Elizabeth: February 1589, 26-28

Pages 125-140

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1950.

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February 1589, 26–28

[Feb. 26.] Requests exhibited to the Queen by the King of Marueco's servant. (fn. 1)
1. That the King may hire ships and mariners in her realm, if he needs them in any war against his neighbours, not being Christians.
2. That the King may buy likewise oars for his galleys.
3. That he may be allowed to hire shipwrights and carpenters here in time of war.
4. That he may buy here provisions and commodities of which he has need; her Majesty to do likewise in his realm.
5. That her Majesty have consideration of Alderman Starkye's petition “for her Highness'] letters in favour of his son.”
6. That her Majesty reward this poor man of Bristoll “who brought him out of Ireland and had his ship cast away in the voyage.”
Endd. with date. ¾ p. [Barbary States XII. f. 26.]
[Probably Feb. 26] Châteauneuf to Walsingham.
Had a courier yesterday from his sister, Madame de Villeroy. She had heard that he wished to go into France, and wrote to inform him that those of the League bear him great ill-will, by reason of a letter which he wrote to the King and which they have intercepted. They have seized all his property in those parts where they have the power.
All the advertisements he has are from Paris and therefore to be suspected. They say that Lyon has joined the League since the Duke of Nemours escaped, that the Duchess of Nemours is come from the King to offer them what conditions they would, that Tours, Angers and Le Mans have also taken part with the League. So the King, they say, is practically surrounded in Bloys, round which he has put all his army, and the Duke of Mayne is advancing with his whole army to besiege him. It is also said that those of Amboyse have made some practices for the delivery of the prisoners. In fact, it would seem that the King is reduced to great straits.
Is in great anxiety, and is astonished that M. de Stafort has sent no one over. This, however, makes him believe that all these reports are untrue; and are spread abroad by those of Paris to strengthen their faction.
The Dukes of Maine, Nemours, and Aumâle are at Paris. Prays that the King be well counselled to exert himself and take horse in good earnest.—Wednesday morning.
Postscript. Meant to wait upon him, but is prevented by business.
Holograph. Add. Endd. February, 1588. French. Seal of arms, ¾ p. [France XIX. f. 74.]
Feb. 26. Thomas Moffat to Walsingham.
Received his letter to-day. Thanks him for his honourable offer.
Had to leave Rouen, because last summer, when the Leaguers triumphed in the Spaniards' feigned victory, he, with the help of Mr. Offley's servant, coined news which proved to be true and presented to M. Carruge and the parlement the books which the ambassador sent to him. Thus earned the hatred of the Leaguers, “to whom my country caterpillars” accused him of being a spy. For this reason, when he had won a process in the parlement, three friendly advocates bade him retire in time. Publicly declared that he was no spy but a true subject of her Majesty.
Ten days before the rebellion, he gave a sentence against one Vymont, a secretary of the King's, who forced it from the sergeant and threatened Moffat. Has another process against one of the town captains (a leader of the rebellion), his brother, and two others. They also threatened him.
Now that Rouen is at these traitors devotion, and because they are almost directed by her Majesty's rebels, he sought passport to depart. It was refused on the ground that he was a soldier and might do them hurt. Managed to get away, leaving behind his goods and three processes, two of which had been judged.
Since coming here, has sent procuration to Rouen to pay his debts and for 26 crowns he (Moffat) was a prisoner six days. The governor caused him to be discharged on his own bond. Desires Walsingham to thank the governor. Excuses the rudeness of his letter, made worse by haste, as John Weles, this bearer, can tell.—Dieppe, 26 February, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1¼ pp. [France XIX. f. 71.]
Explanations of a plan of the fortifications of Dieppe. The plan is not now with the letter.
[France XIX. f. 73.]
[Feb. 26.] The Queen to Robert Pecok, deputy governor, and the Assistants, of the Merchant Adventurers resident at Stoade.
Has present occasion to take up 100,000l. sterling and hears that she can, upon due assurance, obtain it at reasonable rates in Germany. Has therefore sent William Milward, this bearer, upon this service. Requires them to issue the general bond of the Fellowship to such persons and for such sums and times of repayment as Milward shall direct in her name. Will cause her counter bond under her Great Seal to be thereupon “delivered unto them [the Governors and assistants and crossed out] of the said Fellowship [the following added by Burghley] that remain here in London.”
Minute. Endd. with date, etc. 1 p. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 54.]
[Probably Feb. 26.] Instructions for William Milward, being sent into Germany.
Her Majesty has present occasion to take up a loan of 100,000l. sterling and hears that she may obtain it upon reasonable terms in Germany. Has made choice of him to serve her herein. He shall go first to Stoade and thence to such other places as he thinks convenient, first learning of the chiefest bankers of Germany who are most likely to lend. He shall at first carry himself as a private merchant coming for his own trade or for a friend [underlined], and shall not use her Majesty's name lest the rates of interest be thereby raised.
For the lenders' assurance, “the chief of the Merchants Adventurers here shall write unto the Governor and those that reside at Stoade to make them sufficient [underlined] bonds; who, for their indemnity, shall receive counter bonds” under the Great Seal. If the Merchant Adventurers' bonds are refused, he shall offer bonds of the city of London, or her own bonds under the Great Seal [added by Burghley, but struck out: “as cautions for our merchants for that we would be lothe it should be known that the money should be taken and borrowed for us.”]
As the rates of money vary in different parts of Germany, he shall arrange for the repayment in specie or “in such value of the specie” as will be to her least loss.
The interest not to exceed ten in the hundred. Understands money may be had there at lower rates and Milward shall obtain it at the lowest possible.
Brokerage etc., to be at the rates usual among merchants.
As raising the whole sum at one time might raise the rate of interest and fall out the more uneasy in repayment, he shall take up the sum in portions and at several times.
He may make the sum over by way of exchange [“whereby we may escape loss as near as maybe,” added by Burghley] or in specie. Leaves to his discretion the safest means of shipping it if it be in specie; he shall consign it to the Treasurer of England for her use.
He shall from time to time advertise her Treasurer, and her Principal Secretary, Sir Francis Walsingham, of his proceedings, [from here onwards added by Burghley] and that speedily as soon as he perceives how he may obtain the money and at what rate of interest. For this he shall be given a cipher.
Draft, corrected by Burghley. Endd. “February, 1588….” 4 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 55.]
Copy of the above draft.
Endd. 2 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 58.]
[Feb. 26.] The Queen to Willoghby. (fn. 2)
Commanding him to hasten away the horse companies of Sir Robert Sydney, Sir John Borogh, Anthony Shyrley, Christopher Blunt, and Matthew Morgan (Thomas Knolles “who hath had no horses at all this long time,” is not to go nor to have pay), appointed to serve under Sir John Norrice and Sir Francis Drake. The States General agreed to this, and the companies should have embarked five weeks ago, for shipping, etc., was provided for them. They shall sail to some Kentish port and thence join or follow Norryce. If any refuse, or delay their embarkation more than six [ten crossed out] days after their receipt of this order, they shall be discharged and their pay from that date forward used to maintain double the number of footmen under Norryce.
Bodley to inform the Council of State and the States General of this resolution.
Minute in Burghley's hand, and corrected by him. Endd. with date. 1¾ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 70.]
Feb.26./March 8. The States General to the Queen.
Recommending the matters contained in the letters written to her by the States of Friesland.—The Hague, 8 March, 1589.
Signed, J. van Warck. Countersigned, C. Aerssens. Add. Endd. with note of contents. French. ½ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 75.]
[Feb. 26.] Note of money delivered by Sir Thomas Shyrley to Sir John Norreys by exchange, for 600 horsemen and 6 foot companies.
Norreys given about 11,000l. credit. To avoid double charge upon her Majesty, the companies appointed for this voyage should be ‘cashed’ if they are not here by March 10.
Imprests to the 6 horse companies for 22 weeks from March 10, 3,960l.: credit for their furniture, 3,330l. Norreys desires to be in pay for 100 lances from 10 October last until 10 March, 1,200l. [Margin, by Burghley: ‘denied.’] Imprests to the 6 foot companies for 22 weeks, 3,260l. 18s., besides their apparel [Added by Burghley: 1,127l. 10s.] Total 11,750l. 18s.
Endd. by Burghley, as above and with date. Marginal notes by Burghley. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 72.]
Feb. 26./March 8. Placart of the States General about musters.
To avoid the frauds which drain their resources and burden the soldier, they, by the Council of State's advice, resolve and order that:—
1. All colonels, captains, etc., show due respect to the commissaries of musters.
2. That they muster their companies upon the commissaries' demand.
3. No passevolants, whether burghers, peasants, freebooters, victuallers, or others, to be passed as members of the company at the musters, unless they actually serve in it, keep watch and ward, and go wheresoever it goes by land or water. No captains, etc., to help themselves out with such borrowed men, upon pain of capital punishment for all concerned.
4. All to be enrolled and mustered under their true and usual names, and also their place of birth, upon pain of dismissal and punishment.
5. Colonels, captains, etc., to be responsible for all their men once they have passed muster: and to discharge none without the consent of the colonel of the district. Recruits and discharged soldiers, as well as those going on or returning from leave, to present themselves before the commissary, so that he may know the date of their arrival or departure. Prompt notice to be given of any slain or run away, or else they will be taken off the list from the time of the last muster or from their first entry.
6. Any quitting their company without the captain's passport, to suffer the death penalty. Any captain receiving them to be punished.
7. A company garrisoning a town shall admit into its ranks no inhabitants of that town. Nor shall it admit any of any nation except that of which it is: others shall be cashiered, unless allowed by the States General or Council of State.
8. All Governors, colonels, captains, etc., to obey this order, which shall be proclaimed and enforced by the Governors, States, Councils, etc., of Gelderland, Zutphen, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, and Overijsel.—The Hague, 8 March, 1589.
Translation. Original signed S. Meynertsen, countersigned Gilpin. Endd. and with marginal notes by Burghley. French. 4¾ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 81.]
Feb. 27. J. Ortell to Walsingham.
Saw the Lord Treasurer yesterday morning about the vessel taken by Sir Walter Ralye's people. He asked, among other things, if Ortell had received the last resolution and sent it to the States General. Finding that owing to Walsingham's indisposition he had not, his lordship said that, if Walsingham was still too unwell to make the despatch, he would undertake to do it himself.
Importance of this resolution to the States, who must upon its arrival prepare their estate against this spring. Fears the wind may turn easterly, as it did last evening and this morning. The messenger has been waiting 23 days and more. Desires speedy dispatch.—London, 27 February, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 74.]
Feb. 27. G. de Prounincq, called Deventer, to Walsingham.
Allen will inform him of his strange adventures here. Waits patiently, trusting to her Majesty and the English, and refusing all other means of deliverance. Desires him to help Allen to get her Majesty's letters and to return at once. Her Majesty should ask only that as an act of courtesy the prisoners should be sent to her.—Utrecht, 27 February, 1589, stylo veteri.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 77.]
Feb. 27. Francisco Rascuro de Mercado to Walsingham.
Having heard of his honour's illness, waited on him twice some four or five days ago, but, either owing to his honour's preoccupation with business or to the fault of the servants, could not see him. Intended to offer to cure him of this illness. Told Horatio Pallavicino of this last Tuesday morning, before his (Pallavicino's) departure, who advised him to write to his honour about it. Offers to place his poor abilities at his honour's service. —From his honour's house, 27 February, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Seal of arms. Spanish. ⅓ p. [Spain III. f. 40.]
Feb. [27]. The Queen to Muley Hamet, Emperor of Morocco, etc… (fn. 3)
Although she has recently replied to the overtures of the ambassador, Mushac Reyz, yet, as the said Mushac has delayed his departure, she takes this further opportunity to thank the Emperor for his kindly assurances and to hope that her answer will be to his satisfaction.—Westminster,—February, 1588.
Minute. Add. Endd. “M. to the Kg. of Marueces. Feb. 27, 1588.” Spanish. 1 p. [Royal Letters II (Morocco), No. 15.]
Feb. 28. Wyllughby to Walsingham.
“This bearer coming suddenly, and considering with what expedition his hasting over was to be advanced, I have dispatched him presently, and will, God willing, within a day or two follow him, which I could not do this evening by reason of my great business….”—Midelbroughe, 28 February, 1588.
Holograph postscript. “For the more assurance of his passage and the weighting of the occasion, I have commended the charge of him and his intelligence to Sir Tho. Baskervyle.”
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ⅓ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 78.]
Feb. 28. The Oostergonians to the Queen.
Their former petitions to her and to the late Earl of Leicester, against their persecution by certain of the States of Friesland solely on account of their desire to offer to her the sovereignty of their state. Thank her for writing to the States to compound all differences and to restore those who had been exiled and deprived of their goods. They petitioned the States for their restoration, but they, Willoughby, Leicester, and even her Majesty's letters, were alike powerless to move them. They and their distracted country have no refuge but in her Majesty, whom they desire to provide a remedy for their ills.—Leeuwarden, last of February, 1589.
Signed, Martin van Schonberk, Duvus van Aylva, Wybrant van Aylwa, Doeche Aysma, Joist van Hechema, Galen Heslinga, Salvius Moctma, Tyaerck Cappes, Wube Schelkyns, Minne Liuwez Mellema. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Latin. 2 pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 81.]
Petition of those of Oostergo to the States of Friesland, for their restoration to their estates and offices, as the Queen of England required, on behalf of Dr. Hesselus Ayssma and the others, by her letters which her servant Christopher Parceval communicated to them at their last meeting. These letters have been ignored. None should be exiled without a proper trial, which the petitioners have never had. They were expelled owing to personal hatred and to their desire to make the Queen the sovereign of their state. Any complaints against their conduct in office should be tried by due order of law. It is dangerous to anger a prince who is able to make her displeasure felt and who, after God, is the Provinces' only defence against the Spaniard — 8 January, 1589.
Copy. French. 12/3 pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 82.]
Feb. 28./ March 10. Colonel Fremin to Walsingham.
The States discharged him on August 4 last, with a mere letter of thanks. (fn. 4) They sent neither commissary nor money, although he had to sue nine months for his licensing and was owed for 17 months, less a little for some victuals supplied to his men. His disgrace was due to his following the English party, for until the Earl of Leicester's arrival no foreigner was better treated. Was abandoned by the English party. Always served the States loyally. Could say much of faults on both sides during Leicester's government. After Sidney's death, Leicester suddenly seemed to lose his luck, his welcome, and his authority, and prophecies of the fall of the English party became frequent. Some months ago Walsingham's servant, Charles, told him that evil reports were being made of him, but that Walsingham would not believe them. Thanks him. Sends two letters, one from Leicester, the other from Sidney, to show their opinion of him at a time when he thought of going into England. As Willughby and several captains are now going into England, need write little of these Countries. The enemy garrisons are strong around here: could assemble 8 or 10,000 men in forty-eight hours. Colonel Morgant keeps very good watch now his English forces are depleted. The Duke of Parma has sent three regiments and some horse to the Duke of Savoy, and is to send others towards France: also, it is said, some veteran Spanish regiments to Spain, to be replaced by five regiments of besognes. Parma means to besiege Bergen again. Boundless ambition of the Spaniards. These Countries complain of piracies by English ships. Hopes soon to go to Augsburg. Would have gone before, but Wyllughby asked him to come here during the siege, and then illness kept him till the spring. Has a book about fireworks, if Walsingham would care to send Mr. Bournen here to fetch it.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 10 March, 1589, N.S.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 1½ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 85.]
Feb. 14 and 28. [Edward Barton?] to [Walsingham?]
His efforts to carry out his honour's instructions to his predecessor. Heard from his friends in [blank in MS.] and elsewhere of her Majesty's happy success against her enemies. Continues to urge the Grand Signor to act against Spain, but the Vicerey is a Spanish pensioner. The writer has therefore adopted a new course: he contrasts the Grand Signor's empty treasury and the turbulence of his “confiners” with her Majesty's prosperity, and hints that she may soon accept the honourable peace conditions which are offered to her, especially as the Grand Signor, at whose request she began these wars, seems unlikely to assist her. Told these people that he had received letters from her Majesty informing him of her success against the King of Spain and that she would not accept the good terms which that King offered, so long as the Grand Signor would presently send his fleet against him: otherwise she would accept the terms. Sent this advice ‘threefold’ to the Grand Signor, and particularly by the Vicerey “who outwardly seemeth greatly to favour me.” The Grand Signor commanded the Vicerey “to write a letter formably for answer thereto, assuring her Majesty without default that this summer he would send out his fleet against the Spaniard,” urging her to persist in her former purpose. He ordered the Admiral to prepare 80 galleys for the summer. The Vicerey gave the letter to the writer and asked him to write letters of similar tenor to her Majesty. He promised that these promises should not be broken as those to the writer's predecessor were broken. Feels certain that the Vicerey will, nevertheless, seek to frustrate this attack on Spain, whose pensioner he is. The Admiral also fears this. Sends only the copy of the Grand Signor's letter “not having the heart to put her Majesty to so much charge” as the carriage of the original would come unto, “knowing how many like formerly have been sent.”
Hassan Bassa, the Admiral, lately told the writer in secret that he had advice out of the Seraglio, or palace, of the Grand Signor, that he would this year make peace with Persia. His treasury is so empty that he fears a mutiny in the camp, for the soldiers here at court threaten openly to go over to those who will pay them better. He has ordered the General to allow none of his soldiers there to return, but to defend the frontiers with them and not to take the offensive. The Persians, since they defeated Hassan, bassa of Cervan, have also defeated the beglerbey of Tripolie in Soria.
“My complaint upon the Raguses, mentioned in my last, hath so prevailed with the Grand Signor and the Vicerey as that, besides the severe warning here unto the ambassadors threatening the subversion of the state of Ragusa if they favour the Spaniards against her Majesty, they have also caused a severe letter to be written to the Signoria in no case to send forth their ships or permit their mariners to go in his favour.” Will send a copy of this letter.—14 February, 1588.
A courier brings news that the Transilvanians have unanimously forsaken their “papistical religion,” and expelled the Jesuits and friars. As the Prince is young and a Catholic, the nobles allowed him to retain certain Jesuits. They are eager not to offend the Poles or any Christian princes by giving them cause to suspect that the Prince's “young years should be the cause of such alteration.” [Blank in MS.] has sent his general of Hungary with forces into Cassovia. The young Prince's said protector was deposed and died of grief within four days.
Zamoiski, Chancellor of Poland, to avoid arousing the suspicions of the Legate Aldobrandius, the Spanish ambassador Vespasianus Gonsaga, and the ambassadors of other Christian princes, secretly asked the Prince of Transilvania to instruct his agent to treat of certain matters with the Grand Signor and Vicerey. He was to excuse the “long tardance of his ambassador” owing to the inconvenience of the time and to the plague. He was also to promise that, despite the divers general assemblies, nothing would be undertaken against the Grand Signor; and to request that during these assemblies no raids should be made by the Tarters, etc., as happened lately at the battle with Maximilian. Such raids enable their opponents to exclaim to the people against the uncertainty of the Grand Signor's friendship, and so to secure a strong party for Maximilian and the House of Austria. The Transilvanian agent did this, as he secretly told the writer, and obtained letters promising all that the Poles had asked.
Mutiny of the army in Persia for want of pay. The General was shut up in Esrom. “To purge himself here with the Grand Signor,” he executed the beglerbey of Chersull and the chief captain of the Spahees or horsemen. Some chief officers fled hither, fearing the like fate. They blame the General for misappropriating the pay. A mutiny of the Janissaries and Spahies here nearly occurred on the 25th, but the Grand Signor threatened that he would send the Vicerey, etc., away headless if they did not pay the men, “insomuch as leaving aside all gravity they ran speedily out of the seraglio accounting that day to have entered into a new life.”
The Grand Signor lately told the Beglerbey that he heard that he was a very rich man, and that the governor of his house was also rich. The Beglerbey denied it and the Grand Signor said that he would find out the truth for himself. The Beglerbey, much troubled, went home and told his governor that he had obtained for him the ‘beglerbikyke’ of Cairo and Egypt: the governor must at once present two hundred thousand crowns to the Grand Signor. After some bargaining this sum was reduced to fifty thousand, which the governor duly presented to the Grand Signor. That night the governor came to the Beglerbey to inquire about his patent for Egypt. The Beglerbey answered “that he was glad to see him return alive, for that he feared a worse matter, assuring him that by the said ducats he had both saved his own and his master's life.”
Some say that Lancomo, the French ambassador, remarked upon hearing of the Duke of Guyse's death, “Is it true? I warrant you then il re non trovera gambe da scampare….”— 28 February, 1588.
Copy. Not signed. 4½ pp. [Royal Letters (Turkey) LXI. f. 9.]
The Grand Signor to the Queen.
Congratulates her upon her victory over the infidel Spaniards, of which her agent here resident has informed him. Learns from him that she will not accept the Spaniards' offers of peace provided that he (the Grand Signor) sets forth his fleet to aid her. Warns her Majesty against the deceitfulness of the Spaniards. Will in the spring set forth his largest navy against the said Spaniards.—Constantinople, 1589 a.d.
Copy. Latin. 2 pp. [Royal Letters (Turkey) LXI. f. 11.]
[Early in February] Report by Gabriel de Alegria of his journey to the Dukes of Lorraine and Mayenne. (fn. 5)
The Duke of Lorraine is very grateful to the Duke of Parma for his condolences and the offer of aid made on January 8. He is much grieved at the death of the Duke and Cardinal of Guise, but otherwise he is of the same humour as before, with small outward manifestation against the King of France or thought of avenging the dead. His whole purpose is to preserve his state, to which end he must throw himself into the arms of his Catholic Majesty, and entreat the Duke of Parma to succour him with men and money. The said Duke has sent a gentleman to the [Duke] de Mayenne to encourage him and offer him help, albeit privily. He has already sent him two hundred lances at his request.
There has come to him an ambassador from the King of of France, Rieul by name, with a letter in the King's own hand, saying that he sent to him a person in whom he placed great confidence, to explain particularly what had happened. He begs the Duke to remember that they are near kinsmen, and sends compliments and promises of the usual sort. Also he understands that the marriage of the said Duke's daughter is arranged and promises that if he can hasten with his consent that of M. de Vaudemont, his son, to the heiress of Bouillon, he will do so very willingly.
This ambassador returned after six days and, from what they say, is not very well pleased with the Duke's answer, which only thanked him in general terms, without mentioning the principal matter.
In Lorraine, it was supposed that the match of Vaudemont with the heiress of Bouillon was about to be broken off. There is a general apprehension of war in France as the result.
The Duke de Mayenne is very grateful for the courtesy received from the Duke of Parma by his condolences and offers of succour made on January 13. He is firmly resolved to support the Catholic party in France and to die for it as did his father and brothers. He will not desert it even if the King offer him the half of his kingdom. This is not a time to dissemble, when heretics are burning Catholics. To demonstrate his zeal, the said Duke throws himself into the arms of his [Catholic] Majesty and the Duke of Parma, humbly supplicating them to take him into their protection, and aid so just a cause, as they have done before.
The means which he craves to this end are seven or eight hundred horse and two regiments of foot; the one of Lorrainers and the other lanzquenets, who should be dispatched as soon as possible, by whichever route may seem best to the D. of Parma. Also the 300,000 escudos promised in case of war, since now there is war, would be to the point; 100,000 should be sent by way of Paris and another 40,000 to Switzerland, to raise troops; and a further 13,000 escudos to the county of Burgundy, by the hands of Laon de Charlite, to pay the garrisons.
The said Duke departs in high spirits for Paris from his command in Burgundy, which he leaves unwaveringly devoted to him. He takes with him 500 horse, and three thousand footmen. He will pass by Troyes, where 2000 foot and 200 horse are awaiting him. With these forces (all very good), 200 lances which the Duke of Lorraine is sending him, any more they may give him in Paris (which will be much), and twelve pieces of artillery, he will make haste to succour Orleans, which he has much hope of being able to do.
Both in his province of Burgundy, or the major part of it, and in all France, there is among the Catholics a general cry to heaven, and they yearn for his Majesty and for the Duke of Parma, many believing that without their protection and aid, recovery will not be possible and they will be unable to live without fear; many are resolved to flee to the [Duke of] Mayenne.
Some small towns will receive garrisons from neither side, but think to provide themselves therewith, and to wait and see which is the winner, believing that if Orleans be succoured, which they deem the main point, all the rest will declare themselves uncertain.
Copy, in L. Tomson's hand. Probably a decipher. Some phrases obscure, and some words omitted. Endd. Spanish. 2 pp. [France XIX. f. 87.]
[After Feb. 6.] Memorial by Ortel.
The States General, fearing that their goodwill to advance this intended voyage has been misrepresented to her Majesty, have instructed him to assure her that they are not responsible for any shortcomings, and to lay before her papers, etc., summarising the whole negotiation.
They also desire speedy answer to the points in their memorial, given to Sir John Norritz at his departure from Holland, and also in that presented by Ortel and Vooght. Also touching the point of the sea causes mentioned in the States' letter to her Majesty, delivered to Mr. Secretary Walsingham, 6 February, 1588.
Endd. Undated French. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 7.]
[After Feb. 19?] (fn. 6) Mr. Allen's proceedings at Utrecht.
On February 10 was instructed by Lord Wyllowghby and Mr. Bodley to repair to Utryght to deal with Count Mewers, and the magistrates for the release of Deventer and Clarehage. Delivered the letter to the Count, and moved him in her Majesty's name to obtain their release. The Count said that he marvelled her Majesty would write and send for such thieves and villains, and that he doubted if she would do so much for him, if he needed it. Allen rebuked him for this speech and desired to know the charges against Deventer and Clarehage. The Count named none, but said he could not act alone, without the magistrates. Next day Allen delivered letters to the magistrates, who in their turn professed their inability to do anything without the States of Utryght and the Count. Delivered Wyllowghby's letter to the States, who answered that, as he had no letters of credence from her Majesty, they felt this must be “a matter devised by their friends rather than sent or appointed by her Majesty.” He thereupon left. Has since had letters from Deventer and Clarehage, who assure themselves that only earnest letters from her Majesty are now required to secure their release.
Undated. Endd. as above. 2 pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 47.]
[End of Feb.] An Answer to Ortell's requests on behalf of the States General.
As the States complain of breaches of the Contract, and as the Earl of Leicester and Lord Willoughby have also complained that it has been in sundry points violated by the States, Commissioners should be appointed to examine and redress these matters by mutual consent.
These Commissioners should likewise examine and redress the many defects and imperfections now observed in the Contract.
For the particular points upon which Ortell requires speedy answer, it is thought good that reply should be given as follows:—
Lord Bourgh, Mr. Bodley, and Gilpin, are to join with those the States shall appoint to examine the debts claimed on both sides, and also to satisfy the States for the victuals taken out of their magazines at Berghen op Zome and Ostend, as was promised by the apostilles set down in April, 1588.
Her Majesty thinks that the States should forbear their wonted trade into Spain until the effect of the enterprise of Norris and Drake be seen, “for that it would be hard for merchants to trade with safety amongst so many men of war as shall lie upon the coast of Spain.”
Her Majesty thinks that, as her General and the Governor of Gertrudenberghen have no party in that town, it is useless for her to command them to deliver it to the States. She wishes the States, therefore, to devise some plan “for the bringing of the same to pass, and she will take such order therein, upon knowledge thereof, as they shall have cause to rest satisfied withal.” Has already commanded Willoughby to do his best to reduce the town to their obedience.
Draft. Endd. “Febr., 1588 …,” and by Burghley as “not delivered.” 7 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 85.]
[Feb.] Rates for apparel delivered to soldiers in the Low Countries. (fn. 7)
Gentlemen. Cassocks and Venetians, laced, supplied at 41s., should be 36s.; fustian doublets, at 20s., should be 16s.; stockings, 9s., for 6s.
Private soldiers. Cassock 22s. 11d., for 19s.; doublets of canvas, 8s. 6d., for 6s.; cloth stockings, 15d., for 13s. the dozen; shoes, 20d., for 15d.; caps, 16d., too dear at 12d.; shirts and bands, 3s., “the best pennyworth.”
“Let it be reckoned the gains that is had of every soldier, it will amount to three thousand pounds sterling at the least.” This, and the dearness of all kind of victual, makes it no marvel that the soldier is poor.
Endd. with date. ½ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 224.]
[Feb.] Foot companies in the Low Countries.
Vlishinge. The Governor, (fn. 8) 200. The Treasurer, (fn. 8) Capts. Dennyce (fn. 8) (sergeant-major), Errington, Dercy, (fn. 8) Tho. Ma. Wingefeild, (fn. 8) Randolphe, Lytleton, (fn. 8) Harte, (fn. 8) Browne, Richard Wingefeild, (fn. 8) Fullford, (fn. 8) Hender, (fn. 8) each 150. [Against the last three, in Burghley's hand: 450, with Sir Jh. N[orris].]
Briell. The Governor, 200. Sir Henry Norreys, (fn. 8) Capts. Vavasour, (fn. 8) Pryce, Brett, (fn. 8) Sir John Burghe, each 150.
Ostend. The Governor, Sir Charles Bloonte, (fn. 8) Prothera, Sir Thomas Knowllis, Capts. Barker [Burghley's hand: at Berghen], Hooddey, (fn. 8) Lambert, Sir Edward Norreys, (fn. 8) Capt. Anthony Wingefield (fn. 8) [note by Burghley that these two with Sir J. Norreys], and Sudderman.
Berghen-op-Zome. The Lord General, Colonel Sir Tho. Morgan, each 200. Capt. Buck, Sir Francis Vere, Sir Thomas Baskervile, Sir John Scott, (fn. 8) Sir Edmund Uvedall, Capts. Salisbury, Bannaster, (fn. 8) Powell, (fn. 8) Champernon, (fn. 8) Lord Audley. (fn. 8) [Note by Burghley that 450 to go with Sir J. Norris.]
Endd., with date. 1⅓ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 90.]
[Feb.] Answer of Antonio, King of Portugal, to articles proposed to him by Drake and Norris.
Acknowledges the Queen of England's favour in receiving him into her realm and in equipping a powerful army, under Sir John Norreys and Sir Francis Drake, to restore him to his kingdom of Portugal. Doubtless his loyal subjects will rally to him as soon as he lands. Thought it well to frame the following articles. His finances are probably much depleted by the Spanish garrisons kept always in his realm. Nevertheless, he promises upon the word of a prince to reimburse the army's expenses and to give it regular pay as soon as he can. Desires that no wrong or violence be done in matters of religion, nor to women's honour and modesty.
A general review of the army to be held ten days after it disembarks in Portugal. Rolls of every company and of the troops and sailors left on the fleet shall then be made. The three months' pay, which the generals require, shall begin from that day. Antonio will do his best to furnish it at once, but if he lacks the means so to do, then it shall be paid at the end of the three months. After these three months, musters shall be held every month (of 30 days), and Antonio will do his best to advance a month's pay on each occasion. Will give the generals honourable recompense for any delay in payment. Will see that the army is provisioned according to rates agreed upon with the generals. Supplies to be advanced to the soldiers while their pay is in arrears, and afterwards to be defalked from their pay.
Will try to repay at the required time the costs of levying, arming, and preparing this army. Wishes them, however, to grant him six months' grace, for he does not wish to overburden his subjects: during that time the ships might arrive from overseas and he might settle his finances.
The money from Barbary and other his subject lands to be used to pay the army's expenses and pay. Desires that payment be made only upon his order and by a Portuguese treasurer, with whom Richard Hudleston, treasurer-general of the army, may be associated.
In towns taken by assault, the sacred properties of the churches, monasteries, hospitals, etc., to be spared. Private property placed in churches, etc., for security, to be apportioned by the Treasurer according to the usage of war. Captured Portuguese nobles, etc., and their goods, shall be handed over to Antonio at once. Will compensate the generals, soldiers, etc. When a town capitulates and pays a certain sum, one quarter of that sum shall go to the generals and three quarters shall be used to pay the army. Towns of the King of Castille or others, to be at the army's disposition, but to become Antonio's property: desires that sacred things and women be not violated. Artillery and munitions found there shall belong to Antonio, who will satisfy any just claims possessed according to military usage by the generals or the master of the ordnance. Spaniards and other strangers who are captured, shall, if they are notables, be handed over to Antonio who will pay their ransoms to the generals or their captors. Desires that no Portuguese not bearing arms against him be taken prisoners save by his express command.
East Indian and other Portuguese ships which yield at once shall not be prizes: their cargoes to be handed over to Antonio. Any taken when under convoy of Castillian ships shall be brought intact to Lisbon or elsewhere, where one quarter of their cargo shall be given to the generals to distribute as prize-money, the other three quarters to Antonio to meet the expenses of the war and the pay of the army. The ships' guns, etc., to belong to Antonio. All Castillian ships shall be good prizes, and half the cargo and the ransoms shall go to the generals, half, with the guns, to Antonio. No Portuguese ships to be plundered by the English. No ship in the fleet to separate from it without leave of Antonio or the generals. The soldiers not to pillage or tallage in his dominions.
Hopes to land with the whole army in Portugal. If this is impossible, they shall take him and the army to some other part of his dominions. If he then desires to stay there, and the generals wish to go farther and reduce his other dominions and isles of the East Indies, they shall leave him 4000 men and ten ships. Will pay the army as if it were in Portugal.
If her Majesty recall the army, or part of it, to defend her own estate, he will postpone his enterprise and return in person to serve her. Should she not require all the army, he desires that 18 or 20 ships, 5000 footmen, and 300 horse, may be left to defend such conquests as may have been made. Will pay these forces.
As he desires his subjects to realise that he comes to set them free, not to pillage them, her Majesty should command her generals to take an oath of obedience to him, as general of the generals and commander-in-chief of the whole army.
Endd. with date. French. 6¼ pp. [Portugal II. No. 29.]


  • 1. Printed in extenso in Castries, Les sources de l'histoire du Maroc, I. 520–1.
  • 2. Printed in H.M.C., Ancaster MSS., pp. 261–2.
  • 3. Printed in extenso, but with wrong enddt., in Castries, I. 519.
  • 4. See Calendar, XXII. 105.
  • 5. See H.M.C., Hatfield MSS., III. 85.
  • 6. Allen spoke with the States of Utrecht at about this time.—H.M.C., Ancaster MSS., pp. 256–8.
  • 7. Other estimates, by Sherley and by the Clerk of the Wardrobe, in Cal. Domestic, Addenda, 1580–1625, p. 263, under date 7 and 10 January, 1589.
  • 8. A cross against this name.