8,913 florins, and whereas the States hold that the General demands more for the transport money of the pioneers than of the soldiers, for whom they only pay 6 florins, the General says this is on account of their cassocks and that this must be settled with his Excellency or her Majesty's Treasurer. For the transport-gelt of 34 pioneers, he demands 9 florins a head.
For the flags of the pioneers . . . . . . . . 50fl.
From which must be rebated what has been paid, viz., 35,340fl. Paid to the footmen, 2,000fl. On a month's pay to the horsemen, 3,000fl. More by those of Holland, 26,000fl. and are now at Utrecht, 15,000fl. In all, 81,340fl. Also there must be rebated what the soldiers and pioneers have received by way of prest, in money, victuals, arms and munition, both in camp and garrisons.
And for each of the sick men, distributed in the towns, a “daeler” per week, according to the agreement between the States of Holland and the General.
[Margin. The General says that the soldiers who have been at the States' charge have hardly had any sick, and that in any case this must be settled with the Treasurer.]
And there must also be rebate for the companies which are not complete, many having withdrawn and some having died. Also, because they have been maintained by the burghers and peasants for want of pay. On which the General says that the companies of the States have always been complete, except two; and that those wanting because dead and retired, were people at the charge of her Majesty. Whereupon, they must treat with his Excellency. The States on the contrary maintain that there were as many dead, retired and sick in the companies at their charge as in those at the charge of her Majesty.
Sum total in sterling money, 23,659l.
Endd. “1585. Mr. Norris his accounts with the States.” 5 pp. [Holland VI. 76.]
[Jan.] “Note of things to be considered upon view of the Treasurer's account.” At what rate the silver coin transported out of this realm was current in Holland before the Lord General's repair thither.
The Treasurer to deliver to the auditor the captain's bills for the 3,000l. paid before the Lord General's arrival, to consider at what rate this money was paid to them.
That in a payment of 8,768l., there was then lost by under valuation and by money taken up by exchange, 538l.
That the 5,000l. first imprested to Col. Norreys ought to be answered to her Majesty by him without defalcation.
That whereas the Treasurer asks allowance for portage of 20,000l., he should be allowed it only for 18,000l.
The muster-master to be ordered to send a note of the entries of the horsemen into pay.
Endd.pp. [Ibid. VI. 77.]
[Jan.] “A memorial touching the Treasurer's account.”
“To consider where the 4,000 soldiers were embarked and when they landed.
“To divide the two accounts of the imprested companies and the volunteers.
“To know why Col. Norreys dealt not with the States about the allowance for a muster-master.”
In Walsingham's hand. Endd. ½ p. [Holland VI. 78.]
[Jan.] “A memorial [in Walsingham's hand] for the Low Countries.” [Most of the items are included in the following paper.]
To appoint commissioners to examine how the soldiers have been paid.
“The Treasurer to yield an account what he hath found in the pay, in respect of transporting of gold.”
Endd.pp. [Ibid. VI. 79.]
Further memorial touching the Treasurer's accounts.
Mr. John Norreys to make account for the 5,000[l.] delivered to him by way of imprest. [Margin. Mr. Killigrew to assist the Auditor in taking the said account.]
“To answer the benefit for the improvement of the money before the contract for the rose nobles. [Margin. To peruse the Treasurer's Instructions.]
“To answer also as much as he hath received for the improvement of the 6,000 in rose nobles and other gold.
“To answer for the defalkation of armour upon the pressed men. . .
“To enquire what armour he (Norreys) delivered to the pressed soldiers.
“The commissary of the victuals to be called to an account for 666, of the which he has only answered 150.
“To examine the cause why there were no checks on the soldiers, their bands being decayed.”
The Treasurer to call for the money disbursed in the States for pioneers and Ostend.
“An overcharge of a muster-master, seeing there was one only muster taken.
“An allowance demanded for 30 argolesiers. . .
“To examine how the increase of the number of 91 men came, being above the 4,000 men.
“To enquire what time her Majesty's charge for Flushing and the Brill began. Delivered the 27 September.
“The Treasurer to demand the allowance for money disbursed for the levy of pioneers.
“To enquire what ordnance and munition was issued out by Powell upon the Earl of Leicester's warrant. [Margin. At home.]
“Mr. Hawkins to account for the 1,400l. [At home.]
“To know why her Majesty should have been answered but 1,100 upon the defalcation of the armour delivered to the voluntaries imprested by the States.
“To call Browne to an account for the 500l. [At home.]
“To demand the 500l. of Sir William Pelham. [At home.]
“The Queen not to be charged with D[r.] W. Clerke the elder. [Margin. Imprest abroad.]
“The master gunner to render an account for the 100l. [At home.]
“The allowance of 50l. to Gawin Smythe, and the imprest of 106l. to W. Cokes for oats to be accounted for. [At home.]
“The imprests to Col. Nor[reys], 500l., to Col. Morgan for 60l. [Defalcations to be made.]
“To know how the increase of the Queen's pay grows.
“The Treasurer to demand the 600l. imprested to the Dutch companies at Ostend.
“To understand why her Majesty should sustain the loss of 600l. for the allowance of nine guilders to the pound.”
In Walsingham's hand throughout. Endd.pp. [Holland VI. 80.]
Jan. A de Licques to [Walsingham ?].
Advertising him of a young man who with four others had embarked at Dieppe, and who had been to an apothecary of that town, demanding poisonous drugs. His demand was refused, whereupon he went to another, but it is not known whether he got any, nor whether he has been in “this town” [? Rye]. He is said afterwards to have embarked, with another man, in a ship of “this country,” belonging to a Provencal gentleman named Herman, who thought him to be an Italian. They had two grooms with them and embarked four horses. One of the grooms is reported to have talked against the English Queen. Has warned the magistrates “here” of it, who knew not what he was saying. Prays God to protect his honour against all designs of evil men and to preserve her Majesty from all dangers.
No date. Add. only “Mon Seigneur.” Endd. by Walsingham's clerk, “January, 1585.” Fr. 1 p. [France XV. 24.]
Jan. Elector Truchsess to the Queen.
Although your Majesty's magnanimity, zeal and prudence, accompanied by the special blessing of God, has been shown in all things since the beginning of your reign, yet they now appear more richly than ever, by the royal succours which, under the leadership of the Earl of Leicester, you are giving to these countries in their extremity, whereof the fruits are already seen in Germany, in regard of many princes who have hitherto seemed asleep. I firmly hope that your Majesty's constancy will serve as an example to all Christian princes, that they may become more and more resolute against Antichrist and his pernicious designs, and that the church of God may be comforted and blest under the happy shadow of your wings. Of which I am the more assured by the good success which God has given to your affairs in these neighbouring countries, and by your wise choice of the Earl of Leicester, in whom, to his other heroic qualities, there are so ripely joined both age and judgment.
I can receive no greater joy in the vocation to which it has pleased God to call me for his church, by making me a sharer in its afflictions, than to see myself honoured by your favour and goodwill, very humbly thanking your Majesty for the kind assurances thereof in your letters, besides the especial testimony which the Earl of Leicester has given me.
And as by Mr. Davison I have already dedicated myself entirely to your service, so I pray you to believe that nothing will ever change or diminish my desire to do my utmost duty in the same, and to keep the faith which I owe to God and to the republic. And I promise myself that (after order has been put in the affairs of these countries) by your Majesty's authority and the aid of the Earl of Leicester, the difficulties will be removed which alone have hitherto prevented me from advancing my own affairs, and that, seeing the fruits of your liberality in my behalf, you will receive satisfaction by the very humble service which I have vowed to you for ever.—Leiden, — January, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Germany, States IV. 4.]


  • 1. Wilsford spells his name sometimes with i, sometimes with y.
  • 2. “Boeyer, a Dutch yacht or smack.”
  • 3. Cecil gives all the distances on his route.
  • 4. So dated, but the Guitry had then left England. See p. 333 above.
  • 5. Expressed by the triangle which at this date was used for either crown or dollar (thaler, daalder). In this case, probably the latter, which twice occurs written in full.