Elizabeth: July 1586, 16-31

Pages 53-63

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1, 1586-1588. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1927.

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July 1586, 16-31

July 16/26. Lazaro Grimaldi to Palavicino.
I wrote to you on the 19th, and have received none from you since, therefore shall have little to say. Prince Doria has had orders from the King not to sail with the galleys, which are to set out in three or four days for Barcelona, under conduct of Zanettino Spinola, the nephew of his Excellency. He himself will remain here, and in or about September will go to Turin, to hold the son of the Duke of Savoy at the font, in the name of the Prince of Spain, as commanded by his Majesty. His not going away cannot but serve for the prosecuting with greater ease the design by us communicated to him, if from her Majesty the Queen he sees occasion for doing so. The Prince of Parma is making progress in the Low Countries, and if he continues, as the ministers of the King hope, it may render our negotiation more difficult. I hope however for a speedy and good resolution, for the universal advantage of Christendom and the service of the two crowns.—Genoa, 26 July, 1586.
Add. Endd. Italian. ¾ p. [Germany, States IV. 68.]
July 17. (fn. 1) Stafford to Walsingham.
Though there can be no certainty in the matter, as I have but just now had the advertisement, I send this dispatch in haste with what I have been told, that you may find means to discover more. I will try to do so here, but believe it will be very hard.
A man of good weight, and from whom I have had very sound and true advertisements since I came hither, and very few or none untrue, has sent one in post to me from Chantelou, where the Queen Mother is, to tell me that yesterday Pinart brought letters to Queen Mother, received out of Scotland, from his son, whereof he read one very long one to her; and when it was read once, he was made to read it again, after which they had long speech and were very pleasant. Being retired from Queen Mother, he came to the cupboard, where Villeroy came to him, "this party approaching, to overhear what he could." Pinart read part of the letter, and he heard Glaude Hamilton named and much commended and here and there a word of some stirring there; and [Pinart] "gave great commendation to his son-in-law for his manner of negotiating in Scotland, which the other applauded to, coldly enough . . . He heard them further name the Queen of Scots often, and the Queen also, and heard Pinart withal say these words, which he understood very plainly:—We may perchance see this poor princess that hath been so long in captivity and misery, ere long be in as great greatness as ever she was. And heard Villeroy answer again that the Queen [Elizabeth] was a very wise princess, that followed counsel, and that had governed hitherto her affairs very wisely, and that he had not seen yet her good fortune fail her in any thing."
The Queen Mother going away and Pinard with her, I shall scarcely be able to discover more of the matter, as I might if they were here, but all that I can do, I will. What confirms my opinion that there is some great matter is that the Bishop of Glasgow a day or two ago had letters from Scotland, and I am credibly informed he has it given out that there is a stir in Scotland, and that Glaude Hamilton is a chief actor in it.
Pinard has desired me to write to her Majesty to be pleased to give his son leave to come through England, as he is coming hither for a month to despatch some business of great importance to himself.—17 June [sic], 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [France XVI. 38 bis.]
The words in italics are in cipher, partly deciphered.
July 19. News from France.
The general of this navy is M. de Chatre, governor of Dieppe; his lieutenant, M. de Monntes [Monchy], M. Senarpont's son.
Captains:—Michael Russeau of Dieppe, in the Little Brissac; Captain Chamberlain, in a barque of his own. It is thought that Niepville and Cokeville [Coqueville] will go in the fleet, and that one of them will be admiral, going in the Great Brissac, of 360 tons.
The fleet is to be of ten ships, and the whole number of tons is 2200 and of soldiers 2000, not yet levied.
As he passed by Motteville, Millerois, the lieutenant, and others sent to give order to make provision for these soldiers till they be embarked. The Dieppe ships go to Newhaven to take in flesh and cider, but their biscuit is baked at Dieppe. They have victuals only for three months. They have taken out of the town and castle of Dieppe ten pieces of battery; of which four are shipped in the Salamander, four in the Pelican and two in the Perle.
The enterprise is very secret, some thinking it is for Scotland, some to meet with Sir Fras. Drake, some for Rochelle. The "most suspect" is that it is against Jersey and Guernsey.
The pay of this navy, for victuals and rigging of the ships, is borne by Paris and Rouen; and by way of imprunt (anproint) Paris has disbursed forty thousand and Rouen twenty thousand crowns. The rest of the supply is taken out of the pensions due to the gunners and other naval officers, remaining in the Treasurer's hands.
It is said that it will be about the 20th of August before this fleet is ready.
Year date given in endorsement. 2¼ pp. [Newsletters IX. 30.]
July 23./Aug. 2. De l'Aubespine Chateauneuf to Burghley.
I forgot yesterday to make a request to you on behalf of a man of letters, a foreigner, in this country, called Dr. Nyfus, who is worthy of your favour in respect of his learning. He has had a suit at law here for four or five years, and having at last obtained a judgment from the Chancellor, and sentence against his adversaries, he begs for authority from her Majesty and yourself, forasmuch as, the parties having been put in prison, it seems that they would rather remain in this misery than pay him, wherefore he prays for permission to seize their goods (they being foreigners as well as himself). Moreover he demands the property of his father and mother, which has been taken from him by strangers. I assure myself that in so just an affair, you will have pity on a man of letters such as he is.—2 August, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand. I pray you take order with those who have opened my chests, and give order for the future to all the searchers not to open anything which I certify is mine.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XVI. 39.]
July 23./Aug. 2. Lazaro Grimaldi to Horatio Palavicino.
I have received yours of the 2nd of last month, and am comforted to hear that you have returned in health from your journey to Saxony, and have proved by your diligence your care for her Majesty's service. The Prince Doria has had nothing further from Spain; nor do I expect any other reply unless first some satisfaction be offered on the part of her Majesty, which might incline the King and his ministers to give ear to the projects for an agreement. . . .
The said Prince will not set out for Turin before the end of September, and I am inclined to accompany him in that journey, and certainly shall do so if I think my presence may be of service to the business we have in hand. The galleys departed for Spain yesterday morning. I hear that a gentleman has arrived at the Spanish King's court from the King of Denmark, with letters urging that King to an accord with her Majesty, and to receive into grace, with fair conditions, the people of Holland and Zeeland. I do not know the result.— Genoa, August 2, 1586.
Add. Endd. Italian. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 69.]
July 24./Aug. 3. — to Mr. May.
"That of the 17th of July, containing the preface of a tragical event, imminent towards this proud kingdom . . . I doubt not but is come to your hands. And since then, having seen the finishing of the first Act, am the rather persuaded in the certainty of the rest." The King cannot set forth any forces, as he has not a rial left, or friendships to presume upon, and "goeth about to kyntare [quintar] his subjects, the only way in this general misery to raise a rebellion." The Seigneuries in Italy used to be ever ready to obey with men and money but now deny both.
The lanzknechts have always been his soldiers, ready prest, but now refuse to serve without present payment. The rumour is so spread of Sir Fr. Drake's valiancies and the King's wants that "the princes everywhere this ways are persuaded that he is utterly defeated of his Indies," and hold him in derision, and it is doubted lest those of Naples will rise. "And to kyntare his subjects, which is to 'cull' out the fifth man, and to have the fifth part of every man's wealth," when the countries are so poor and so meanly populated as not to be sufficient to defend it against those inhabiting it amongst them [qy. the Moors], how shall he keep his seat if his adversaries join with these and invade his kingdom.
Oh misery of miseries to Spain, if this should be effected! Where is Don Antonio? Let him look out. Of the present need there is another testimony. "All Englishmen's goods were in depository, and now and then, he that had the forecast got a fleece thereof, so that by this means, since the embargo, some good part hath been underhand shifted away. But now within this three days Anthony de Guavara hath set all upon pregon in the Grades [qy. had it publicly cried at the steps] . . . at which time I feared that which now I feel; there wanted not a malsyn [informer] who told Torteledo of my lodge of oils. I offered him the one half to colour the other, but with outrageous threats he said he would do his diligence to make us all sudar [sweat]. Even the apparel from our barks have they taken and sold by pregon . . . Villa Reale told Perse Harebrone he was not beholding to any merchants or other whosoever in England por vida de cavelero. Mark these unthankful beasts, that were banqueted and made much of, how far they are from requiting, as they will not acknowledge the good turn; but a merchant of Canaries which came from Porto Rico laden with sugar, taken by men of war and carried to London, confessed, although their ship and goods were taken, yet he and thirty two mariners were much made of, and had free liberty to depart without molestation." But with a Spaniard, "the better he is used, the less to esteem and worse to report; . . . In mean time our poor mariners here must content themselves in their most miserable state, eaten with vermin, languishing in dungeon and dying of famine."
There are now thirteen dead, and all the rest sick. This has been reported to the King, who seems to take compassion, but his prelating Council hinders him from showing mercy. They have ordered all the Emanuel's men to the Holy House. "I doubt things be not dealt with in England as they ought. There is some 'Achitofell.' It behoves her Majesty to have regard; we are her true hearted subjects, who hear and see in this place many bad matters intended by slights and cunnings."
Ships' companies come from Norway report that they met no man of war all the way, so that I doubt there is some drawing back in England. It is strange that none of her Majesty's ships, nor those with letters of reprisal are abroad in this troublesome time.
The fleet of merchants which in February I told you were preparing are now twenty-two sail in Cadiz (Cals) Road, ready for the next fair wind. With them are six gallies to stay at Santo Domingo, while the ships proceed for Nova Spania.
Our reprisal men should be encouraged to haste forth, for they have not one good piece of ordnance, "and for sailors, labradores and vynatores, simple sots, without comparison." In times past none went to their Indies that were not gentlemen, "but now Alcalde after Alcalde is posted hither and thither, and even out of their basest to compell their going." On news from the Havana that Sir Fra. Drake has passed 'Nomera de Dios' to Cape St. Antony homewards and that their fleet of New Spain will presently come home, there is another fleet preparing in haste at Seville for Terra Firma.
The court of Spain feels "how weighty it is to be cut off from their ordinary trades of the Indies, making them . . . volens nolens to set forward their trumpery fleets, as having lost the hatchet, to cast the helm after." It were very expedient for the lords of her Majesty's Council to give encouragement to all to set forth shipping, and "he that wins gold, let him wear it."
If I should set down all the plots and ridiculous motions in the court of Spain for the annoyance of England, I should enter into a labyrinth of discourses. "Sometimes they treat how to work a feigned peace, until better opportunity; sometimes are mad and will fetch away England in baskets. Sometimes enter directly into the consideration they are unable to avenge their quarrel, cursing the unfortunate revolting of the Low Countries . . . so that what they would they cannot perform, and what they should their proud natures will not humble them unto." I praise God that by two such snaffles as the taking of Holland and Zeeland and the other of the Indies her Majesty has present power to restrain their devices and drive them into despair. Blessed be God and the men whom he hath raised to be his instruments, and cursed those who would hinder the proceedings of the same, for the neglect of either of these is the betraving of her sovereignty and of Englishmens' lives. For King Philip lacks shipping and mariners, which Holland and Zeeland might furnish him with. But he has not Holland and Zeeland, and so must still lack the shipping and mariners for defence of his Indies, while he wants money, wherewith his Indies should furnish him, for the getting of Holland and Zeeland.
Touching treaties of dissembling peace, I bethink me that there is an ambassador here from Denmark, who is said to have dealt for a reconciliation between the King and her Majesty, "but now that speech is qualified upon news out of France of some imagined mishaps in England. There is a pad in the straw (fn. 2), and now, no doubt, some notable villainy intended. Would to God her Majesty would single out some of her careless courtiers, for there are vile men about her . . . . When the Spaniards have been resisted valiantly in their forcible dealings, then their golden God, M. de Santa Cruce (as they term it) shall do the feat, setting lewd persons awork to destroy and kill princes and to subvert the loyalty of subjects. Such likewise is their speeches of Sir Fras. Drake; that after the taking of Cartagene† and ransom of the town, he used much banqueting with his own and their country people, therefore make it a wonder that he was not by Spanish practices entrapped or killed . . .
"And as her Majesty is to take heed of these treacheries, so is she to beware of a dissembled peace, as an only couler for a better opportunity. First let the Spaniards have a good scouring by war to cool their pride . . . and then a good peace of itself will ensue, and an honourable estimation for ever of her Majesty and realm . . . And now that the gates of the Indies are broken open, which is the taking away of their ordnance, let there be no neglect to issue in."
The [loss of] their ordnance is their greatest grief; which they give out to be 52 at Santi Ago, brass 77 besides iron at Santo Domingo, and 70 at Cartagene.
All Spain cannot supply the want again. Our English ordnance begins to bear sway here, and they will give much for such a commodity. The Easterlings bring some store; I marvel a matter of that importance is not better looked to. It is a very bad and unconscionable trade to sell ordnance to strangers. I wish any who carries it out of the realm might be hanged as a traitor. "We were better send our enemies shot and powder, for they have their end, but ordnance are of perpetuity." There should be some sworn officer to oversee this abuse, or it will not be remedied. We have therein a wonderful blessing of God, not proper to any other nation. Let us give him thanks and use it accordingly.
A very bad old fellow, R.B. (fn. 3) (fn. 4) that went from hence not long since for England, should be looked to. For his pretence, I refer you to the report of Sr. James and William Stalleng, who can also tell you the names of the mariners deceased and other matters which I omit to write.—St. Lucar, 3 August, 1586, stilo novo.
Endd. "A copy of a letter out of Spain." 2¾ pp., very closely written. [Spain II. 68.]
[The signature has been very carefully cancelled. William appears to be the Christian name, and the surname might well be Stalleng, but the allusion above seems to exclude this.]
July 25./Aug. 4. De L'Aubespine-Chateauneuf to Burghley.
Now makes request on behalf of those whom he formerly asked might be punished, i.e. the searchers who opened his chests and whom he hears are in prison. Thanks her Majesty heartily, but not desiring their further punishment, prays that they may be set at liberty, especially a young man named Smith (of whom he never complained) on condition that they shall not in future touch anything which belongs to him. Asks for an order which he may send to those of Dover, Rye etc.—4 August, 1586. Unsigned.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [France XVI. 40.]
July 28./Aug. 7. Stephen, King of Poland, to the Queen.
On behalf of the men of Danzig, his subjects, who have always had (as he thinks her Majesty must have seen) a common interest with the other Hanseatic cities in questions of commerce and other matters; so that, there having been some slight controversy between these other cities and her subjects, it is not perhaps to be wondered at that they of Danzig have followed the judgment of the rest. But he having desired that this, like his other ports, should be open to all her subjects, and that they should trade there as heretofore, the Danzigers, yielding to his order, have not only showed all good will in the matter, but maintain that it is not their fault that her Majesty's said subjects do not come there freely, and are not trading under the laws which were in force before any controversy arose.
But they think that, in return, they should have something done for them in England; saying that they were once endowed with exceptional liberties there, which have lately been taken from them and which they pray may be restored; and secondly complaining that without any thought of their consent, or the custom of other realms, an edict (of which they cannot even get a copy) is designed against them, fixing the amount of yew to be imported by them into her Majesty's kingdom, and also that a fine is being exacted from them.
As they have brought this to his notice, and as he considers it his duty as a King not to fail his subjects in what seems to him so equitable a demand, he affectionately entreats her Highness that, as the result of this his intercession, she will the more readily grant what justice itself demands, and make sure that his subjects, who have willingly restored to hers their ancient custom of trade, shall not only be once more admitted to the rights which they formerly had in her realm, but shall also be freed from the oppression of new and unaccustomed charges at the hands of her officers. . . . Grodno, 7 August, (fn. 5) 1586. Signed Stephanus Rex.
Add. Endd. Latin. 2¼ pp. [Poland I. 41.]
July 29. Stafford to Walsingham.
This last week, Count Montbeliard (Montbelliar) and the other ambassadors from Germany arrived, "of whose coming the King being informed, he went away from hence under colour to go to the bains for his health," but left word that they should be received and entreated honourably, "as they be indeed."
Finding the King absent, and no great likelihood of his speedy return, they sent a courier to him, to desire leave to repair to him, as Count Montbeliard and the other Count with him "must necessarily be at home in the end of this month," which courier not being looked for again for six or seven days, I thought good (having little to do) to go take the air abroad, meaning to be back in Paris on Thursday.
They sent another courier into Germany to make relation to their Princes of how they had been treated and what course they had taken.
"The Abbot of Guadaigny is returned from the King of Navarre to the Queen Mother, who sent him presently to the King. Passing by Orleans [he] gave out to some that the King of Navarre desired nothing more than a peace.
"M. de Nevers is gone to the Queen Mother, and his wife follows after with her daughter, to see if they can conclude a marriage between M. de Montpensier and her.
"The King met with the Bishop of Nazareth (who is to succeed in this Nuncio's place) at La Charité, to whom he declared plainly the whole estate of his realm, and told him that he desired nothing more than peace and quietness, which he would never agree unto with alteration of religion, but if it might be done with liberty of conscience, he hoped that the Pope his Master would not mislike of it. The Bishop answered him that for that he could say nothing, because he knew not his Master's will therein, but he was sure his Master would be very glad to see him peaceably obeyed and honoured of his subjects as a King ought to be.
"The news of the taking of 'Nuz' [Neuz] is given out here, very hard and cruel.
"The Duke de Maine is still before Castillion, (fn. 6) where they within the town have behaved themselves like men, and have given him more pain than any place he hath [been] before yet; they kept him long out of the fauxbourgs, and gave him many skirmishes. He hath with great difficulty entered them now, with the loss of many of his men and few of theirs. It is thought he will not enter the town, or if he do, the gain will be small in respect of the loss he is like to make before he win it, which shall make him unable to assail any other place. D'Allein, that is in it hath done so well as he hath won himself a great deal of honour and reputation.
"M. Joyeuse's army is not yet all together, nor I think will not be a good while. M. d'Espernon's goes but slackly forward." —Paris, 29 July, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [France XVI. 41.]
July 30. Horatio Palavicino to Burghley.
I wrote last by William Shute, who will have informed your lordship fully of what has passed and of the state of these affairs. Wherefore it only remains to add that Casimir has kept to the times appointed, and I hope will be in Luneburg today or tomorrow with all those princes, who had arrived there on the 20th with very fine companies. If he should not obtain his desires there, it will sufficiently appear how little our solicitations avail, but I hope that he will not come away with empty hands, especially as he is very ardent to embrace the enterprise, and will probably do his utmost to persuade them.
This greater warmth proceeds from his promising himself more facility in its execution, and from a message lately received from the Prince of Condé, who has given him to understand that they confidently expect his coming, and that he will go to meet him [Casimir] as soon as he knows that he is ready to march; an offer which has been very grateful to him, and which will certainly move him greatly, if he is not entirely debarred by those princes from all he asks for; but otherwise it must be confessed that we shall be able to do nothing; there being no news of Saracino or of the money he was to bring. I have nothing more to say, save that it being understood that the ambassadors of these princes had started for Paris, and that the King was waiting for them before going to the waters; and that the Queen Mother was gone to have an interview with the King of Navarre, many declare that a peace may very probably be concluded, considering the great confusion in the affairs of the whole Kingdom.—Frankfort, 30 July, 1586.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Italian, 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 70.]
July 30. "Contribution of the Electors and other Princes with some Imperial cities to the use of the King of Navarre and others of the Religion, if the Ambassadors sent unto the King of France should return without good resolution."
"Whole Saxony," 40000.
"All the Counts Palatine," 30000. The Duke of Prussia, 30000.
Elector of Brandenburg; Duke Julius of Brunswick; Duke of Wurttemberg; Landgrave of Hesse, each 25000.
Marquis George Frederick [of Brandenburg] ; Administrators of Magdeburg; Duke of Bommeren [Pommern] and one unnamed, (fn. 7) each 20000.
Duke of Mechlenburg, 15000.
Marquis of Baden; "Anholt" [Duke of Anhalt]; Duke of Holstein, each 10000.
The cities of Norenberg and Ulm, each 10000; Bremen, Halberstadt, Strasburg, each 8000; Francfort, 5000; Luweck [Lubeck] and Veerden, — 4000.
The cities about the seas; Oldenburg, Friesland, "Lyffe" [i.e. Lippe] Schomburg, the Earls of Wettrow and other Imperial cities not comprehended in the aforesaid, 313,000. Total, 691,000.
Endd. by Walsingham's clerk. 1 p. [Germany, States IV. 71.]
[The contributions are grouped according to their amounts. Denomination not given. Qy. the thaler.]
July. Depredations upon English ships by French pirates from the year 1585, for which justice is demanded in France.
April 30, 1585. The William of Yarmouth, Robert Wit master, laden in Spain with coined money, casks of oranges, lemons etc., belonging to Richard Stapers, John Fisher and George Hanger, merchants of London and others, attacked and pillaged by a great French ship of Dieppe, to the value of 426l. sterling.
July 14, 1585. The Nightingale of Ipswich, Bartholomew Wigmore master, laden in Portugal with money, oils, salt etc., belonging to John Barker of Ipswich and others;—attacked and pillaged by a great French ship and a pinnace of Havre de Grace to the value of 1000l. sterling.
Aug. 24, 1585. The Jesus of Dartmouth, belonging to Robert Smith, returning from La Rochelle, laden with salt etc.;—attacked and sacked by French pirates and goods carried away to the value of 150l. sterling.
Oct. 17, 1585. The Elizabeth of Bristol, belonging to Michael Pepoll, laden with lead and cloth, going to St. John de Luz:— attacked and taken and all the English (save one) drowned by French pirates. Value 2000l. sterling.
Jan. 14, 1585 [-6]. The Jonas of London; owners, Titus Johnson, Richard Arnold and others, merchants of London, attacked and carried off by four French ships of Conchet, Nantes and Brest to the coast of Brittany, and all the English (two excepted) massacred. Value 400l. sterling.
March 24, 1586. The artillery of the Elizabeth Bonadventure of London, belonging to Thos. Androes and others, English merchants, pillaged and carried off by ships of war belonging to the King himself in the river of Bordeaux, for which the said merchants have vainly sought restitution or justice, obtaining only evil words and threats, and being sent from one judge to another Value of the artillery, 200l. sterling.
For which ships if restitution and justice could be had, another list should be shown.
June 16. The John Kennaway and the Christopher, both of Dartmouth, stayed by the Duc de Mercœur in the river of Dinant (Dinham) near St. Malo, with wines etc. Value 950l. sterling.
And the Grace of God stayed by the same Duke at St. Brien (Briaux), with its freight and furniture. Value 360l. sterling.
Same date. The Anne Rose of Dartmouth, the Trinity of Apsum [Topsham] and the Pleasure of Lyme, laden with doulas and locoran (fn. 8) stayed at Morlaix by the said Duke. Value 3500l. sterling.
For restitution of which ships and their contents, the French ambassador is prayed to write to the King and the Duc de Mercœur; to be made to George Weekes, merchant of Dartmouth solicitor for the owners of the said ships.
With note by Burghley that Richard Bedford was master and owner of the Pleasure, and Thomas Goss, owner of the Trinity.
Endd. with date "July 1586." French, 3 pp. [France XVI. 42.]
July? Notes concerning a book entitled "A discourse of the fight between two English ships, Luterians, and four gallies, Christians, who got the victory of the English ships; the master of the greater casting himself upon a barrel of gunpowder and blew up ship and men; the smaller ship was taken to Juberralter, the 24th of March, 1586."
"The first part, a prayer to God and Our Lady . . . . to give the liar grace to speak the truth, with . . . reviling speeches against our ships of war etc."
Reports the English ships to be very huge and mighty, the greater having 96 pieces of brass ordnance; says they had taken a satia with Christians and put them to a most cruel death. They would also have taken two Florentines, but these were defended by the castle at Juberalter, and escaped. A post being sent to St. Mary Port to advise what had happened, ten gallies came forth, six to scour the coast of Barbary and four to pass into the Levant. These four met the two ships, the smaller was taken and after a long fight, the great one being becalmed was boarded, "with the death and loss of a hundred of the galleys' men, and in the end . . . set fire of a barrel of gunpowder and blew up the ship in infinite pieces, that the smother appeared like hell mouth. . . . This most wonderful victory it pleased the Virgin to give against the Lutherans.
"Concluding with a song . . . in most villainous terms against her Majesty."
Endd. "Copy of the extract of a slanderous book touching the fight with [sic] the English ships and the galleys. July, 1586. ¾ p. [Spain II. 68 bis.]


  • 1. [The letter is clearly dated June but this is altered to July in the endorsement. The Queen Mother did not go to Chanteloup until the last week of July; was there on July 17/27, but was then on the point of leaving it (as Stafford says). See Lettres de Cath. de Médicis, IX. pp. 23, 24.]
  • 2. Old proverb:—there lurks a hidden danger. "Pad"=toad.
  • 3. i.e. Cartagena de las Indies.
  • 4. Probably Robert Bruce of Bennie, sent to the King of Spain by the Scottish Catholic nobles.
  • 5. Poland adopted N.S. in 1583.
  • 6. Castillon-sur-Dordogne, where M. d'Alain, Baron de Savignac was in command. See Lettres de Catherine de Medici, Vol. IX., p. 25 n. and Index.
  • 7. The Landgrave's contribution is bracketed with this unnamed one, who was probably one of the other Princes of Hesse.
  • 8. Dowlas and lockram; linen fabrics named from the villages of Doulas and Locrenan in Brittany, where they were made.