Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1950.
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June 1589, 11–15
The Council of State to the Privy Council.
The States of Zeeland have arrested Adrian Vasseur, once secretary to Sir William Russell, for writing letters (of which the States send copies) tending to breed suspicion between the Queen and the States General. Owing to th threats of the Flushing garrison, the States of Zeeland promised to send Vasseur to England. This was contrary to article 20 of the Treaty and to the liberties of the countries of which Vasseur is a natural born subject, so the Council of State have summoned him to answer before themselves. Desire their lordships to be a means that her Majesty may take this in good part. Her councillor will attend the hearing of the case.—The Hague, 21 June 1589, stilo novo.
Signed K. van Donia. Countersigned G. Gilpin. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Seal. French. 1½ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 46.]
The conseil commis of the States of Zeeland to the Queen.
Desire a full cooperation with England: but some of their own nation have gained the English leaders' confidence and then sown dissension between the two nations by lies and calumnies which the English have too readily believed. The author of these calumnies, Adrian Vasseur, is now in prison at Middelburg, waiting to be examined by the Council of State. The States informed Borlas, the officer commanding at Flushing, but Vasseur's friends have so worked upon that garrison that it arrests those of this and other towns in Zeeland, threatens to lay waste the Walcheren countryside, and menaces the magistrates and burghers of Flushing. To avoid so dangerous a quarrel, the States promised to send Vasseur to her Majesty, to be disposed of as she thinks fit. She has often assured them of her desire for a good understanding between the two nations and for the extermination of pests such as Vasseur, so they desire that, if the Council of State agree to send him to her, she will send him back to be tried and punished here by the Council of State. Desire her also to bid the Governor of Flushing or his lieutenant not to give credit to such people: and also to order the garrison to cease its threatenings. Borlas desires to act rightly, but is ill seconded by the rest, which is another reason for the States' refusal to hand over Vasseur to the garrison.—Middelburg, 21 June, 1589.
Signed P. Ryche. Countersigned A. Cooper. Add. Endd. with brief note of contents. French. 3¼ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 43.]
William Borlas to Walsingham.
Wrote last on the 6th. Has since learned that the States of Zeeland arrested Vasseur because they have letters of his showing a practice to keep the Governor here. It was done out of good affection to his lordship “but the means was ill,” and the States take it the worse because they already suspected Vasseur. They have several of his letters in which he rails upon them.
The plan was that a letter, signed as if it came from the enemy and had been intercepted by the Bergen freebooters, should be brought to Sir Thomas Morgan. He, thinking it genuine, would despatch it into England, urging that the Governor should not be called away from Flusschyng since there appeared to be a practice intended there now that her Majesty meant to draw six companies thence. The States take this “wondrous ill” and fear it will make her Majesty suspect them, seeing that they have petitioned her to withdraw the companies which are in excess of what the Contract allows. They suspect his lordship of instigating this practice, although he is certainly ignorant of it.
Has written several times to the States to have Vasseur handed over to himself, as his punishment (he being in pay in this garrison) pertains to the Governor or his deputy. The States refuse and say that they will send him into England.
“I assure your honour there be some of these busy-headed men that do more hurt than good in this town, thinking they do her Majesty service in railing upon the States with disordered speeches.”
“I find these people so well affected to her Majesty that there is no cause to have any mistrust of them. It may be they bear more affection to the Count Maurice, for his father's sake, than they do to us, but, surely, use them well and you shall find them good enough; I mean the burghers and common people.”
Wishes the lord G[overnor?] or some other might come over, as “this place requireth not to be without a Governor.”
The Prince is still said to be dead. Skenke is in Gelderland with such forces as the States can make. They have revictualled Hewsdon and go to revictual Blyenbleck castle.
Repeats his request for 3 or 400 men. Some bands very weak. Wishes that the company now in dispute between Sir William Drury and Thomas Mary Wynkfelld might be given to one or the other. All are apparelled except that company, which is very weak and out of order.—Flusschyng, 11 June, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 3½ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 50.]
G. de Prounincq, called de Deventer, to Walsingham.
M. de Caron left here on May 26, o.s. He had been amused with words for a month and obtained only the Count's promise, not yet performed, for Deventer's release. The Count asked Caron not to write of this cause to her Majesty until he heard from himself of Deventer's release. Release by sentence is unlikely, since the sentence could only be in Deventer's favour and therefore his enemies will always delay it. No advocate will meddle with the case. They would have accorded her Majesty's request if Deventer would have signed and confessed to the annexed articles, which, together with his reply, he desires Walsingham to present to her Majesty. His enemies seek to keep him in perpetual imprisonment and to make destitute his wife and nine children. Has for ten years spent his means in the common cause and, unlike his enemies, has not enriched himself thereby by one sou.
Is not so ambitious as his enemies allege. Did not seek to secure the sovereignty for her Majesty at any price nor to aggrandise his excellency, to whom he was devoted, more than his commission and the Treaty allowed. Hopes that her Majesty will take further steps to preserve him, for instance by representations to the States' deputies who are now in England.—Utrecht, 11 June 1589, stylo veteri.
Postscript. Commends himself to the Earl of Warwick and the Lord Treasurer. Hopes that this letter will not fall into the hands of those who will use it as they used one which he wrote some five months ago to President Meetkerchen, Councillor Borchgrave, and Colonel Senoy. (fn. 1) Thanks Walsingham because none of his letters to her Majesty or Walsingham have been discovered, although the Count boasts that he has one which cost him 100 crowns at the English court. Cannot learn its contents. Hears that some great nobleman comes over: Deventer's enemies hope it is Lord Buckenhorst as they think him hostile to Deventer.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 3 pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 48.]
Articles presented to Deventer, 20 May, 1589; with his replies.
I. (1) Charge: That he, a private person, thrust himself into public affairs. Answer: Never lived in this town without some public office.
(2) & (3) C: To do so, he ingratiated himself with the ministers, etc., of the Reformed Religion and with the town captains by his pretended zeal for that Religion. A: A matter of conscience.
(4) to (7) C: Then stirred them against their superiors: with them drew up acts and letters on matters of state: gave counsel tending to disturb the commonweal. A: Utrecht fell into confusion after the capture of the Governor, de Villers, at Amerongen; some were ready to agree with the enemy: Deventer was largely responsible for the Count of Nieuwenaar's election as provisional governor.
(8) to (10) C: Advised the exile of certain burghers: thus earned the disapproval of older and better patriots, whom he accused falsely. A: Was neither a councillor nor a magistrate when the Count obtained this decree of banishment: when the magistrates charged their secretary to answer the States of Holland's intercession for the exiles, the secretary consulted Deventer, his friend, but the answer was the magistrates' and not Deventer's.
II and III. C: Had to leave Bois-le-Ducq because of his turbulence and sought by similar practices to gain a position here: chosen burgomaster by his faction, in Nieuwenaar's absence and contrary to the privileges of the country and the wish of the States: excused himself as compelled, saying that there was no man in this province to whom public affairs could be entrusted. Filled several offices, taken from the exiles, with his fellow aliens, against the will of the States and magistrates: his dealings with these people at his house and elsewhere. A: Left Bois-le-Ducq because he preferred to sacrifice his worldly possessions rather than his religion and the common cause. Refused three of the best offices in this province (president of the Court; councillor in ordinary to the States and town; schout of the town): this hardly suggests an ambition seeking power by dishonourable methods: gained little by being burgomaster, and took the office at the Governor-General's command (to whom the appointment pertains), being duly nominated by his excellency to the council and approved by the States despite his protest that his appointment would suggest that there was no native of the province to whom public affairs could be entrusted.
IV. (1) C: As burgomaster, he immediately intrigued against Nieuwenaar. A: Too general a charge: unlikely, as both depended upon the Governor-General.
(2) C: Brought in strangers as garrison. A: Could not, without the magistrates' and captains' assent: the only foreign garrison was the English, placed there by his excellency. Note how they regard her Majesty's subjects, who, moreover, were not received except in this town and province.
(3) C: This done without the assent of the provincial governor, States General, or Council of State. A: The garrisons were under the Governor-General.
(4) C: Placed the company of Cleerhagen (a Brabanter) in the Vaerte. A: Did so by a resolution of the States, his excellency being in England.
(5) C: Unauthorised, he put 30 of the company to guard his house. A: The magistrates called them in and lodged them in their captain's quarter near Deventer's house.
(6) C: Doubled all the guards without informing the Count, who was in the town. A: Untrue.
(7) C: Had the town keys taken from the Count. A: This done by the council, after the captains complained that the keys were ill guarded in the Count's house. The keys were then placed in a strong box in the town hall, the Count having one of the three keys to the box.
(8) C: The canons, the first member of the provincial States, were forbidden to appear. A: Disproved by the town registers.
(9) C: This done without consulting the governor or the States. A: The council resolved only after receiving the Count's writing thereupon.
(10) C: Upheld this exclusion in writings and pamphlets. A: Did so in writings at the council's request, but not in pamphlets.
(11) C: Sought to win the consent of nobles belonging to the first member. A: Did so to avoid troubles until the Governor-General could settle the matter.
(12) C: Caused the Count's order for the canons' restoration to be disobeyed. A: The act of all the towns: the Count had no power to act as judge herein.
(13) C: The States forbidden to meet outside the town. A: By the council's resolution, and to prevent greater divisions.
These differences were afterwards appeased by the Elector of Cologne's mediation, and the Count and Deventer swore not to renew their dispute over the grievances named in the last 7 articles.
V. C: Had the Oude Munster, the oldest church, destroyed, despite the Governor-General's prohibition and the interposition of the Council of State's usher: remarking that sins are not pardoned before they are committed. A: Done by the council; approved by his excellency in Nov., 1587. Twenty or more other churches or cloisters were destroyed. Desires them to specify the time and place of his remark.
VI. (1) C: Told the States of Utrecht that if they clung obstinately to their privileges, their country would fall into a deplorable state, voire porter à plusieurs des collets rouges. A: The Count should respect the liberty of lawful assemblies where speech has ever been both free and secret.
(2) C: When he was sent by the States of Utrecht to the States General, who would not recognise him until he proved that he had been duly elected burgomaster, he said that if the States General proceeded thus they would produce unimaginable evils and disorders. A: The States General had no right to demand such verification, for Deventer had on his side written law, town ordinances, the council's nomination, the States' approval, and the Governor-General's authorisation. The States General's unjust proceedings implied a dangerous weakening of the Governor-General's authority, of whose importance they had written to Deventer. Was justified in pointing out the dangers of such courses. This is a long past matter upon which he fully satisfied his excellency and his council.
VII. C: Imprisoned three nobles, members of the States, without consulting the magistrates. A: Did so in concert with six magistrates, and all approved it on the next day: the nobles had held secret and illegal assemblies, but his excellency ordered them to answer before himself. The only remedy against such lawful action of the magistrates is by way of appeal.
VIII. C: Printed and disseminated pamphlets (one notorious one bore his name) without the Governor's or the States' knowledge and caluminating the States General and particular: these revealed their secrets and dissensions to the enemy and stirred the people against their magistrates. A: Printed only fifty copies, for his friends, of his modest, reasonable, and necessary defence. The town of Utrecht's lettres missives, which belong to the council, were also printed for his friends, but neither published nor sold. Knows of no other books being printed. But what of those people who allow the printer to the States of Holland to print a Spanish placart, drawn up at Toledo, for the union of Utrecht under the government of Holland; or of those who published and sold the discourse upon the States' sovereign rights against his excellency's authority?
IX. (1) C: To retain his position, he practised against the Count. A: Untrue.
(2) C: Sought to take from the Count the renewing of the magistracy, saying that they would still lead him by the nose whether he changed it or not. A: The letters written to the Count at the captains' request prove this to be untrue. Denies the remark.
(3) C: So, he approved, in the magistracy's name, an act for maintaining the existing captains, contrary to his excellency's resolution. A: Done by the council, for very different reasons.
(4) C: He was author of the troubles on Sept. 25 last. A: Knew nothing of them or would have acted promptly to make people careful of thus treating a chief magistrate.
(5) C: Concealed from the Count the captains' meeting of the previous day. A: It was not usual to inform him: and it was the other burgomaster's turn to attend upon him.
(6) and (7) C: Also concealed the captains' resolution about their rendezvous in case of alarm or fire, though he was fully acquainted with it. A: Knew nothing of it.
(8) C: Aroused captains and soldiers on the morning of Sept. 25, without the Count's knowledge. A: Was the last to be aroused: the watch took half an hour to arouse him as they broke the bell-cord of his house at the first pull.
(9) C: Had several meetings with the captains. A: To find out what was happening.
(10) C: Planted artillery to command the approaches to the town hall: got powder and shot from the arsenal: bade them fire only on his orders. A: This done naturally and lawfully, upon the watch's advice, for a magistrate's defence after the attack on Colonel Cleerhagen. Orders about firing show that he meant defence not attack.
(11) and (12) C: Arrested certain burghers who, by the Count's permission, kept counter-watch in their houses: would not send them to the Count's house. A: They were arrested, to avoid worse disorders, upon the report that the Count disavowed them. The town hall is the place of justice for all citizens.
X. C: Was the author and chief cause of all recent factions and alterations in this and the neighbouring provinces. A: All the Provinces are united by oath and Contract under the Governor-General's authority: ‘alterations’ can only mean attempts to break up this union under this authority, which Deventer has ever worked to confirm as her Majesty and his excellency have witnessed.
Not dated or endd. The answers, in Deventer's minute writing, in the left hand margin. French. 3 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 154.]
Paul Grebner, of Schneiberg, to Walsingham.
Has translated, so far as he could, the message about the Constantinople tumult, following the enclosed letter [not found] from the Augsburg merchants. Cannot understand some of the outlandish Turkish words, so has had to string it together with Latin formulae. Experts might give a more accurate rendering.
Asks his honour to commend his cause to her Majesty, for whom he daily prays as well as for Drake's success.
Would be glad to communicate to any agent of Walsingham's at Stade the news which he receives from Venice and Augsburg.— Hamb[urg], 12 June.
Holograph. Add. Year date given in endt. Latin. 1½ pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 91.]
Willoughbie's grievances against Sir Thomas Morgan.
Morgan read her Majesty's letters of displeasure before all the captains, officers, and soldiers. Can prove that Salisburie's speeches were not the cause of this. Has the written testimony of Morgan's servant.
He said that he would drive from the town with cudgels any who favoured Willoughbie. He was, perhaps, drunk at the time.
He replaced Captain Banester by one Lovell, a brickmaker, as sergeant-major. Banester had commission first from Leicester and then confirmed by Willoughbie. Loveil's cosenage well known.
He replaced Chamberlayne, a knight's son, by John Crooks as provost-marshal. Crooks “a man not unknown.”
A council at wars decided that the prisoners taken at the north fort during the siege were to be disposed of by Willoughbie, yet Morgan, who was not present at that service, disposed of some of them.
Her Majesty told Willoughbie that letters of reproof would be sent to Morgan. Yet his authority has since been confirmed by letters from her Majesty which he read in the market place, and an oath was taken to him by men who are under the General's command. Willoughbie not informed.
Appeals to the Council to grant him redress. They gave present hearing to Morgan's man who brought complaints against the captains. A general should not be driven to these shifts, but he hopes it will not be regarded as a precedent.
Endd. with date. 1½ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 53.]
Captain Matthew Morgan's answer on behalf of his uncle, Sir Thomas Morgan, to Willughbie's grievances.
1. The letters were read in an ordinary council of war, not in a special assembly. They were read because Captain Salsburie had said that Morgan had no more authority than a private captain. They confirmed his authority not only as Governor but as Willughbie's lieutenant-colonel. The testimony of Morgan's servant gives little support to Willughbie, and in any case “his lordship in his own house, enforced him to write it, with many violent words.”
2. Has no information hereupon, so desires their lordships to suspend their judgment until Sir Thomas can make his defence.
3. He has neither the power nor the desire to replace Banester or place Lovell. He would have placed the writer rather than Lovell, were the place at his disposition. If Lovell is placed, it is by the States, with the ratification of a martial court, not of Sir Thomas alone.
4. Chamberlan was recommended by him to the States. Sir Thomas is sworn to the States “to admit no officer of that garrison, who hath any entertainment of them, but by authority from them.” Both sergeant-major and provost-marshal have allowances from them, so must be established by them.
5. Thinks Sir Thomas has disposed of no prisoners who were at his lordship's disposal, except by order from their lordships or his lordship. Wishes to know the prisoners' names, that Sir Thomas may answer thereupon.
6. Refers this to their lordships' judgment. Sir Thomas has certainly done nothing displeasing to them or dishonourable to his lordship.
Promises for Sir Thomas all such faithful duty and behaviour towards Willughbie as is due from a soldier to his general.
Endd. with date. 2¾ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 55.]
Philip, Duke of Holstein, to the Queen.
On behalf of Dorothy Gabriel, citizen of his town of Husum. whose husband, Broder Gabriel, sold a large quantity of salt herrings last autumn to a London merchant. The buyer tried to break the contract when, shortly afterwards, a glut of salt herrings forced prices down. The case was brought into court but not yet to judgment, and the said fisherman cannot afford to lose this summer season's fishing.
Desires that Gabriel may have speedy justice, his due prices, and compensation for his losses and expenses.—Gottorp, 13 June, '89.
Signed. Add. Latin. 1¾ pp. [Denmark II. f. 1.]
Estimate of the cost of a German levy for Henry III.
The King at first meant to raise 5,000 reiters and 6,000 lansknechts, and to buy 400 horses for the artillery and victuals. Cost:—anritgeld, 13,800l. sterling; muster, 25,500l.; 400 horses and a month's keep, 6,000l.: total 45,300l.
He now hears that the League raises 6,000 reiters and 6,000 lansknechts, so he means to raise 8,000 reiters, 12,000 lansknechts, 2,000 petits lansknechts in place of pioneers, and 400 horses. Cost:—anritgelt of reiters and of lansknechts, 23,400l.; muster, 46,200l.; 400 horses, 6,000l.: total, 75,600l. The money to be paid to the sieur de Schomberg, or his deputy, at Hamburg and to be there by the end of April. The Queen of England to be asked to pay in gold, which is current throughout Germany. All despatches to Schomberg to be addressed to Cassell, at the Landgrave of Hesse's.
[Next sheet.] Rough notes of sums totalling 44,702l. 11s. 4d.
Endd. with date by Burghley. French. 1¼ pp. [France XIX. f. 146.]
Another estimate: for 8,000 horse and 14,000 foot, bound for four months without further pay: cost 387,054 crowns, an outside estimate which may well be greatly reduced. [Next sheet] 387,054 crowns equal 70,899l. 18s.; besides 6,000l. for 400 horses.
Endd. by Burghley “13 June … Sir Horatio Pallavicino.” Italian. 1⅓ pp. [France XIX. f. 144.]
Notes by Burghley: that 8,000 horse and 14,000 foot cost, for levy, one month's pay, etc., 70,899l. 18s., besides 6,000l. for the artillery: that the French King's estimate for 5,000 horse and 6,000 foot is 45,300l.: that in 1587 the Queen lent to the King of Navarre 30,000l., that he supplied 6,000l., and that with this were levied 8,000 horse and 4,000 foot, besides 16,000 Swiss paid by the King of Navarre and by Chevault.
Endd. 13 June 1589. 2½ pp. [France XIX. f. 150.]
Another estimate, for 8,000 reiters and 14,000 lansknechts: levy, 30,330l.; a month's pay, 49,700l.; in all 80,030l. Further calculations by Burghley in florins and crowns.
Endd. 13 June, 1589. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 148]
Lord Burgh to Burghley.
The enemy fails to take advantage of their weakness. “It seemeth the actions in other parts have given hindrance unto [him]. For if he had not attended the success of wars in France and elsewhere, and, for readiness into every occasion offered thereby, reserved his forces entire and unengaged, I suppose he would not have lost the commodity of this season.” He has a few troops in Gueldres and in Holland. The passages to Hewsdon are still difficult, but the town is safe and well provided. Blimbeck castle is in great danger, “having sustained many assaults and the guard of the place much diminished.”
His devotion to Burghley. —Brill, 23 June.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXXIII. f. 78.]
Lord Burgh to Walsingham.
Thanks him for furthering certain of his causes.
The affairs of France, of which Walsingham advertised him, seem to stay the enemy's hand in these countries. He does nothing before Hewsdon except occupy a few places on the passages, as Hemert castle. Blimbeck has repulsed eleven assaults but cannot hold out unless Skink relieves them.
The Duke of Parma said to be dead. It seems more likely that he has been in danger by poison, “some hold opinion upon mislike with some principal of the Spanish.” … —Brill, 23 June.
Holograph. Add. Endd. “24 June, 1589, new style….” 1 p. [Holland XXXIII. f. 80.]
G. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Received his of May 23 on June 8. Writes to him now, since he hears he has “ease if not full remedy” of his disease and is returning to Court. Desires news of the States' deputies' success. Does what he can to assist Bodly. A special messenger sent over about Oostende. Blames no one, but, from what he hears, there has certainly been a fault in government either through want of discretion and experience or because of some other imperfections.
“The French troubles and the event of the Portingall voyage, make this people hope of some rest, especially if either the French King could overcome the Leaguers, or that her Majesty were plunged further in actual wars against the Spaniard.”
It would be well to end the differences between the States and the English. Lord Buckhurst's coming would have done much. The deputies' dealing in England must be slow and uncertain and “must consist on reports.” Due government cannot be established nor good service done until the jealousies and diffidences are removed. The inconveniences increase, as the quarrel between Zeeland and the garrison of Flussinge over Vasseur's arrest shows. The Council of State should mediate in such cases, but in the Lord General's absence and with its authority curtailed contrary to the Treaty, it can do little. The abridgment of this authority “by the sinister and circumstantial construction of some” is a serious hindrance. For example, Colonel Schenck was appointed to receive forces from Count Moeurs for the rescuing of Blyenbeeck and the victualling of Berck. Moeurs has not sent them because, without the Council's knowledge, his lieutenant, Count Overstein, is already away on some enterprise. Some think it is due to a grudge against Schenck. Meanwhile the other forces have been eating up their supplies and doing nothing. Also the enemy has been able to discover all about them. Likewise, there was over six weeks' delay about the grant for fortifying Oostende, as after it was made there fell out a question between Holland and Zeeland as to which should pay its portion first. The Council could do nothing therein, as it was an extraordinary cause not answerable from the ordinary contributions. “Thus their state and country, for the government, is patched together.” The deputies are well able to inform his honour of these difficulties. The question of the government is most important for the assurance of the state. All here, when they speak truly, admit that another course must be taken. Yet many are lothe to give up their present offices and power.
“Of late, to increase the number of colleges, there is erected another Admiralty, which meet in this place, as superintendents of the other and be as their overseers and reformers of that by them passed if question fall out or that occasion do so require. So as now the Council of State neither hath knowledge nor dealing in any of those matters, though of most importance as a chief strength of this state, and most necessary that her Majesty's ministers should be ever therewith acquainted….”
The enemy is still around Heusden, “strengthening himself in the forts and strong housen” which he holds. The town is victualled for 6 or 7 months, has plenty of powder and munition, and is garrisoned by 1,000 men. Two more companies are being sent: the present high waters make their entry possible, for supplies were recently sent in. M. Fama is confident he can withstand the enemy's greatest forces.
Some 6 or 700 of the enemy advanced as far as Bommel, but retired again.
The States' places, houses, and passages, are fortified and provided. An attack on the little towns in the Betuwe is feared, especially upon the ungarrisoned Culenborgh. Two of the Council of State sent to urge the Count to receive a garrison. As Colonel Baxe is great with him and resides there, he is to be given some charge of the soldiers.
Schenck is at Sgravenweert, awaiting the Counts of Moeurs and Overstein, who promised to join him with their forces on the 24th, N.S. He has taken a warship of Nimmegen and made a small sconce on that side of the river, as a retreat, if it be needed, for his men when they go towards Blyenbeeke.
“The enemy fortifieth himself there, and hath 18 cornets of horse and between 3 and 4,000 footmen. We hear that they cry out for money and are but ill in order. Two regiments of the Bourgongnons and Lourraynoises are said to be sent towards the Duke of Lorraine, where [MS. when] Espernon his men play their parts and have been in the land of Luxenburgh and made some spoil there.”
“It is written from Cullyn that the Duke of Parma had an enterprise upon Mets, and that the Italians which feigned to depart homewards were entering the gates but repulsed, so as he failed of his purpose.”
It is also written that the young Duke of Cleve asks the Emperor for aid to expel all foreigners from his country. His subjects press him thereto.
Truxes, the Elector of Cullyn, goes to Germany to stir up those princes against the Leaguers. The States have given him some means towards answering his debts.—The Hage, 13 June, 1589, st. Ang.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. 3¼ pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 57.]
Notes upon Sir Nicholas Parker's horse company.
A soldier's yearly entertainment is 27l. 7s. 6d. From this is deducted 5s. weekly imprest for victuals, 13l.; 6d. daily for hay and straw, 9l. 2s. 6d.; 1½ bushels of oats weekly at 2s. is, 5l. 4s.; in all 27l. 6s. 6d. So there remains 1s. The captain must pay for mending armours, for saddles, girths, horseshoes, horse drenches, for curing horse's hurts, for boots, shoes, hats, shirts, breeches, doublets, stockings, for prisoners' ransoms, for hurts and sickness.
Hay, which came to Bergan-up-Zone from Longstrate, in Brabant, is hard to get now that Gertrudenbergh is in the enemy's hands. Owing to the enemy garrisons at Rossendale and Cal-lentote, sallies for forage are dangerous and may mean the loss of men and horses. Nothing can be had here except “for present money or great security pawned.”
Has lost many horses in service, as appears by certificate.
The portion of his pay granted to him is insufficient: he needs nearly all which remains due, in order to pay his debts and get horses. Desires his honour at least to obtain him this. Many of his company depend upon him for “larger allowances at my hands than I receive for them.” No one can keep his company properly upon this pay.
Desires a ruling about retaining strangers: some say that the States will not allow them, but it would be costly to replace them with English. Gives pay only to those who are sufficient and of good order.
Desires means to keep his company fit for service: otherwise would prefer “some life more quiet….”
Endd. with date. 12/3 pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 59.]
Certain general heads of matters fit to be treated between the Queen and the United Provinces, which should be proposed to the States General so that their commissaries now here in England, or others replacing or joining with them, may be authorised to consider and conclude thereof.
1. The raising and maintenance by the States of so many horse and foot, both for garrisons and for service in the field during four months in the summer: the time “to be limited in certain.”
2. The raising of the contribution necessary for the pay of these forces.
3. The ordering and managing of the contribution.
4. The better ordering of the forces, both of her Majesty and of the United Provinces, in matters of discipline, pay, avoidance of fraud in musters, and “the completing of the companies on both sides.”
5. The reformation of certain errors and abuses in the civil government, prejudicial to her Majesty, her subjects, and the public cause.
6. The settlement of the grievances of both sides touching traffic and convoys.
7. Touching the further security her Majesty may require for the repayment of her past and future expenses on behalf of the Provinces.
8. The explanation of all doubts, etc., in the Contract.
9. The supplying of the defects in the Contract.
Endd. with date. 12/3 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 162.]
The Governors of Denmark to the Queen.
A ship belonging to Paul Poppe, Christian Mathew, and Helen Bannicks, of Alburg, and laden with salt, spices, etc., went ashore between Rye and Lethum on its way back from Spain. It might well have been saved, but the English spoiled it and broke it up, as if England and Denmark were at war or as if it had been stripped by a storm. Desire compensation for these Danish subjects and the punishment of those who attacked their ship.— Copenhagen, 14 June, '89.
Signed Nicolas Kaas and George Rosenkranz. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Latin. 3 pp. [Denmark II. f. 3.]
J. Wrothe to Walsingham.
Sent last week a packet from Constantinople and a letter from “one Mr. Griffide, a Welsh gentleman who, being weary of following a coach in Rome, seemeth to be most glad to return home, where he might by good demeanour have lived better and more contented than his Cardinal doth at Rome.” Most of the English who had means to live in England, now lament having left it, for the King of Spain, finding that their service can little help him, grows slack in paying his pensions and these besotted people have lost their hope “to become dukes, earls, and barons.”
The Pope hopes that his monitory will work against the French King amongst the ignorant and common sort, though he fears that the King and nobility will pay small heed to it. This makes him fret inwardly “and to shut himself up in a closet now and then for four or five hours together without giving audience to any; and oftentimes walking alone, continually muttering and mumbling to himself. He sometimes bursteth out into these words—resolve te, Sisto. It grieveth him exceedingly to see his authority less firm than that of his predecessors hath been and that he can find no means of recovering his credit, his spiritual sword being little feared at this time in the world and he being not able to stretch his temporal sword over the mountains.” He still says that he will raise 10,000 foot and 2,000 horse under the Duke of Urbino, who promises all service if the Pope will legitimate his bastard and invest him with the succession. But the Pope will hardly pay this price, as he hopes “to impatronise himself of that dukedom after the duke's death.” He exhorts the Duke of Savoy against Geneva, promising men and money when he begins to batter the town. “He always moderateth his large promises with hard conditions: neither is this far unlike the offer of a million of gold which he made to the King of Spain, to be paid after that he had set foot in England.” For the defence, as he says, of the see of Rome, he has set the tenth penny on all the clergy, including cardinals, in the state of Rome.
M. St. Gouard and the Bishop of Mans on their way from Florence to Genoua met at Pisa a courier from France and took from him letters from the League to the Pope, the Cardinal of Sens, and their other favourers at Rome. The Pope, in a rage, imprisoned (some say hanged) the courier and had St. Gouard's household stuff sold sub hasta to pay certain debts which he left unpaid at his departure. He also threatened to excommunicate both St. Gouard and the Bishop.
It is said that the six thousand men raised in Naples, Florence, Milan, and Urbino, are to be taken to Spain by Don Giovanni de Medices, the Duke of Florence's bastard brother, and not by Don Pietro, his lawful brother, whom it is thought he will not entrust to the Spaniards' hands till he have an heir male.
Those of Geneva are said to have taken some of the Duke of Savoy's artillery and to have slain his maestro de campo. 2,000 Catholic Swiss have passed through Milan to aid the Duke against the Protestant cantons. They were levied in Zug, Swits, Uri, Underwalde, and Lucerne, which are all governed by Colonel Pifer “who hath piped to them a most dangerous dance.”
The Zurich ambassador died of a burning ague and left unfinished his negotiations with these Signors, both that about a confederacy with them and that about the loan which the Swissers would make “upon certain jewels engaged to them by the French King.” Hereupon, the Grisons' ambassador has gone home for a fresh commission and another companion, leaving the jewels here.
“The ambassador of Spain and the Pope's nuncio are at some variance about visiting the one the other, the nuncio affirming that the Spaniard ought to come and visit him first as representing a greater than the King of Spain,” while the Spaniard says that it is usual here for all ambassadors to visit a newcomer. The French ambassador visited the Spaniard, who assured him of his master's affection for the French King and promised to return the visit yesterday: but, “being expected all the afternoon and not appearing, caused the French to be greatly grieved, seeing himself so overreached by a Spaniard.” The Spanish ambassador asks these Signors for a loan for his king, but probably less in the hope of obtaining it than to hinder the similar petition of the French King.
No certain news of the Turkish galleys putting to sea. “It is said that this new Vizier Basha meaneth to set Petras Vaywoda again into the Valachie, who by the French King's intercession was once before made governor of that province….”—Venis, 24 June, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2⅓ pp. [Venice I. f. 70.]
William Borlas to Walsingham.
Received letters to-day from the States of Zeeland asking him to send some companies to Hostend, which they understand the enemy will attack. Cannot spare a man from this garrison. Men, supplies, and some good commanders should be sent to Ostend from England. The States will not and cannot do much to relieve it, for all the forces they can raise are in Gelderland. Has asked them that their warships may still lie off the town to keep the haven.
Desires the Governor's return. The States seek to prevent it. If his lordship does not seek better correspondency with them than he has done, he will soon grow weary of the place. There are too many busy heads here seeking to sow sedition and jealousy. Vasseur taken to the Hage to be tried by the States. Mr. Bodley and the States of Holland wrote to Borlas to apprehend Martin Bluesfotte. He was, however, warned and has gone to England. “Such busy headed fellows, I assure your honour, doth trouble the whole state….”—Flussching, 115 June, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 2 pp. [Holland XXXIII. f. 65.]
John Gylles to Walsingham.
Wrote last on the 15th., N.S. Cannot get the Admiral Justenues to perform his promise for passing a man to Anwerp. Will move him once more, but he gives only words.
Continual rumours for the last 8 or 10 days from Anwarp that M. Balleni (who is at Paris, hurt) had sold Camerryck to the King of Spain for 200,000 pistolets, and that the Marquis de Reynte was in the town. Also that Perona, Ameens, Abbeveell, and other places on the Some had come under Spanish protection and that Parma would aid them with 15,000 men. So Hennegou and Artois would be defended. More recent reports state that the captain of the castle had conferred with the King of France, and, making a party among the soldiers and burghers, had resisted Rente and taken Ballani's wife into the castle: that M. Lanowe is in the castle, and Rente 3 miles outside the town. Stephen Vaccket, a principal merchant of Anwarpe, thinks that this news is true. Odds of 10 to 1 laid here on its truth. The Prince of Parma is at Acon, “about other matters than sickness.” Some horse and foot have gone from Germany and Italy to aid the Leaguers. Four Spanish companies are going, it is said to Spain, which is doubtful: they are marching towards Lutsenborgh. Bourlot, the governor of Ordame, goes toward France with 200 Walloons. “By reason of the high Maes water those that lie before Husden are risen, but lay within a Dutch mile of the town.” …—[Dated at head] Myddel[burg], 25 June, styll. novo.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. 1 p. [Holland XXXIII. f. 62B.]
Notes on the Low Country forces' victualling, etc.
The victual (4l. 6s. weekly) to be as good and as cheap as shall be found in the town where the garrison is. The Lord General to appoint an officer or two as clerks of the market to see to this.
The Lord Governor to name two persons in London to view the state of the apparel. “That all the kinds of apparel be now viewed by the present captains. How the distributions thereof may be.”
Notes below on the amount of the hundredth penny from a horse and a foot band.
In Burghley's hand. Endd. 2/3 p. [Holland XXXIII. f. 61.]