Elizabeth: October 1560, 6-10

Pages 334-352

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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October 1560, 6-10

Oct. 6. 608. The Marquis of Winchester and Sir Richard Sackville to the Privy Council.
Has received their letters with Edward Hughes' letter enclosed, and will send such irons, proclamations, and instructions to Berwick as shall be meet. Edward Hughes arrived at Berwick with 6,600l. of the Queen's treasure on the 27th Sept., without conduct till he came to Morpeth. Twenty days before his departure wrote to Sir F. Leek, Sir W. Ingleby, Sir R. Lee, and Mr. Grimston, desiring them to consider the Queen's charges there, so that the Treasurer might immediately make payment to the soldiers cassed, which were not full to the number of 900, and to pay the sick workmen who were not to be kept in winter. Towards this the Treasurer had delivered to him by Mr. Brown's clerk 1,600l., and of Mr. Abington for the victualling money 3,500l., and of other money 1,000l., which was sufficient to make a good discharge long before the coming of Hughes. They have learnt of Cecil that the Queen's pleasure was that such as were unpaid at the time of the proclamation should be paid as the money was there current by the proclamation, for which there was gold and pence of twopence sufficient. The residue is in testons, "wherein the doubt of knowledge depends." Has prayed them to return them, that they might be coined into fine moneys to be returned again. Has written to Yorkshire, Cumberland, Westmorland, and all other shires where the Queen's auditors and receivers do ride, by whom the country shall understand the diversity of the testons for the more part; for in the good testons the image of the King has a short neck and a round face, and in the ill teston the Prince has a long neck and lean face.—Westminster, 6 Oct. 1560. Signed: Winchester,—R. Sackvyle.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Oct. 7. 609. Throckmorton to the Cardinal of Lorraine.
Has received a letter from some English merchants at Rouen, complaining that on the 16th August an English vessel, freighted by them at Falmouth, was plundered near Portland by a French vessel fitted out by the Sieur De Citeville, who lives two leagues from Cherbourg. There were taken out of the said vessel ninety-five pieces of tin, (besides the seamen's clothes and money,) of which thirty pieces were landed at Fécamp, and the rest at Cherbourg, where it was distributed by one Hamas of Cherbourg, to the partners of the said Citeville, who it was said had taken them in reprisal.—Poissy, 7 Oct. 1560.
Copy. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Oct. 7. 610. The Cardinal of Lorraine to Throckmorton.
Acknowledges the receipt of his letter respecting the pillage of the English merchant ship by the Sieur De Citeville, and promising reparation and justice.—St. Germain-en-Laye, 7 Oct. 1560.
Orig., much torn and injured by damp. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Oct. 7. 611. Another copy of the above. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Oct. 7. 612. Leek to Cecil.
1. The Lords of Scotland are so importunate for the exchange of 2,000l. or 3,000l., that the writer is forced to trouble Cecil therein that he may give them resolute answer; but doubts that they will be here before he can receive answer. Has signified to what end Thomas Kincaid and George Clapperton are drawn by the spoil of their goods by the inhabitants of Tweedmouth and Spittal, wherein he will see them fully recompensed. Has sent to 110 persons the process of the Admiralty Court, and not one appears. Sent on Saturday to learn why they did not appear, when they sent the answer contained in his other letter.
2. If Cecil inquires of others he will learn the disorders in this wardenry. Rowland Foster is hurt with the Laird of Barmoor, servant unto Sir Thomas Grey; it is strange to see this sudden alteration since the Duke of Norfolk's departure. Has written to Sir Ralph Grey, the rather for that the greatest party are towards him, and his father-in-law is Thomas Grey, but no fruit follows; neither does he see any man seek to reform these disordered people. The frontiers are easy to be reformed, if the Queen choose some diligent servant to be President in these parts as Bishop Lee was in Wales, and send with him such a discreet counsellor as Sir William Inglefield was, and command the President and all that Council to be resident only at Newcastle for one year, that these wicked people may know what it is to live under a law. The presence of such an officer at Newcastle would not only be a terror to the frontiers, but would look beyond the walls of Berwick. Perceives by Mr. Grimstone, who at the end of the year departs hence, that he thinks the Queen is not plainly dealt withal in the great charges of the works; he will be able to declare the particulars, whereof Leek is ignorant.— Berwick, 7 Oct., in the morning. Signed.
3. P. S.—Desires speedy answer for the Lords of Scotland, for it seems that they would make good cheer if they had wherewith. Wrote to him in behalf of George Dyve for the office of clerk of the check, of whom however he has since known more by other than he judged by outward appearance.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Oct. 7. 613. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Since the departure of the Lord of St. John's (by whom he was advertised at large of the state of all things) there has been no great matter worth reporting. The Ambassadors within two or three days depart towards England. They stayed a few days longer for advertisement that they received from Sir Francis Leeke, and for the uncertain bruit of the fall of the English money, of which they had made their chief provision, and payed very dear at the merchants' hands to have it. What they have now determined they have written to Sir Francis again, from whom he shall receive speedy advertisement, as also farther from Lethington. Is sure that he and as many others as are necessary to open the Queen's favour to this country, will show themselves willing to continue the amity. The contract remains yet in Randolph's hands; there have subscribed thirty of the Estates; there lack yet three, whom he doubts not to have as soon as they come to Edinburgh. Is advised to have the copy of the Act of Parliament, by which the same was confirmed, subscribed with the Clerk of the Registry's hand. Desires to know Cecil's pleasure herein.
2. To signify in how good part the Earl of Argyll accepted the Queen's letters, he sends his own acknowledging the receipt of them; of the selfsame bond and league is the Lord of St. James [sic], of whose handwriting Randolph can testify. Some others there are no less bound than these, of whom he has no fewer promises, both by word and writing, than he has from the other. Touching Castle Semple, he trusts that Cecil shall soon learn that that matter is agreed. The Earl of Arran wrote that he had sent two gentlemen to require the Master of Semple to deliver it up unto him. The Master answered that forasmuch as his father had put him in that place, he would be loath to do anything contrary to his commandment; but if it should seem good to him he would come himself and remain, and send his brother to Dunbar to his father to know whereunto he would be content to agree. He has returned with his father's answer, but what it is has not come to Randolph's knowledge. It is reported that the father himself has returned to the Duke and his son, to take such composition as he can. In the same letter the Earl of Arran writes that the Bishop of St. Andrews is like to become a good Protestant, and has already given over his Mass, and received the common prayers. A good token the Laird of Grange writes he has given; for at the time he offered most largely, the lady his love, the Lord Semple's daughter, was in house with him at Parsley [Paisley]. The Earl of Arran is not so hasty of belief that he will credit much before he see some token of heartier repentance than is likely to proceed out of so dissembled a heart. As much as the Duke had of his at Parsley [Paisley] he has again; whatsoever the Earl of Arran has he keeps in his own hands. The hatred of men increases daily against the Bishop; his faults are oftentimes talked of, both in the pulpit and out.
3. The Lord James is not yet returned out of the north. Doubts whether the Earl of Argyll be gone to meet the Deputy of Ireland, for so he understands he purposed, by the Earl of Glencairn. The Master of Maxwell has been written again unto, to see whether the Lord Wharton and he may be agreed. Lady Fleming takes to-morrow her journey towards France; she has promised on her honour that she has none in her company but such as are ordinarily attendant upon her son and herself. Robert Lesley, of whom he wrote before, sues for a passport for himself and nine persons; he will hardly find favour. Is informed that Lord Erskine has given the keeping of Edinburgh Castle to Alexander his brother, a worse Papist than himself, and more malicious than a man of good judgment ought to be; as there was never good to be looked for at his hands, so is there no hurt to be doubted. If Cecil could procure the writer's return from this country without giving suspicion of any alienation of the Queen's favour, he would be thankful.—Edinburgh, 7 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Oct. 7. 614. The Master of Maxwell to Randolph.
1. Believed not that he had been into this country, otherwise he would have written to him. Perceives that he has seen a letter of his sent to the young Laird of Lethington, desiring him to show Cecil his complaint against Lord Dacre for lack of redress. Has not got redress of one groat since the conclusion of the peace, which is almost one year and three-quarters; nevertheless he has offered for the part of Scotland to make full redress, has passed into England himself, and besides has delivered to him [Dacre], a most notable offender, and took but one sober fellow who was justified. His excuse herein is, that the Grahams, who are the principal offenders against the peace, are not obedient. Maxwell offered to concur with Dacre for the ordering of them or any others in such sort as he might devise, and be bound that they should have no maintenance or resort in Scotland.
2. Begs Randolph at his coming to the Court, to show his writing to Cecil that the Queen may know his complaint, believing that she will take such order that the peace may be inviolably observed. Whether the writer shall "wyt" the Lord Dacre that he bears with them in their evil doings, or that he be inhibited that he may not ride upon them, he knows not. He cannot "wyt" any man but him, because he has office; and without reformation be made, whosoever be in the "wyt," either by him or others, of their great attempts committed within the peace, (which is above 6,000l. or 7,000l. sterling, besides the slaughter of forty or fifty men,) Randolph knows the great inconvenience which will follow. The subjects will be forced to seek relief where they may have it, for the daily incursions done by the subjects of England under his charge.—Dumfries, 7 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 8. 615. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Nothing new of late. Has learnt from the Count Palatine that the Pope has written to the Emperor about a General Council, and that he has consented that it should be held at Constance, but that he would prefer Inspruck, which is within the Imperial dominions. He has desired the Emperor to procure the acceptance of the decrees of the Council of Trent by all the German Princes and states. To this the Emperor has replied that it was impossible and contrary to his oath at his confirmation; and that the Princes of the Confession of Augsburg would suspect that he and the French and Spanish Kings held the Council for the Pope's pleasure, and in order that they might be executors of the decrees. The Count Palatine has commanded that none of his preachers shall dispute on the words of the Lord's Supper, nor revile one another, but shall declare the words of the Supper to the people without any comments; and that they shall cease from arguing and reasoning on the manner and form of Christ's Presence, lest they seem to be wise above what is fitting. Lately he has deposed two preachers, who inveighed against each other too sharply in public. The Landgrave is also said to have commanded the same. The Rhinegrave was lately with the Duke of Wurtemberg and the Elector Palatine, and has gone thence into Saxony. The German captains who serve the French have been informed that the King would soon need their services. It is suspected that the King will place German garrisons in the larger towns to keep them in their superstition. All kinds of charges are noised abroad, as rebellion, Anabaptism, Huguenotism, and other crimes.
2. For nearly two years he has written to England from hence, and from Augsburg, by the ordinary post; and as they will not take any letter except the postage be paid at so much per ounce, he begs that Cecil will take this into consideration. Lately several noblemen assembled at Stutgard, on account of an archery match which was proclaimed, the prizes of which were munificent; but because many nobles were not able to be present on account of the inundations, it is said that they will meet at Worms in November. Mundt thinks that it would be well for him to attend, in order to cultivate their good will towards the Queen; but as he is ignorant of the state of affairs in England and has not heard from Cecil for a whole year, and as the noblemen are very desirous to know about them, he hesitates about going.
3. The French are fortifying Metz with a citadel.—Strasburg, 8 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 4.
Oct. 8. 616. John Brigantyne to Cecil. (fn. 1)
1. In his letter of the 17th ult. wrote to Cecil of the Dantzickers who sued to have a staple at Emden, which is granted to them. The cause why they will traffic no longer at Amsterdam is that the Emperor Charles granted that city the privilege that when a last of rye surmounted twenty-eight guilders, then they might restrain the strange merchants from transporting any out of the city, and they to pass at their liberty. A last of corn is ten quarters, and the guilder at 4s. 4d., amounts to 9s. 4d. the quarter.
2. The Chancellor of East Friesland has written to him of certain occurrences in High Dutchland, that the Duke Augustus, the Elector, is departed to the Lord. The Princes of these parts have intelligence that there is a controversy between the Emperor and his son Maximilian, chiefly for a preacher whom Duke Augustus and the Palzgrave sent. The French King has here many practices.
3. On the 4th inst. two Hamburg ships were lost by the mouth of the Ems, having on board ninety or 100 dry vats with armour, pistols, and courriers, passing into England. Supposing that the munitions were for the Queen, he wrote to the Chancellor of East Friesland that the goods which came to land might be saved for the parties, naming none. One vat has come to land. The wreck was on the shore. Has advertised Gresham of the same. The Duke of Lunenburg has written to him that the old King of Sweden is dead, and that the two brothers had requested the young King to stay and see things in order, of which opinion the Lady of Emden is also.—Bremen, 8 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 8. 617. Robert Cornwall to Cecil.
At his first coming to these parts he looked to have the charge of 300 footmen, and therefore was at great pains to be accompanied by sufficient men to employ as officers, amongst whom the bearer of this letter was to execute the place of lieutenant. It has been found, however, by presentment in the Marshal's Court, that by the old ordinances of the town, it were not permissible that the bearer, considering the place of his nativity, might serve. Therefore, considering the charges he has been at in carrying his goods and wife to and fro, he begs that he may persevere in the execution of his said place.—Berwick, 8 Oct. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
[Oct. 9.] 618. R. Jones to the Lord Admiral.
Has touched some part of this to my Lords. Divers English merchants have complained to him that the French begin already to spoil them and they can have no justice, although they know the parties and see their goods before their faces. There is much flocking of merchants hither, and he fears that these men where they see opportunity will take their advantage, as they did in King Edward's time, and when they have got good booty, which shall amount to 100,000l., and find most of the English merchant ships on their side, they will use their commodity. If they are suffered thus to do there will be no trafficking, and how the merchants and ships, being in such number, shall come home, God knoweth.—Paris, (fn. 2) [blank] Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig., in a fragile condition. Add. Endd.: 9 Oct Pp. 2.
Oct. 10. 619. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the last of September he signified to her the arrival of Don Antonio De Toledo at this Court, the cause of whose legation he referred to his next letters; and although he judges that Chamberlain has advertised her of the same, yet he thinks it his duty to signify what had come to him here. Antonio had letters of credit only to the French King, with persuasions to divert him from the National Council, pre- tended to be kept in January next at Paris, for reformation of religion in the realm, as a thing which would greatly prejudice his policy in Spain and elsewhere in Philip's dominions; judging that if France should alter anything it would cause a schism universally, whereby the King of Spain would be constrained to admit the like in all his countries, especially in Spain, where religion begins to spring already, and where of late the Inquisitors have laid hands upon the Admiral of Spain's brother. In acknowledging which friendship the King of Spain offers at his own charge to give the French King aid, and to assist in his own person, if need be, to suppress all rebellion and schism in France. He was answered that the French King would first assemble his three Estates, and there propone the matter, to see what would be advised for the manner of calling a General Council, not minding without urgent necessity to assemble a Council National.
2. Don Antonio had also to move the French King that as all the galleys reported to have escaped from Al Gerbes were also taken, it was like that the Turk would enterprise to take from Spain the force, alliance, and amity which it had upon the coast of Barbary; and so wholly impeach the navigation, and put Spain in some danger, or else set upon Malta, Sicily, or some place in Italy; therefore the King of Spain required aid for the defence of the coast of Africa. For answer whereunto the French King said he would lend King Philip 5,000 men, to be ready to serve in March.
3. Another point was that if the National Council could be broken here, to devise how a General Council might be called; and for want of the probability thereof, to propose a league to be made between the Pope, the Emperor, and the Kings of France and Spain, for the general suppressing of the Protestants, for which purpose the Pope's Nuncio travails by all means to stay the National Council. This is all he can understand of Don Antonio's doings; who arriving here the 23rd Sept., departed back towards Spain on the 27th, having received very great entertainment and courtesy in the Court, with a present valued at 12,000 crowns.
4. Going to the Court for the Vidame of Amiens' matter, the writer took occasion to salute Don Antonio for her. Where, having talked with the Cardinal of Lorraine, he resorted to the said Don Antonio, he being lodged within the Court. When they entered into talk Throckmorton told him how things had passed for the late reconciliation in Scotland, and how the French King had deferred to give his part, directly against an Article provided in the same, pretending excuses upon the Scots' doings, and showed him the said treaty. He answered that considering the lack of finances in the Queen's realm, and how weak it was for want of men of conduct and good soldiers trained up in the wars, he though she could not do better than to fortify her realm and have her navy in such case, to be ready upon short warning, which would keep her and her realm in quiet. Throckmorton said that the Queen always desired quietness; and as for finances, and men of conduct and service, neither had she want of one or the other, as would well appear to such as should give her cause to bring the same forth. After a little talk he then asked what she meant, to deprive and imprison those good Bishops who reigned in her sister's time? Throckmorton said that he knew little of the particularities, but thought that she had not done it without good cause; and besides that she was well advertised of some secret practices intended among them.
5. Understands that the Duke of Savoy has appointed him, (till he be satisfied of that which is done by the French King for his wife's dowry,) the commodities of the countries of Provence, Dauphiné, and Languedoc, with liberty to give licence to carry out corn. There is also order given for the payment to the King of Spain of such money as remains due to him upon the marriage of the Queen his wife. M. De Voisy, a general of finance, and of the King's Council, is sent to Lyons to contract to furnish the King with treasure. There is one also sent to the Pope for licence for him to annex out of the spiritual promotions within the realm a revenue of 100,000 crowns by year, which he means to sell, partly to pay his debts and partly to furnish himself of money in his purse. Nothing is left undone besides which may serve for that purpose. It is thought that the chief matter they mind to press upon at this assembly shall be for a present relief, and getting of finances. He has also taken up in Paris a loan of 400,000 francs, which is almost 200,000 crowns.
6. Sends the names of eighteen new Knights of the Order of St. Michael. On Michaelmas Eve the herald of the French King's Order came to him, and according to the accustomed manner prayed him from the King to be that night and next day at the ceremony and feast of the Order; which he accordingly did. There were there the Bishop of Viterbo, the Pope's Ambassador, and the Ambassadors of Venice, Ferrara, and Mantua. On Michaelmas Day at the time of the elevation of the Sacrament, all the company kneeled, and used the fashion observed in that realm; but Throckmorton sat still in his place without any other motion. The Ambassador of Ferrara, offended therewith, told the Pope's Ambassador softly (but not out of Throckmorton's hearing) that he had not done well, and that if it had been in any other country than in France he had died for it in the place, and that it was very arrogantly done. Which injury he heard quietly, having more regard to the honour of the place and company than fear to have made him understand his mind for his rashness if it had been elsewhere. In the dinner time (for the Ambassadors dined together with the officers of the Order in a place by themselves), the said Ambassador was in hand with the matter again between him and the Ambassador of Mantua, which Throckmorton likewise heard with patience. After dinner he told M. De Lansac, (who was appointed to keep them company, and although a Knight of the Order took not his rank till evensong) that he was come thither to do the King his master honour, and that he for his part held himself very well content for the favour and good usage that he had found at their hands; but that there was occasion given him that day of his small contentation, for the Ambassador of Ferrara had taken his pleasure of him for his usage in the church at elevation time, both there and also at the table; and that if it had not been for the reverence of the place, the honour of the rank that he held, and the estimation of the company, he would have revenged upon him. It was not, he said, the part of an Ambassador of Ferrara to meddle with the religion of an Ambassador of England, nor to use such language touching the Queen's honour and his estimation, specially when the King and all the company were content with his doings therein. M. De Lansac said he was sorry that any such thing had chanced, and that the King would not be glad of it. As for Throckmorton's behaviour he said that the King and all the rest held the same very agreeable. This done they were all brought to the King, he being risen from dinner, and there every of them used such ceremonies as are wont. Throckmorton spoke to the King and reminded the Cardinal of the Vidame's matter, and gave him a remembrance thereof, who promised an answer within two or three days, which as yet he has not received, though he has not forgotten to send to him since again for it.
7. Next morning before the King went to service, (as he uses to have Dirige and a Mass of requiem for the Knights of the Order that are dead,) the herald came again from the King to tell him how sorry he was for that which had passed between him and the Ambassador of Ferrara; and that the King sent him word in the presence of the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Constable, and all the Knights of the Order, that unless he could conform himself to do as others did and adore (for that was his term), he put him to his choice to come to that day's service or to tarry away; adding that his example might do much harm among a great many who were ready enough to receive it. Throckmorton told the herald that although he could not declare his mind to him in French so well as in his own tongue he would do his best; and said he thought that the Ambassador of Ferrara's behaviour touched the Queen, which was not meet for him to have suffered unrevenged if time and place had permitted it. As for the occasions that moved him to do as he had done in the church he gave religious grounds, and also that the reverencing of the Sacrament was contrary to the usages established by law in England. He could not a little marvel that more fault was found with his doings now than there was last year at Bar-le-Duc, where was no Ambassador but himself, and where he used the same usage, only more to be noted, for then he stood upright (and now he sat), and right over against him sat the Duchess of Arschot; and yet there was nothing said, but all kindness and good words. He thanked the King for putting him to the choice, and was very well content to tarry at home. The herald promised to make a faithful report of the whole, since which time he has heard no more of the matter. Writes thus at length, that whatsoever be said or written she may know the truth of the matter from him.
8. At the said Don Antonio's coming Throckmorton received by the hands of her pensioner Gamboa, the Spanish courier, a packet from Chamberlain, which he forwards.
9. There is arrived out of Scotland by sea, one Crankston, late official of the Bishop of St. Andrews, with letters from the said Bishop and others; he departed from Scotland on the 24th ult. and arrived on the 4th inst. He brings news that there is some disunion towards between Lord James and one of the Forbes for the earldom of Buchan, which is like to be great; and that Lord Semple had got into the castle of Dunbar. Understands that he will be returned to the Bishop of St. Andrews by sea. If means could be found to meet with him at his landing, and to take his letters from him, they might decipher the practice of the Guises and their further meaning towards Scotland. As the Queen has been a suitor for the Vidame of Amiens for his return home, so it may like her to cause him to be put in remembrance for the release, before his coming thence, of two honest poor men, her subjects, named Thomson of London, and Morgan, whom he has kept a great while in prison so closely as they could not be heard of. At length Throckmorton is informed that they are in a dungeon in his castle of Pecquiny, near Amiens, as evil and cruelly used as men can be.
10. Whereas he signified that M. D'Oysel was in great favour and like to do all for the matters of Scotland, and that he was like to have the Order given him at this time; he is since put besides that hope by means of the Bishop of Amiens, De La Brosse, and Martigues, who have incensed the King and Queen against him, as the only occasion why they are not presently possessed of Scotland. The cause is this; the Bishop of Amiens, with the consent of De la Brosse and Martigues, gave advice to the Queen Dowager at the beginning of the garboils to dissemble with the Scots by all manner of means, and to call a Parliament where she should be present, either at Leith or Edinburgh; so as, having all the nobility assembled, she might have picked out and beheaded such as might have hindered the French King's service there. D'Oyzel liked not this order, and the Queen's nature could not agree with such extremity and cruelty, whereby the Prelate's advice took not place; and since their matters have not succeeded in Scotland, they now lay the blame on D'Oyzel.
11. Upon St. Michael's Day, being at the feast of the King's Order, II Senior Michaeli, the Ambassador of Venice, told him that he was appointed to be revoked, and that his successor, Michael Zoriano, late Ambassador to the Emperor, was on his way. Having been more familiar with him than any other, he asked him who should be their Ambassador in England. He said he wished that he himself might be sent there again, but he thought that one would not be sent until they saw how the matters which had been begun ended. He further said he loved England well, and therefore told Throckmorton that its state stood now upon making and marring.
12. Lord Hume by his friends has made great suit for the continuance of his pension, and also for 10,000 francs (which are 4,000 crowns) due for arrears of the same, together with certain other requests, which have been denied him, and his suits are quite dashed. M. D'Oyzel made suit to the Queen that he should have at the King's charge fifty men in wages. He is herein rejected, and the Bishop of Amiens, De la Brosse, and Martigues have persuaded a very evil opinion of him, saying that he conducted the English into Scotland. The abbeys of Kelso and Melrose, lately vacant by the death of the incumbents, came to the hands of the Cardinal of Guise by the King's gift. William Carr, Parson of Roxburgh, shall have the abbey of Kelso; paying out of the same pensions to Coldingknows, Farniehurst, and certain others to the sum of 300 (fn. 3) marks sterling.
13. The Count Rhinegrave is sent for to repair hither with as much force as he can bring. The galleys are sent for to come about with expedition to Newhaven. The Mareschal Brissac, Governor of Picardy, is newly appointed to have the governorship of Normandy, whither he goes out of hand. Is by good means advertised that the King of Spain will lend the French King 3,000 Spaniards who are in the Low Countries, 500 men-at-arms, and 2,000 footmen, who shall enter by Narbonne, and 3,000 who shall come by Navarre, with 500 horse of that country; these, joined with this King's power, shall serve to pacify or utterly suppress all schisms, heresy, and rebellion in this country. This done, and the parties for religion clean overthrown, these Princes have already accorded to convert their powers towards England and Geneva, which they take to be the occasioners and causes of all their troubles. A gentleman since Don Antonio's return has come herewithal. This offer has been made already to the French King by the King of Spain's Ambassadors on the fifth instant. Besides this, a gentleman has told him that he saw at the Pope's Nuncio's hands a letter from the Nuncio in Spain, wherein the aids were promised; and that the King of Spain had written to the French King that he would not only help him to suppress all heresy, trouble, and rebellion in France, but also join him to cause all such others as will not submit to the See Apostolic to come to order. Hears also of 4,000 Swiss appointed to come to serve the King.
14. There is great preparation of victuals daily. The French bruit that all this tends only to guard the King and suppress rebellion, for which purpose it is said that the King will go to Orleans for his safety. Mombron, upon the coming of the Cardinal of Tournon to Avignon, has begun a new stir, and repulsed La Mothe Gondrin, who was sent against him; whereby, having taken more courage, he has increased his numbers. But all bruits of his doings have proved vain heretofore, so it is doubted by strangers and by Throckmorton that there is some other means meant in gathering these forces and provisions than the repressing so mean a captain as Mombron.
15. Whereas Captain Bois, master of the camp of all the footmen this side the mounts, was lately appointed to conduct all the footmen he could levy with great secresy into Normandy, he is now commanded to bring the said footmen and all the men in the ordinary garrisons in Picardy and other frontier places to Orleans. Whereas the Vidame of Chartres, upon his suit to have his cause judged by his companions of the Order, was removed from the Bastille to St. Germain, the King and Knights of the Order have referred his case to the report of De la Brosse and De Sansac, who at Christmas, at the next meeting of the Order, are to make report on his case. It is not like to be known before what will become of him. In the meantime he is kept straiter, and none of his servants permitted to be about him. M. D'Oysel has found so much favour that he has leave to retire himself to his own house. Lord Seton has obtained of the French Queen a letter in his favour to Elizabeth to give him licence to pass through England, which he has sent to Throckmorton to be conveyed to her. Desires her to let him know her pleasure by her next. As far as he can learn he departs so evil satisfied that they have made him a very ill Frenchman.
16. De (fn. 4) Favori told him that in discoursing with the Duke of Nemours, the latter had said that his going into England was dashed, and that in case these garboils had not happened in this realm, the Queen should have heard of them in another manner of sort than she looked for; and in case they can oppress them, they will look to have reason at her hands.
17. Received to-day letters from English merchants at Rouen, complaining of a depredation at sea in August last by the French, whereof he wrote straight to the Cardinal; encloses a copy of the letter and answer.—Poissy, 10 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. A small portion in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 15.
Oct. 10. 620. Throckmorton to the Privy Council.
Gives similar information to that contained in his letter of the same date to the Queen, omitting his quarrel with the Ambassador of Ferrara. The French mind not to meddle with Scotland, but only to practise to abuse the Queen and Scots till they are able to decipher her disposition for her marriage, and what point she means to be at with Scotland, and that they have got money in their purses to follow their enterprises. If the Queen keep a slack hand in the matters of Scotland and does therein but coldly, (because they take it she has done more for herself than for the Scots,) they will persuade them so; and to keep them to their old devotion to France, will give the Daughter of France, (whom it was said the Prince of Spain, the King of Portugal, and the Prince of Navarre should have had,) with 300,000 crowns dowry, in marriage to the Earl of Arran, and make him Lieutenant of Scotland, with the revenue of the kingdom for his entertainment. If the Queen by assured means entertains the amity of Scotland, they mind then to use cunning means to make a division by winning over the Lord James to their side, separating him from the Earl of Arran; whereunto there is already an entry made by means of prosecuting one of the Hamiltons for killing the Sheriff of Linlithgow's brother. For a better furtherance of their purpose they bestow all their benefices, wardships, etc. upon such as are affected to the French and contrary to the Duke and Earl, and make all assignations of money due by them to the Scots upon the revenue of Scotland; which being many, will breed further pikes among them, and so be an occasion to set them together by the ears. Great numbers of merchants and ships are on this side, and daily come over, to their great peril and that of their vessels, (things standing in such doubtful terms,) and of the great quantity of money that they carry over, being at this vintage not so little as 80,000 crowns, as he is informed by good means. Has written more fully to the Queen.— Poissy, 10 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 12.
Oct. 10. 621. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Has received his of the 6th Sept. by Clark, who has been spoiled to the value of 300 crowns by Mr. Lokke, notwithstanding his, and Killigrew's, and Jones' letters of recommendation. He says that he brought into the devotion of the Lords of the Congregation, the Lords of Garlies and Lochinvar; which being true he deserves more to be considered. By Cecil's letter of the 20th ult. (which the writer received on the 5th by De Favory) he understands of Lord Roberts' wife's strange death, whereof he heard before in this Court; which as it was strange indeed, so has it been and is yet discoursed of here at pleasure, and liberally enough of the malicious French; so he terms them, and their talk hereof deserves. God forbid that the rumour thereof should prove true. "And as an evil chance cometh not commonly alone, but is accompanied oftentimes with another as evil or worse; so I pray God that this cruel and hard hap be not the messenger of a further disaster towards in our country; you can consider the rest." As he is like to live here still, he bewails his chance therein, and seeing it pleased the Queen to bring it to pass, must arm himself with patience and hope for better. Though he desires to be at home for his own particular ease, yet he does not respect that so much as the Queen's service; and he is sure she would find his service would stand her in better stead there than here. Recomforts himself that Cecil is in place, with whom he dare be bold and frank. Trusts that he will with his great wisdom and dexterity so handle the matter now at home, perceiving whereunto some are bent there with him, that their general case and surety be not brought to that peril and danger as they be driven to say, una salus victis nullam sperare salutem. Will never suffer himself to be transported for any particular respect or commodity to make him prosecute any other purpose than shall be for the surety and harmony of the Queen and her realm; and say and think always magnum prœsidium conscientia sana.
2. Cecil will see by his letters to the Queen and the Council how things go on this side, and what need there is to look about them and prepare for the worst, rather than the following and serving of fancies, to which letters he refers him.—Poissy, 10 Oct. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Oct. 10. 622. Another copy of the above, but with occasional variations of diction.
Endd. Pp. 4.
Oct. 10. 623. Throckmorton to the Marquis of Northampton. (fn. 5)
Wishes he were either dead or hence that he might not hear the dishonourable and naughty reports that are made here of the Queen, and the great joy in this Court among the Princes here for the success they take it they are like to have in England, not letting to speak of the Queen and some others that "which every hair of my head stareth at and my ears glow to hear." Is almost at his wits' end, and knows not what to say. "One laugheth at us, another threateneth, another revileth the Queen. Some let not to say, What religion is this that a subject shall kill his wife, and the Prince not only bear withal but marry with him?" rehearsing the father and grandfather. All the estimation the English had got is clean gone, and the infamy passes the same so far, as his heart bleeds to think upon the slanderous bruits he hears, which if they be not slaked, or "if they prove true," their reputation is gone for ever, war follows, and utter subversion of the Queen and country. Begs him to help to slake these rumours. Prays that God will not suffer her to be opprobrium hominum et abjectio plebis. With weeping eyes takes his leave.
Copy. Endd. by Throckmorton: 10 Oct. 1560. To the Marquis of Northampton. Pp. 2.
Oct. 10. 624. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript. Pp. 2.
Oct. 10. 625. Throckmorton to Lord Robert Dudley.
1. By letters from Mr. Killegrew of the 20th ult., received on the 7th, the writer has learnt of the death of my Lady his Lordship's late bedfellow, and condoles with him thereon. Thanks him for his present of a nag; would do so more if he would find means that he might come home in post to hunt and hawk in England, which it were more meet for him to do than to be Ambassador here, as things have lately fallen out. By his last wrote to his Lordship to prepare his horse and armour, to encounter the lustiest and activest gallant of this Court, since which time his going or stay hath been diversely balanced and now revived again. But since the return of Lignerolles out of England, his going is more wished than it was before, so that Lord Robert need not fear his counterbuff yet awhile. The French galleys come about from Nantes to Newhaven out of hand.
2. The Rhinegrave makes men with all speed in Almaine, and brings them away with like diligence. Marshal Brissac goes into Normandy as Governor, who would not be sent but that something is meant.
Copy, in very fragile condition. Add. Endd.: 10 Oct. 1560. Pp. 3.
Oct. 10. 626. Another copy of the same.
Modern transcript. Pp. 2.
Oct. 10. 627. Henry Killegrew to Throckmorton.
1. Perceives by a letter written to "my Lady" that he has not heard from him since Mr. Sommer came to him [Throckmorton]. Is sorry his choice was no better in messengers, but there was no other fault in him. This is the fourth time he has come into this town only to write unto him since his departure from Basing; the first he sent by Defavorye, the second by the French Ambassador, the third by Lignerolles, and this by Lord St. John, whom he commends as one of the best sort of all his nation, a perfect, honest, friendly gentleman, and Randolph's dear friend and his; to whose relation he refers all Scottish matters, for that he came late hence. Randolph wills him to advertise that the Lady Fleming and Lord Henry Valois, her son, will be shortly there well accompanied.
2. Has written long since of the death of Lord Robert's wife. The King of Sweden comes not at all, but there is a new bruit of one to renew the Emperor's suit. Throckmorton is not like to return this winter, though all his friends say they have done their best; he sees no likelihood of David's return as yet, so he must refer some things unto his coming. Some would persuade him to write to Throckmorton for his abode there, but he has absented himself on purpose. Many of his friends judge his abode more happy for him than his return; for his own part he likes France so well that he wishes he were there, and begs that he will help him. His man has forgot his cipher at Hampton Court, so he must write thereafter. Begs that he will send word what has become of the letters he sent.
3. The Queen and all the Lords are in good health; the Earl of Pembroke is well amended. By Lignerolles he sent such proclamations as were set forth, and now sends the last set forth this day. Sends certain letters for Spain which "my Lady Marquis" and Lady Clinton desire to have conveyed thither. All Throckmorton's friends are well, his brother John is here. Ladies Hunsdon and Sidney brought a-bed; the Queen christened both, which he hears are daughters. "I cannot imagine what rumours they be you hear there, as you write so strange, unless such as were here of the death of my Lady Dudley; for that she brake her neck down a pair of stairs, which I protest unto you was done only by the hand of God, to my knowledge. But who can let men to speak and think in such cases?"
4. William Drury is out of prison. Drew hath the liberty of the Fleet, and like to have more liberty shortly. The Earl of Pembroke, the Lord Admiral, and many Lords supped yesternight, and dined this day at Arundel's. No news of the Queen's coming to London before Hallontide. The Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Bedford still in the country. They are as full of agues at the Court as ever they were in his time, which makes all kinds of men weary of their lives. Lord Gray goes shortly to Berwick to be Captain there. Randall was offered to be Marshal there, but refused. The same Mr. Lee goes forth with the works there, and seeks to discredit Portynary, but failed. Brand, Fitz William, Cornwall, and Roger Carew remain at Berwick with charge of men, some fifty, some more. Some things be so used as all men be weary. Croftes is still in the Fleet. Will send Lady Cecil's money by David; the writer might have had it, but the fall of money caused him to forbear. Wrote of the horses, one from Lord Robert and the other from the Treasurer, which he delivered to "my Lady;" cannot write of their goodness, but they were the best he could find, yet they be not meet for Throckmorton's own saddle.
5. Begs him to send word of the Vidame's and De Nemours' coming hither.—London, 10 Oct. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 7.
[Oct.] 628. Portenary to the Council.
1. By the Queen's commandment and theirs he was sent to Berwick with letters to the Duke of Norfolk to view the fortifications. Having drawn a plat of them, he found certain imperfections, which might easily be amended at small cost, which plat is in Mr. Secretary's hands. His Grace and every one else agreed that the imperfections ought to be amended, except Sir Richard Lee, who excused them. He then showed another plat to the Duke and Lee, who thought it was good, strong and sure, but that it should grow to somewhat more charge; wherefore he drew a third, which was sure and strong and of somewhat less charge, whereupon the Duke was satisfied; but Lee did not see the plat at that time.
2. Afterwards, understanding that the Duke would march towards Leith, he signified to him that he had brought divers patterns of divers ways to win a strong town, which he showed to him, Lord Wharton, Sir Peter Carew, and Lee, together with the rules and orders that a general ought to keep in assailing a strong town, which they commended, and ordered him to accompany them to the camp. After this, one reported to him that the said patterns had offended some man who was present. A few days after the agreement was made between Scotland and France, the Duke departed from Berwick secretly to view Leith; and Portenary accompanying him left his mail in Captain Drury's chamber in one of his servants' hands; and delivered him in a bag three plats of the new fortifications of Berwick, and two of the bassetown, praying him to lock them in a coffer, which he promised to do. Lee was also determined to have gone with the Duke, but hearing that Portenary was going he stayed, and lent him two of his horses and one of his men.
3. Portenary was in and about Leith with Lord Grey, and took a plat thereof; and coming back to Berwick he missed his third plat, which Lee had not seen; and he who had it in keeping said that he knew not what was become thereof. On complaining to Lord Wharton and Lee, the latter answered that it was no great matter, as he [the writer] might well make another like it. Cecil being returned from Scotland, Lee declared upon the loss of the said plat such suspicious matter and put him in such jealousy as worse could not be devised; as appeared by the grief and displeasure that he had and by the rebuke he gave Portenary for the loss thereof. This was done so that they should give no credit to the faults found in the fortifications, and to purchase him the Queen's displeasure, which he has found.
4. Captain Drury's servant was much offended with him for his being there lodged, and used him so strangely and dishonestly that he was compelled to complain to the Duke, who committed the servant to ward. And, so in revenge, Portenary believes that he consented that the plat should be removed, and a servant of Lee's was very familiar with him. After Cecil's departure to the Court the writer complained again to Lee, who answered him even as before, and made light of it. Thereupon he asked him why he had devised so evil and put so great suspicions in Cecil's head? Lee answered that he had not spoken any word about the said plat.
5. When Portenary found the said imperfections he spake gently to Lee, and told him that it was necessary to amend them, which he might do with little charge and no dishonour, as the fortification was yet so little forward. He excused the matter, and said if he would give him one good word he would give him three. Portenary answered that he could not, as herein consisted the force of the piece, and the safety of such a key as it is.
6. Having gone at the command of the Council to Portsmouth, he has made a plat thereof, wherewith as every man was not satisfied, he has devised two others, either of which is impregnable, and with the least charge possible.
7. If they all came into whatsoever man's hands there would ensue no danger at all, nor be any occasion of suspicion. In all the new fortresses of fame, as Milan, Placentia, Modena, Turin, Chalons, and Antwerp, no stranger is forbidden the ramparts and all their plats are in every man's hand.
8. When any of the said plats be put in execution, all reason will give that no force shall be able to prevail against it. He begs them not to doubt him for the loss of his plat, as he might at all times have made one and bestowed it at his pleasure and no man know thereof. Has brought so many plats and "patrons" that a horse can scantly carry them. Has brought a new invention in fortifying, for which King Philip and the Duke of Savoy offered him all that he would have. Has also an invention for artillery portative, as yet used only in France, brought thither within these three years by Bartholomew Campi. Is ready to go to Portsmouth, but desires to have convenient commission.
Endd. by Cecil: Portenary, Berwick. Pp. 8.


  • 1. On the back of this letter Cecil has written the following memoranda:— "Bishop of St. David's, Archbishop of York. Robert Horne, Dean of Durham, Bishop of Winton. Seambler, D.D., Bishop of Peterborough. Downham, Bishop of Chester."
  • 2. Originally, Poissy.
  • 3. Originally, 3,000 in the MS.
  • 4. From this point to the end of the paragraph is in cipher, deciphered.
  • 5. A memorandum on the back of this letter stands thus:—"Coldingknowes' pension. Fernihurst, out of the abbey of Kelso. William Car, 350 marks sterling. Hume, 10,000 francs, 50 men in wages. Lord Bothwell, Melrose, Guise, Cars.