Elizabeth: October 1586

Pages 104-123

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1, 1586-1588. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1927.

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October 1586

Oct. 1/11. Lazaro Grimaldo to Horatio Palavicino.
Received his letter of August 27 a week ago, at too late an hour to answer it conveniently.
Has imparted the substance thereof to Prince Doria, who confirmed him in what he had already written on his Highness' behalf; viz: that for the King of Spain, reparation was claimed for the many injuries done to him, and the surrender by her Majesty of what she held in his Low Countries. If she should demand some security for herself and for the peace of the said countries, she must state what it is; the demand must be moderate, and it must be understood that the King is a Catholic and the supporter of the Holy Catholic faith, as were his progenitors. Believes that no answers have been given on these points by Palavicino, which are the substantial and essential ones.
If they are to reach any good result, they must come to the main points, and he believes that if entire faith be given to the word of his Catholic Majesty, God will bless their good intentions and grant that concord of the two crowns which is so earnestly to be desired.
Will not discourse of the progress and state of the war, nor discuss the plunder taken by the "Cavalliero Drak" which seems to have been less than was at first supposed and even reported; only this he will say; that in his opinion, it would not be ill taken if this were left untouched until the issue of this their negotiation were seen; praying God to put his hand thereto, and give them all light to employ themselves in his service.— Genoa, 4 October, 1586.
Postscript. Not having as yet received any letters from him, he has nothing to add, save that the death of Cardinal Granvelle took place on the 21st of last month. How this may affect their negotiations, they will see. Genoa, 11 October, 1586.
Add. Endd. by Burghley with the later date. Italian. 1½ pp. [Germany, States IV. 93.]
Oct. 4. List of Papers to be taken by Mr. Wootton into France. His Instructions:
1. Copy of the letters between the Scots Queen and Anthony Babington, of July and August, 1586.
2. Copy of her letter to him of 17 July, 1586.
3. Extract out of letters from her to Mendoza, the Bishop of Glasgow, Sir Francis Englefeld and Lord Paget, 27 July, 1586, "touching the practice intended against her Majesty."
4. Abstract of her letters to Charles Paget and Mendoza of 21 May, 1586. "Delivery of Scots King into the King of Spain's hands. Gift of the crown of England to the Spaniard by her testament."
5. Copy of Charles Paget's letter to the Scots Queen of 29 May, with her answer of 27 July.
7. Abstract of intercepted letters, "declaring the good meaning to [sic] the French King towards her Majesty."
6. True copy of Nau's confession touching the Scots Queen's letters to Babington.
8. Extract of intercepted letters "touching the practices of Morgan, Paget and other the Scots Queen's ministers in France, as well against the French King as against her Majesty."
9. Abstract of a letter declaring how her Majesty and the King "were abused in the shifting away of Morgan's papers."
10. Copy of letters written by Henry, the Scots Queen's priest, under the name of one La Rue, touching the practices of the Leaguers of France."
With memo. that each paper was signed by Burghley, Shrewsbury, Derby, Cha. Howard, Hunsdon, Cobham, Ja. Croft, and Fra. Walsingham.
Endd. 1 p. [France XVI. 59.]
Oct. 4. Horatio Palavicino to Burghley.
Although I believe it superfluous to write further of the proceeding at Genoa, since by your lordship's silence I must understand either that you do not approve it or do not deem it useful, yet as it seems to me that it would be a much greater error not to inform you of all that is written to me than to give you unnecessary trouble in reading letters, I send you the one which I received yesterday. (fn. 1) If it please you to show it to her Majesty, and then to tell me what and how I am to reply to it, I engage to follow your directions with all accuracy. I do not understand what he means about those matters which are being plotted against the Prince of Spain; and as little do I understand who that prince is who is bound and has forces to make the enterprise against England, unless it were the Guise, or some vow of a papistical prince; but I will endeavour to find the explanation of both things, and at once inform your lordship.—Francfort, 4 October, 1586.
Add. Holo. Endd. by Burghley. Italian. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 94.]
Oct. 4/14. Prince Charles of Sweden.
Making known to all and singular etc., that he is sending his servant, Jacob Homodeus, with his ship called the Galli, laden with corn into Italy, and has given him orders for the selling of the corn and the purchasing and exporting of other merchandise. And in order that the said Homodeus may accomplish his intended journey the more fully and quickly, he prays and desires that during the time that he is journeying into Italy with his ship, corn and all those that are with him; sojourning there, selling the corn, buying the necessary goods, and from thence returning, he may be allowed freedom from port dues, taxes and all other burdens; and that they will not in any way hinder, hurt or molest him, but rather treat him with all kindness, and so much as in them lies, forward and care for him.
And this paper he has had sealed with his seal and subscribed with his own hand. Nykoping, prid. Id. October, 1586.
Signed. Sealed. Endd. Latin, ½ p. [Sweden I. 15.]
Oct. 5/15. Henry III. to Queen Elizabeth.
[The following good abstract of the letter is given by Maynard, as endorsement].
"That where one Philip Destailleur, a burgess and sheriff [i.e. echevin] of Calais, had laden in two English ships at Hambourg for Calais 36 lasts of wheat and 30 of rye for that place, the same in the way was taken by one Captain [Henry] Griffin an Englishman, and conveyed into Zeeland, where, notwithstanding the [English] Lord Admiral's letters, it was declared good prize and sold, without restitution of money or goods made. And for that the merchant requireth letters of reprisal upon the Zeelanders or any of those countries or confederates thereof, until he may recover his said wheat or the value, amounting to 1500 pounds, he [the King] hath thought good to acquaint her Majesty withal first, that he may have restitution . . . wherein he hath written to his ambassador to solicit her Majesty."—St. Germain-en-Laye, 15 October, 1586.
Signed. "Vostre bon frere et cousin, Henry." Countersigned, Brulart.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XVI. 60.]
Oct 7. Horatio Palavicino to Burghley.
On the 19th of last month Walter Williams, a servant of Mr. Secretary arrived here, bringing me his letters of the 2nd of that month (fn. 2), and orders, both written and verbal, for making every effort for the carrying out of the levy, employing therein both sums of money, for provision of which he sent me two letters from her Majesty, for the Duke [Casimir] and for the Prince Landgrave.
As from that time to this I have been continually moving about, I wrote to the said prince, went to Frankenthal, treated at length with Beuterich, and then returned here to procure what would satisfy all his demands, and with all these actions I have been occupied till this evening, before being able to write anything of importance. Beuterich's difficulties are very great, and the hesitation with which the Duke consents to allow his name to appear is very unworthy of the promises and letters of her Majesty. But as time requires us to have no regard to anything save to bringing about the result, I will do all I can to assure it, and hope in the end to be able to satisfy him. All that has passed during these last days I have written in detail in a sheet sent to Mr. Secretary; and it will also be shown by all the copies of the letters written and received in this matter, which likewise I send, and earnestly desire that they may be seen by your lordship, so that you may favour me with your directions.
On the 11th of last month I prayed you to have the third part of the new sum of money put into the hands of my men, and I now again beg you that what they demand for daily use may not be denied to them, as they have orders to ask for nothing but what they actually require. If the Duke had had proper confidence, and answered her Majesty's letter accordingly, I should not have needed to hurry myself, or to neglect any advantage in the bringing over of the money, but neither of these has happened, and what is worse, I must at one stroke put into his hands all the ready money I can get, and give him security for the rest; so that her Majesty runs the risk of his death or any other mortal accident, but may God grant that neither she nor the common cause may meet with any hindrance.
Mr Shute will bring, amongst my other letters for your lordship, that which I wrote to her Majesty, of which I sent no copy, believing that by way of Hamburg it would be quite safe; yet that dispatch only has been lost, which truly has grieved me much. Now I have written another, on the occasion of my rejoicing that she has been preserved from the late conspiracy, praying you to present it to her, and at the same time to give her an account of all I write, not only in this business but on that of 80 [Genoa].—Francfort, 7 October, 1586.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Italian. 2 pp. [Germany, States IV. 95.]
Oct. 7. Horatio Palavicino to Walsingham.
The long narrative which I have given in the enclosed sheets, (fn. 3) together with all the copies of letters (fn. 4) which I send your honour will obviate my troubling you with lengthy letters. But this I will say, that the tediousness and difficulty of negotiating with those here is very great, and accompanied by more obstinate mistrust than is possible to say. Beuterich's talk is nothing but civilities, and about what he did when the Duke went into the Low Countries, and he treated with Mr. Wilkes, making out that it was something extraordinary, which is enough to disgust anybody. But the service of God and of the common cause makes me most ready to endeavour to satisfy the Duke in all his demands, and your honour may be assured that both the possible and the impossible shall be done. It will be necessary to put into his hands at one stroke all the money, and to give assurance for that which is lacking, as otherwise the matter would break, and nothing would ever be done at all.
I am writing again to the Lord Treasurer for the money and pray you to do me the favour to see that it may be granted on request of my men, so that on my side all may be done with the greatest possible expedition.
Your servant Walter Williams left me on the 3rd for Geneva. I begged him to write to your honour all that had passed here, but he would not, saying that he was never accustomed to write while travelling, and that you are satisfied with this. I paid him the hundred crowns sol (fn. 5) according to his order. He has promised me to return by this same road.
Your letters of Sept. 10, sent me by my men, came in eighteen days, wherefore I pray you to use generally this same way, especially as it will not be any expence.
There is very good news here of our men round about Zutphen, but before that it was bad, and therefore we remain in great doubt, but if this last be true, we have reason for great rejoicing.
I have not this time written in cipher, because the Landgrave's letter, which I could not touch, would have made the cipher useless in all the rest.—Francfort, 7 October, 1586.
Holo. Add. Endd. Italian. 1¾ pp. [Germany, States IV. 96.]
(1) William, Landgrave of Hesse to the Queen.
Your Majesty's letters, dated at Windsor on the 30 of August, were received by us on the 23 of this month, from which we sufficiently learn your singular good-will towards us. As to the matter treated of therein, though we freely confess that our powers are wholly inadequate to what your Majesty expects from us, yet, that we might not seem in any way to fall short in our respect for you, we could not omit, as much as in us lies, to express our mind fully concerning it to your honourable envoy, Mr. Horatio Palavicino, having assured hope that your Majesty will put a generous construction on what we do, in the dangerous perverseness of our times. The supreme Ruler of all things, who holds in his hands the hearts of Kings and Princes, deploring the tragedy of this our unhappy age, stirred up by enemies of his sacred name, will bring us at last to the desired end; whom we entreat with our whole heart to defend and protect your Majesty from all the perverse and wicked designs of your enemies.—Schmalkalden, 29 September, 1586.
Signed, Wilhelm L. z. Hessen.
Add. Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 96a.]
2. The Landgrave to Palavicino.
How great is her Majesty's inclination for the defence of religion, and her solicitude to frustrate the sanguinary counsels of the Pope of Rome, as also her honourable esteem for us, is abundantly to be seen, both from your letters and from her own Praiseworthy indeed is her compassion for and zeal in protecting the members of the miserably afflicted Church of Christ May God aid more and more her pious and holy intention, and in the future as in the past, protect her against the nefarious designs of the Pope. Touching the matter upon which, in the name of the Queen, you require our advice, we confess that in a matter so difficult and obscure, this can amount to very little, and it is rather our place to receive it from her Majesty than to give it, she being endowed with such great gifts of mind and aided by such counsellors, to whom not only the state of the whole kingdom of France, but of the universal Christian commonwealth is far better known than to us But lest she should not be satisfied, considering what she desires, we will disclose to her what we think of these matters. As to the first point, that is the pecuniary subsidy, the Electors and the rest of the princes of the pure religion have come to no certain decision, nor was it easily possible to do so until they shall learn what reply has been brought by their deputies from France. If, however this should not correspond to their expectations, and if they are assured that the money would not be used against the French King, but only to deliver him and the church of Christ from the tyranny of the League and restore all things to their former state; as also for the crushing of the tyranny of the Pope, it is in no wise to be doubted that they will privately lend money to the King of Navarre, at this critical time to him and to the church, each one according to his power, not, however, in his own name but in that of a third person; as we have learnt, partly by word of mouth and partly by letters from many of the princes.
But as to the other point; viz. whether the sum of money mentioned in your letters may suffice both for beginning the business and carrying it to a happy end, truly there is no man alive who is able to declare any thing definitely in that matter, for God Almighty has power to accomplish as much with a very small band as by great forces. Twenty-four years ago certain German princes, moved by Christian compassion, aided the Gallican churches with 100,000 florins, for the raising of 2500 reiters and some thousands of foot, with which small force, by God's grace, all that was hoped for was accomplished. At this time however, when all the ways and approaches to the kingdom are said to be blocked by the League, whereas in former wars a great part were held by the Huguenots (as they are called), assuredly if we are to calculate according to human abacus, such a matter should not be put to hazard by such small forces, but there would be need of an entire army, forasmuch as it would be far better not to stir a foot than that they should be destroyed by hunger and by slaughter. But all things are in the hand of God Almighty, and it is to be hoped that if forces are sent to the frontiers of the kingdom, many will come over from the camps of the League to the German army, that they may defend and liberate their conscience, King and country from the tyranny of the League.
It is to be hoped that all who make profession of the Christian name may be endued with the same pious and Christian zeal as your most serene Queen, that by this means, with the help of God, the afflicted church of Christ may be succoured. Truly all these things rest in the decision of the supreme Father of all, who at his own time will be able to deliver the ship of Christ, tossed in this our woeful time of tempest, to the glory of his name and the weal of us all, out of so many storms of affliction and preserve it for himself from all shipwreck.—Schmalkalden, 29 September, 1586.
Copy. Add. Endd. Latin. 2 pp. [Germany, States IV. 96b.]
Oct. 7/17. M. Du Pin to Burghley.
The Sieur de Meneuf is so well-informed of the state of affairs here, that he will be able to report them to you better and more fully by word of mouth than I could write them. I will therefore only advertise you that the King my master has handed to me and I have dispatched the passports etc. needed by your nephew, Mr. Bacon, for his return to England. He has since sent an express to tell me that he had not yet received his money from England, whereupon I sent orders for him to be assisted. I see that this air does not suit him, for he is always ill. He has many good qualities, and both he and his health should be taken care of.
As to the general, I will say only one word, which is, that this prince, generous, pious and devoted to God's service, must not be abandoned or left to bear the great burden of so many enemies and so long a defensive war, which imports much to your Kingdom at this time, and protects it from the blows which might fall upon it, as much as if it were your own arms.
And seeing that your own wisdom will weigh this well, I will say no more to you, and so end my letter, but not my affection to you and desire to do you service.—La Rochelle, 17 October, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley. Fr. 1 p. [France XVI. 61.]
Oct. 11. Horatio Palavicino to Duke John Casimir.
Since I have not been summoned to be at Heidelberg on Wednesday, I at least wish this my letter to be there, to make all clear, so far as may be, as regards the resolution which the Queen my mistress, the King of Nevarre and the churches of France demand of your Excellency. And if you mean to assure them that you will aid in person, with an army worthy of you, the desolate state of France, I require in my Mistress's name that you will declare it at once, and say whether the Prince Landgrave, who has also been applied to by her Majesty to aid the enterprise, approves the resolution and will assist it; for if you will still be alone, it is expedient to know it, and not labour in vain with that Prince; declaring to you, in her Majesty's name, that if you will bind yourself to the said enterprise, and give security for the means which I shall put into your hands, I will go forward with the negotiation, and give all possible satisfaction as to the whole sum of 100,000 crowns.
It is true that if, before the muster of the army and the departure of your Excellency, the Princes of Germany and the King of Denmark should, privately or publicly, give some contribution of money or men, I claim that only half the sum granted by her Majesty shall be employed; the other half remaining in your hands with power to her Majesty to consent to or refuse its employment for the charges of the enterprise; otherwise, I have no order to pay it, save by the advice of the Landgrave, as you will have understood by her Majesty's letters.
If your Excellency agrees to the above condition, I will so go to work that you shall have all reason to be satisfied both as to the provision and assurance of the money, and none to defer the execution of your intentions; for you will see that, by the method I shall propose, no loss can come to you, though very much to us; and that unless the world is turned upside down, it is impossible that I should not keep my promise.
I have in ready money and promises from good merchants, 120,000 florins, and Signor Calandrino's word that so soon as he hears from Antwerp and Lyons that certain letters of mine are accepted, he will at once increase the credit he has given me, which will much augment the means for securing your Excellency. Other credits I have committed to my friends, which will come within a month at latest, so that within five weeks I doubt not I shall have largely the means for your assurance, failing which, I declare that you will have the right to refuse to go further, and to let the prejudice of the delay fall upon us and upon the enterprise. The money shall follow as quickly as possible, and will certainly be in your hands before the muster. I beg you to consider that by this means you will only be without entire security for thirty-five days; within which time you cannot have proceeded so far as to fear any harm. I cannot make default, for thus I should do an ill office to the Queen my mistress, and it will be sufficient assurance to you if you consider what thereby would result to the common cause, of which she sustains so great a part. To which I will add my own promises and bonds to your Excellency, and if more were in my power would offer it for your entire satisfaction. I pray you to send me your resolution and to reply to her Majesty's letters.
Endd. as copy of letter of October 11. [But qy. whether it should be 10. Cf. p. 116, infra.] Fr. 2 pp. [Germany, States IV. 97.]
Oct. 15/25. Lazaro Grimaldi to Horatio Palavicino.
Although I have had no letters from you, I must not omit to send you these lines. Signor Fabritio has had those dated September 3 and 10, in which you tell him of the conspiracy, discovered against her Majesty. I rejoice that it did not succeed.
Of our design I hope the less, seeing that nothing further comes from Spain. I believe they are awaiting a reply from England to their demands, and to know what her Majesty claims for the security of her estate.
It appears strange to the Prince that you do not reply on this point, and it would be so if it were not believed that the expectation of the reply from England is the cause. I have spoken plainly to him, but he thinks what you write in your last to Signor Fabritio surprising; viz. that it will be my part to procure that the matter shall proceed openly. You may be sure that I do all I can for the good of the cause. You must do as much, for by what I see, if her Majesty increases her forces in the Low Countries, the King is also not asleep, for he has sent Spanish infantry and ships of war into the Indies; furnishes good numbers for Flanders and is providing continually great sums of money for that war, and now perhaps for this one, and for greater ones still which he is planning.
By letters of the 29th of last month from Madrid, news comes that the "Fucheri" were to pay 500,000 crowns there and as much in Italy and Burgundy, and that others are being negotiated with for still greater provision.
I have nothing more to write save of my zeal for the common weal and my great desire for the quiet of the two crowns, which I fear will not come about unless the Queen will trust in the kindness and good faith of the King.—Genoa, 18 October, 1586.
This is the duplicate of what I wrote to Frankfort by way of Venice, to which I have nothing to add. I do not believe that any letters have come from the King by the last courier. —Genoa, 25 October.
Add. Endd. Italian. 1½ pp. [Germany, States IV. 98.]
Oct. 16. Horatio Palavicino to Walsingham.
I wrote to your honour on the 7th and dispatched the letters with all diligence, and as they were not in cipher—there being several other letters with them, especially one from the Landgrave to her Majesty, I sent no copy, in order not to risk it by another way.
As regards affairs here, I thought it well—as on the 12th Messieurs Quitri and Clervant, together with a gentleman lately come from the King of Navarre called Mongla [Sr. de Monglas] were to meet the Duke—that there should likewise be there a letter from me, clearly offering the whole sum of 100000 crowns, and saying what part I had been able safely to collect, in money and promises; and stating also what was demanded on her Majesty's part; in order that both as to the security demanded and her share of the contribution, there should be no deceit or mistake.
The letter was read and the said gentlemen heard, but they have not obtained the desired resolution from the Duke, as he is expecting the man whom he sent to the King of Denmark, and until he knows what may be hoped for from that King, will not make up his mind or bind himself. To us, however, he does not say that this is the reason, attributing it to the reply which he is expecting from the Landgrave, but we all believe it is the other.
As to the condition required by me, to hold him bound for half the money in case a contribution is made by the princes, it evidently does not please him, and will not be accepted; wherefore it will be well to decide on some reasonable declaration that the condition should not hold for every small sum given. It will be fair to fix upon a sum, and I believe 150,000 florins may be a convenient one to exact freely, seeing that in truth the army requires it; and perhaps this may be so slowly gathered from so many diverse hands, that if it should be waited for, it would not be in time to give succour to him, who cannot wait for it more than four or five months. I shall not insist beyond what is due, but, as I have already written, we cannot hope to be ready before February, the irresolution of those here having let slip so many opportunities that it is impossible to do otherwise. I greatly fear that the King of Navarre will be disheartened by so much delay.
The enterprise against Geneva in Italy is entirely cooled, but I cannot learn the true reason. To attribute it, as some do, to the King of France does not seem probable.
I have had no letter from your honour lately, and am very desirous to receive your instructions.—Francfort, 16 October, 1586.
Add. Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Germany, States IV. 99.]
Copy of the above, sent to and endorsed by Burghley. [Ibid. IV. 100.]
Oct. 16. Summary of proceedings in the Court of Admiralty against "the pirates" John Callis and Court Heckelenberch, a German, at the suit of Pierre Chambellan and his partners, French merchants.
Callis. Nov. 21, 1577, suit commenced against him for having pillaged them of four ships and their lading of great value.
Callis, then in the Marshalsea, responded in person, being brought from the said Marshalsea to do so, until discharged therefrom, May 22 following, giving four sureties, viz. John Leonard, Robert Pepper, Augustine Edwards and Simon Milord (?), bound jointly in 4000l.
It appears by the Acts of the Court that one Geoffrey Priere, Frenchman, who had principal charge of the plaintiffs' cause, was present when Callis was discharged, and agreed thereto. Since which time neither he nor his solicitor have complained of any insufficiency in the sureties.
Dec. 10, 1579, Callis was condemned in the value of the ships and their ladings, and the costs of the suit, though the greatest part of the time had been consumed in sending commissions into France and elsewhere, to examine witnesses on behalf of the plaintiffs.
Oct. 7, 1580, a commission or process was appointed against all the sureties, to produce the body of the said Callis by an appointed day, on pain of forfeiture of their bonds. This was executed only on Pepper and Edwards, and on the return of the commission into the court, their bonds were declared forfeit and execution ordered against them, since which time the cause has not been pursued any further by the plaintiffs.
Heckelenberch. April 26, 1578, the said plaintiffs entered their action against him for the said robbery, to which he replied in person, being then under arrest. On June 9, he was released, by express consent of Geoffrey Priere, on his own bond in 4000l. to appear on the next court day; but failing to do so, his bond was declared forfeit and process ordered against him for payment thereof; since which time it does not appear that the plaintiffs have pursued the cause any further.
As to the authority of Geoffrey Priere, it appears that Pierre Chambellan being in London on Jan. 17, 1576, according to our English account, gave letters of attorney and full powers to Priere to pursue the business against the two defendants, to seize, imprison, condemn and release them, as more plainly appears by the letters, inscribed in the register of Paul Typoots, notary public of London, by whom they were written.
Written below:—Certificate by one unnamed, that having diligently examined the acts of the Court of Admiralty, and the letters of attorney, and finding them accord in all points with the above report, he finds it manifest that the Judge of the Court of Admiralty has administered justice to the said Chambellan and his partners, and that if they are not yet satisfied they cannot justly complain of any save of Geoffery Priere, to whom they confided their cause, and who is to blame if insufficient sureties were received, or if execution has not so far been duly carried out. And that if reprisals have been granted against any subjects of her Majesty, or arrest made of their goods to satisfy the plaintiffs, it is against all right course of justice.
Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [France XVI. 62.]
Oct. 16. Answer of the Judge of the Admiralty to the complaints made by the French ambassador, Oct. 16, 1584 (sic), viz. that Peter "Chamberlaine" and others, French merchants, were robbed to the value of 4000l. by Callis and "Hellebourgh," against whom they have not been able to have justice up to this hour. "The untruth of which complaint may appear by this answer ensuing, the truth whereof they cannot deny."
As to their complaint that the sureties were insufficient, if this were so, Geoffrey Prior is alone to be blamed, who accepted them, and was bound to find them if they did not appear.
And for their further complaint that Court "Hellebourg" was bailed by Lord Charles Howard, now Lord Chamberlain, who was bound to yield him into prison again within thirty days after his return from Ireland, but who has neglected both promise and bond;—the Lord Chamberlain's promise was that the said Hellebourg should be forthcoming, at Hampton Court, which promise he kept, and Hellebourg might have been arrested if Prior had been diligent therein; moreover he lives in the Isle of Wight, where he is forthcoming at this present time, and if they demand it, they may have process to attach him or call him hither.
"So that in their whole suit they have found as speedy and favourable justice in England as they could desire," and if it has had no favourable issue, it is because they are not diligent in their own cause.
Wherefore the French King cannot (without open wrong and breach both of his league with her Majesty and his own law) grant reprisals to these men to seize the ships and goods of English merchants trafficking into France.
Quotes the law "Reprisalia tunc solummodo concedi possunt etc.," and to show that this is now in force in France, refers them to Jean Papon, one of the King's Council, in his Notaire, in the chapter des lettres de Marque [quotes therefrom].
Endd. "16 October, 1586." 4¼ pp. [France XVI. 63.]
Oct. 17. The King of Denmark to Queen Elizabeth.
On behalf of Johan Belerigh, of a noble family in Saxony, recommended to him by Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, who, learning that her Majesty either is taking or intends to take certain Germans as guards for her person, has humbly prayed him to commend him to her. Prays that if it be so, she will include him in the number, and if not that she will employ him in some martial work, worthy of a noble gentleman.—Our palace of Nykoping (Nicopia), 17 October, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. Latin. ¾ p. [Denmark I. 89.]
Oct. 17. Horatio Palavicino to the Landgrave of Hesse.
I thank your Excellency for writing to me and sending me your reply for the Queen my mistress; for seeing with what piety to God and affection for the common cause you sympathise with and enter into her Majesty's zeal, you make me very hopeful for our affairs, being assured that no Prince can more aid and strengthen her design than yourself.
Being now every day more certified of the necessitous state of the King of Navarre's affairs, and continually pressed to assure him of aid, I could not but urge Duke Casimir to embrace the enterprise; and take order on my part that the succour I am to furnish should be ready. Thus I made him the offer which you will see by the copy I send you of my letter to him of the 10th instant, in order to lose no more time, while waiting for the contributions of the Princes, which—from what your Excellency says—might be so much delayed as to be greatly prejudicial to the King of Navarre and to France; I being content, as regards the indemnity of the Queen, that the Duke should accept and bind himself to the condition attached in my said letter. In reply, I received the letter of which I also send you a copy, from which I judge that he tacitly agrees to my condition and accepts my offer, rather than the contrary, and that only your Excellency's consent is needed, as you will see by the letter which he has sent me to forward to you.
I cannot omit to give you the reasons which have moved me to consider the said condition just and necessary. Her Majesty is charged with a war, and with great expences, for which reason she intended at first not to contribute more than fifty thousand crowns, relying upon the sending of money from the King of Navarre, and the furnishing of contributions by the Princes for so good an action. But as the King has not been able to send the money, and the Princes are delaying until the return of their ambassadors, she now augments her first sum, not because her expences have decreased, but because it is needful to hasten the execution of the matter, and obviate the delay of the others, which service ought to be gratefully acknowledged by all, especially by Duke Casimir; but the further fifty thousand crowns not to be touched in case the contributions of the Princes arrive in time to provide for the needs of the enterprise; thus responding as generously to her Majesty as she responds to the common cause. These are my reasons, and I doubt not but that you will acknowledge them for good ones; yet if, on the contrary, you think that her Majesty ought to contribute the whole of the money absolutely, and that the Duke cannot otherwise bind himself to the enterprise, I shall yield to your opinion, knowing that the Queen will approve of all that you resolve; as also, if you approve of my condition, I have no doubt but that the Duke will do the same. I pray you speedily to send Duke Casimir the term you think should be fixed, and exhort him to begin the business without more delay. And to write another letter to her Majesty, informing her of the reasons for your resolution in regard to her money.— Francfort, 17 October, 1586.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Germany, States IV 101.]
Oct. 17. Horatio Palavicino to Duke John Casimir.
I have not intended to go to the Landgrave unless he sent for me, or that you wished it, for his first reply seemed to me sufficient; and to withdraw from your Excellency, from whom must come not only the resolution but the execution of the aid for France, would have been a very pernicious loss of time. By my last to your Excellency, I proposed all the conditions of my negotiation, expecting that thereupon you would accept my offer of 120000 florins, in money and promises, and that we should proceed to the receiving thereof and coming to an agreement. I regret the delay, whereof the cause does not appear in your letter, which seems not to be adverse to my proposition in any way. This delay being a mortal blow to the life of France, I am constrained again to press for the desired resolution and to declare anew the tenor of my former letter . . . . (fn. 6) As her Majesty's further advance is in default of other contributions, it is only reasonable that—if these should have come—she should be spared; which however need not be understood to comprehend the whole time of the war, but only up to the Muster; nor should it be stayed for each small contribution, but only for a sum not only equal to but double this half, so that your Excellency may see that she does not wish to omit to provide what is necessary.
The Landgrave, in the reply sent to my first letters, does not seem to object to this, for he praises up to the sky the intention of the Queen; approves the justice and acknowledges the necessity of the cause and avows that the Princes will not abandon it, either in one way or another. So that I see nothing to hold your Excellency back a single day from the conclusion of the affair. Nevertheless, I have written again to the Landgrave to inform him of my proceedings with you, and of the conclusion which I expect therefrom, and as soon as I receive his reply will let your Excellency know of it.— Francfort, 17 October, 1586.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Germany, States IV. 102.]
Oct 18. Stafford to Burghley.
Is "so extremely stuffed with a cold" that he can neither hold up his head or his eyes and therefore refers his Lordship to his letters to Mr. Secretary, "the one of Monsieur de Reaux, being here sent from the King of Navarre; the other what hath come here out of the mouth [of] a man of the French ambassador touching this conspiracy in England." (fn. 7) —Paris, 18 October, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ½ p. [France XVI. 64.]
Oct. 18/28. "D" [M. Du Pin] to Stafford.
The King my master has again dispatched to England M. de Meneuf, who came over with the English ships which he had solicited, but which have quickly returned without him. By him, the King has shown her. Majesty the state of affairs here and what has passed in regard to the interview. But as two or three days ago the Queen Mother sent her escuyer, M. de la Roche (fn. 8) towards the King to urge the said interview, and is herself on her way to St. Maixent in order the more to oblige him to it, he desires me to send you a packet to forward to M. de Busenval, in which he informs him of all that has passed with the said Queen in relation to the interview, that he may enlighten the English Queen; not wishing to hide from her anything relating to his affairs . . . By which letters she will see that although the Queen Mother is coming nearer, nothing is yet settled about the said interview, nor has that King even made up his mind to listen to her, if the demands he has made are not granted, which will require further dispatches between them.
In fine, if he is succoured, he will do all that the most resolute prince in the world can and ought, for deliverance of the churches and preservation of good men. (fn. 9) But if he sees himself abandoned by those who are joined in the same cause, who have very great interest therein, and whose States are sheltered and warded by his long and continual resistance to their enemies, he will be constrained to his great regret to give ear to those legitimate means which offer themselves for his preservation with honour and safety (fn. 9) which nevertheless, he will do as late as it is possible.—La Rochelle, 28 October, 1586.
Apparently holograph. Signed D. Seal. Add. Fr. 1¼ pp. [France XVI. 65.]
[Enclosed in Stafford's letter of Nov. 6 to Burghley. See p. 132 below.]
Oct. 22./Nov. 1. The French King to M. de Chasteauneuf.
I am very glad to see that you continue, in pursuance of my orders, to give all the assistance you can to the Queen of Scotland, my sister-in-law, both by what you have said to the Queen of England, and by what you lately wrote to her on hearing that those whom she had ordered to interrogate my sister-in-law were ready to depart; for which I praise you greatly, and beg you to continue at all opportunities to represent to my good sister . . . that although my sister-in-law had in some sort participated in the conspiracy said to have been made against her—which I thank God infinitely has not been executed —she ought nevertheless to be excused, seeing that what she may have done proceeds from her just desire to purchase her liberty and deliver herself from the captivity in which she has been held for many years. Not supposing, whatever reply my good sister may have made to you, that there is any law in England which would render my sister-in-law guilty and subject to any jurisdiction, whether for this accusation or any other which might be brought forward against her, being a born sovereign princess, who, by the privilege common to all other Kings, is exempt from human jurisdiction and subject only to the judgment of God. And even if this opinion might be impugned, which I do not think, nor that my good sister might go on to have any action brought against my sister-in-law and less still to attempt anything against her person without offending all the kings and sovereign princes of Christendom, nevertheless my affectionate prayers to her to display her kindness and clemency in regard to the Queen her near kinsman ought to move her, proceeding from her best and most perfect friend, who asks nothing but what her own good nature has many times shown her inclined to for persons who could not approach to the respect and consideration in which she should hold my sister-in-law and also myself . . . hoping that she will not refuse this request, which I desire you to reiterate on my behalf, and once again praying you to embrace the protection of my said sister-in-law both as a thing which I have much at heart and which concerns the preservation of my reputation.—St. Germain en Laye, 1 November, 1586.
Signed Henry. Countersigned Brulart.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [France XVI. 66.]
Copy of the preceding letter. Endd. Fr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XVI. 67.]
Oct. 23./Nov. 2. De L'Aubespine-Chasteauneuf to Burghley.
At M. de Stafford's last audience, on the 13th of last month, the King spoke to him so particularly of the Queen of Scotland and of his desire to see her favourably treated, as having been a Queen of France, that I am assured M. de Stafford has reported it to the Queen, to whom I have orders from the King to repeat verbally the very words he used.
Wherefore I had intended to go today to the Queen at Windsor, having been informed that on Tuesday next all the lords of the Council and those who have assisted at the interrogation of the said Queen of Scotland were to assemble to pass judgment upon her. But it having pleased her Majesty to postpone my audience to another day, I am forced, to my great regret, to make the present request to her in writing; that it will please her—since she has shown so much the sure friendship which she bears to the King as to send M. Houton [i.e. Wotton] to inform him of all that has passed in this matter of the Queen of Scotland—to suspend her judgment until M. Houton's return, being sure that my Master would be much gratified thereby, as he has greatly at heart the preservation of the said Queen of Scotland; so much so that by his dispatch of the 16th of last month, he orders me to tell the Queen that in no other, greater affair could he be so much gratified by her. Moreover, having been informed by me of the departure of M. Houton, he has delayed the sending of a gentleman of importance to her Majesty until he had heard him; after whose audience, he will not fail to dispatch the said gentleman; whose journey will be quite useless after the judgment. I pray you therefore to lay this my request before her Majesty, since I can not have audience before Tuesday, a thing which I infinitely desired, to fulfil my Master's orders, who will esteem judgment given against the Queen of Scotland to greatly touch his reputation; and for myself I shall be much blamed by him if I do not use all possible importunities to prevent that Queen from falling into the disgrace of being condemned as guilty of a matter which, although it be serious, yet the King assures himself that the benignity and clemency of the Queen, joined to the regard she has always had for the King's friendship and the prayers which he has already addressed to her, will override whatever the Queen of Scotland may have done amiss.
I will add this one word; that M. de Stafford, coming out from his audience, said to M. Brulart that he felt sure the Queen of Scotland, although guilty, would come to no harm, which being reported to the King by the said Brulart, gave his Majesty great satisfaction, and is the reason why he has waited for M. Houton's arrival before sending a gentleman to her Majesty.—London, 2 November, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [France XVI. 68.]
Oct. 23. Horatio Palavicino to Burghley.
Sends copies of his letters to Mr. Secretary of Oct. 16 and of this date, and prays him also to look at what he has written to these Princes (also sent to Mr. Secretary), by which his lordship will fully learn how difficult others are, and what weary work he has to satisfy them. Hopes that although the trouble and delay have been great, the design will be brought to a good end.—Francfort, 23 October, 1586.
Postscript. They write from Italy that Cardinal Granvelle has ended his days in Spain.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Italian. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 103.]
Oct. 23. Horatio Palavicino to Walsingham.
I wroto to your honour on the 16th of all that had passed up to that time. Next day the Duke sent me his letters for the Landgrave to go with mine, and I sent off two, one to this Duke, declaring anew my intention and confirming her Majesty's offer of 120,000 florins, which I had certainly in ready money and bonds; and the other for the Prince [Landgrave], giving him my reasons for the condition demanded, and praying him to interpose for its acceptance, or to arrange the matter accord ing to his judgment, as you will see more at large by the copies of these letters sent herewith. (fn. 10) The first has had such effect that the Duke has agreed to my offer, as M. Quitri writes to me in his name; and that tomorrow either M. Beutterich or some other will be here to exchange with me the necessary writings. I hope that now all the difficulties are overcome. and believe that you may assure her Majesty that the business will be concluded. Without promising the Duke the whole sum offered, it was not possible to soothe his distrust, notwithstanding that his own people made plain to him the great difficulties which there were in doing it in so short a time; but, God be praised, I have been able to reach this point, and now await the passing of the writings and the loosing of my obligation and of those who are bound; with provision of the rest of the money; of all of which I will give you daily notice.
The ambassadors of these Princes have returned from the French court, and have brought—as I hear from Heidelberg—a reply which takes away all hope of peace, and which ought the rather to move them to aid the common cause. May God convert all past delays into a greater good!
We hear that the Turks have taken by stealth a city in Hungary named Comar; a frontier town of Christendom of great importance. It lies upon an island in the Danube, only two short days journey from Vienna; wherefore it is esteemed a great loss. They have shown their usual cruelty there. God grant that this acquisition may not incite them to come further. —Francfort, 23 October, 1586.
Add. Endd. Italian. 1¾ pp. [Germany, States IV. 104.]
Copy of the above, endorsed by Burghley. [Ibid. IV. 105.]
Oct. 23. Horatio Palavicino to [Secretary] Davison.
Having today heard of your election to so honourable a post in her Majesty's service, I cannot but take up the pen to tell you how greatly I rejoice thereat. All good subjects of the realm must be well content when her Majesty makes such a choice, whereby we have a pledge of the care which God has for our preservation, and a hope that his service will be established in the church, and justice flourish in the commonwealth. I congratulate M. de Walsingham, who has gained so good and wise a companion; by whom he will be relieved in his great occupations.
That such a charge has fallen to you delights me greatly, having had the pleasure of knowing you intimately, and esteemed you so much as always to desire for you a better fortune. May you long enjoy it, and show thereby that you are worthy of even a greater charge.
My letters to M. de Walsingham will show you that we are about to come to a good conclusion in this affair.—Francfort, 23 October, 1586.
Add Endd. 1½ pp. [Germany, States IV. 106.]
Oct. 24. (fn. 11) Dr. Lobetius to Walsingham.
I believe I have not written to you since the 11th of last June, when I also wrote to Messieurs Waad and Rogers. It is long since I have heard anything from you, and can well believe that you are too busy to tell me of the strange accidents which have happened in your parts, to the great regret of good men. This is only humbly to salute you by the Sieur Solcker, who is about to take his annual pilgrimage into your quarters; and to make the excuses of the good old man, M. Sturme for not writing, as he can see very little, not a thing to be wondered at in a person in the eightieth year of his age. For the rest he is very well, and I humbly pray you to let him have his usual pension although he does not write; of which one term is already due and the other will be nearly so before this bearer returns.
If I write you news, they will be old before you receive them, otherwise we have no lack of them.
The Turks have lately come into Hungary, to the great hurt of many Christians, but for all that, the truces are not broken. The new Elector of Saxony has not yet seen the Emperor, deferring it until an Imperial Diet, when he can receive investiture and do homage, with the solemnities requisite in such cases; but he has several times sent ambassadors to his Imperial Majesty. I shall tell you nothing of the return of the ambassadors of the protestant princes, nor of the reply they received, for you know as much or more than we do. The Swiss have lately held a Diet of all their cantons at Baden; the assembly being principally on account of the dearness and scarcity of victuals, in order to find means for providing in the matter; the five little Catholic cantons setting forth their griefs, and showing the assembly that for some time the governor of Lombardy has allowed no provisions to come from his government, which has brought about a famine; as to which it has been resolved to send an ambassador to the said governor to remonstrate with him, the arrangements for whose dispatch have been given in charge to two Catholic cantons, viz. Saleure and Ury.
The Duke of Savoy presses hardly upon those of Geneva, by reason of which the town has three companies of Swiss as garrison, and those of Berne are also in arms; seeing which the Duke has suddenly put garrisons into neighbouring places, making defences more vigorously than before, and not letting anything go from his country to the said Geneva. He has also had six galleys built on the Lake, for his service in case of need.—Strasbourg, 24 October, 1586.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 107.]
Oct. 28/Nov. 7. Captain Jacopo da Pissa to Walsingham.
Wrote last on Oct. 24, by the usual way of Paris, under cover to Vercelino, to whom he understands his honour wishes the letters to be addressed in future. Nothing of importance has since happened. The few Spaniards who are going to Flanders have already crossed the Alps [i Monti]. His Majesty has provided three millions here and five millions in Germany. In a short time it will be known whom they are going to serve.
Three days ago the confidential agent of the Duke of Guise and many other French gentlemen arrived, coming from Rome. The Governor and nobles of this city went out to meet them, and they are lodged in the court. Tomorrow they set out for Turin.—Milan, 7 November, 86.
Add. Endd. Italian. ½ p. [Italy I. 15.]
Feb. and Oct. News from Rome.
Extract of letters from Rome of date Feb. 18–28, 1585–6. Preparations in Spain against England. The Spaniards hope to crush the Queen rather by guile than in battle.
By letters from Constantinople it is reported that certain there are trying by means of the French ambassador to have the English ambassador dismissed. Not only French but Spanish gold will, it is thought, help to bring it about.
The Pope still collects money from all parts; and endeavours to bring it about that the northern heretics shall not be able to confer with the other western ones for counsel and help. Pridie Cal. Martii, 1586.
[This extract was not found in time to be noticed under date.]
On the same sheet.
Extract from letters written from Rome in October 1586.
It is reported that the Roman lords are discussing in what way Geneva may be attacked and the Queen of England crushed. Which puts me in mind of these words, viz:—
All ways and means are being discussed, great preparations are being made, and they only await the resolutions of Spain, which for the most part, are wont to be slow.
[This sentence is in Italian.]
Our French allies have promised the Pope very confidently to undertake that next year no heretic shall be heard to speak in France.
Latin. 1½ pp. [Newsletters LXXII., 28.]


  • 1. Evidently that from Grimaldi, calendared on p. 100, supra.
  • 2. This letter is alluded to in a memorandum of March 1, 1586–7, below.
  • 3. Not now with the letter.
  • 4. i.e. those from the Landgrave of Hesse.
  • 5. scudi di sole; the ecu de soleil of France.
  • 6. See p. 111, supra.
  • 7. The two letters to Walsingham here referred to are wanting. Nor are they to be found either in the Hatfield collection or amongst the Cotton MSS.
  • 8. Antoine de Brehaut, Sieur de la Roche, premier ecuyer tranchant [i.e. chief carver] to the Queen Mother.
  • 9. —† This paragraph is underlined.
  • 10. Calendared under their dates, pp. 116, 117, supra.
  • 11. See note under date Feb. 24, infra.