Elizabeth: May 1588, 11-15

Pages 377-398

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4, January-June 1588. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.

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May 1588, 11–15

May 11. “Copy of Mr. Killigrew's proposition touching them of Camphere, delivered to the States of Zeeland” on this date.
Seeing that those of the town of Camphere suspect not only ill-payment of their wages, but also that they may be ill-used because they have refused to receive some companies of soldiers, sent by the States to be in garrison there:—her Majesty, (considering how important this place is for the common cause, and to herself in particular, because of Flushing) admonishes them very earnestly to treat as follows with those of the said town both in respect of their pay and otherwise; that they may have no just cause to complain, or to do what the country might afterwards repent of; and what has lately been done in several places of these provinces. By which plain speaking, they will see that she does not merit the false calumnies that have been sown abroad against her sincere intentions and proceedings.
Gentlemen; having long since—with my proposition to the States General presented this memoire (with my proposal to the States General) to which as yet I have received no answer; and seeng that the matter belongs properly to your honours here in Zeeland, I could not let pass this opportunity (being here) to beg you to give me your resolutions. And (as I am presently despatching a gentleman to her Majesty) to tell me whether I may write to her, in your behalf, that the towns of Camphere and Armue shall remain in their present terms until she shall have declared her final resolution to M. de Willughby and myself, for the redressing of this misunderstanding.
Endd. as in head line. French. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 236.]
May 11/21. The Estates of Zeeland [to Killygrew].
His worship may remember that in their communication of this forenoon, they prayed him to let the governor of Flushing understand that as the horses of the succour are at her Majesty's charges, he should give order that the hay, straw etc. distributed to his cornet shall be paid for in like proportion as that charged for their own soldiers, which is rebated from their pay; and that they are writing to the magistrates there to give orders to the commissary who distributes the said provisions.
They will communicate the substance of the remonstrance which he has put into their hands; together with the memorial of the said governor to the States of Zeeland when they assemble on Monday next, and will send him their reply by the first opportunity.
They are writing also to her Majesty and her Council of all that has passed, and he may be pleased so to recommend their affairs to her and to them that all these misunderstandings may cease; which could be effected by a single word from her Majesty; i.e. that she does not understand the oath of those of Vere and Armue to go any further than that of the States General and his own.—Middelburg, 21 May, 1588. Signed by P. Rychart and Rouels.
Margin. Note by Killigrew. “By this your honour may perceive what they looked for at my Lord Willughby's hands and mine, by reason of the reference made in her Majesty's letter to them, that his lordship and I should compound those matters; but whether we can proceed so far without some other direction from thence I leave to your honour to judge. Either her Majesty must yield to them herein or else viis et modis work another means, whereof I have written mine opinion in my memorial to your honour.”
Copy. Endd. “Copie d'une lettre du conseil commune des Estats de Zellande.” French.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 237.]
May 11/21. Those of Camphire to his Excellency [the Earl of Leicester].
On the 13th inst. there were in this town the President of Zeeland, Mr. Pieter de ‘Ricke,’ M. de ‘Famas,’ and the Councillors Vosbergh and Jan Peterson; when, having called together the magistrates and Council of the town, and themselves, the President demanded whether they had any cause of complaint or dissatisfaction. To the which the Secretary of the town replied in the name of all that they had not; but that they were bound by oath to her Majesty, his Excellency and the country; and were ordered by an express act of his Excellency, dated from this garrison, not to leave it without the knowledge or consent of her Majesty or his Excellency; and that in accordance with the said order, the magistrates, Council, captains, burghers and they themselves all felt themselves bound mutually that no change should be made in the town so long as they were [not] fully discharged of their oath.
Upon which the President, the Sieur de ‘Fama’ and the said Council wished to persuade them that they were all duly discharged thereof, by virtue of his Excellency's resignation on December 17, stilo antiquo. To this they replied that they were not only bound by oath to his Excellency, but also, and in the first place to her Majesty. After long dispute they remained as they were; awaiting the arrival of Lord Willughby and Counsellor Killigrew, who, they expect, will have a commission from her Majesty to decide the affair.
Wherefore they humbly pray his Excellency to send them word (as soon as possible) how they are to govern themselves in this matter; seeing that certain malicious persons are spreading a report that the magistrates of the town have demanded in full assembly, as above mentioned, to be discharged from this mutual oath made with each other. If such a report should come to his Excellency's ears, they pray him not to credit it, for it is pure calumny, such a thing having been neither demanded or proposed.—Camphere, 21 May, 88.
And the better to assure him that the magistracy remain firmly with the rest, certain of the said magistrates and citizens who were at the said assembly have signed this, in order to persuade him to give no credit to such false reports. Signed, Charnickman, Adrian Cnaop, W. Vanden Braemsloot, Daniel de Pottere.
Copy. Endd. French. 2 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 239.]
May 11/21. The Captains of Camphere to Walsingham.
To the same effect as the previous letter.—Camphere, 21 May, 1588, stilo novo.
Signed by Pieter de Coster; Ambroise le Ducq; Carsillis Pallant; Van den Ende.
Overleaf. And to assure his honour more amply of the truth; to let her Majesty understand that the magistrates join with them altogether, and that the report to the contrary is false, some of the said magistrates, who were present, have signed this, to dissuade her Majesty and his honour from giving any credit to these false reports. Four signatures, Adrian Cnaop, W. Vanden Braemsloot, Charnickman, Daniel de Pottere.
Add. Endd. French.pp. [Ibid. f. 241.]
May 12. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
I have received sundry letters from you concerning her Majesty's misliking and discontentment, “a greater wound than I will speak of, contrary to all my willing endeavours to deserve better, and such as I am able to give account of … if so be I may find but so much grace as to have my actions brought to trial …
“My blame is for Sir William Drurie's government of Berges. In all times it hath been allowed for a man to seek his own preferment. If Mr. Drurie compounded with Sir William Read (as I think there be acts extant) and by his own endeavour won the States and Count Maurice (who certainly conceive well of him), besides all those assuring me he had my Lord Steward's promise passed to him (as one whom he loved) I saw not how I could hinder a gentleman's fortune in a matter [which] concerned not my authority … for it is too apparent I have nothing to do with garrisons, saving the common soldiers … And therefore, the States giving the government… Sir William Reade resigning, Count Maurice intreating, I saw not how I could stand between him and his good. Yet my consent was only touching the place, but not the soldiers; which I retained to myself, as having property in the one, by her Majesty's letters patents, and none in the other….
“Touching the comparison between Sir John Norris and me, I do so reverence her Majesty's opinion of so experienced a gentleman as I think him more happy than a Caesar, and am not a little sorry that her Majesty interpreted my letters (which tended only to avoid her an unnecessary charge) in so ill part; for if I were sufficient, Sir John Norris was superfluous, but if I were not (as I confess I am not) I could not otherwise in duty but advertise her Majesty the best for her service. And yet Sir … I think I may thus much say of myself (without offence to Master Norris) that our ages are equal; my continuance and expenses in her Majesty's service as much as his (though his for the States of more antiquity)….
This charge I bear is against somebody's promise laid upon me, against all my earnest suit commanded me in a most turbulent and troublesome season; and I shall in a quieter time and better terms with all humility require to be quit of it … and that Mr. Norris or some other more sufficient than I may supply this place, and I deported from this charge, which I confess I am too young for; and yet I find myself too old … for it is well known how vehemently I am troubled with sickness, having from my youngest years been subject thereunto; whereby I am fain (many times) not to do that service I would, and often constrained … to do more than I am able; which I beseech you may be foreseen, so that there be not laid upon me a heavier burden than I am able to bear.
“I am most sorry that I should receive of so gracious a sovereign so undeserved a blame as is laid on me for Price. If it can be proved that ever I disposed company since I came to this place, let me lose my credit. I have often written how the States complain of bad captains absent in England; that they might be supplied with worthy men; in which choice number I named Sir William Read; the Serjeant Major (Mr. Wilford) and Captain Price especially but I never had answer. You may judge what companies they be, and what they merit that dare advertise Princes so manifest untruths; and whether it is fit to allow slanders, though necessary to encourage true accusations …—At Armue, 12 May, 1588.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. very small, close writing. [Holland XXIII. f. 247.]
May 12. P. Ortell to Walsingham.
Prays that as the Lord Treasurer is coming to court, he may be reminded of the letter from the States General to the Council, and of the points whereon they desire a decision.
Likewise that his honour will be pleased to dispatch the ordinance for the transport of artillery to Messieurs of Zeeland, as they have great need of it at this conjuncture, when the enemy is expected from hour to hour, as no doubt her Majesty and their lordships have been informed by Governor Russell.
If anything be done in regard to the Sieur Combus, he begs to be informed thereof.
Has thought further on what his honour said to him, that he might travel with one of those who her Majesty means to send into their parts. For himself, he desires only to do her humble service. He cares not what opinion is had of him, being at peace with God and with a tranquil conscience, but will be very ready to employ himself zealously so far as they, in those parts, shall take just resolutions upon certain points as he should put forward, as serving greatly to the common good, a much better agreement, and theretore to the service of her Majesty and this crown.—London, 12 May, 1588.
Add. Endd. Seal. French.pp. [Ibid. f. 249.]
May 12/22. The Estates of Zeeland to the Privy Council.
Hope that the letters which they are writing to her Majesty will be communicated to their honours, whereby they will see how they [the States] have been frustrated in their hope of seeing this country on the way to a good accord for its common defence against an invasion of the enemy. But notwithstanding their diligence and expense for its maintenance, all their efforts have ended in ruin if their dissensions are not stamped out, which will in the end bring them to utter ruin, unless England can do something to prevent her having for a neighbour a powerful enemy instead of a friendly state. For division can only bring desolation, while concord and amity will bring the reform of all affairs even though they be in a miserable state, as the union between these countries and her Majesty which there has been for many months, has given good proof, for by holding their sea forces together they have caused the Duke of Parma to waste so much time that he has spent all this year in vain And on the other hand, these pernicious dissensions falling out, their lordships' wisdom may perceive that their ruin is too nigh at hand, from which England would receive no advantage or profit. And seeing that upon a word from her Majesty depends their peace or their trouble, and that their request is founded in justice, they pray their lordships to lend a helping hand, that it may please her Majesty to authorise the Sieurs de Willoughby and Killigrew by express charge, either jointly or severally, to remedy all misunderstandings, in conformity with the request which they are now making to her; to which they send annexed a copy of the oaths of the governor, captains and soldiers of Flushing and Rammekins, whereby they may be reminded of their power and duty; together with the oath of the soldiers under the government of his Excellency of Leicester.
Praying that their lordships will be pleased to cause her Majesty also to give the garrisons and men of war at Camphere and Geertruydenbergh to understand that it is not her intention that they should take any other oath to her than is taken by the other soldiers of their country.
And that in future the said soldiers are to obey the chiefs who are or shall be set over them by the said States.—Middelburg, 22 May, 1588.
Signed, P. Rychert, and below, Christopher Roels.
Add. Endd. French.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 243.]
May 12/22. The Estates of Zeeland to the Queen.
We have already petitioned your Majesty by our agent Ortell, that you would be pleased, by some person of authority and credit, to appease the troops here; whereupon it pleased your Majesty to depute the Baron of Willoughby, Lieutenant-General of your succours, and the Sieur Killigrew, counsellor of State with power to adjust the differences which reign amongst us at present. And as we have for long expected their coming from Medenblicq, all things meanwhile being at a standstill (to the great danger of this island, which has been, up to now, destitute of all defence by land) in firm hope that upon their coming they would enter upon the business in order to pacify all things, we find that the Sieur de Willoughby, owing to other urgent affairs, is still detained in Holland, and the Sieur Killigrew, being here, declares that he cannot undertake the business without new orders from your Majesty.
And seeing that meanwhile the carriage of certain persons, being in your Majesty's service, and of others of the country, ill-affectioned to their state, who mix themselves in the business, does not cease to trouble our poor estate (both in policy and by their daily practices with the garrisons of Camfier and Armuyden (whom they wrongfully persuade are bound by a different oath from that of the other garrisons of the country) we fear that if your Majesty be not pleased shortly to remedy these evils, there will shortly be great confusion and convulsion in this island, so important to the common cause. Whereof having complained to Mr. Killigrew, he desired us to put the matter before your Majesty; wherefore we humbly pray that by a fresh order, your Majesty will expressly command the two gentlemen—seeing that they have happily and honourably acquitted themselves at Medenblicq and elsewhere—to employ themselves, jointly or severally, to reconcile and pacify all misunderstandings in the garrisons of Camfier and Armuyden; who, by the pretext of a pretended oath, exempt themselves from the obedience of the Estates General and particular, the Council of State and the governors of the places, to whom, before the resignation of the Earl of Leicester they were bound by oath, and are now the more bound by the order established since the said resignation.
Wherefore we pray your Majesty to undeceive the said garrisons, giving them to understand that your intention has never been for them to take a different oath, or to sever themselves from the due obedience which they have until now given to the Estates and governors of provinces, according to the ancient order of these Low Countries; seeing that they say they have no other cause of dispute and misunderstanding; and this point being cleared up, would conform themselves to the accustomed service of the country.
For as to the statement that they had offered themselves to your Highness for lack of pay, as implied by your Majesty's reply of the 12th instant, the captains of Camfier, in their last conference with us, said that they found themselves, in this matter, concerned in their honour, as not having ever even thought that they had cause to complain of ill payment by the States.
And as we have seen, and do see daily in other places; where, under pretext of the sacred name of your Majesty, the traitors make use of the like pretences to trouble and crush this State, it is to be feared that if order be not speedily taken therein, the delay will have no other issue (in this conjuncture, when the enemy is pressing us so closely, and with such great forces) than the total rum of these parts … and seeing the great hindrances which will result from the distractions by which this state is still troubled, we cannot but think of our protection; and the harming of the common enemy; seeing that all this tends only in the end to the destruction of those who have always been, and desire still to be the faithful servants of your Majesty; having nothing more at heart than the strict observance of the mutual treaties; for the advancement of God's glory, your Majesty's service, and the conservation of the estate of these countries.—Middelburg, 22 May, 1588.
Postscript. Since writing the above, the Baron de Willoughby has arrived here, who tells us that he cannot intermeddle to reconcile the said differences without further express commission from your Majesty to both [himself and Mr. Killigrew], which we pray you to send over as soon as possible, to prevent all further difficulties.—24 May, 1588.
Signed, P. Rychert, and below, Chr. Roels.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 245.]
May 13/23. Count Maurice to the Queen.
Acknowledges and thanks her for her letter of the 10th inst. Ever ready to obey her wishes. Regrets that some difficulties still remain but hopes they may be removed by her wisdom and good-will. On the other points he will conform to her good will, and thanks her for the advertisements which it has pleased her to send him. Will endeavour, by God's aid, all his life, to imitate his father's example; prays that she will learn from Mr. Walsingham certain particulars in regard to Flushing of which he has written to him more particularly.—Middelburg, 23 May, stilo novo, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 251.]
May 13. Wolf de Meetkerke to Walsingham.
This morning Captain George Wybrants Bornstra, late lieutenant of Col. Cosmo de Pescarengis, communicated secretly to me several writings of very great importance. Amongst other things, he declared that Dierick Jan Evertssen of Amsterdam has been, by his means imprisoned at Rotterdam, who had been formerly charged by Don Bernardin de Mendoza to make an exploit upon the town of La Brielle, or other places where opportunity presented itself; for which he thought he had gained the said Captain Bornstra to his side. The said Captain informed your honour of the whole treason of the said Dierick more than a year ago since when Bornstra has so done his duty, by his nephew Blomendal, that Dierick was taken as above-said, more than eight months ago, and the Earl of Leicester wrote to the Admiralty there to have him straitly examined, but this has not been yet done, notwithstanding the importance of the matter, and divers letters from the Earl, as attested by the bailiff of Rotterdam, who sends complaint of the failure of the Admiralty there.
As this treason of Dierick affects England and the Queen's person, urgent letters should be written to Count Maurice, the Estates of Holland and the Bailiff and magistrates of Rotterdam, to have him sent under good guard, to the prison at Flushing, there to be examined, and afterwards order taken as is fitting. Wherein the said Count etc., will make no difficulty, desiring to be quit of the prisoner; as he has good relatives and friends at Amsterdam, whereof the said Bailiff has secretly advertised Capt. Bornstra, who desires to communicate secretly with your honour, to discover to you many secrets of very great importance.—London, 13 May, 1588.
The enclosed papers [wanting] will show you, in part of what the prisoner is accused.
Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 253.]
May 13. The Commissioners to the Privy Council.
Yesterday we received her Majesty's letter of the 10th, at which time we understand she had not received Dr. Dale's report. Since writing we have been made privy to certain articles propounded by Mr. Comptroller and the answers thereunto made by Richardot, which we think most necessary for her Majesty to know and therefore we send the same asking that we may know her pleasure upon the whole matter. We have advertised the king's commissioners that we cannot conclude upon the manner of cessation of arms delivered by Dr. Maius and Garnier until we know her Majesty's pleasure. Forasmuch as Dr. Dale hath already declared to the duke that her Majesty is content that the four towns only shall be comprised in the cessation … we think any other person were more fit than he to require the duke's assurance that no attempt shall be made against her Majesty's dominions or in Scotland during the treaty. The duke had sent his farriers to view Wynox Berghes and Bourboroughe with our men before the receipt of her Majesty's last letters.—Ostend, 13 May, 1588.
Signed by all five. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Flanders III. f. 328.]
(1) Articles propounded by Sir James Croft. (fn. 1)
Dated ulto. Aprilis, stylo Anglico.
4 pp. [Ibid. f. 331.]
(2) Answer to Articles delivered by Mr. Comptroller the 10th May by President Richardot.
1. Hope so to treat that he shall be satisfied.
2. Cessation cannot be granted in the form required. They should be content in that they have it effectually.
3. The ancient treaties may be seen at leisure to remedy what is prejudicial to either party through amiable conference, without delaying the chief point, i.e. peace.
4. Probably little difficulty, the king being lord of Portugal.
5. Must be made more plain.
6. When peace is made, forgetting will follow by making satisfaction to the parties wronged and interested.
7. The king means to recover his country by love or force. He will always avoid the shedding of blood as much as possible. Meanwhile it should be set down in writing what assistance her Majesty will give.
8. Hopes the queen will be satisfied that the king desires not the blood or substance but the quietness of his subjects.
9. Not expected that the queen would in this propound anything prejudicial to the king's honour and conscience, or pretend that in another man's country which she would not consent unto for her own.
10. The king is not in fault for these charges. He hath rather cause to require restitution for the hurt he has received.
11. This may be discussed between the commissioners.
12. The article contains sundry points. The word of the king and duke the best assurance. Difficulties in dismissing foreign troops. It is reasonable that the king should make appointments as he thinks best for his service and the good of his subjects.
13. This is the substantial point that ought to be speedily put in execution, if there be good meaning, or there will be doubt of intent to abuse us. This and other inconveniences may be remedied by a speedy restitution of the places that belong to us.
Endd. 3 pp. [Flanders III. f. 329.]
(3) The same in French.
2 pp. [Ibid. f. 333.]
Another copy of Croft's articles.
Endd. Italian, in de Loo's hand. 21/8 pp. [Treaty papers V. f. 27.]
Two other copies of Richardot's reply, the first endorsed by Dale.
French. [Ibid. ff. 31, 33.]
May 13. Croft to Burghley.
I was required to show the articles propounded to the duke, which when my lords saw seemed very dark, till at length I had declared the full meaning, which otherwise could not been understood … which was the cause that I durst not send them to your lordship, or any other.
2. My lords wished to know if Richardot had made any answer. I said he had which in substance did affirm the articles, whereunto he hath set his hand. And therefore made no accompt of his pay, wherefore, said I, I knew not where they were.
3. Immediately Dr. Dale drew out of his bosom Richardot's answer, which when it was read made a new dispute, and every man charged me at his pleasure, when indeed the same was made plain to him by de Loo, who had been the only mouth between the duke and me and all the commissioners, as I spake nothing but English.
4. There was nothing written but in de Loo's presence and that by a secretary of my Lord of Derby whom I desired of purpose to avouch all my doings, and left all my writings in his hands to show my whole proceeding to his lordship and afterwards deliver them to Morris.
And so I beseech God to send your lordship health and me some help that the cause may proceed to God's glory and her Majesty's honour.—Ostend, 13 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Flanders III. f. 346.]
May 13. The Queen to the Commissioners.
Finding by Dr. Dale's report that the duke's commission is very ample and such as we have cause to like of, the more as it appeareth by the same that the first motion hath come from them … we think you may proceed in the treaty out of hand. For the place we are content you shall repair to Burborow … where it is our pleasure you shall first proceed to some better resolution about the cessation of arms. And as it appeareth that the commission is so ample (unless it be restrained by some secret instructions) as we conceive he may grant that the cessation shall be general … we think it meet at the conference … that you should urge them to consent that the cessation may extend to any the queen's dominions from Spain with the like reciproque for any hostility to proceed from the Queen's dominions towards Spain or any other the king's dominions, letting him understand that the report made of the largeness of the commission moveth us to think it convenient that the duke should consent thereunto; and to move them there may be some speeches let fall … that for lack of such a general cessation there may haply fall out some occasion that may interrupt the treaty…. Our meaning is that you should stand somewhat stiffly upon this point; but if you find no hope to induce them to yield you shall urge the cessation only as urged in our last letters (10 May). (fn. 2)
As touching the project delivered to Dr. Dale by Richardot and Champanie (wherein is a division of degrees) (fn. 2) we find two points to be reformed: one that they would have it without limitation of time, to be revocable in six days after the intimation of repeal, which we do not like of, as too short, as if they should be so disposed our forces cannot be timely warned in so short a time, and so we would have you press them that the same may have continuance during the treaty and 20 days after or some such reasonable time.
The other point that the garrisons do abstain from any act of hostility or yield any assistance to the king's enemies, would restrain such of our forces in the United Provinces out of the four towns from doing any service to the States by whom they are entertained and we do not see how we can well yield thereunto in respect of the contract with the States. Yet you may be content to yield this far if otherwise you cannot agree, that none of our troops serving in those countries out of the four towns shall, during the time of the cessation, attempt any act of hostility against the king and his subjects otherwise than shall be required tor their own defence. Something which you think meet may be said of the project by which they require permission for free navigation for the ships and subjects of either prince … by which as we consider it, may be gathered we should permit the great army now prepared in Spain, or ships of war out of Spain to pass freely without any interruption into the king's ports in the Low Countries. Therefore our pleasure is that you shall provide that some words of restriction shall be inserted into the instrument of cessation to prohibit the same, which words you shall have special regard may express a plain meaning so as there remain no cause of cavil to grow hereafter.
Copy. Endd. with note of contents and date.pp. [Flanders III. f. 337.]
Draft of the same, corrected by Burghley.
In the top left hand corner. Be plain with the duke that we have tolerated so many weeks in tarrying a commission that I will never endure more delays. Let him know he deals with a Prince that prizes ever honour more than her life. Make yourselves such as stand of your reputations.
Endd. 6 pp. [Ibid. f. 339.]
May 13. Cobham to Walsingham.
I am acquainted but abruptly with these 12 Articles for it is given out by me that rather than I would break any one point of the instructions I will overthrow the peace. Croft and de Loo hath spread this abroad. You know that the Master of the Requests hath seen their commission and a form of a cessation, the refusal of Bruges and the naming of Borborow. For the allowances of the 12 articles there is more they know. You shall receive herewith Richardot's answer unto them. If these be they that are said to confirm the 12 articles I do refer it to your good consideration. It is meet that the original may be sent that her Majesty may be satisfied, but I fear it will not be obtained. But it is meant that another copy shall be sent to my lords, therefore I pray you let mine be kept for yourself. I would be right glad that the causes were so far advanced that it were come to that ripeness or dry end that we might be withdrawn hence; to the which I pray you give willingly your helping hand … that with honour and safety we may return. Eson called for his letter. He promiseth great service. To discover many actions within the realm. I pray by the next let it be sent me. I heartily thank you for your French occurrences but especially for your great care for the despatch of our cousins hither.—Ostend, 13 May, 1588.
Postscript. Thanks for favour to his son Henry.
Holograph; the words in italics in cipher. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 343.]
May 13. Dr. Dale to Walsingham.
You may perceive by Mr. Controller's articles and Richardot's answers and my last report more matter than you could at the time of the writing of her Majesty's letters of the 9th, and that I am not the man to deliver this new message to the duke. Please to inform her Majesty thereof, for it troubleth us all very much. I am assured you are amazed with Mr. Controller's message sent by John Croft. We are so cumbered with it that we know not what to do. I pray you to consider the 7 Article and of the latter end of the last article and of Richardot's crafty answers to them both beside all the other, and it will help to rid both you and us out of this perplexity.—Ostend, 13 May, 1588.
In his own hand: We had much ado to get him to give his hand to the letter.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 344.]
May 14. The Queen to Lord Willoughby. (fn. 3)
[Reprimand for removing Read as governor of Berghen op Zoom and substituting Drury] “which being done without our privity, you have greatly failed of your duty therein; letting you know that if the like offence had been committed either in our father's time or in any other of our progenitors, the same would have been punished with all severity; assuring you that in case you commit the like, especially in such a time as the enemy is strong in the field, ready to make some present attempt, and that you yourself, being but a young martial man, had more need of increase of assistance for advice than to lack a man of Reade's experience, we mean not to let pass such a neglect of duty in silence.”
Our pleasure is that Sir W. Drurye shall be presently removed, and Morgan, the bearer hereof, placed in his place, for which purpose we will have you deal effectually with the States, whom we know you shall find most ready to satisfy us therein; in respect of the good service that they have received from the said Morgan…. And we are also pleased that the said Morgan shall, for your better assistance, supply the place of lieutenancy that are servant Sir William Reade held there … with the entertainment of 40s. by the day; for the payment whereof … our pleasure is that you direct your warrants to Sir William Shirley … beginning from the 12th of June next ensueing.
“And whereas … one Anthonie Veluti, a subject of the Duke of Florence, hath been of late taken, and ransomed by some of the garrison of Berghes and very ill handled … which sort of proceeding may justly give cause to other princes to conceive that these wars are not carried [on] in such an honourable sort as appertaineth… Our pleasure therefore is that you take some such course out of hand as there may be present restitution made unto him of such sums as have been paid by the said Veluti … and be careful hereafter that no such barbarous act be committed; for that such kind of proceedings cannot but render us and the cause hateful unto the world.”—Our manor of Greenwich, 14 May, 1588.
Headed: By the Queen; take care of the Duke of Florence's subject, and leave to be unadvised in rash dealing.
Copy. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 254.]
Another copy of the same.
pp. [Ibid. f. 256.]
May 14/24. Count Maurice of Nassau to Walsingham.
Has had the honour to receive letters from her Majesty, written on Friday last, and rejoices that he has been able to give her satisfaction; desiring to continue to do so in all things, and that nothing will break the course of his affection and desire to do her humble service. But as in her letters there are certain points which, according to her wise desire, are to remain buried there is also one, viz: that of Vlissinghe, upon which it has not seemed fitting to write further to her, as he does not wish to enter into controversy with that authority which he should revere in all things and not contradict; but rather pray her to do him the honour to understand by his honour's mouth, certain particulars when it shall please her. If this matter did not greatly touch his honour, and that several difficulties have resulted from it, he should not have troubled either the queen, the council or his honour with it; but, in the first place, he must say that when he sees Vlissinghe open and destitute, he would not put a man there were it not by her Majesty's commandment; knowing that her friendship and aid are more to them than ten Flushings. And if he had wished to undertake it, that at least there might be found there some burghers to whom he could have spoken or some freebooter—of whom there have always been more than 300, to his great regret for many reasons, but chiefly because the most part of them are men to whom he would not wish to trust anything; and would have informed the governor so, if he would have taken any thing well from him; as he advertised M. Sydney, as also of several other things; who thereupon made an ordinance which he (Maurice) hopes may be maintained.
But his intention has never been, on returning into Zeeland from his last journey but one, to change any garrison, and in this her Majesty has been very ill-informed; and if he had wished to do it, it would have been easy, for he had with him in the naval army most of the best soldiers of the garrisons of Walcheren, led by a captain of Camphere named Pallant, who was in the Tigre, which he had chosen to fight the Prince of Parma. And he found himself so strong at Ter Vere, by his guards and many lords, captains and soldiers, that he could have done as he pleased with it. But until the Prince of Parma had retired, he did not wish to withdraw those which were there, having chosen them above all his regiment. And he assures his honour that his Excellency had not put them there, but he himself, under the oath of the country. And although he does not wish to offend her Majesty, yet he hopes to prove that the advertisement [to her] had been made upon a slight suspicion and should have rather been made to himself, pursuant to so many protestations of friendship, and not to her Majesty without further enquiry, and thus irritate her against him when he did not deserve it.
Wherefore once more he begs his honour to supplicate her Majesty to let this matter be known, in which he asks for no other victory than for the light of truth.—Middelborch, 24 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 3 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 258.]
May 14/24. Declaration by Count Maurice.
Seeing last March certain disorders in Zeeland and elsewhere, and also learning that great preparations of the enemy for a descent, he thought it more needful to assure the country against the said enemy than to enter into controversy with the Sieur ‘Roussal’ governor of Flushing, who was said to be the cause of the aforesaid disorders, wherefore he wrote twice to him and sent Counseller Valck divers times to pray him to look to the defence of the country, and put aside their differences to another time, when they might easily be composed by her Majesty and the States promising himself to withdraw to the fleet to take order against the enemy; at the same time warning her Majesty of the grave dangers which threatened the country by reason of these divisions and hoping that it would please her to order the said Sieur Roussall and all others to prevent these disorders. At this time there arrived in the roads the Admiral of England, who sent the Chevalier d'Oby, his brother-in-law to him, saying that he would do service to her Majesty if he would raise the siege of Medemblick and treat well M. de Senoi. The Count replied, that he had not besieged Medemblick, nor had he means to raise the siege, but as he knew this was her Majesty's intention, he would return into Holland and do his best to satisfy her intention. Since which time he has done nothing whatever as to Zeeland, but hopes she will take order therein, especially as he learned by her letters that she had given charge to Lord Willoughby and M. de Killigrew to appease all differences there. And according to her wishes, the said Count has not only lent his aid in pacifying the trouble at Medemblicq but has treated favourably with Senoy, his men and the burgers. And as he was warmly urged to oppose the enemy's forces, he communicated with Lord Willoughby, and they decided that the latter should go to pacify St. Gertruydenberg and that (the count) should come into Zeeland to take measures to resist the enemy; whither the Baron would also come that they might advise together thereupon.
M. Killigrew went with the count, who informed him that his intent was to settle the differences between the Count and Russel. And on his inquiry, the Count declared to him how Russel had made a direct attempt against his person and all his house, desiring to make open war against them; though he cannot deny that in the first instance the said Russell had been recommended by himself and his house for his government, and protested daily with oaths to be the friend of all the house of Orange; but as the general was interested therein, he waited until the said lord should know of the dissension between Russell and the States of the country. But as to his own affairs he had to complain greatly of the said Russell, and in view of the commission which M. Killigrew had from her Majesty, he desired him to do him justice as regards two letters (copies of which are annexed hereto) written in disparagement of the said Count, which he could not pass over in silence; yet seeing the beginnings of a reconciliation, he wished only to make a verbal complaint, to which Killigrew (having communicated with Russell) made a reply which no ways secured the honour of the Count, who can plainly show that M. Roussel was in the wrong to have written so against him, and seeing that even now, some fresh disturbance was plotted by him in Armuyden by means of the soldiers of Camphire, Mr. Killigrew was urged to compose all these differences; and (as it had pleased her Majesty to write to the States of Zeeland) that he would employ himself as he had so happily done at Medemblicq; but he replied that he had no charge from her Majesty save to hear what their differences were and to report to her. The Count then urged Mr. Killigrew to give her Majesty and her Council to know that his intent had been and will be to do her humble service; that he had put Flushing unto her hands by letters sent to the captains, whereby Count Hohenlo was authorized to do it (the Count being then ill of a fever); and he cannot believe that her Majesty would so wrong himself and his brothers and sisters as to take from him the town of Campfer, his patrimony; and that Mr. Roussel is wrong in boasting that he has subverted the Count's servants to whom he had given the guard of the town, by express charge from her Majesty; but that, so far as she has authority there, she will put it back into his hands. Also prays that Killigrew will show to her that no town, captains and soldiers have been claimed in her name or by the fault of the traitors who, hiding themselves under her name, have meant to render places to the enemy; as has been seen in Captain Suquet lately executed, who confessed that he meant in this way to surrender Willemstadt to La Motte. At Medenblick the soldiers, under cover of her Majesty's name, as soon as they saw that the Count and Estates had given satisfaction to her Majesty, having filled their purses, quitted their colonel and captains, and declared that if they had been on the frontiers of Gueldres or Brabant, they would have treated with the enemy. Capt. Rensy, who shields himself under the same name, was charged by Suquet with having sent to La Motte, in order to put him in Naerden; with having refused to obey her Majesty's Lieutenant by presenting himself before any tribunal, notwithstanding all possible assurances, although he had sworn the contrary at S. Gertruydenberghe. The executions of the traitors confirm the same thing, and as to Camphire, one of the captains is stated by the said Sucquet to have had charge from La Motte to treat with him; and to give the said Count divers informations whereby to carry out his plans. And although her Majesty have nothing to do with these things yet it may please her to consider what honour such men can do to her, who thus prostitute her name; and how displeased she would be if such treasons were carried out in her name; which would have happened already but for the vigilance of certain honourable men and especially the Lord Baron; and as at present the count is employing himself, to break the designs of the Prince of Parma, which are certainly upon these countries or upon England, and thus does dutiful service to her Majesty, by keeping on foot such fine forces, ready at any time to be employed in her service; and that she may be pleased to consider that if such practices continue, each country will wish to withdraw its forces to defend itself, and will not permit him who has laboured more than all others in her service to suffer any such injury, but that he may have opportunity, as heretofore, to furnish the equipage for the ships which her Majesty has demanded, and sailors, and even, if necessary that the fleet here should join with hers to fight the enemy, and that without arriere pensée, which can never be if such differences as all the world imagines to be laid aside should remain between her subjects and those of this country. And Mr. Killigrew may be pleased to assure her Majesty that as regards the beginning of the union between the said Count and Baron, and also the said Mr. Killigrew, that there was already such agreement between the chiefs of the two nations, as gave a prospect of making some good enterprises upon the enemy; while on the contrary, the said Count greatly fears that if her Majesty be not pleased promptly to afford a remedy, before this summer is over, the enemy will make in these provinces; viz: in Zeeland—such a breach as she will never be able to repair and perhaps may be forced by some disaffected persons to take a course neither honest nor profitable for those who hitherto have upheld this just quarrel. And nevertheless the said Count protests that for nothing that may happen to him will he ever follow any counsels save those which are for the service of God and the maintenance of all the poor churches.
And finally, Mr. Killigrew is prayed to urge her Majesty and her Council that it may please them to appoint such gentlemen as it may please her to inform themselves concerning the business of Flushing, as the Count has prayed her to do by his letters written at Medemblick; he being assured that when she is fully informed thereof, she will understand how these accusations have so easily arisen.
Endd. “Count Maurice his declaration upon some matters of difference between him and Sir William Russell.—24 May, 1588. In the hand of Count Maurice's secretary.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 260.]
May 14. H. Killygrew to Walsingham.
I have received your honour's by Mr. Browne, and her Majesty's to Count Maurice, all being without date save yours of the 5th, wherein were contained the unhappy news of France. I perceive by it that my purpose was greatly mistaken by those who said I meant to do in Zealand as I had done at Medenblick, as you will see by my former despatch, now sent by Mr. Stevens; as also that “as much is already done as we have been hitherto directed,” and that it were not expedient to proceed further until her Majesty has seen the letters from Count Maurice and the States of Zeeland. For the other matter, as to what the States may offer to them of Camphere and Armin, her pleasure shall be fulfilled, as also as to other contents of her said letter. “But for getting Sir William Russel's horse into those towns, it will never be done by their consent until Sir William Russel and they be made friends, against whom they complain very grievously, as by the Count's long narration … your honour may find. And for that cause did I forbear … to deal any further in persuading friendship between [them] … which yet I made the ground of my journey into Zeland; where indeed my meaning was, together with Sir William Russell, to prevent, what I could, their purpose for the recovery of Camphere. For indeed at the beginning matters ran on wheels to the Count and the States' contentment, until by some speech I used to them of Camphere, they were brought in some better tune. But … as long as we treat in Flanders, or if we come to a peace, all these men, even those of Camphire and Armu, will be jealous of us, and the first that shall revolt from our devotion. Your honour may inquire of this bearer what speech passed between Captain Ambrose and Colonel Piron, and also what intelligence the count hath among the burghers and soldiers in both places, so far as they within have taken oath to receive none other garrison than their own, no, not of English for anything I can learn; and have also made promise to keep the town to the use of the country and against all enemies. Judge now what hold you have of those men.” I have not made any particular answer to the complaints against Sir Wm. Russell, but when I have conferred with him, I will apostile the complaints that you may be better armed to answer them.
“You signify that you are sorry the treaty goeth forward, as I am also with all my heart, for that I can see no assurance for her Majesty, but that she do persist in her course; seeing her enemies will never leave to prosecute theirs by all means possible; and if by this treaty they may separate her Majesty and these provinces, shall take the quarrel in hand, and the King of Spain back them they have treated well for France. I mean the house of Guise with all he may to serve his purpose; whose instrument the Duke of Guise hath been these many years, and his hired soldiers.”
In these great actions, I wish we did not stumble at straws and leap over blocks, for as our enemies gather strength round about us, we ought to hold in good devotion those who may annoy us most, as these countries may do…. I call to memory an old prophecy which in Queen Mary's days one Captain Borthick rehearsed unto me upon some complaint I made that our ruin was then working by the Spaniards. He said No, to comfort me, alleging that before our destruction should come:—Fran: flam: consurgent; Dani contingent, Albani limina lingent. Hac quando fient, Saxica gens perient. I could wish we were resolute in our course and would persevere in the same, for the rolling stone gathereth no moss…. I would fain say something if I could tell what, but I beseech your honour impute this unto my fever, whereof at this time I taste a fit.
“We are unprovided here in all garrisons and all bands of preachers, so as there is no exercise of those two weapons wherewithal we should fight against the wrath of God for our unthankfulness…. If your honour could provoke the bishops to send over some, it were a great good work”—Middelburgh, 14 May,'88.
Signed. Add. Endd. 3 closely written pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 265.]
Probably enclosed in the above:
Memorial by H. Kyllygrew.
“The States would have them of Camphere and Armu to come home again to them, as discharged of their oath; and to do according to the proclamation published upon my lord of Leicester's resignation, whereof I send your honour a copy (although I doubt not you have received it heretofore from my lord Willoughby, who was at the Hagh when it was published …) and so would they use them never the worse for that is past; but they will have them and the towns at their devotion as in times past … otherwise they say, besides the evil example, they know not how to trust them, seeing they will not obey them in anything; and to pay such continually they think is not allowable. The captains and soldiers, on the other side, desire to remain at their ease out of service or danger, and to be well paid, whereof they cannot any wise hitherto complain … nor to be commanded by any other than the Governor of Flushing… But if her Majesty would have the whole island of Walcheren in her protection and guard … I think [it] will prove the safest and most honourable way …”
Signed. Endd. with date. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 267.]
May 14. Document endorsed “Abstract of Mr. Killigrew's second despatch, by Mr. Stephens.”
1. The substance of the above letter.
2. The effect of Gilpin's letter.
“That the Council of State have liked well of the Lord Willoughbie's proceedings with Gertrudenbergh.
“They seem to like of the reduction of the horse bands into foot, and are in consultation about it.
“That they are well disposed to join with her Majesty's commissioners in the treaty.
“That they desired the Lord Willoughby to allow of their meeting by way of provision, so far as the contract would bear it; which his lordship hath not consented to without her Majesty's direction.
“That the matter of Narden is compounded.”
3. “The effect of the remonstances of those of the Council of State to the General States.
“That they are content, all difficulties laid aside, to employ their service for their country's sake.
“That they may be informed what means the States will allow for necessary defence.”
4. “Abstract of a letter of those at Camphire to the Earl of Leicester.” (fn. 4)
5. A copy of the instructions given by the General States to the new Council of State.
6. A note of such things as were in Flushing when the town was delivered to her Majesty.
7. A copy of a letter of her Majesty to the Council of State in answer to their complaints against Sir William Russel.
Mr. Killegrew's requests.
That the instructions of the Council of State may be put to the examination of some civilians to see how they agree with the contract.
That he may receive her Majesty's answer how he shall allow these instructions.
That he may have direction how to proceed with the States of Zeeland about Camphire and Armuy.
Endd. with date. 22/3 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 268.]
May 14. Thos. Wilsford to Walsingham.
Since my last, “my opinion is altered for Count Hollock, who is now upon his departure into Germany, where I always wished him. My Lord General hath, at the earnest suit and request, both of Count Morris and the States, been at Gertrudenbergh, and dealt with the soldiers for the appeasing of matters there; and findeth that their love towards her Majesty is grounded upon the hope of her good payments; and without money, little love or other respect doth appear.” And all he obtained, was “a bare promise that they would keep the town one month without treating with the enemy; so in the mean time there may be order taken to satisfy their demands.
“I do not yet perceive a will in the States—it may be for want of ability—to perform the same, and then the town is in great danger to be put into the enemy's hands, that so much desire the same. The powder and other royal munition in the town may be valued with the sum required; besides the contributions will countervail all charges that shall grow by the garrison and a great sum more yearly. Divers towns depend upon the same, that will soon be gone after, besides the undoing of Dorte. “To move her Majesty to take it into her hands upon the former shows, and that the Count Moris and the States shall not only like but desire the same, may seem a matter plausible, but when some 15 or 20 thousand pounds in ready money must be disbursed, I leave it to your honour. Her Majesty hath disbursed some 300,000l., and for it she hath Flushing simply as chief in pawn. That it may be holden as long as it shall please this country, no man will deny; it may be, with as great charge as her Majesty was at, at Newhaven, a month or longer: then loss of honour and all will be the end. Well then, if her Majesty have but caught a wet eel by the tail for her pawn, as it will be found too true when it will be too late to provide a remedy, how to provide in time were the best; and whether this island, being assured, it may not be kept. I hold it, it may, and in despite of them that say nay; and with less charge than Flushing. How then she may assure this island? It may be said by Camfire and one place more. How then she may come to possess herself of these places? Either by fair means or following the platt begun; there is no other. To prosecute the platt begun will no doubt draw on a present war here, [I] assure your honour. How her Majesty is provided, your honour best knows. We will ‘axe’ no such questions, but will be ready to execute her will and pleasure.
“How she may come by it by fair means, with the good-will of Count Maurice and the country, is to redeem Gertruydenberge, and plainly to demand her desires, and to offer him it and such other satisfaction as in equity shall be thought meet in exchange; and to assure him of her honourable favour and good-will in his advancement in his other desires….”—Middelberg, 14 May.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 270.]
May 14. M. de Deventer to Walsingham.
It is long since he has written partly because he knew that those to his Excellency had been communicated to his honour, and partly because he had shelved many of his duties on to the capable shoulders of his cousin, Col. Bax; but as the deputies of the churches of Gueldres, Utrecht, Overyssel, Zeeland and Frize are going to those parts, he desires to recommend their business to his honour, and as they do not wish to speak to her Majesty concerning the affairs of their churches—seeing that the Estates of their province or their magistracy have sent them with another charge—to pray him to make their excuses to her Majesty. The fear which the ministers of Holland have of their masters has prevented them from joining the legation, but when it has departed they may find means of forming some resolution more worthy of their rank.
[A long account of affairs in the above provinces.]—Utrecht, May 14, 1588, stilo antiquo.
Holograph. Signed “G. de Prounincq, dit de Deventer.” Add. Endd. French.pp. [Ibid. f. 272.]
May 15. “The request of the Deputies of Friesland, exhibited to her Majesty by Duco Aysma.”
A long account of affairs in the province of Friesland during the government of the Earl of Leicester and since, and the reasons for her Majesty's keeping of it in her care; especially as it is a quarter which can be easily entered either by land or water. It is a country containing plenty of food of all sorts, and from whence may be drawn large contributions towards the expenses of the war; nor is there any place in all the provinces where they can more easily harm the enemy and prevent them from entering.
Endd. as in headline. French.pp. very close writing. [Ibid. f. 274.]
May 15. Interrogatories to be ministered by the Admiralty of Rotterdam to Dierick Jan Evertssen of Amsterdam, prisoner, concerning his dealings with the Spanish ambassador in Paris and with Captain Bornstra.
Endd. with date. French. 3 pp. [Ibid. f. 278.]
May 15. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
Has received his lordship's letters of April 30, and humbly thanks him for the care he has taken in the sending over of pay and victuals. And forasmuch as the time is very dangerous; things standing upon uncertain terms, and this place subject to practices, he beseeches his lordship to hasten those needful supplies. And whereas he has been an earnest suitor for leave to come over for two months, after it shall be known what shall become of the Duke of Parma's forces, he humble prays him, by the assistance of his sister of Warwick and other friends to be a furtherer thereof; as he has weighty causes to dispatch in England.—Vlisshing, 15 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Holland XXIII. f. 280.]
May 15. Sir Willliam Russell to Walsingham.
Has received his letters of April 29, and May 1, 10 and 11 and the copy of her Majesty's letter sent to Mr. Killigrew touching Camphere and Armue; the captains and townsmen of both which places begin to grow into some despair, receiving “so small fruits comfort for their affections and great devotion to do her Majesty service.”
They have earnestly desired him to send his honour the enclosed “effect of their reasonable desires,” humbly praying him to further this their motion with her Majesty.
Those towns and the whole island are so desirous to be at her Majesty's devotion, that if their suit be refused, he fears it will bring them into dangerous terms, and cause them to revolt to the enemy. How prejudicial that would be to the security of this town, he commits to his honour's consideration.
Prays his honour to further his coming over [as to Burghley]. Will shortly send him word “how the captains of Camphere take Blavat's news.” Urges him to hasten over pay, victuals and other supplies.—Vlishing, 15 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Ibid. f. 282.]
May 15. William Borlas to Walsingham.
Thanks him for sending over 100l, which he will take care to see paid again, and which will save his credit; for he was fain to make such shift to furnish himself against his marriage as his honour would wonder at. Hopes he may think it the best money he ever lent to a poor gentleman, for though he looks not for “the hundredth part of the happiness of the honour of Bernhelmes” he hopes for what he may well content himself with: “which is a virtuous and honest wife.” There may be some who think he had more care of her wealth than of her virtues; but his honour shall find the contrary.
“Lord ‘Wellobe’ is come hither and Mr. ‘Kellegre’ to deal in the controversies of this island.” Prays God they do some good, for otherwise it will be undone. Count ‘Morrese’ has brought down divers companies of horse and foot, and has sent to ‘Camver and Hermew’ to take in some horsemen, but they have utterly refused. “They say their coming is to resist the enemy if he should attempt anything against this island.” He is still drawing his forces towards the Sluce, and has there some two hundred and fifty flat bottomed boats lying in readiness to transport men. Some three or four score sail lie still before it, “to attend the enemy.”
Hears that “there hath been very great words between Lord ‘Wellobe’ and Count Hollock.—Flushing 15 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 283.]
May 15. Note for Mr. Killigrew of such things as were in Flushing when the town was delivered to the Queen.
There were 20 ships, of which two remain at L'Escluse and the rest have been taken from this town and paid elsewhere, for some small trouble which there was here in relation to l'Escluse; which change of payment was greatly to the interest of the town.
The Admiralty was here also, which they have transported to Middelbourch, which Admiralty was l'unique joyau of this town, and of great importance so that the town has greatly declined and decayed.
They have also transported much of the ammunition from hence; both that for the artillery and other things.
They have in no way wished to repair or fortify it (although it was very necessary to do so) in spite of all the solicitations and remonstrances made by the Governor, both by word of mouth and by letters; their only reply being that her Majesty must do it; having also expressly forbidden ours to do it.
Also, in the castle of Ramegins, they have not yet repaired the artillery or the platforms for the same despite the efforts of the captain.
With note by Killigrew. “This memorial I delivered to the Council of Zeland, together with my proposition touching those of Camphere and Armu; but as yet I have no advertisement, and they delay me till the States of Zeeland assemble, which, as I take it, is but to win time.”—15 May, '88.
1 p. Endd. [Ibid. f. 285.]


  • 1. As at page 339 above.
  • 2. Marginal note by Burghley.
  • 3. Printed; Bertie: Five Generations of a Loyal House, p. 189.
  • 4. See page 378 above.