Elizabeth: August 1560, 21-25

Pages 246-260

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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August 1560, 21-25

August 21. 443. The Duke of Holstein to the Queen.
When her vessels under the command of Lord Cobham returned he sent his Chamberlain, Christopher Proberg, with letters to her; since his departure one of the writer's attendants whom he had left in England has returned and brought him the Order of the Garter, together with a letter from Lord Hunsdon. The writer is extremely grateful for the Garter, but is still more pleased to hear that she is well, and that the war in Scotland had been finished according to her wishes. Desires to know the conditions of the treaty. All is at peace in his parts. Livonia is hard pressed by the Muscovites and Russians.—Gottorp, 21 Aug. 1560. Signed.
Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Broadside. Lat. Pp. 2.
August 22. 444. The Privy Council of Scotland to the Queen.
They request (in the name of the Queen of Scotland), letters of safe conduct for Lord Harry De Valois, son natural to her late father, and Jane Lady Fleming his mother, with twentyfour persons and as many horses, to pass through England to France.—Edinburgh, 22 Aug. 1560. Signed: James Hamilton, James Hamilton, Ard. Argyll, Morton, Glencairn, James Stewart, W. Maitland.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd by Cecil's secretary. Broadside.
[August 22.] 445. The Horses of the Lady Fleming.
The number, colours, and qualities of the horses which my Lord Harry De Valois and my Lady Fleming brought with them forth of Scotland, being 20 in number.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
August 22. 446. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 11th inst. he received her letters of the 7th by Henry Middlemore. Having waited for the arrival of the Bishop and M. De Randan, upon whose coming the answer and resolution of the same rested, he sent Mr. Somers to the Court for audience on the 17th, who was answered by the Cardinal that it could not be on the 17th, as the Pope's Ambassador, the Bishop of Viterbo, had audience on that day; but that if Throckmorton would send on the 18th he should have a day appointed, which was the 19th. Upon his arrival at the Court he was conducted to the Cardinal's chamber, and there he told him that the Queen had given him authority to ratify the late treaty and to demand that the French Ambassador should have like commission, wherein he prayed the King to signify his pleasure. The Cardinal replied that the King was minded to ratify the treaty, but that as the Bishop of Amiens and M. De Randan had only had audience the day before, there was as yet nothing resolved. Throckmorton said that there was an article in the treaty whereby the same was to be confirmed in sixty days; to which the Cardinal replied that that was no great matter among friends. When Throckmorton spoke of the Queen's desire for peace, he said that the subjects in Scotland began already to break the treaty, and would not suffer the Bishops and spiritual men to enter into the possession of their promotions, as was agreed upon, and that the King trusted that the Queen would not assist them. When Throckmorton said that the Queen knew not of this, and that the Bishop of Valence had left things otherwise, the Cardinal answered that they had news since his departure from Scotland by La Marque, who had been kept prisoner there, although he had the Queen's safe conduct. Throckmorton said that these things were out of his charge, and that he believed the Queen would be loath to do anything prejudicial to the amity between the King and her. The Cardinal replied that the King was equally desirous for the continuance of peace.
2. Throckmorton further said, that though it was arranged that the Commissioners should treat at London of an article not decided in Scotland, yet upon their request the Queen had licensed them to go into France, on their promise to return with authority to conclude. The Cardinal thought it strange that a Prince's ministers being in legation should not be at liberty to go and come at their pleasure; and asked why the King should be bound to treat of any matter by any special men? Throckmorton said that perhaps he had not well used the word congé; to which the Cardinal replied that he understood his meaning well enough, but thought it strange that the King's ministers should appoint themselves to conditions. Throckmorton replied that it was for their master's service that they bound themselves not to depart till they had ended the matters referred to be treated at London; he asked if the Queen had not reason to see them keep their promise? and said that she took the King to be a prince of such honour as he would not have given to two such personages commission to proceed in any matter, but that he would stand to all such things as they thought meet; and that if they had bound themselves not to depart before the time prescribed, it was as much in the Queen's respect as other things in the treaty. The Cardinal replied that they had said as much to the King, and set forth the "grand nombre de gracieusetez" which the Queen had used towards them, and said that De la Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens had advertised the King of like good entertainment. He further assured him that the King was minded to confirm the treaty; and when Throckmorton replied that he never heard it doubted, he answered that he knew not what he had heard, but that he understood that the Queen was not disarming. Throckmorton said that he did not know what she was doing, but that she was minded to disarm when she heard that things on the French coast were clear, and that order was taken thereto, and this the Cardinal said their Ambassador had signified unto them. Throckmorton said that perhaps he had told them that she kept certain companies at Berwick; these, however, were the ordinary garrison. The Cardinal said that this was not the matter, but that the Queen had yet forty-two ships armed at Portsmouth, and had gone thither herself rather to arm than disarm them. Throckmorton said that through the delay of the safe conduct for people to view the French coast he was unable to certify of the disarming of the French, which was the cause of her keeping her ships at Portsmouth. The Cardinal assured him that all the arming had been at Newhaven, and that there were no armed ships there presently; and that as the names for the safe conduct had been given, it should forthwith be prepared. Throckmorton told him that he intended to send one of his folk along the coast from Calais to the Seine, another from the Seine to the Loire, and the third from Nantes to Bordeaux and Bayonne. The Cardinal said that if they thus viewed all along their coasts, the French must do the like in England, to which the writer replied that it was reasonable; and so ended this matter.
3. The Cardinal next said that there were bruits whereby the Queen was slandered to have been a comfort to the rebels and makers of stirs in France, and that some of Normandy and others the King's subjects fugitive at Strasburg had devised many things. whereof they have altogether informed the Queen. Throckmorton replied that she naturally abhorred all seditions, and assured him that she never knew of any such matters; and if she did, she would never be induced to give counsel and succour to rebels. The Cardinal said that all this had been revealed by one to whom torture had been given. Throckmorton again declared that she knew nothing of such matters but by common bruit, and by his advertising her of such things as came to his knowledge, like as the French Ambassador advertised them of the state of things in England, and called God to witness that neither she nor her minister ever had favoured, or would favour, any rebellion against the Prince. The Cardinal trusted that the Queen would not suffer any of the King's rebels to have any resort or succour in her realm; to which he was answered, that though England was not so great as France, yet it was easy for a man to come there as a stranger, and many may be there unknown to the Queen. The Cardinal said that he did not mistrust his considerations, and that the French Queen was minded for a beginning to declare her good affection towards Elizabeth, to send her her picture, and to have the like of her.
4. Throckmorton, after again assuring him of the Queen's good intentions, said that MM. D'Amiens and De la Brosse had promised that the money for the transport and victualling of the men from Scotland should be paid within fourteen days, or else that they would yield themselves within twenty days, and the Queen had licensed them to come hither upon that promise. Here the Cardinal began to look more cheerfully (for till now he looked somewhat frowningly), and used great good words, with declaration of the Queen's courtesy towards the King's ministers, and said that order had been taken that her moneys should be sent her in "beaux escuz;" and with a merry countenance said that he was glad to hear that the King of Sweden was coming into England to marry the Queen, and made a description of his person and qualities and great riches. "M. De Randan told me," quoth he, "a merry tale, that the Queen told him, when he talked to her of marriage, that it was a matter of earnest, and that she could not marry as others did." Throckmorton said that he was afraid that she would not be hasty to marry, but trusted that she would now hearken to it. The Cardinal replied, "It is reason she should do so, car le temps coule." Throckmorton said that he had heard of the King of Sweden's coming, and that the Queen had told him to say that for her part she would not omit any occasion of amity, and trusted that the King would do the like. The Cardinal then said that the King was resolved to signify his pleasure therein to his Ambassador resident, together with his meaning touching the Bishop of Valence and M. De Randan.
5. This ended, he conducted Throckmorton towards the King's chamber as far as the hall, where he left him to be entertained by the Bishop of Valence, whom he congratulated on the peace, and reminded him that these late garboils arose from innovations and jealousy, all occasions whereof he trusted were now taken away, and said that it was judged by some that the peace was not altogether accepted and liked. He answered that he knew it, but that he and M. De Randan liked it, and trusted to make good their doing, whatever was said. As Throckmorton was beginning to speak with him about the galleys, he was sent for unto the King, and has not had occasion to speak with him since; nevertheless he will send to him about them.
6. The writer found the King accompanied with his brethren, the Duke of Lorraine, the Cardinals of Châtillon and Guise, the Constable, the Dukes of Guise and Aumâle, MM. De Montmorency and Danville, and three or four of the Order. He declared the Queen's commission as he had to the Cardinal, and was answered that he liked well the Queen's order for the ratification, and would advertise his resolution therein to his Ambassador as well as touching the Bishop of Valence and M. De Randan. He then asked whether the Queen in her progresses did not go on hunting. Throckmorton answered yes, and that he thought that now she would do so more at her pleasure. The King said that it was a pastime he loved well, and that it was his chief exercise; and then prayed the Queen to use as good means as he meant to do for the continuance of peace and amity. Throckmorton said that he need not doubt on the Queen's behalf; and having ended with him, turned to the Constable and embraced him, saying that the Queen would be glad to hear of his good health, taking him to be one who would endeavour to conserve the peace. He replied that he was glad to hear that she was in good health, and that he would do so.
7. The Duke of Guise then took him into the King's wardrobe, where the writer repeated what he had declared to the King and the Cardinal. The Duke then set forth his own and brother's good meaning for the continuance of amity, and then began to praise the King of Sweden and his riches; and when Throckmorton marvelled that a country so far north should be so rich in money, he said that besides the King's father having had twenty years' rest, and being a great hoarder up, he had great minerals. Throckmorton said that those were all things whereof England had need. The Duke then said that it was well considered, and that no marriage could be so fit, unless she took one of her own country.
8. After a few words of office passed to and from, the Duke conducted him to the French Queen, whom he found in her own chamber, accompanied with her ladies and gentlewomen in very good order set about the chamber; and whereas at other times when he has had to say to her, she has always been accompanied with the Queen Mother, and talked with him, both standing, she was now set in a chair under her cloth of state, and would needs have him sit upon a low stool right before her. To whom he declared in English that which he had said to the King and Cardinal, touching the ratification and of the order taken therein; whereunto she answered in Scottish that what the King, her husband, resolved in that matter, she would conform herself unto, "for his will (quoth she) is mine; and, M. l'Ambassadeur, I have as much cause to esteem her amity as any other, for I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen, my good sister, coming of the brother and I of the sister, so as being issued out of the same race I have the same heart she hath, and assuredly can as ill bear injury as she can, and therefore I pray her to judge me by herself, for I am sure she could ill bear the usage and disobedience of her subjects which she knows mine have showed unto me. And write unto her from me that as I am her nearest kinswoman, so I will for my part in all my doings make it good, looking for the like at her hands, and that we may strive which of us shall show most kindness to the other. And I pray you Mons. l'Ambassadeur, (quoth she,) write unto her that I have once forgiven and forgotten the faults of my subjects for her sake and at her request; trusting that she will be contented, if they forget their duties hereafter, they may be made to learn to know it, and that they shall receive no comfort at her hands, but rather that she will help me to have obedience of them. And though I be her sister, because I am a Queen as she is, which name worketh kindness between sisters, yet tell her there is more betwixt her and me, for we be both of one blood, of one country, and in one island; and by that time she have made proof, she shall find my friendship more honourable and to stand her in more stead than the amity of my subjects, being rebels. Now (quoth she) my mother is dead; whiles she lived I was less troubled with the care of that country, and now I must be troubled with the care of it myself; and tell her, I pray you, seeing we cannot one of us see another nor speak together that yet we may use that kindness together that doth please each other when they be absent. For my part I say nothing, M. l'Ambassadeur, (quoth she,) but I will perform it."
9. Throckmorton answered that the Queen would leave nothing undone to increase the amity, and that she would always find her ready to do kindness; and mentioned her usage of the French ministers. "Indeed (quoth the Queen) they do all greatly praise her, and say that she is both a wise and very fair lady; and because the one of us cannot see the other, I will send her my picture, though it be not worth the looking on, because you shall promise me that she shall send me hers; for I assure you (quoth she) if I thought she would not send me hers she should not have mine." Throckmorton said hereunto, "Madam, though I cannot promise you assuredly the Queen, my mistress's, picture, yet I will do the best I can that you may have it; and the Queen, my mistress, is not so hard hearted that she can deny so fair a Queen, her good sister, her picture, seeing she doth so earnestly crave it as one that seemeth to be in love with her, and meaneth so well towards her; and therefore, Madam, (quoth he,) you may be assured if you send her your picture she will send you hers." "Yes, you shall have that, Mons. l'Ambassadeur, (quoth she,) and any other pleasure I can do her; and I pray you forget not to write unto her that which I have said unto you, and let me be assured of it as you are a man of honour, and as would have me believe that you have a good meaning and mind to play the part of a good minister betwixt us." "Madame," said Throckmorton, "assure yourself that as mine evil memory will serve me I will not forget to advertise the Queen of your whole discourse." "I pray you" (quoth she) let me trust to it; and M. l'Ambassadeur," quoth she, "I perceive you like me better when I look sadly than when I look merrily, for it is told me that you desired to have me pictured when I wore the dueil." "No, madam, not for that cause only," quoth Throckmorton, "but specially because your Majesty spoke more graciously and courteously to me in that apparel than you did at any time before, whensoever I have had to say with you." Then he took his leave of her and was conducted to the chamber for receiving the Ambassadors, where M. De Randan came to him, whom he thanked for his pains and travail in the late negociations, and trusted that he would employ himself for its due observance on this side; and told him that, as all the late troubles were happened through jealousy and suspicion, it were well done to cut off all occasions on both sides, and that the King's causing his galleys to come round was suspicious. Randan replied that the King had sent for them before the accord, but had sent to stay them since the accord, but understanding that they were on this side of Bayonne there was no means to stay them. Throckmorton said that the galleys set forth on the 15th July, and therefore had as much time to return as they had to come. De Randan said that at this season there happened many storms, and the King could not considerately hazard the galleys now. Throckmorton said that he knew what grief the Queen would conceive in this matter, and prayed him to have such respect to it as that all occasions to judge evil of the King's proceedings might be banished; and this De Randan promised to do, declaring that the King would have sent them back if it might have been done without hazard.
10. Throckmorton then reminded him of his promise to return within three months for the decision of certain matters yet in question. He answered that the King was devising whom to send over, but this proponing of the Queen's meaning had caused him to stay the devising thereof, and that he would signify the King's determination. He then commended the Queen for her gracious entertaining of him, and swore that he honoured her above all other Princes; and whensoever she should need his services in any place where the King, his master, should not be prejudiced, he would be ready with 100 horse.
11. As in his audience of the 19th he received no resolution touching their meaning of the ratification, on the 20th he sent this bearer (Mr. Somers) to the Cardinal, who said that the King had resolved upon the order devised by the Queen, minding out of hand to send commission to their Ambassador there. As the time for the ratification draws very near, he begs that the Queen will send him her commission for the same by this bearer. The Bishop of Valence also sent word that through the matter of the Assembly and the ordering of things at home and of religion there was no resolution as yet taken either for the sending over of himself, of M. De Randan, or of any other, and also that the meeting would turn to a general assembly of the three Estates of France. Recommends this bearer, Mr. Somers, to the Queen for his diligence and aptness to her service. On the 17th the Pope's Ambassador with the accustomed ceremony presented the French Queen with the rose as his good daughter. It is said that he has caused the Duke of Palliano to be beheaded, and has utterly deprived the Cardinal Caraffa from all dignity, and condemned him to perpetual prison. The Cardinal of Naples is also condemned to pay 40,000 crowns; the Cardinal De Monte had his hat taken from him, but restored. The Pope demands the restitution of Parma and Placentia, or the peaceable dividing of the Duchy of Camerino, or else 300,000 crowns, which is thought will somewhat touch King Philip. It is said that Caraffa was the chief of the conspiracy against the Duke of Florence. The Cardinals of Lorraine and Tournon are named the Pope's Legates in France. It is judged that there is a breach towards between the Dukes of Ferrara and Guise touching the Duke of Ferrara's mother, who being very rich, and lately fallen out with her son, had secretly sent to the Duke of Guise a gentleman with message that she would come into France and end her life there, and be as his mother. Word was sent her that she would be welcome; and if her son would not permit her to come with her substance, he would take into his hands the assignation made by the late King upon certain lands for the payment of 100,000 crowns yearly to the Duke, till such time as 600,000 crowns borrowed of him at the Duke of Guise's last voyage to Rome were paid off. The Duke keeps his mother with good watch for fear of her escaping into France. The Duke of Savoy has made instance to the French King to consign some deputies to declare his title for Piedmont and Savoy, because the time of the rendition thereof is April 1562.
12. It is reported that the matters of Algerbe go very evil. The Constable arrived at Court on the 17th, and the King of Navarre is looked for on the 31st. The Bishop of Glasgow and Lord Seton, with other Scottish gentlemen, are not yet admitted to come to Court. The Earl Bothwell cannot be heard of, it is thought here that he is perished. Asks the Queen to let the French Queen know that he has set forth her good affection towards her, she having importuned him four or five times to report faithfully her words. He also asks her to send her picture.—Melun, 22 Aug. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 25.
August 22. 447. The Queen to Norfolk.
He shall cease to use her commission as Lieutenant-General in the North, in which she expresses her acceptance of his good service.—Winchester, 22 Aug. 1560.
Draft, in Cecil's hand and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
August 22. 448. The Queen to Lord Grey.
Warrant for him to discharge his 100 light horsemen by the 30th inst., which had been allowed him for his wardenry. —Winchester, 22 Aug.
Draft, in Cecil's hand and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
August 22. 449. Shers to Cecil.
1. The Pope now again feigns for a General Council, and has despatched towards the Emperor a Venetian of the house of the Delphini, as utterly unlearned as the Abbot of St. Salute, but also of a worse life. He passed on Thursday last in his journey, not for a free and General Council, as the voice goes, but to get the Emperor's assent to continue the last Council begun at Trent.
2. It comes from Rome that the King of Spain has sent another into France, to persuade with the King in that behalf and to procure to let the National Council promised there, and that he that was sent was at the last Council of Trent. The Caraffas remain in prison. For the two Cardinals Vargas, the Ambassador for the King of Spain, is an earnest suitor in his King's name, and for the Duke of Paliano the French King is suitor, because he is a Knight of St. Michael.
3. There is no appearance of the making of Cardinals, but at Christmas the Pope promises to do so. They write of a brother of the Admiral of Spain, Castiglia, a man of estimation and authority, that he is committed to ward in Spain for matters of religion. Since the losses at Gerbes the Turks with their galleys have not done much hurt; yet, overladen with Christian souls, artillery, munitions, money, and other wealth, are returned triumphantly towards Constantinople. They talk of certain English at and about Rome that hope, as the Jews do, for a new world by their Messias, not subject to mutation.—Venice, 22 Aug. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
August 22. 450. Intelligences from Sicily.
1. The fort of the Gerbes was taken on the 30th ult., and Don Alvaro De Sandi, the General, after making a sally to obtain water, was taken in the said fort, after having fought bravely for two days; and it is doubtful whether Bassa will give it up for money.
2. Bassa, having put on board ship forty large pieces of artillery, a quantity of ammunition, 1,500 salme of corn, flour, and biscuits, and about 100,000 V. [ducats] between those of private persons and of the Court, dismantled the said fort, and departed for Tripoli with the whole army.
3. When he had been several days at Tripoli, where he left the people, the artillery, and ammunition, with the galleys and galliots of Dragut, he set sail and arrived on the 16th inst. near Malta, where he remained waiting for an answer from the Grand Master, to whom he had written, requiring of him some Turks. When Bassa learned that he was not found, he set sail immediately in the direction of Augusta in Sicily, where, on his arrival, certain infantry disembarked, and the cavalry of that kingdom coming up with these made them embark with the loss of several Turks.
4. The Grand Master, seeing the army depart without finding the Turk whom Bassa sought, having found two of the same name, resolved to send them in a frigate after the army and provisions.
5. The Regent of Sicily had sent a frigate to Augusta to treat for the ransom of his son and other principal gentlemen, but it did not arrive until the army had set sail for the east. No news was heard of John Andrew Doria, who left Malta on the 10th of August with eighteen galleys, fourteen of his own and four Papal, to attack Zuvara, and some thought he had been hindered by bad weather. Of the officers, who were in the fort of the Gerbe, six are prisoners.—Messina, 22 Aug.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Ital. Pp. 3.
August 22. 451. Peter Martyr to the Bishop of Ely.
Although Martyr has written two months ago to the Bishop about his [Martyr's] prebend at Oxford, (which he has no doubt has been received,) he has had no answer. The writer and his friends still enjoy peace. They hear that the French have obtained a peace little honourable to themselves, at which all good people rejoice. They have now to put down their internal tumults, which they will do by craft, since they cannot do it by force. The French with the Pope are endeavouring to obtain a General Council, nominally free, but really as confined as the Israelites were in Egypt by Pharaoh. They have endeavoured to persuade the Emperor that the questions should be settled by the Pope, the German Bishops, and the King of Spain's Ambassador. They have also sounded the Electors Palatine and of Wurtemberg, and the Landsgrave, but have received the reply that as God formerly confounded the counsel of Ahitophel so He would confound theirs. All things seem to show that the Council will be held by the Emperor, the French, the King of Spain, the Duke of Savoy, the Pope, and the German Bishops. Martyr himself is well, and his wife is again with child. He thought that he would have been able to have published his Commentaries upon the Book of Judges at this present fair at Frankfort but finds he cannot do so. His wife sends commendations, so does his Julius.—Zurich, 22 Aug. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
August 23. 452. The Duke of Holstein to Cecil.
1. Having learnt that the war in Scotland has been concluded, he supposes that Cecil has by this time returned from thence. He has therefore sent this letter; for when he was in England he understood from Cecil that he thought that the Queen would turn her attention to that affair in which the writer is especially interested, as soon as the Scottish war was finished. He therefore hopes that he will not be doing wrong in sending into England his envoys to prosecute his suit. He nevertheless desires Cecil's counsel in this matter, as he relies on his friendship and has always followed his advice.—Gottorp, 23 Aug. 1560. Signed.
2. P.S.—No one has seen these letters but his Chancellor, the writer.
Orig. Add. by Cecil's secretary. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
August 23. 453. Gresham's Account.
£ s. d.
18 May 1560. Richard Clough's charges into Germany, two horses, whereof one died, posts' wages at 3s. 4d. per day 6 0 0
22 May "Hire of post to Cecil 4 10 0
16 June "ditto to Parry 4 6 8
2 July "ditto ditto 4 10 0
23 Aug. "ditto to Queen 5 0 0
£26 6 8
Endd.: 1560. Money laid out by Sir T. Gresham for his man Clough's charges in his negociation with the Count Mansfeld. Pp. 2.
August 25. 454. Randolph to Cecil.
1. On the 16th inst. there came to the Earl of Argyll out of Ireland an ambassador from O'Neil, whose message and the effect of his embassy Cecil may perceive by these letters which the Earl of Argyll has sent, besides some other matter that he requires to be advertised of. The letter he received from O'Neil the Earl caused to be translated into English, and has sent the original, ad faciendam majorem fidem, and that he may see the strangeness of their orthography; this he desires to be sent to him again.
2. "The manner and behaviour of him from whom the letter came is not so strange as it was wonderful to see the presence of his ambassador, a man that exceeds many in stature. He walked afoot out of Ireland hither alone; his diet (by reason of the length of his journey) so failed him that he was fain to leave his saffron shirt in gage, the rest of his apparel such that the Earl, before he would give him audience, arrayed him anew from the neck downwards, for cap he would none; his lodging was in the chimney, his drink chiefly aqua vitæ and milk." Though his message is such as the Earl will by no means consent unto, chiefly for the ungodliness of the person and the worthiness of his sister (of whom the writer hears great commendation) yet will he not utterly shake him off or give him any resolute answer, but intends awhile to entertain him to see what good may be done upon him, either to bring him to God or more civility; free passage and surety is at all times granted to him to send letter or man. He has taken order with Randolph how Cecil's answer shall come into his hands. He departed on Saturday at 10 p.m. towards Argyll, and intends not to return these three months, his business there greatly requiring his presence. He desired Randolph to make his excuses and commendations, and to testify his goodwill of service to the Queen. Cannot sufficiently commend him. Wonders not a little to see a man of his age, life in times past, and bringing up, so affectionate to God and His commonwealth, so earnest, constant, bold, and frank in his talk with the greatest; so upright in conscience that he can compare him but to one other in the whole country. There is only he and one more that deserve immortal fame, he knows not which passes the other. The night he departed after long talk he thus concluded with the Duke and the Earl of Arran, that he would so long honour, serve, and love them as they would serve God, tender the weal of their country, and with earnest mind perform what they had promised unto the Queen. He put them both in remembrance of many other things that he wished in them both to be reformed. He willed them to beware of their council, and advised them to put all suspicion out of their heads; to make of their friends as they were worthy, and not as affection led them. He advised in the sending forth of these Ambassadors for honour of their country, if there were no other respect. In this matter there has been of late much controversy, both for the personages and for the manner of sending. In choosing of the fittest men the Duke thinks that he ought to have the stroke, because the chief point in their message touches him and his. The other point requires such charges that he [the Duke] is loath to move therein until the tax granted by Parliament be levied; very much has been said herein, but nothing concluded. Whatsoever order they take, some think it necessary to send. They were once resolved upon the Earls of Morton and Glencairn, the Master of Maxwell, and the Laird of Lethington. The Master of Maxwell can evil be spared from the Borders, where he is presently gone with commission to see good order. In his place, if it may be granted without suspicion, Lord Robert is very willing to come, as are also the other two Earls, as well for great hope that may ensue as also to see the Queen.
3. Had rather write out of course than leave anything untold that he judges necessary. Since it entered the Duke of Châtellerault's head that it were a great benefit unto the country that they might be delivered of the French government, and since he has had experience of the Queen's goodness towards the Scots, he has had many thoughts how it were possible to prolong the amity lately begun. Though the Duke desires no longer life than he has will to perform what he has promised to the Queen, either in public contract or private writing, yet he cannot see how this friendship may be drawn to long continuance, except it may be coupled with some more entire bond than can be conceived either in Parliament or paper. Though he holds almost no other purpose with any man that he talks with but this, which some may judge to proceed rather upon the affection he bears his son than that he deeply considers and weighs all things in their due places, yet Randolph finds many men who judge that there would a wonderful benefit issue unto both realms if the Queen would embrace the occasion offered. Those of whom he speaks have left nothing unexamined, they know the inequalities of the personages, the worthiness of one and the lack and imperfections of the other; they are not unmindful what suitors there have been in the like, what honour and alliance might issue if either might take place. They utterly confess that unless it pleases the Queen for the love of God only, and for pity it may please Him to put in her heart, not to see these two nations that have lived so long in discord and debate, being now joined in amity, to be again dissevered and dissolved. It were both a far unequal match, and not their parts so soon after so large benefits, whereby they are restored to their liberty and lives, to make any such-request. Howbeit, the experience of her virtue, the hope of the great good that may ensue, the wisdom they have conceived in her doings, and the patience that she has had in hearing their other requests, embolden them to proceed so far. The Duke is so earnestly bent that way that he lives as a man in jealousy with all men that he may suspect of being an enemy to that cause. He has been known to suspect his greatest friends. His son, whether it be a portion of his inheritance, or a humour annexed unto all that feel like passions, has substantially failed herein. "God knoweth upon how slender occasions any such thing proceedeth." Believes that there is no man willinger that it should come to pass than he who is thought to hinder it most. When communication was among the Lords of those that should be sent into England, it would have been gratefully taken of the Earl of Argyll if he had been requested thereunto. How loath men are that the matter should not take place appeared of late, when some purpose was thrown in of the likelihood of the issue thereof. Divers men said diversely their minds. They concluded all that the most stay would be in them that most coveted the same, either through lack of wisdom to handle the matter, or the imperfection of the party whom they desire to prefer. They therefore all concluded that whatsoever may take place they will try to observe their faithful promise to the Queen. They find the commodity of the contract so great, that they are determined to maintain the same.
4. On the 17th when the Bill (a copy whereof Cecil has received) should be subscribed, there were many that had given their consent that thought little to have put their hands. The Earl of Argyll and Lord James went from place to place where divers that absented themselves were lodged that by no excuse they should avoid what they had promised. The Earl of Cassilis remains as obstinate as ever. The Earl of Argyll and Lord James have given over kindness with him, rather for a while to be a terror unto his friends than that they intend presently to do against him. The Earl of Athol bears so little good will towards Lord Huntley, that he will do nothing for any man that favours him. The Earl of Montgomery loves his wife so well that he will do nothing for her father's sake. The Earl Marshall is too well schooled by Mr. James Magill to do his country any good, his son lamented unto the writer his father's doing, and promises better of himself when he shall come in the place; his father is sick and gone from hence eight days since. Lord Gray departed, contrary to his promise, and did not subscribe the contract. The Bishops of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dumblane, as soon as they had put in their bill of complaints of misusing them and contempt of their authority, departed, and being called into Parliament to pursue the same no man appeared. The Bill put in by the Barons against the Bishops contained rather a general accusation of all living Bishops than any special crime that they were burdened with. The other three are become good Protestants, and have subscribed the contract. The Bishop of Athens preaches earnestly and prays heartily for the Queen, and greatly extols her benefits. Mr. Willockes specially by name prays both for France and England; Mr. Knox universally for all Princes living in the fear of God, and desiring Him to turn the hearts of others and send them in the right way. Mr. Goodman has been lately in the Isle of Man, he laments the slender reformation of religion there and lack of preaching among a people so disposed to hear God's Word; he tarried there ten days and preached twice, and has talked with them all of late to search their opinions how an uniformity might be had in religion in both realms. They seem willing that it so were; many commodities are alleged that might ensue thereof, howbeit he finds them too severe in that they profess, and so loath to remit anything of that they have received that he sees little hope thereof. With others he has dealt more liberally than with them, they find it so expedient that there shall lack no good will in them thereto.
5. Their Book of Common Reformation is now in translation and shall be sent to Calvin, Viret, and Beza in Geneva; and to Martyr, Bullinger, and others in Zurich. Perceives not their opinion of England to be such that they will be content to stand to their judgment therein; howbeit they will not refuse to commune with any learned men to hear their judgment. The Confession of Faith shall also shortly be translated and put in print. Order is taken for the ministers, and places appointed where every one shall preach; Mr. Knox at Edinburgh, Willockes at Glasgow, and Goodman at St. Andrews. The Book of Reformation was not at this time presented to the Lords of Articles, but divers other Acts passed against the Pope and his authority; the Mass abolished, and divers penal statutes taken away for punishment of heretics. So much is already done that all men who profess Christ may live in freedom of their consciences; the rest shall follow, and much the sooner if good success follow the suit that shall be made to the Queen; whereof they have received new comfort, seeing all the noblemen so willing thereto, as by the Bill subscribed with their own hands appears.
6. The Duke immediately after the return of the writer from Berwick, made some rehearsal to him of the Queen's goodness to him and his house. He commended greatly what he had heard by report of the Duke of Norfolk, and showed how much he was beholden to Cecil, and let him understand that some purpose he had with him of that matter which is now intended, and looked for more comfortable words than he had received.
7. The Earl of Arran hoped at Cecil's arrival to have received no small comfort, or at least that some token or sign should have proceeded from him, or some word escaped him, whereby he might gather what was intended, or whereof he might have augmented ever so little his hope; in which point how much he failed, so much did he despair. They are fully resolved with tooth and nail to set forward the matter; the worst that may ensue thereof is either an honourable repulse, or a happy success. In these terms they stand in love and friendship without suspicion of any man; whatsoever may be known to be the Queen's pleasure or Cecil's advice in any matter, there shall lack no goodwill in them to the performance.
8. They have heard of late of the King of Sweden's son. Though it be much to think what force lies in the sums of money he brings, and what the substance he is bruited with may allure men unto, yet is not the discomfiture of that so great as the force of the Duke of Holst to be doubted, both for the nobility of his house, the goodliness of his personage, his power, his friends, and also that he professes the same religion; this is the man who has given many a sharp alarm in their camp. The other they know the first of his estate, and how lately he took the princely dignity, and hear more of his substance than his virtue; neither does his tongue agree with any language the Queen speaks, or his personage such as greatly excels, his people neither of such civility or nature as can much allure any nation to entire amity; his religion far from that others profess; his aid far off when need shall be, a Prince evil obeyed at home and worse beloved of his neighbours; so that neither of him or any other do they stand in doubt be he ever of so high estate but that may be countervailed with virtue or other commodity. They consider also the honour that shall redound to the Queen and her posterity, that shall be able to conquer the hearts and service of so many and such a people, as neither with money nor force could be won or brought into subjection. Such and other things are their daily and nightly talk. For that sometimes the presence of a man in notable enterprises may greatly advance the purpose taken in hand, it has been devised how it were possible to convert a secret voyage to any such place out of Scotland into England where a man desires to be. Nothing is impossible to a willing bold heart. In this purpose they remain, that if it were not for fear rather to offend than that anything else were doubted that adventure would soon be given.—Edinburgh, 25 (fn. 1) Aug. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Pp. 8.


  • 1. The date is somewhat uncertain, the last numeral is written upon an erasure. The original date was (apparently) 23rd.