Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1950.
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January 1589, 11–15
Thomas Bodley to Burghley.
“Of that which I have imparted with Mr. Secretary I know there will need no rehearsal to your lordship, being well assured that whatsoever is material for her Majesty's service your honours will accept and communicate if I write it unto either.” Has little to write. Has been admitted as Councillor by the Council of State, but delayed by the States General until he takes an oath which they offer him. This oath is not conformable to the Contract and is very prejudicial to her Majesty's service, as he has declared to certain ‘committees’ sent to him. They will probably reform it as he desires. In many other matters they break the Treaty and disregard the Council of State. A new, and more sufficient, form of contract desirable. It might now be compassed, especially were her Highness to “call home, and not suffer to return again hither till another Treaty be obtained, the 2000 foot and 600 horse which they have granted Sir John Norris.” Has not thought fit to deal in the motion for paying a yearly sum instead of the assistance of men, until he is received in Council. Mentioned it to M. St. Aldegonde at Middelburgh, who thought 50,000l. sterling would keep them as strong as they now are, provided the money were kept in a common purse and not distributed among the cities and also that they made a covenant for the entertainment of the English companies.—The Hage, 11 January, '88.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. 1¾pp. [Holland XXX. f. 71.]
J. Ortell to Burghley.
That Adrian Cornelison of Dordrecht may have licence to transport 200 lasts of corn to that town. The magistrates of the town, and also Lord Willoughby, have written (fn. 1) in his behalf. Ortell's continual indisposition prevents him from waiting upon Burghley.—London, 11 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents. ¾ p. [Holland XXX. f. 73.]
News from divers places.
Venice, 21 January, 1589 [N.S.]. Letters from Madrid of December 10. The King had been unwell. Great preparations for the Armada at Lisbon and in Biscay, etc. The nun with the stigmata imprisoned: the marks were artificial and she was suspected of trying to raise the Portuguese for Don Antonio.
French news, by way of Milan, that Tours, Bourges and Poitiers have risen against the King, and that M. de Châtre, general of the horse, with most of the cavalry had done likewise. The Duke de Mercoeur retired into Brittany.
Details of the loss of the galley Giuliana in the Gulf of Lodrin.
News came Sunday evening of the death of the Queen Mother of France. She was greatly distressed by the deaths of the Duke and Cardinal of Guise. The Duke of Mayenne is said to be gathering forces at Dijon, despite the King's threat to attack him and to execute the remaining prisoners if he continues in these courses, and a promise of pardon and high office if he will forsake them. Mayenne, it is said, has invited the Duke of Savoy to join the Catholic League in France. The Duke of Aumâle stirs up Paris against the King. Mme. de Montpensier has gone to Flanders to confer with the Duke of Parma. A report that Navarre has turned Catholic.
News from Turin that the Duke has refused M. de Poigny's request for the restoration of the places in Saluzzo. He pleaded his promise to the Pope and the Catholic King.
They say that Navarre has sent 10,000 foot, 3000 horse, and 2000 landsknechts to the French King. Milan news that he (Navarre) has taken Niort, with great slaughter of Catholics.
Rumour that the French King has sent to M. de Vigni a declaration, to be communicated to the Signoria. In it, he excuses his slaying the Duke and Cardinal of Guise on the ground that they were actively attacking his authority and threatening both his crown and his life. Some say, however, that the Duke once swore to the King that everything which he did was for his Majesty's service.
The Duke of Savoy is said to have crossed the mountains with a great army to recover the borders of his ancient patrimony of Savoy. The Governor of Milan sends six colonels to raise more troops.
The said Duke, they say, came secretly to Milan, to the Governor, accompanied by only six gentlemen, arriving at 3 at night and leaving at 7.
The Senate on Saturday decided to give the captain of the Giuliana another galley.
Letters from Constantinople of December 10. The Turks routed by the Persians. Revolt of Barbary: Jews there forced to turn Turk or flee. Hassan Aga to take galleys and troops to appease these tumults, which are mostly the result of the new religion which is now being preached there and which is also disturbing Egypt and Syria. The Bassa of Buda dismissed: the deposed Bassa of Bosnia to succeed him. Famine and plague in Constantinople.
The Duke of Aumâle is said to have gone to Orléans.
Rome, 21 January, 1589 [N.S.]. In Monday's consistory, Gesualdo, head of the Congregation of Ceremonies, announced that it had been resolved that unless absent cardinals came to Rome for their hat within a year of taking the oath, they should lose their dignity of cardinal. His Holiness approved the decree and added that governments given to cardinals should be vacated after 3 years. Joyeuse was pardoned for speaking in the last consistory when French affairs were under discussion. The Pope said that his action was excusable, although the protector of a kingdom was still expected to remain silent when its affairs were discussed.
On Friday the Pope refused the French ambassador audience. The League's agents have returned hither.
The Pope is particularly angry with Morosini for not making any protest, although he was at court within twenty four hours of the Cardinal of Guise's arrest. The Pope is also angry because he left the court and forsook his charge.
News from Spain that the Grand Duke negotiates to get the title of King of Tuscany, offering a million of gold to the Emperor. The Catholic King has invested the Duke of Parma with the isle of Ponza, as his mother held it. The Duke of Mantua sent a reliquary worth 10,000 crowns to the King. He has also given money to the Cardinal datario and the Master of the Camera here.
Letters from France to Genoa say that the Queen Mother visited the Cardinal of Bourbon two days before her death and promised him his liberty. He blamed her for his imprisonment and the others' deaths. The King, they say, has assured their lives to the prisoners and has allowed Nemours to go to Mass, though under escort.
An edict printed here orders all parish priests now at court to return to their cures in 15 days.
The Congregation for French Affairs is thought to be ready to absolve the King if he first give good reasons for the homicide, crave pardon and absolution, and promise penance.
Pius V's obsequies performed at Sta. Maria Maggiore on Thursday.
The Swiss cantons reported to be in arms. The French fear attacks from the Low Countries.
A report that the Pope will name a Congregation of Cardinals to find ways to raise much money without oppressing his people. He complains of the Apostolic See's unprecedented poverty and says that the four millions of gold in the Castle are for great emergencies only.
The Pope may publish a bull forbidding Cardinals to meddle with secular princes in matters of state except by papal licence; and forcing them to live in Rome or their cures. He said that in France fides non deficit propter justitiam sed propter ecclesiam.
A relative of Cardinal del Monte said to be appointed by the Grand Duke general of the Tuscan infantry in Prospero Colonna's place. The Governor of Milan stayed boats going down the Po to Montferrat with munitions for Mantua.
The Grand Duke has returned to Florence. He has 4000 men in Monte Carlo and 6000 in Pescia. Lucca suspects him, and has filled the trenches around the town with water. 600 Corsicans also called in by Genoa.
Dovaro, it is said, asked the Pope, on the Grand Duke's behalf, that the new knights of St. Stephen might hold pensions even if married. No answer was given.
Doubts begin to be expressed about the Grand Duke's marriage with Lorraine. Talk of Don Pietro marrying a Portuguese lady, with a portion of 100,000 crowns, and a commandery from the Catholic King worth 10,000, with as much more di piatto. Rumours that Prince Rannuccio may marry the Archduke Charles' daughter.
Antwerp. January 7. The Duke of Parma, on hearing of the death of the Duke and Cardinal of Guise, doubled the garrisons on the French frontier. He recently dismissed 4 German foot regiments.
It is said that their deaths were the result of intercepted letters which the Queen of England sent to the French King. In these the Duke of Guise wrote with his own hand to promise that he would make the King of Spain King of France, with the Duke of Savoy as his viceroy.
News from England that 60 warships ready, 40 preparing, 30 already at sea on the way to Cales. The six ships at Dunkirk are not now to go for Spain.
Cologne, January 10. The estates of this archbishopric meet next week, to reform the government and dismiss the strangers.
The city magistrates told the cathedral chapter that they must obey the imperial mandate about duties and reduce them to the ancient form, if they desire peace with the burghers.
Italian. 7½ pp. [Newsletters XCV. f. 108.]
Stafford to Burghley.
Knows Mr. Secretary will communicate his letters to Burghley. Has just received the enclosed letter from Lillie, who is at Bloys. Desires his lordship to send it on to Mr. Secretary.
“I was ever of a mind that God did keep a plague for them of Paris in store and I think he will make themselves executioners of their harm.”
News (not confirmed by Lillye) of a truce between Nevers and Na[varre], and that Nevers comes away. The King has certainly sent again for Nevers.
Report of the defeat of the Parisian forces sent to Orleans.—Vendosme, 12 January, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 10.]
Jan. 6 and
William Lyly to Stafford.
On Sunday last [January 5, o.s.] the Bishop of Bourges made his speech for the clergy and Count Brisack spoke for the nobles. M. Barnet, a councillor of Digion, could not speak that day for the Tiers Etat as it was too late. Next day, however, he spoke, and “truly the man triumphed for well speaking and to purpose. His speeches tended, after much handling the state of religion and the deformity thereof through heresy, to beseech the King to ease the commons of the grievous ‘tallies’ and imposts which were laid upon them; to leave the offices judicatory to their ancient order and that they might not be any more vendible, and so that the justice might be free to those who sought it and the justicers' places to those who in virtue and learning might merit them; and craved an order to be given for the gendarmerie that they may not henceforward spoil the husbandman. He delivered this, with many other circumstances depending upon these points, that all the world did applaud him therefore.”
Brisac used many goodly words, “but somewhat manqué in his conclusions.” The Bishop of Bourges made “a good cordelier's discourse,” contenting neither the King nor the audience. His friends say he spake against his conscience. The speeches are now being printed by the King's command. Hopes by his next to send the books of the articles which the King has already accorded. The process of the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal's death are passed over in silence. Will declare the secret reasons when he visits his lordship two days hence. The Garde des Sceaux spoke, but was inaudible: his speech will probably look well in print. “The Bishop of Bourges craved wonderfully the K[ing] to grant them the Council of Trent, and Brisac open war against heretics.” Both speeches would give Stafford cause to smile. The King desired 86 of the States—three from every province—to stay with him until he had dispatched their cahiers, but he did not press for this.
This morning the clergy met to consider the King's resolution to allow them the third part, and to apply the remaining two thirds to the poor and for dilapidations as his officers should dispose. No one knows what they will decide.
The prisoners are to go shortly to Amboyse. “The Bishop hath not gone currently to work, which hastened his dispatch, but yet stayed.”
The Princes of the Blood and the court discontented at the minions' favour.
“The marriage of the Grand Prior with Memorancy's daughter, his legitimation, and the surmises thereupon, give suspect to the Bourbonnists and will advance the cause of the K[ing] of Na[varre] whose virtues are now preached at Paris. If he be capable of the good these times and occasions present him, the K[ing] will have but a small part in France. At Paris they continue in their old course. Yet Coteblanche is not returned nor any hope of any amendment. Here is a bruit that le Clerk will help himself with the place he holdeth. He hath gotten much money into his hands, hath very good prisoners, and being seized of Arsinack is thought thereby to make his peace with the King.”
Forces coming to Orléans. The townsmen lost forty men in an unsuccessful assault on the citadel. Roubempre's and Briniaux' regiments left the camp: “otherwise the rest would have brake up with malcontentment.” The K[ing] of Na[varre] is very near to Ny[vers]: rumours of a battle, of Tremule's death, and Na[varre] being badly wounded, though what M. told Lyly reassures him about this.
Mme. Montpensier gone to Lorraine. Challons, Rems, Vitry, etc., would not admit her. “She hath no great train but flieth in croup on horseback, conducted by St. Paul who was returning from the treuves made at Jamets and had Cusy in his company; to whom Cusy held himself much beholding for many favours but now the other retaineth Cusy for his protection….”
De Mayne “taketh his brother's death not with sorry but with fury.” Two presidents fled hither from Dygion and arrived yesterday. Twenty more leading citizens imprisoned there by the said Duke, who threatened to hang them and fire the town if any stirred. He has now gone towards Ossone, where Senesey is governor.
“The rest of your commandment here I have executed, leaving some of their answers and effects to my repair unto your lordship.”
“The Admiralty is given to la Valet and it is said that [E]pernon shall have composition for his government of Angolesme.”
Postscript. Hears Loignak and his master have been this month on bad terms. Last night he went to Amboise. Cannot tell what part he will play, “but he is now seised of the prisoners” La Châtre has a quarrel with the King. “Some troops of Montmorency have charge by the French King to catch the blotted out name of the doubtful names in my precedent, and it is almost assured.”
“Nevers is here as I wrote and hath the government of the dead….”
“I was all this morning with w, but your lordship did well not to close the hurt but to leave it broken. He told me never a word of all this. I know not whether he wrote it to you or no….”
Holograph. Add. to the ambassador at Vendosme. 4½ pp. [France XIX. f. 12.]
Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council. (fn. 2)
Received her Majesty's letters of December 23 on the 8th. at night. Consulted Mr. Killigrew and Mr. Bodley, and next morning presented the substance of the letters to the States General. Encloses this, with their answers, and his own proceedings for hastening the voyage. (fn. 3)
Hopes they will not blame him for delays. Was not privy to the accord with Sir John Norreys, so cannot so well answer the difficulties which now arise.
“I humbly beseech your lordships that in calling away of these companies, it may please you in direct terms to discharge me, as the governors of the cautionary places stand upon for theirs,” though their responsibility is not so great as his.—The Hagh, 12 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. 2/3 p. [Holland XXX. f. 75.]
(1) Requests of Lord Willoughby to the States General. (fn. 4)
The magistrates of Ostend have petitioned him that some order may be taken for the repair of the breaches in the defences of their town. Desires the States to resolve promptly upon this urgent question.
As regards the States' opinion that the seven companies in Ostend will make up 1000 men, and the thirteen in Bergen-op-Zoom 2000, he refers it to the coming musters, wherein he will, upon notice given, readily second them by means of the commissary-general of musters.
That they take order for appointing some rendezvous for the troops going to Spain; as also for their shipping. That they would appoint commissaries, to avoid inconveniences on the march thither.
They have appointed 400 horse in four cornets to remain here. His own cornet is of 200, and is to remain always with him. Desires them not to dispose of it as of a common cornet.
That they write to her Majesty of their recent resolution about the companies going to Portugal, about those remaining here, and about Ostend.
As there are certain difficulties about his motion for levying men from Bergen and Ostend, desires them to depute to him the councillors Vosbergen, van den Wercke, and van der Beken, who understand English, that he may open unto them the contents of her Majesty's said letters concerning the said levy.—The Hague, 22 January, 1589, stilo novo. Signed P. Wyllughby.
Copy. Endd., and by Burghley, “in French.” French. 2½ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 77.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 2¼ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 79.]
English translation of the above.
2 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 81.]
(2) Declaration of the States General touching the agreement with Sir John Norris.
Have considered the two writings to-day presented by the baron Willughby, about the troops to be withdrawn from Bergenop-Zoom and Ostend for the Portugal voyage, and about abandoning Ostend.
They agreed with Sir John Norreys that 3000 footmen, in 20 companies, and 400 horse, in four cornets, should remain here, in addition to the garrisons of the cautionary towns. Of these, 13 foot companies and two horse companies were to be left in Bergen, 7 foot companies in Ostend, and two horse companies on the frontiers. The rest of her Majesty's succours, which should be 2000 foot and 600 horse, were to go to Portugal until June 1. They have forbidden the governors of Bergen and Ostend to send any troops from those towns unless the agreed numbers are left there. The Council of State has sent commissaries to muster the forces there, to prevent the usual frauds, but musters have not been allowed. The States are astonished at the writings presented by Willoughby. There are not the required numbers in either Bergen or Ostend, so that none can be drawn thence unless as many men from her Majesty's succours are first put in. Any other withdrawal would be contrary to the agreement made with Norreys, and the States forbid Willughby to make such a levy, protesting that, if it is made, any ills resulting therefrom will be entirely due to those who make it.
The States in no wise mean that Ostend should be abandoned. The damage is not so great that the 1000 men cannot assure the place. There is no indication that a siege or assault is impending. They are sending a commissary thither to provide for the repair of the defences.
Resolved by the States General, 20 January, 1589: exhibited to the baron Willughby on the morrow by six deputies and the greffier of the States.
Copy. Marginal notes of contents by Burghley, who has endd. it, “this was delivered to the L. Willoghby by 6 deputies and a ‘griffyr’: to be considered.” French. 3 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 83.]
Another copy of the above, in the same hand.
Endd. by Burghley, “in French. Sir John Norrice.” French. 3 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 87.]
Another copy of the above. Endd., by Killigrew's clerk, “this writing was delivered to me by my Lord General, whereof otherwise I have no knowledge, but would not omit to send the same unto your honour beforehand,” and with note of contents.
Endd. “20 January, 1589, stilo novo,” and, in another hand, with note of contents. French. 2½ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 85.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 2⅓ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 89.]
The States' answer touching Ostend, as in last paragraph of the above.—20 January, 1589.
Translation. Original signed Gelder; countersigned C. Aerssens. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXX. f. 91.]
Thomas Bodley to Walsingham.
Mentioned in his last his letters on behalf of Deventer. Count de Meurs has not yet returned from Arnham. Will move Lord Willughby “to make a step to Utrecht in person.”
Is admitted by the Council of State, but the States General require him to take an oath (contained in their last instruction to the Council) which is prejudicial to the Treaty and her Majesty's service. Had such conference yesterday with Barnevelt and others they sent to him, that they seem now ready to present him an oath to his liking. “The greater part of the States General and the whole Council of State refuse the instructions, as well as myself, disliking very much their proceeding in the oath. Withal the Council hath sent certain committees to the States General to let them understand that unless their authority be preserved, and the instructions reformed they will no longer sit in Council.”
“If I have touched anything in my letter to my Lord Treasurer worthy the speaking of again, I think his lordship will impart it with your honour.”—The Hage, 12 January, '88.
Postscript. Encloses replies of the burgomasters of Utrecht (fn. 5) and the Countess (fn. 6) to her Majesty's letters. Killigrew means to leave for England to-morrow.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 92.]
James Digges to Burghley.
Confusion in the affairs of musters and payments for lack of authoritative directions. The Earl of Leicester's placarts became void upon his revocation, and have not yet been replaced. Cannot punish offenders. Has himself had only “the rule of discretion” to guide him, despite his continual requests for direction. Encloses copy of his last requests (fn. 7) to the Council of Estate. Can get no answer till more important matters are settled, such as Mr. Bodiley's admission which has been delayed for fifteen days by a dispute about his oath. They cavil at the Lord General's authority. No accounts can be perfected for the army, unless the Privy Council issue instructions to proceed without the States, as the Earl of Leicester did, or unless commissioners be sent to settle all doubts and difficulties. The States' efforts to prove that her Majesty's forces are weak are unfair, for the bands were never stronger, thanks to their being supplied from those ‘cassed’ upon Leicester's departure, and also by strangers. The States protest that they were never informed of the new establishment. They dislike most of the Earl of Leicester's proceedings, “as the censuring of the checks and disposition thereof without them; 20 dead pays granted to Sir John Conway and as many to Captain Erington above the 15 ordinary in their own bands; a pay in every band unto the sergeant-major of Vlisshing besides his ordinary entertainment and company; other pays granted out of horse companies; large licences and passports unto captains to remain absent from their charges in England and elsewhere in these countries with many soldiers attendant on them; the signing of so many warrants without check,” as he long ago communicated to Mr. Secretary Walsingham in his “Doubts to be apostilled, etc.” (fn. 8) They may easily rob her Majesty of 20,000l. in these matters, if warrants for the last year are signed before these questions are settled. Does his best, but the commissaries are lacking in obedience, are often absent from their garrisons, and many of them are corrupt and insufficient, since the new establishment.
Prays the Almighty to keep his lordship in “good health and prosperous estate until Nestor his years….”—The Hage, 12 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 2 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 94.]
Occurents out of France.
M. de Mayne fortifies Challons' citadel. He himself has retired to Dijon.
The King hastens forces to Orleans and stays all other proceedings till the success there is known. The Queen regnant recovering. M. de Chastillon before Coignac and Xaintes, which he hopes to take speedily. A practice of the Duke of Savoy against Losanne discovered: it may stir the Swissers. Marshal Mattignon caused the Burdaux parliament to pass an act approving the King's doings and commanding all to speak honourably thereof. Good effects of this. Young Bellgard made Grand Escuier. Edicts and levies of money against the King at Paris. Orleans treats his servants ill.
The speeches of the Bishop of Bourges for the clergy and of Count Brissacke for the nobility on Sunday last [January 5, o.s.], were too general to content the King or the Estates. Next day Barnett of Dijon, a lawyer, gained credit by his speech for the third estate upon the reformation of ecclesiastical and judicial abuses, and of the soldiers' insolences against the husbandmen. “The King hath also made a motion to the clergy, that where the church livings are divided into three parts—for the pastors, for the ‘dilapidator,’ and for the poor—the two last parts might be disposed to the uses appointed by the officers of the crown, and the third to remain to the clergy.”
The Duke de Mayne has imprisoned some who stood for the King at Digeon. Two presidents have fled hither. Last night the Duke Monpensier and his son arrived and were well received by the King. Bellievre and Hottoman examined to-day. They, and the Bishop of Lyons may speak publicly before the States upon the contracts between the King of Spain and the Duke of Guise. Marshal d'Omont prevails at Orleans, where his forces grow continually. The King sent them offers if they yield, and threats if not. Paris obdurate: they expect the Duke de Mayne. All the towns of Champagne obey the King.
The King of Navarre and the Duke of Nyvers close together and a battle imminent. The Duke sent to ask the Church's prayers.
Marshal d'Omont sent yesternight to the King for aid. Those of the town were lodged in the ditches of the citadel, and 1000 men were coming from Paris to aid them.
“Those of Paris have held a Council in the Sorbonne (fn. 9) and propounded question whether the King be not excommunicate ipso facto for killing the Cardinal, and are resolved that he is excommunicate, and so that no obedience is due unto him. The King is now about making the Duke of Guise's process, and it is thought the Bishop of Lyons shall be judged at the same time.”
Endd. 1¾ pp. [Newsletters IX. f. 89.]
Chasteauneuf to Burghley and Walsingham.
In behalf of da Vega. Over a year ago the merchants promised to satisfy him as soon as sentence was given, but now they avoid a settlement.—23rd day of 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd. “13 January, 1588 … Antonio da Vega.” French. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [France XIX. f. 15.]
The States General to the Queen.
Have made answer in writing to what Lord Willughby delivered to them on January 20 in behalf of her Majesty, touching her forces which are to go with Sir John Norreis to Portugal. Their agent, Ortel, is to inform her Majesty particularly thereof.— The Hague, 23 January, 1589.
Signed, J. van Oldenbarnevelt. Countersigned, C. Aerssens. Add. Endd. with note of contents. French. 2/3 p. [Holland XXX. f. 96.]
Thomas Bodley to Walsingham.
Received this morning his honour's of December 6 and 27, with his and her Majesty's to Scheinck. (fn. 10) Scheinck has agreed to serve the States three months longer: her Majesty's letter may make him more untractable, “when they come to reckon.” Will urge Saravia's case, as soon as the question of his instructions has been settled. The States General have done little at this their assembly. “They have considered upon the exceptions I made to their oath, and have set me down another form in terms to my liking, whereupon I was admitted this day into Council, and to-morrow I purpose to deliver my instructions; which I found very requisite, upon conference here, to alter in divers points and to make sundry additions….”—The Hage, Jan. 13, '88.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Seal of arms. 2/3 p. [Holland XXX. f. 98.]
Peter Proby to Walsingham.
Received his honour's of the 9th, from Richmond, on the 11th. Sees his honour received his letters, and, by his of December 25, that he received two others. Hopes he received those of December 23, 24, and 26 from Dover and December 30, January 4, 8, and 9 from this place. Sent with his last a packet of questers from Nunies the Portingall, and Garat Malins. “For assurance to Kirkham I hope he will in time do good service for her Majesty.” Encloses occurents (fn. 11) from him, about Parma's preparations for France. He is in no way suspected. He is going to Dowaye and Brussills to learn their secrets and at Dowaye is to meet Persons and Crispe, who are expected there from Spain after visiting the Pope and Cardinal Alin.
Has sent David Vassewr back to Dunkirk. Encloses his note of the shipping there. (fn. 11) He will return with Proby and then go to his father and mother at Dort and to his brother with Sir William Russell. Thence he is ready to go to Antwerp, “having the Spanish, Flemish, and French tongues well, and [being] a man [who] will hardly be suspected.”
Hears nothing of the party who had 60l. and then 24l. Mr. Humberston suspects he uses the money to serve his necessities rather than to do service.
A Yermowthe bark taken on the 9th. The Dover passage boat says that the Queen's ships would not put to sea to rescue her. So that passage is now very dangerous, for the Queen's ships have put out to this coast only once in the last fourteen days, and then it was to waft Garat Malinns' ship with a forbidden cargo of tallow, etc., entered at London as for Midellborghe. Such corruption is there. This was the Achates. It is said to be done by Lord Cobham's orders.
Has received but four letters from his honour, one of them, in Edmunds' hand, by Millington, a simple man whose drift is to be protected from his creditors by pretending to do service of which he is incapable.
“The governor's letter I had sent, which these 8 days I have had, if not that he should call for the same again….”
Has, according to his instructions, written only to his honour, and to Mr. Furbysher for sea causes and Standlye. The Lord Admiral asked him to write to him, but he thought his honour might mislike this. Hopes his honour will communicate parts of his letters to his lordship.
Standlye's companies are between Alste and Brusills, quartered in the villages towards Custrick. No sign of them moving. Standlye is mostly at Andwarp and Brusells: he and the rest of the English lose their credit.
Discontentment of the merchants and governor of this place because they, as they think, receive less favour than Spaniards and their factors, naming especially Garat Malinns whose ship has been released upon small security to go to Burdious. The corn it carries will, they say, not be sold there. The governor will probably write about this. They also name Skofild. They would be content were Malinns' stayed as theirs are, and are sending to the King about it. Desires that they may be satisfied.
Has written hereof to Sir Martin Furbisher and desired him to get Malinns' ship again stayed. The wind is now contrary for Burdioux.
The governor of Abvill to-day wrote to ask this governor for whom he held this town. He replied, verbally, for the King: he would not write to any who seemed ill affected to his master. Nor would he return the letter. His interview with the messenger took place in the presence of the mayor, two notaries, and others. “Yet, as I hear, the governor hath caused his answer to be registered in the town, and the letter the mayor and échevins write by his advice.”
Has sent Kirkham, who is poor, 25 francs (fifty shillings sterling) for his journey, promising more if he deserve it. Humberston will pay it. Proby will bear it if his honour like it not.
Henry le Emperor is back. Ten thousand Almains prepare in Germany, provided by Espernon. Emperor is untrustworthy and greedy. He has returned to Lyle.
Great quantities of cheese, soap, salt herrings, butter, fish, figs, and other Spanish commodities come to this town and so go into Artois. Some comes by stealth, some by licence, from all parts of England, Holland, and Zeeland. This will prolong indefinitely the Low Country wars. People in authority in both countries are said to be privy to the traffic. It supplies the enemy not only with goods but also with news. This is an important place for early news from everywhere. Those who ignore prohibitions against trading should be punished.
“And such be many I have seen pass, as both Bridges and other, such as abuse your honour with their return and pass not this town, yet sell their commodities to the enemy here. Your honour, if you saw the great harm comes thereof, would not hearken to such…. Dunkirk and the Duke knows all that such fellows can learn so well as if they should send express.” Thinks that they never get above 5l. People of judgement marvel that such shifting knaves get any countenance from his honour.
The priest of the wrecked galleass arrived here by the last passage with passport from his honour. It is thought that his honour cannot know what a Spaniard he is. Monier, the post of this town, brought him over.
About eighty ships, some from Spain, some from Burdious and elsewhere, bound for divers countries, wrecked near Newhaven. Some 1000 persons drowned. New Castell ships wrecked near Yermowthe: they say here that there were five of them and that another got to Dover.
A ship, falsely said to be Garat Malins', has arrived here from Spain so as to avoid customs in England whither it will go from hence. It carries salt, raisins, figs, etc. Hears by it that an armado is being prepared to resist the English pirates who may visit that coast this spring. Its number small. Only twelve galleys to be sent to Dunkirk. Later news from Lisbon suggests that these reports are untrue.
“They confirm the disgrace of the captains, etc., but others put in their places, and say the Duke Pastrona is come by land, with many more noblemen of the fleet and of those were in Flanders before.”
Knows not whether his honour would like these things in his occurrents so puts them in his letter.—Calis, 14 January, “at the gates' shutting.”
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. Sense sometimes obscure. 5¼ pp. [France XIX. f. 16.]
Lord Wyllughby to Burghley. (fn. 12)
“If I should write plainly unto your lordship the difficulties I find myself in … I should in writing hardly observe the decorum is fit.” The enclosed (fn. 13) shows the States' reply to the Queen's writings about Portingale and Ostend. Mr. Kelligrew can report as a witness. “I assure your lordship I was never made acquainted with any acts of the Portingale voyage till now by her Majesty and them; where I must … say by rote what I had never leisure once to think on.” Desires leave to return. The States and the governors of the towns can deliver the men without him, and Sir Edward Norreys has provided to receive them. “I beseech your lordship I may not be a commissary to post men from one to another. I wish well to the journey, but I assure your lordship I have no skill in these causes. As for the towns, how they may be kept, or the field maintained, I leave to them that keep the garrisons, and for myself I protest I can maintain neither. All the chief captains and choice is taken from me, even those of my own advancement, and I am left with a few weak in all sort….”—The Hagh, 14 January.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. 1½ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 100.]
Memorial for Mr. Kelligrew.
Eagerness to serve her Majesty.
To consult Sir Thomas Wilford about the Flanders journey. The Lord General will adventure 10,000l. in it.
To inform her Majesty of the state of the garrisons and forces here.
That her Majesty directs one thing in her letters and the States interpret it in another way.
As the States and the governors can deliver the troops for this journey [of Portugal] and as Sir Edward Norreys is here to receive them, desires leave to return, if not permanently, at least for a while, to report to her Majesty and recover his health “which he assureth himself he shall not have till he may be so happy as to see her Majesty.” The delivery of the troops is but a commissary's office.
To inform the Lord Treasurer of the States' hard course towards him (Willoughby) regarding Wachtendonck, etc.
To desire his lordship to hasten his recall.
Mr. Bodley can deal with political matters and the governors can keep charge of the garrisons, which will be barely enough to hold the towns. “One man, as I am, can prevail little where there is no means, no authority nor credit.”
It would be unwise (and, indeed, as experience has shown, impossible) to reinforce Berghen or Ostend from Vlishing.
To inform the Lord Treasurer of his discontentment at the sending of Mr. Carleil to Ostend without the privity of himself or the council at wars.
To explain the troops' misery for want of a pay. Not reckoned with for nearly two years.
That, if he must stay and the companies must go, he may choose which captains and companies shall go, out of those most acquainted with Sir John Norreys, keeping those he has himself advanced.
To remind his lordship of Chancellor Leoninus' wise counsel touching the Portingale voyage and diverting the war into these countries.
Endd. by Burghley, “a memorial for Mr. H. Killigrew from the Lord Willoghby.” 2¼ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 102.]
François van Baudimont to Captain Adrian Menninck.
Is sorry for his unexpected misfortune. He must try to come to this place, using the enclosed passport. Cannot arrange for money here. The governor Tympel is satisfied and comes here. Spiernick cannot go over to Menninck, for he with Tympel has gone to Aachen and Antwerp. Baudimont is also going on a journey which will take four months. Meanwhile Hans de Friese will help Menninck whose affairs at the longest should be settled in half a year.—Hamburg, 14 January, 1589, o.s.
Copy. Original signed, and add. in French to Menninck at the lodging of Claes de Voicht, at the Golden Fleece, St. Katherine's, London. Endd. “13 December, 1588.” Dutch. 1⅓ pp. Holland XXX. f. 104.]
|[Jan. 14.] (fn. 14)||
Points proposed by Bodleigh to the States.
Informed them, when he presented her Majesty's letters, that he was instructed to require their resolution upon certain points. Thought good to present these in writing.
1. Desires some good resolution touching the causes of Colonel Schenck, those of Leiden, the prisoners at Utrecht, President Aysma, and others of Friesland. Norris and Willoughby have already required this.
2. That they would enlarge the Council of States' authority, the better to deal with the manifold emergencies which arise when the States General have dispersed.
3. That the Council of State's instructions be reformed, strengthened, and brought into conformity with the Treaty.
4. That Utrecht and Overyssel be represented in the Council.
5. That her Majesty's Lieutenant be kept fully informed of all martial affairs, according to the Treaty.
6. That they join her Majesty in prohibiting the carrying into Spain, etc., of provisions serving the enemy for his shipping. Any vessels of these or other countries, taken with such stores by her Majesty's ships, will be condemned as lawful prize.—4 [sic] January, 1588, stilo Angliae.
Endd. Marginal notes of contents (in English). French. 2¾ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 3.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 3¼ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 5.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 4¼ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 7.]
|[Jan. 14.] (fn. 15)||
Remonstrance of Thomas Bodley to the States General.
Her Majesty has, as Ortel and the States desired, instructed the governors of the cautionary towns not to meddle in political or admiralty matters.
The extra forces in the cautionary towns would need service-money, etc., even if they were garrisoned elsewhere, therefore the States should not resent the charge. The troops were needed in those towns because the Prince of Parma was in Flanders, threatening the isles. There being now no fear of the enemy, or of other ill-wishers, the extra forces shall be withdrawn.
The imprests and provision supplied by the countries to the troops in her Majesty's pay (but not that supplied to the extra-ordinary bands in the States' pay), shall be repaid when the accounts are made up.
According to her Majesty's commissaries of musters, her forces are not weak. Owing to the difficulty of finding sufficient horsemen, her Majesty desires to transform certain horse bands into double the number of foot, who would be more useful in this defensive war. The States have ignored her repeated requests made hereupon through Willoughby, Killigrew, and Ortel.
As regards the musters, Thomas and James Digges declare that they have often vainly solicited the States to appoint commissaries to join with those of her Majesty. The States are invited to do this now. Willoughby is directed to inform them whenever musters are held.
The Treaty does not stipulate that the English soldiers should pay excise and customs dues, and it seems hard and unfair to require it of them, for they are strangers who must seek all their relief from abroad, or else buy it with ready money, and at high prices caused by the licences to trade with the enemy.—4 [sic] January, '88, stilo Angliae.
French. 3 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 11.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 3 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 13.]
Another copy of the above, dated 14 January, 1589, o.s.
Endd. Marginal notes of contents, in English, in a different hand. 2¼ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 15.]
Oath of Thomas Bodley as Councillor of State. (fn. 16)
Swearing to be loyal to the States General; to observe the Treaty with her Majesty, and the Instruction given, or to be given, to the Council of State (provided this does not infringe the said Treaty); to renounce private motives, etc., prejudicial to the common cause; to observe secrecy; to be no one's pensioner, except her Majesty's, and to take no important gifts forbidden by written law; reserving the homage owed to her Majesty.
Copy. French. ¾ p. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 17.]
Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council.
Received this morning their letters of December 31, with the list of companies selected for this voyage. Informed the States thereof and that he would now order the troops away, desiring them to reinforce Berghen and Ostend which would not be tenable with the forces remaining. They protested that it was against the Contract and the agreement with Sir John Norreys, “and charged me with breach of my oath if I should do it.” (fn. 17)
Has left Sir Edward Norreys to proceed further herein with the States. Gave him a copy of the list, with orders to the captains therein named to be ready with their companies to embark when and where he shall direct. Desires direction about reinforcing Berghen, near which the enemy lies in strength, and Ostend, which is much weakened by the sea. There will be only 7 companies left in Berghen and the forts, and 5 in Ostend.— The Hagh, 15 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 106.]
Adolf, Count of Neuwenar, to the Queen.
Received her letter of December 18 (fn. 18) in favour of Deventer and Cleerhagen. Will do his best to get the proceedings against them suspended until her Majesty be informed of the charges, as she requires.—“Au quartier de Bislicq,” 15 January, 1589, stilo antiquo.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents. French. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 108.]
Sir John Conway to the Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and Walsingham.
Has conferred with Captain Carlyll. The whole side of the old town is defaced; the dyke filled with sand from the sea bank to Bridges port; the artillery dismounted, and the ramparts decayed along Bridges side. Has written to Lord Willoughbye and the States, but no aid is to be expected.
Yet, considering that their lordships seemed to intend the town to be held until a considered answer or absolute denial be had of the States, Carlyll and Conway decided to hold it with good guard until Carlyll could return and make report to the Privy Council of the extent of the damage, and obtain their lordships' “absolute directions.” Can well wait for this until shipping be sent. Asks pardon if in his last letters he “used more or less words than did become me…. I intended nothing but a simple and honest discharge of my duty, through which I presumed to lay before your lordships how available I thought the place for her Majesty's use, how ruinate it was and chargeable it would be, so as your lordships knowing all and the uttermost, you might the soundlier proceed….”
Learnt of the willingness of these parts of Flanders to submit to her Majesty (as he wrote), from the relation of sundry captured gentlemen and citizens. The soldiers of this garrison find on their expeditions that the commons are of the same mind. Recently “one Spellman, of Newporte, a man reported of good religion, wealth, and discretion, and one that hath been in England, and which hath ever well affected our nation, sent me his earnest request that I would be a mediator to her Majesty to send forces into these parts to possess the field; in which doing he was assured her Majesty should find all the country people in most places, as well within walls as without, very willing to submit themselves to her Majesty's government and … that she shall not find one town in all this part of Flanders victualled for a month.” Knows “what reason they have to mislike the proud government of the Spaniard.”
They have long endured their miseries in the hope of a peace or trusting to Parma's promise to expel the English from Ostend and Bargan. Being deceived of both these hopes, they would doubtless welcome her Majesty's forces.
Thinks that the best way to assure Ostend would be to send forces to seize some of the other coast towns. This would bring over the inland towns, who would grant large contributions.
Refers the state of this place to Captain Carlyll's report.— Ostend, 15 January, 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd., “By Mr. Carleill.” 2 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 110.]
The requests of Sir John Conway.
If he is to hold this place until further answer be had of the States or resolution from her Majesty, desires that the rest of their supply of victual be sent to them. Also a reasonable number of all kinds of working tools. That order be given for regular payment of weekly lendings, and supply of turf and candle. That the 100 men of this garrison detained at Bargen be returned, That match be sent, and that all the captains absent be commanded to return, except Sir Charles Blunte and Sir Edward Norris. Only one captain now here.
Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXX. f. 112.]
Captain William Suderman, ‘dict Suavius,’ to Walsingham.
After writing the enclosed letter, heard from Sir William Russel that he had written to his honour and that one Captain Karler would bring letters to Sir John Conway for Suderman's return. Karler was driven back to England by contrary winds but landed here last Sunday. Thanks his honour for his letters, though Conway delays his leave because certain captains are away and there are, he says, certain restrictions imposed upon him in his honour's letter. Sends the enclosed letter to remind him of his cause. Has waited several days for the captains to return: desires his honour to call him over for two or three days.—Ostend, 25 January, 1589, N.S.
Postscript. Since Karler's arrival, Conway has been more friendly. Karler's inspection seems to give hope of the repair of this town.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. French. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 114.]
Answer of the States General to Bodley.
Have seen his writing exhibited on the 24th. Are ready to please her Majesty in all things not contrary to their privileges.
(1) Colonel Schenck shall be treated as he deserves and as the state of the countries allows.
The prisoners of Utrecht, those of Leiden, and President Aysma and others in Friesland, have been charged with serious offences. The States will procure good and speedy justice for them, and if any should ask grace, will take all necessary measures to satisfy her Majesty as far as the state of the countries allows.
(2) As regards the assembly and work of the States General, they will proceed according to the rights, franchises, and customs of the countries, the provincial States sending their deputies with such powers as they think meet.
(3) The instructions for the Council of State were framed according to the provincial States' views of what was meet, and then were approved by the States General. No intention to break any provision of the Treaty. The Treaty being observed, the Council's instructions must be always made to suit the needs of the time, as is done in other states.
(4) The States General have often urged Utrecht and Overyssel to send their commissioners to the Council of State, as they have now agreed to do.
(5) The States General mean the Governor of her Majesty's assistance, and her Councillors, to have as full cognizance of the Council of State's resolutions as the provincial governors and the Councillors of these countries. Do not believe that any other course has been followed hitherto. Reserving always the authority of the provincial governors and of the particular States or their deputies in defending their provinces and making war; as also that of the Admiral General in the conduct of the naval war.
(6) Trade with the enemy is necessary to the States, because they have no gold or silver mines. Nevertheless they have forbidden and will forbid any transportation of munitions, arms, or naval stores. If her Majesty will make a public and general prohibition of the transporting of suchlike merchandises into Spain, the States will do their best to enforce it. A prohibition touching only her Majesty's subjects and the inhabitants of these countries, merely hurts them without damaging the enemy, as they have formerly written to her Majesty.
Resolved by the States General, 25 January, 1589.
Original signed Egmont, and countersigned C. Aerssens.
Dated at head “30 January, 1588.” Marginal notes (in English) of contents. Endd. French. 2¾ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 19.]