Elizabeth: May 1560, 11-15

Pages 42-59

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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May 1560, 11-15

May 11. 72. Has received his letter of the 9th, which does not necessitate a long reply, and which, short as it is, he does not thoroughly understand. As to what he has to say from the Queen to the French King he shall have an early audience for that purpose.—Chinon, 11 May 1560.
Copy. Endd.: The Cardinal of Lorraine to me. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 11. 73. Another copy of the above. Signed: Claude de Lorraine [sic].
Endd.: 11 May 1560. Copy of the Cardinal of Lorraine his letters, sent unto me by Mr. Somer for answer to mine of the 9th of the same month. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 11. 74. John Sheres to Cecil. (fn. 1) (fn. 2)
1. His present letter will convey few advices of moment only, as in his previous ones of certain consults concerning the reconciling of the Queen and England to the obedience of the Church of Rome. Sheres has seen divers letters from some English at Rome and others at home, who will stick that way when they may see that the time shall serve them, to the effect that the Pope is persuaded that England may yet be won again to the obedience of that Church. And, as the writer can gather, they have used for their instrument and "truchement" the Abbot of Saint Salute, who was of [the household of] our late Cardinal Pole. On these persuasions and promises the Pope appointed Cardinals Tournon, Carpi, Morone, Trent, and St. Clement, who have concluded that they thought meet His Holiness should solicit in the matter and send the Abbot of S. Salute to England to travail with the Queen and her Council, but chiefly to confer with the favourers, for there depends the fetch, for the furtherance of the same according to his instructions. The Pope has now so concluded upon it, as Sheres wrote in his last.
2. Last week the Abbot had his despatch and 1,000 crowns out of hand for his provisions, and 100 crowns a month for his diets as long as he shall lie in France or Flanders by the way, but when in England he is to be allowed 200 crowns a month. On Monday last he left Rome by the ports, as appears by his letters hither, which Sheres has found means to see and read. He goes by France to consult with some there, then to Flanders, where he will tarry until he may have a safe conduct to England, obtained by the suit of the King of Spain.
3. Cecil may assure himself that these proceedings have brought one great part of Italy to an opinion that they in England draw not all by one string, and that there are yet no small number of such as envy this present state with them and look for a new world. This (by God) is to be thought upon, for he believes that such unquiet heads sleep not, and there is never so much danger as where men suspect not if they be malicious. Will not at present trouble him with the advices from Rome of the marriage of the Pope's kindred, of making of Cardinals, of the General Council next year. Nor of the matters of Turkey and the King of Spain's navy at Gerbi, not minding not this year to meddle with Tripoli.—Venice, 11 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 11. 75. Sadler to Norfolk.
Is contented to remain where he shall be commanded, but was never in the field with so slender furniture as he is at this time. Assures him that their state needs present help and reinforcement, for if the enemy knew the weakness of their power it would be over dangerous. Their number is much diminished by slain, hurt, and sick, and many are run away; and daily they fall sick and daily and nightly steal away, and those which remain are so wearied with watch and ward, that both they and their captains so murmur that it is rather to be feared that they will fall to mutiny and leave them in the field than that they will do any good service. Trusts that the arrival of this small number from Berwick will somewhat encourage them; yet they have need of more comfort, as it will be long before the 2,000 can be here which the Duke has ordered to be levied. Begs him to send Mr. Leek's band, as their so soon following in the tail of the others would not only much encourage their men but also discomfit the enemy, who is in some extremity through penury and lack of victual. If Mr. Leek's band should come they would not only be able to keep the ground without over much toil to their men, but also as soon as the other fort is finished, (which will be within two or three days,) they will be able to approach the enemy so near that they might be doing with the spade and mattock upon their west bulwark, called the citadel, where the enemy most fear the loss of the town. All men say that they will do more by the spade and mattock than by battery. Therefore he prays that they may be reinforced with the said band with all expedition, Berwick being out of all danger. It may be reinforced with his bands of horsemen and with a convenient power out of the bishopric and Newcastle.—From the camp, 11 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Railton. Pp. 3.
May 11. 76. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Have received his letters of the 9th and 10th. Having conferred with the Scottish Lords they think that if M. de Chapperon has nothing but letters whereby some such intelligence may be given to the Dowager as were better to be kept from her, it were not amiss to stay him at Berwick till the Duke hears the Queen's pleasure; but that if he have commission to the Dowager for the pacification of these troubles, whereof there is no great likelihood, he should be permitted to repair hither.
2. Touching Lord Erskine's man, because he has letters in cipher from the Dowager to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise, with such other intelligence as is not meet to pass into France, the Duke should send his writings to the Court, and return him to Scotland.
3. In answer to the Duke's second letter, they still keep and guard all the ground and trenches as they ever did, though with great toil, because they would give no courage to the enemy by abandoning the same. When the fort is finished they intend to ease their men, without giving any place to the enemy, for that they intend to remove their camp nearer to them before their citadel, and so try to environ them, having Vaughan's fort on the east side of the town, and this fort now in hand on the south-west, and their camp on the north-west, even before their citadel; wherein Mr. Lee, knowing the ground, can make the Duke very perfect.
4. If the Duke will send further relief presently from Berwick besides the 400 men already arrived, they will be the better able to guard and keep the camp and attempt their citadel with the spade and mattock in such sort as they trust to bring the enemy, being in such extremity as they are informed he is, for lack of victual, to such distress as to be able to render a good account of their charge.
5. Send an abstract of a general muster made yesterday, by which he may perceive that the 2,000 which he has ordered to be levied will not suffice to furnish the broken bands. They have employed the Duke's miner divers times, but hitherto no fruit has followed his work; he has begun upon the citadel but says that the ground serves not. They have provoked him to make a better assay, which this night shall be attempted.—At the camp, 11 May 1560. Signed: Grey, H. Scrope, R. Sadler, J. Croftes.
6. P. S.—The Dowager sent Mr. John Spence and the Laird of Findlater to the Lords, saying that she was desirous to pacify these troubles, and would offer them all that reason would. Whereupon the said Lords, though very unwilling, have (upon long consultation) sent the Lord James, Lord Ruthven, the Master of Maxwell, and the Laird of Lethington to her to understand what reason she will offer to them; whereunto they have the rather agreed, because she shall not be able to charge them with any obstinate or evil will to come to good conformity, so the end may stand with their security and the commodity of both realms.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 11. 77. Grey to Cecil.
Has received this day Cecil's letter of the 6th. Since his last of the 8th he has caused a general muster to be taken, and finds that the number of men defeated at the repulse is nothing so many as has been bruited; howbeit his soldiers run away continually into England, both by sea and land, wherein he trusts for redress by such order as the Duke of Norfolk may take therein. Desires a speedy supply of men and munitions. Asks him to be his suitor to the Queen for his repair unto the Court to put some stay unto such private causes as he has not had leisure yet to direct to his contentation and the surety of his wife and family; wherein he assures himself of Cecil's special aid. Refers the declaration of their further likelihood of success to the bearer, Mr. Gorge. —At the camp, 11 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 11. 78. Sir R. Lee to the Privy Council.
Understands by letters which he had this morning from Rowland Johnson, the surveyor, that their Lordships mean him to have supply of those now at the camp. Their sickness, feebleness, and idleness is such, by reason that they work by night, that he cannot bring them into order for a long time. Of the 800 men he wrote about 513 do nothing but make the provision; he has therefore but 300 handy workmen, which is nothing in so great a work. His meaning is that they should be made up to 2,000. Desires that the workmen may be despatched speedily, as they have but four more months of the year to work in. Has talked with Lord Grey, Croftes, and the rest for their opinion touching the new cut of the town, (whether it be better to have that fortified that the writer meant, or the old walls,) but could get none. If it had not been for diversity of opinions the town would have been near enclosed ere this, for it was begun before Christmas. The money he brought down is not enough to pay what is due, he asks for more to be sent.—Berwick, 11 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
May 12.
Fœd. xv. 581.
79. Commission of Francis II. and Mary of Scotland.
1. Although they have been most anxious to preserve peace with England, they find that the rebellion of certain of their subjects in Scotland has caused the collection of troops upon the Borders by which the common amity may possibly be violated.
2. To obviate this they have commissioned [Jehan] de Monluc, Bishop of Valence, Nicholas de Pellevé, Bishop of Amiens, Jacques de la Brosse, Henry Cleutin, Sieur d'Oysel, their Lieutenant of Scotland, and Charles de la Rochefocault, Seigneur de Randan, or any two of them, to confer with the English deputies on the borders of England upon the reconciliation of the common amity.—Chenonceau, 12 May 1560 Signed: Francoys,—Marie,—De l'Aubespine.
Orig. on vellum. Endd. With a fragment of a seal and counterseal in white wax.
May 12. 80. Another copy of the above.
Williamson's transcript.
May 12. 81. Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Has received these letters this morning containing divers things of importance. Touching the muster he is afraid that it is rather with the most than with the least. Cecil should consider the need of help for the realm, "there was never more need than quickly to proceed for the help thereof." He thinks that with a present aid this thing will fall to a good end, "if that you do consider my cousin Percy's errants, which I have given him only to show unto you." Hopes that by this time this storm is blown over with Cecil.
2. P. S.—Sent Sir R. Lee to the camp with the plat of this town, but no man would say his opinion. Cecil has need quickly to resolve what he will have done in it, the time of year waxes away.—Berwick, 12 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[May 12.] 82. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Is sorry that any matter should give the Queen any unquietness. "All must be quickly done and redoubled as it may, and to that let us apply ourselves." The 25,000l. for Gresham takes effect. Has 12,000l. ready to send to Berwick, and is providing 15,000l. more to send thither, according to their agreement, for the ships with Mr. Woodhouse and Bashe. Yesternight he has written, and it shall be done. If the writer may know in the morning what number of men Cecil will renew at Berwick, he will provide for coats and conduct, if he may know the shires. Hopes this despatching will increase the courage of the Queen and her Council.—Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Sunday, 11 [sic] (fn. 3) May 1560. Pp. 2.
May 12. 83. Cecil to Lord Montague.
1. Although he will receive the letters of the Queen and Council, Cecil has thought it not amiss to send his privately. Montague will perceive how things have passed since his departure by the Queen's letters, and the answer to the French Ambassador's protestation. The long distance for Montague's journey and the long time before his answer could come have been no small hindrance to this matter. Considering the Frenchmen's trifling with so often frivolous messengers tended to no other thing but to win time from the English, and by frequent passing into Scotland practise with the Scots to join France against England, adding thereto their hasty levying of great numbers in Almaine, their preparations of ships and hulks to carry men of war into Scotland, and not hearing what the King Catholic would do,—the Queen and Council were constrained to lose no more time but to enter her army, and thereby give occasion of more earnest treaty towards an accord, and so cut away the French practices used to allure the Scots to the French. Thus has the army remained two full months and the town of Leith straitly besieged, and it is hoped that it will be won either by famine or by assault.
2. The town is very strong, having in it 3,500 very good soldiers, saving by skirmishes many of them be diminished; it is fortified with good walls of earth and sods, and very full of ordnance. The English army is too small, not being above 9,000 men, and the Scots not past 4,000 footmen, whereof many will not come nigh any shot.—12 May 1560.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 12 May 1560. My master to the Lord Mountague. Pp. 3.
May 12. 84. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Since writing on the 7th he has received the Queen's letter of the 2nd, and Cecil's of the 3rd, on the 9th, by Richard Clough. The 25,000l. that the Queen will presently pay has greatly advanced her credit. Gresham's friend, that the Queen gave the chain of gold unto of 500 crowns, has performed his promise, for on the 10th the payment of the mart was prolonged till August with the interest of 50s. upon the 100l., "which is but 10 per cent. for the year, wherewith no man can say against." In respect of this worthy piece of service the Queen can do no less than write him a letter of thanks with at least 500 crowns. The same person has likewise given Gresham to understand that the assembling of the Estates is only to come by money, for the despatch of the 4,400 Spaniards for Spain and the payment of Lazarus von Swendlen's band and other soldiers, so that the money that the Regent gathered is spent already, for which Count Egmont is departed into Flanders and the Prince of Orange remains in Holland.
May 12.
Gresham to Cecil.
2. Has advertisements from John Waddington out of Holland of the 7th, that there is not to be bought 1,000 weight of saltpetre or powder in all those parts. Sends also Payne's three letters of the 6th and 10th out of Zealand.
3. Upon advertisement from M. M. Aquila and Glassion of the arrival of the last 300 corslets, he is advertised by one of the searchers that the Court has given order that all ships laden for England should be searched, which is only to "take Gresham in a trip;" but "well fare the penny that saves one hundred." Had hoped in this fleet of ten or twelve ships to have sent the remainder of the Queen's corslets, morions, and corriers, but will now stay till this bruit be past. In the last ships he sent five pieces of velvet of double pile and five of pile and a half. As Cecil writes that he does not know what the terms means, he tells him each piece of double Geyne velvet is a 1,000 weight of corrin powder and each piece of a pile and a half is 1,000 weight of serpentine powder. Has ready made ten pieces of a pile and a half, whereof four are shipped, which on account of this intelligence he is practising to get out, for which is given 6s. 8d. Flemish for every hundredweight. Desires that the things sent from hence be secretly conveyed into the Tower. It were well if the access of the Dutchmen of St. Katherine's to the church in the Tower were removed to some other church in St. Katherine's.
4. Hans Kecke yet remains behind in England; it were good Cecil despatched him thence for the money matter if it takes place, whom he will handle well enough; his price to him was five per cent. interest and five for obligation of service. It were well for the Queen to set her laws at liberty that her subjects and all other nations might let their money out upon interest not exceeding 5l. per cent., as in King Harry's time, with a penalty that no man use any other manner of "chevaunce" with wares or otherwise; and this doing he doubts not that she will find store of money upon interest within her own dominions. For since the exchange being risen in King Edward's time there has been brought all the fine gold and silver from all places thither, which will continue while the exchange is 23s. at London and 22s. 6d. from hence. Wishes Cecil never to consent to the banishing of the exchange, as it would bring it down again and cause all the fine gold and silver to be transported out of the realm. The money merchants are not to be suffered to lower the exchange by their greediness. Mr. Hussy, the civilian, has no understanding in these matters. Banishing the exchange, will decrease the Queen's customs, for when men find more profit in carrying home gold than delivering by exchange, they will employ it on English commodities, so that the pre sent exchange augments the customs, to the great estimation of all English commodities and hindrance of foreign.
5. Wrote by his last that the Princes of Germany had departed from their council, and that every man was to be in readiness with all the power he could make. News have come this day that there is up in Guelderland 20,000 foot and 5,000 horse, who requested passage through Brabant to Flanders, whereupon the Admiral, M. de Cassall, was sent to see their power and who was their general, and what their purpose; they answered that if they were not allowed to pass through upon paying their way, they would pass by force. Trusts that he is advertised by the letter sent by James Brocktrope what is the mind of the Princes in this matter. "The Regent is here still, and every other day rides about this town in her coach, brave comme le sol, trimmed after the Italian fashion." Perceives by Richard Clough that the Queen has enlarged the writer's shipping at Hamburgh, the warrant has not yet come to hand. Will if he can diminish the number of corriers, hand guns, and pistols.
6. Reminds him of the making of the powder mills, and hopes to send him skilful men. The Queen has a worthy provision of saltpeter and sulphur, which he trusts shall be preserved from King Philip. Reminds him to reward Gerbrand of Dunkirk, and Payne of Middleborough, the last with twenty or thirty crowns. They say here if Leith were taken and the French despatched, the French King and Philip would be out of hope, and the Queen sooner sure of their favour. King Philip is unprovided with means of war, and the Estates will never consent to war with England, the Queen being marvellously beloved here and having as many good friends as he has. If the army in Guelderland is for the ruining of Calais and Boulogne for the Queen, every effort should be made to recover the credit that England had in times past of having the best men of war by sea and land of all Christendom.—Antwerp, 12 May 1560. Signed.
7. P. S.—Asks him to tell Lord Robert Dudley that the Queen's Turkey horse begins to mend in his foot and his body, and doubtless is one of the readiest horses in Christendom and runs the best.
8. At the sealing up of this letter received Cecil's of the 8th, by James Whalye, whereby he perceives how Hans Kecke has used himself, who has not yet come to this town, because he would not ride so fast as Gresham's servant. Will handle him as he sees cause. It was against the writer's will that he came into England, as he saw his craft was only to come by money aforehand. It were better to send him than Mr. Breckentine, as he will do what he can for his brokerage. Is right sorry that the Queen gave the prating merchant 100 crowns.
9. If the Count Mansfeld and other lenders are not content with the Queen's bond, he would not have her trouble the Steelyard to be bond for her. Is sorry that the English merchants are so ungrateful as to bring down the exchange. Can make no certain days of payment to the Queen's debtors. The merchants must be looked after, for they do not esteem her honour and credit, so that they have their purposes and practices. To prevent the lowering of the exchange will take up 10,000l. The merchants cry out against Gresham because the Queen is such a gainer by exchange, and they would not she should perceive how much they had gained. The strangeness of these times and alterations have changed all his devices. Begs him to remember his friend Sir Jasper Schetz with a letter of thanks from the Queen and 500 crowns, for he has well deserved it in prolonging this payment till August, by which time the Queen will know whether there is anything to be done with Count Mansfeld. Perceives Frederick Spedt is no man for the Queen. Asks Cecil to send him a ship, and thanks him for the news and letters out of Scotland, a copy whereof he has given to Sir Jasper Schetz and others.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 9.
May 12. 85. Lord Clinton to Cecil.
1. Desires him to keep this letter to himself. As to the lack of powder, the Duke of Norfolk must understand what may be spared at Berwick, and out of the ships, with the consideration that there be not taken so much as might be danger to them if they were driven to defence, which should be sent with 1,000 men at the least. Who can think that a town being so furnished with noblemen and men of war, would not stand to their defence, although they were but intrenched for one assault or two, having (as they have) all things for defence? For if they had at the first presentment of assault given place, they should have answered it with the lives of the best of them, and ruin and discredit to the rest at their return in France; whereof they have had example of King Francis and King Henry as well for Boulogne as other places. This assault is honour to the defenders, and more to the assailants. They within have done that which may well be their warrant to commune and render, upon any other presentment of assault or otherwise. The Queen may in no wise stay the thorough execution of this enterprise. They in Leith have undoubtedly lost many men in this assault, and afore. Each man lost on their side is more to their weakening and peril than the loss of ten to the English. It cannot be thought that their victuals will serve them above one month. The sending of 1,000 soldiers with powder and such their wants, will bring an end of their resistance. The Duke of Norfolk's presence in the field would greatly encourage the English and Scots, and such powder as shall be taken out of Berwick may be sent with great diligence by sea.
2. The ships here will be ready out of hand; so that if Cecil perceives they mind in France to succour their men, the English ships would join those in the Frith before the French could; in which case he wishes to adventure his life in this service, for if the French prosper in Scotland, the Queen will never be in quiet, but shall have continual attempts against her, to the great danger of herself and her realm. The French are no neighbours for England to endure upon her frontiers; they would never desire to possess Scotland were it not for their longing to have the rich and noble realm of England. No good Englishman can ever consent that the French should have the overhand in Scotland, for then all the wars and plagues that had ever been in their own and their fathers' days would be but a flea biting in comparison to the danger and griefs that would be felt in all good Englishmen's hearts.
3. It should be known what number of men the Scots will continue in the field for achieving this enterprise, and how their courage serves them to proceed. Many puissant Princes have besieged towns with the loss of great numbers of men, and not achieved; but there is no doubt of any army to levy this siege for a good while, wherein they have great advantage. It should be considered by the Lords of Scotland how the landing in the west parts of Scotland by the French may be impeached. The conflict is greater to him for the doubt he has of the misliking which the Queen will conceive of this news, than any cause he sees to doubt of, if it be thoroughly followed. Will be at the Court to-morrow night.—Windsor, 12 May 1560. Signed: Clynton.
4. P. S.—The Duke of Holstein will be spoken with touching the stay they have made of the three hulks of Copenhagen, which be of 800 tons each, laden with salt.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
May 13. 86. Throckmorton to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise.
Has received the Cardinal's letter of the 11th, stating that he does not fully understand Throckmorton's of the 9th. For their better information, (being unable to come himself, on account of sickness,) he determines to send two gentlemen of his suite, who will make more ample declaration of his commission.—Amboise, 13 May 1560.
Endd.: Copy of a letter sent to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise, by Jones and Somer, 13 May 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 13. 87. Another copy of the above.
Endd. by Throckmorton. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 13. 88. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. This bearer, John Flour, an Englishman of Dunkirk, came to him with offers of service. He is a privileged burgess of Dunkirk, reputed to be the King of Spain's subject, and has a boat or two of his own in which he trades fishing, and thereby may haunt thither by sea or land. He says that he has sometime served under the Lord Admiral; if he bring this with convenient diligence, some consideration should be had of his pains, although he has had somewhat towards his charges. Has chosen him as the best means of sending, the ports on this side being closed. He would not have him send by way of Rye and Dieppe. It were well to send some person to try if Boulogne, Calais, and Dunkirk were closed. He may safely send by Suasso, the Spanish courier. Prays him to have an eye on the French Ministers, as he hears that they mean to play a cast of legerdemain. Is sorry that Cecil sent him not in his last despatch the French Ambassador's protestation. Asks for the "counterpayne" of the cipher which Cecil sent to Montague and Chamberlain to send between them and Throckmorton. Desires to hear of some one nominated to "leavye his siege."—Amboise, 13 May 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Begs to be advertised of the time of the receipt of his packets, and that he will send the enclosure to his wife.
Orig., chiefly in cipher, deciphered. The P.S. in Throckmorton's hand. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 13. 89. Cecil's Memoranda.
A memorial of things to be done with speed.
1. Letters to the Duke of Norfolk to will him to assure Lord Grey and all the army of increase of men, treasure, munitions, &c., and to advise him of their opinions here.
2. Letters to the lieutenants to levy 2,000 men. To send away money with speed.
3. To write to the Lords in the north, and Lord Wharton in Berwick. The Duke of Norfolk to choose to him some nobleman.
4. To besiege it with a volant siege, and keep all victual from the town.
5. To build another bastion to the sea side to impeach any landing.
6. To assay the taking of Inchkeith.
Orig., in Cecil's hol., and dated by him: 13 May 1560. Pp. 2.
May 13. 90. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. They answer his letter of the 12th. On Thursday last they took a general muster of foot, horsemen, and carriages at once; whereof they send him an abstract of the numbers of serviceable, slain, and runaways. At the return of Richard Overton he shall be more amply advertised on that behalf, and also the names of such as are runaways from their captains. He will perceive by the schedule here enclosed the number of corslets and other weapons in store, and their lack of powder and munitions, in case they should have occasion to make any new battery. The officers of the ordnance say that they spent in their last battery sixteen lasts in a day.
May 13. 2. The Duke should not consider them remiss in advertising him; they do not like to trouble him with trifling occurrences. As to what he sent them for news;—the Lord Seton's conference with the Laird of Grange was for private matters. No great account is made of Lord Robert's coming out of the castle. The Scotch soldier of Captain Steward, whom the Duke writes about, is a very slave and horse keeper, a runaway from his master, as divers other ragged boys and knaves, both French and Scottish, have done since their coming hither. As for the Dowager's weeping, it is not strange, for few days does she otherwise, as she has good cause. They might every day fill his ears with such trifles.
3. The "Halfpenny Pot" shall be sent, but understanding that he intends to send the treasure in her, they think the surest way is to send it by land; for if the Treasurer had not been with the last that came by sea, (who took his time to win the harbour of Burnt Island,) it had else been blown back out of the Frith, and peradventure had not arrived ere this time; and yet after he had obtained the said harbour he could not land for three days.
4. The Duke will understand by Overton how many of the hurt captains will be able to serve within fourteen days. They consider that their sick and hurt, which are lodged in Edinburgh, are in no danger. As for the victualling, the French cannot be relieved without a convoy, and such a number of carriages as they cannot imagine how they can attain them, having so few friends and so small power; nevertheless the writers, before removing their camp, will use the advice of the most expert and skilful amongst them.—The camp, 13 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Sadler, Croftes.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Railton. Pp. 4.
May 13. 91. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Reports at considerable length the conference between the Queen Dowager and the Lords of the Congregation, their deliberations and final decision. (fn. 4)
2. Yesterday divers soldiers of the town of Leith having issued forth to gather cockles and periwinkles on the shore, Lord Grey ordered Thomas Clerk and his band of light horsemen with Fernando to set upon them, who slew forty or fifty of them. This morning at one o'clock 200 French issued out in camisado and entered the trenches near the citadel, but were soon driven out with the loss of five or six besides many hurt, and but one Englishman slain.— Camp, 13 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Sadler, Croftes.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Railton. Pp. 4.
May 13.
Haynes, p. 305.
92. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 5)
1. He knows how acceptable his letters are by which from time to time he advertises Cecil of their whole proceedings. If he had not sent messengers, two or three sheets of paper would not have sufficed to have declared the fond doings of those that have the charge of the army in Scotland. Sir Henry Percy and Sir Nicolas le Strange being fully instructed of the whole circumstances, he will not trouble Cecil with so unpleasant a matter, but wishes that God had been and were better served than He has been hitherto in the field.
2. Received yesterday a letter from Sadler (which he forwards) requesting him to send Mr. Leek's 500 men to the camp immediately. It seems hard that any necessity should cause this town to be left so unfurnished, for out of 2,000 but 100 are left; yet for their better encouragement he has this day sent Mr. Leek thither with his men and is fain to furnish the town for a time whilst more men are come, (for whom he has already sent,) with horsemen of the Borders. This is a weak defence if the enemy were able to do any harm, of which for so little a time they have no great fear. The Scots do not seem to dismay upon this chance.—Berwick, 13 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 14. 93. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Gresham since his letter of the 12th has received the Queen's of the 9th by Hans Kecke, by which he perceives that the said Hans seems to agree to the bargain at 10 per cent. He much commends Cecil with potentissimo, reverendissimo. Has appointed Richard Clough to go with him to Count Mansfeld for his resolute answer. Has made Hans Kecke believe that at his coming over to inform the Queen and Council of the bargain he had much ado to make them accept it. Will give his factor further instructions, who will depart on the 16th.
2. The army in Guelderland is much spoken of; some say it is for King Philip to fear the States and the commons, to make them give the money; some say it is for religion; and others that it is for the Queen, which last question he has been asked by divers of the Queen's friends. Some said that the Queen and Council were too wise to let so many strangers into her realm. Will write to Mr. Brickentine that Frederick Spedt is no man for the Queen. Has sent fifty crowns to his servant in Holland to make his repair to the camp and there remain till his money be spent, and to advertise Gresham every day. The merchants have used themselves not well towards the Queen in refusing to assist her with the 25,000l. The Queen must look that in this 15,000l. they bring not down the exchange under 24s. Has given the deputy and others to understand that there would be some great alteration upon their unnatural proceedings towards the Queen, and that the Queen would take all their commodities of cloths and kerseys into her own hands. It were well for Cecil to cast out the like with a little colour to the Governor.
3. Giles Houseman, a merchant of this town, came to him this day and said that he had a ship called the Abraham of Enkhuizen laden with 1,200 balletz [billets] taken by an English ship of Boston belonging to William Johnson, which feigned themselves to be Scots, and was carried into Boston to be sold. The wood is Houseman's proper goods, as plainly appears by the enclosed charter party. He is a honest man and ready at all times to do the Queen service, also he has the order of conveying the Queen's letters in and out of France. Has stayed him complaining to the Regent till Cecil's answer be known. He has a great trade with England, and the Queen owes him 4,000l.
4. Encloses a letter from Throckmorton of an old date. Trust to send him his clock by the next.—Antwerp, 14 May 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—On Friday the Regent rode six miles hence to a house of the Bishop of Arras called Cantecrew and there is still.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 14. 94. Maitland to Cecil.
1. On the 10th came two gentlemen from the Queen Dowager, who declared that she had commiseration for the afflicted state of the country; and for that it was believed of many that she was the occasion thereof and might stay it, she was desirous to purge herself and declare the good will she had to see the matter pacified, and to that end she required the Earls of Huntly and Glencairn to be sent to her, to whom she would declare her mind more amply.
2. Answer was made that the matter had sundry times fallen in communication, and that without the settlement of these two points there could be no agreement, viz. the removing of strangers and the demolition of the new fortifications; and that if she lacked commission or good will to grant these, all communication was vain; but if otherwise, the Lords would send not such as she nominated, but such as they should find meet for the purpose.
3. The gentlemen having reported this answer, on the day following they returned, and on her behalf declared that not only had she commission and will to remove the French, but also was most desirous thereof, as a thing most necessary for the commonwealth. The Lords thereupon sent the Lord James, the Lord Ruthven, the Master of Maxwell, and the writer to the castle. When they came there on the 2th inst., they opened their griefs, and understood of her in general terms that she would be content that the most part of the Frenchmen were removed, having assurance that the Lords would continue obedient subjects, but that she could in no wise digest the compact made with England. In the end they found that nothing could be agreed upon without the advice of some being in Leith; and therefore she desired that MM. d'Oysel and de la Brosse, and the Bishop of Amiens or any two of them might come and speak with her. Not having instructions to answer that demand they reported it to the Council.
4. On the 13th the persons aforesaid offered to her that if she would agree that presently all the French men of war should be removed, reserving only the number of 100 persons for guard of Dunbar and Inchkeith, the Lords would give all obedience to the King and Queen their Sovereigns that they or their predecessors were wont; and if any should be inobedient, the rest would become his enemies, and they would be content that all other matters debatable were ordered by the nobility and the estates. If she would not agree to these points, they thought it not reasonable that there should be any intelligence betwixt her and Leith. Not being able to obtain resolution of any point without she had speech with the aforesaid for their advice, and her chief doubt always hanging on the treaty with the Queen of England, (which they declared in plain terms the nobility was always determined to keep, and rather to spend their lives than break it in any point,) the communication was broken up, and the Council minded hereafter not to enter into any new, nor to permit any French to remain or any fort to be in their hands.—Camp before Leith, 14 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 15. 95. The Cardinal of Lorraine to Throckmorton.
Received his letter yesterday by the two bearers. They also showed and read to him a writing in French, which they refused to leave with him, saying that they were charged to deliver it to him in Latin, which they did. The King earnestly desires the continuance of peace.—St. Maure, 15 May 1560. Signed.
Copy. Endd. French. Pp. 2.
May 15. 96. Johannes Spithovius to Cecil.
1. Will briefly go over the contents of his letter of 2nd March, which he sent by Reginald Wolf, the writer's countryman.
2. The writer delivered the Queen's letters to the King and his mother on the 22nd Feb. at Nyburg, where are the King's uncles, the Dukes John and Adolphus. Thinks that the King will be induced from his remarks to adopt those measures which will most tend to the amity and advantage of the two kingdoms. The French Ambassador, Carolus Danzæus, still remains, not approving of the journey of the Duke Adolphus into England. On his return from Sweden he has been trying in vain to persuade him not to go. The Ambassador had no great success in Sweden. Understands that Envoys are coming from the Hanse towns on St. John's Day, to treat about a renewal of their privileges. The King has sent his Marshal into France, who has not yet returned. The Court has been in the Cimbric chersonesus [Jutland] since 8 March, where it still remains. The King will come hither in a few days to review his fleet, which is very well manned and equipped, and commanded by his nobility. People wonder what is the reason of so great preparations. Some say that it is to recover the Orkneys, but the real destination is kept secret. The writer thinks that the King will act only on the defensive. What the house of Guise is capable of doing he thinks is sufficiently set forth by the Queen's proclamation of the 24th March, which shows that the attempts are unjust. The great religious commotions in France will most likely make them think of peace.
3. He has been unable as yet to return on account of his business and the illness of his wife. Has besides not enough to support himself and his family, as the first fruits of his prebend have to be paid in two years. He therefore begs him to ask the Queen to give him another, either at Canterbury or Westminster. Desires to be remembered to his old friend the Treasurer.—Copenhagen, 15 May 1560. Signed: Johannes Spithovius, Monasteriensis.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 15.
Haynes, p. 306.
97. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 6)
1. Has received the Queen's and Cecil's letters this morning, by which he sees she minds most honourably to go through with this exploit, which is the only way for the preservation of her person, realm, and honour. He received yesternight two letters from Grey, which he sends herewith; one is concerning a communication had between the Dowager and some of the Lords of the Congregation, the other an answer to a letter of his sent to them with some news of Leith. In the letter of the Dowager's proceedings he may see devices of delay, "therefore here there is little account made of her bloody sword in a scabbard of peace, her blubbering is not for nothing." All things go not the best with the French, either they are in desperation of succour or lack victuals. Trusts that God will think this last assault punishment enough, and so now direct our ways as shall seem to Him best, whereby we may now become His soldiers, who hitherto have called upon His name with nothing but swearing. For Dr. Martin's foolish prating let Cecil think all he says to be spoken in the cup, he knows nothing of the proceedings here more than all the world. Hopes by this time his [the Duke's] cousins Percy and Strange have satisfied him.—Berwick, 15 May 1560.
2. P. S.—They are troubled with conveying the money into Scotland, for it being old coin they are fain to send it by sea, having no other shift, which is very dangerous, for the winds are more like winter than summer.
May 15. 3. Lee sends this plat of Leith to the Queen, who is worthy of some letter of thanks for he would go thither, not being so able to ride as Norfolk could have wished him. Lee would be glad to have the Queen's resolution about the works here. "Time passeth away apace." Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 15. 98. Levies for Berwick.
1. Men for Berwick levied by letters of 18 Nov. 1559, 2,000.
2. Levied by letters of the 9th December 1559, 2,000.
3. Levied by letters, 15 May 1560, 3,300; arranged under the counties from which they were drawn.
Endd. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Pope Pius to the Queen.
    Vatic. 2,896, n. 214.
    B. M.
    Titus, C. vii. 11.
    Camd. Annal.
    p. 47.
    A.D. 1560, § 42.
    1. "To our most dear daughter in Christ, Elizabeth the illustrious Queen of England. Very dear daughter in Christ, we send you greeting and the apostolical benediction. How greatly we desire (our pastoral charge so requiring it) to procure your salvation, and to provide likewise for your honour and the security of your kingdom, God, who is the searcher of all hearts, knows, and you yourself may understand by what we have given in charge to this our beloved son, Vincentius Parpalia, Abbot of S. Saviour's, a man known to you and well approved by us. Wherefore, we do again and again exhort and admonish your Highness, most dear daughter, that rejecting evil counsellors that love not you but themselves, and serve their own lusts, you would take the fear of God into council with you, and acknowledging the time of your visitation, would show yourself obedient to our fatherly persuasions and wholesome counsels, and promise to yourself from us all things that may make not only to the salvation of your soul, but also whatsoever you shall desire from us for the establishing and confirming of your princely dignity, according to the authority, place, and office committed unto us by God.
    2. "And if it so be (as we desire and hope), that you shall return into the bosom of the Church, we shall receive you with the same love, honour, and rejoicing, as the father in the Gospel did his son returning to him; although our joy is like to be the greater in that he was joyful for the safety of one son, whereas you, drawing along with you all the people of England, shall hear us and the whole company of our brethren, (who are shortly, God willing, to be assembled in a General Council for the taking away of heresies,) and so for the salvation of yourself and your whole nation, fill the universal Church with rejoicing and gladness. Yea, you shall make even Heaven itself glad with such a memorable fact, and achieve admirable renown to your name, much more glorious than the crown you wear.
    3. "But concerning this matter the same Vincentius shall deal with you more largely, and shall declare our fatherly affection towards you; and we entreat your Majesty to receive him lovingly, to hear him diligently, and to give the same credit to his speeches that you would to ourself.—Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under the Fisher's Ring, 5 May 1560, in the first year of our pontificate."
    MS. Vatic. 2,896, n. 217. Raynaldi, A.D. 1560, § 43. The Pope to King Philip.
    The Pope, anxious to remedy the evil occasioned by the death of Queen Mary, and to restore England to the unity of the Church, has despatched thither one well qualified for the purpose, as the King has probably heard from Franciscus Vargas, his Orator at the Papal Court. Philip, the writer is assured, will favour this design to the utmost of his power, and induce the Queen to accept the Pope's advice. It was owing chiefly to Philip's influence that England was of late reconciled to the see of Rome, and it would be greatly to his advantage could it be once more recovered from heresy. Credit for the agent whom the Pope sends.—Rome 5 May 1560.
    MS. Vatic. 2,869, n. 259. Raynaldi, A.D. 1560, § 44. The Pope to the Bishop of Aquila.
    The Bishop's zeal for the faith is known to His Holiness as well by his letters to Franciscus Vargas as by the long discourse made by the latter to the Pope respecting Aquila's devotion for the restoration of Catholicism. The Pope praises his zeal, and entreats him not to flag.—10 March 1560.
    MS. Vatic. 2,896, n. 211. Raynaldi, A.D. 1660, § 45. The Pope to Ferdinand, King of Hungary.
    The Pope, anxious to reduce once more England to the union of the Catholic faith (of which he has some hope), has sent thither Parpalia, Abbot of S. Saviour's, a man exceedingly well qualified for the purpose. Counting upon the King's sympathy, the Pope asks him to assist Parpalia by writing and sending messengers to the Queen urging her to agree to the object of the mission. If she consents thereto he will grant her anything in his power which may tend to the security of her kingdom.—5 May 1560.
  • 2. Translated in Fuller's Church History, iv. 308; Tierney's Dodd, ii. App. 321.
  • 3. In 1560, the 12th of May fell upon Sunday.
  • 4. See Maitland to Cecil May 14, No. 94.
  • 5. Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 6. Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.