Elizabeth: December 1560, 6-10

Pages 421-440

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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December 1560, 6-10

Dec. 6. 771. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Advertised her on the 1st that the physicians put no danger in the King's life, his fever having then left him. The next night he fell again into his fit, which has ever since so increased upon him, together with the grief or imposthume in his head, that within forty-eight hours he became speechless, saving a soft, hollow, rattling speech, "and the 6th of this present, [at 11 of the clock at night,] he departed to God, (fn. 1) leaving as heavy and dolorous a wife, as of right she had good cause to be, who, by long watching with him during his sickness, and painful diligence about him, and specially by the issue thereof, is not in best tune of her body, but without danger."
2. The Queen has cause to thank God for so well providing for her surety and quietness by taking away the late King and his father (redoubted of all the world), considering their intentions towards her. The former, having made an universal peace and great alliances, like to continue, meant wholly to entend towards her and her neighbours, in the behalf of his son and daughter-in-law, which was no disguised matter; the latter took in hand his father's enterprise to his uttermost, but, partly impeached by his own affairs at home, but specially by her wise preventions, the same could not take effect.
3. Now is the time for her to follow the good means offered to her to establish all things to her continual quiet, "and to make a sure and larger seat for herself and her posterity for ever, to God's glory and her own unspeakable fame." So shall the world say that, like as God hath wrought miraculously for her, so has she well and duly embraced His goodness, and done more for herself and the charge given unto her governance, and that with great facility, than her predecessors could ever compass by all the best means they could imagine.
4. It were not amiss for the Queen to write a kind letter to the Queen Mother, which, being written with her own hand, were more acceptable, and by the same to condole the death of her son, with some remembrance also of her husband's, and the woful case of her daughter, the young Queen; and that, knowing her wisdom, virtue, and affection to quiet, she is glad that the government is reposed chiefly in her, and desires that some assurance of amity may be devised between them; and although the Queen had been on hard terms with her son, yet (fn. 2) she did not take her to be any doer therein, but "some others that sought things not to be suffered of Princes of honour."
5. She should also write to the King that now is, the Queen of Scotland, the Dowager of France, the King of Navarre, the Constable, Cardinal of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, and Cardinal of Tournon, with instructions to the bearer to deliver such of the said letters, and do the rest of his instructions, to such of the above named as the writer shall learn have the principal managing of affairs here. Reminds her of her promise in her last letter to revoke him.
6. Deferred (fn. 3) despatching this, partly for that the gates of the town were so strait kept that none could get out, partly to see who were likest to have the government of things here. As far as he can see, the house of Guise is like to go away with all as they did, for they have not only already good forces in this town at their devotion, but have sent for more men-at-arms to be here with all diligence, who lie not far hence, and arrive daily by little and little; so that if they cannot get it by good means, they see none other surety for themselves but to get it by such means as they can best devise. The Constable is on his way thitherward, and is looked for in a day or two. The Queen Mother hath sent M. De Lansac to hasten him. Upon his coming, if the Guise forces and party be best (as they give good order for it) they will not fail to betrap them all, and to stand strongly for it, whatsoever it cost them.—Orleans, 6 Dec. 1560.
Orig. Draft. Endd. by Throckmorton's son. Pp. 5.
Dec. 6. 772. Fair copy of above, as despatched. Signed.
Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Dec. 6. 773. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. The 17 of November, in the afternoon, (after he had despatched Mr. Jones to the Queen,) the French King felt himself somewhat evil disposed of his body, which stayed his going out of this town the next day for a while. His indisposition has since continued upon him, growing in the end to a fever, together with a catarrh, or rather imposthume in his head, which purged a little by one of his ears. Besides this he was loose of his body, which within ten or twelve days brought him extremely weak; these three things, especially the disease in his head, so spent him, that the [6th] of this month [at 11 of the clock in the night] (fn. 4) he departed to God.
2. The Queen is to be by them advised "to take the time now offered for the assuring of her things on that side, as both she and her succession may live in quietness for ever." "If (fn. 5) things be slept till the house of Guise (if they have the government and disposing of the new King and this realm as they had,) find the means to marry their niece to the said new King, in my opinion things will remain in the same state they are now in, and so a good occasion offered in time time, and not taken, will hardly be gotten again. Being here, Her Highness's minister, and seeing into things as far as my simple wit will suffice me, I must of good right confess that God hath preferred Her Highness to do great things for all our wealths and the good of all Christendom. (fn. 6) . . . . And among other things that by your grave wisdoms matters be so handled as that the second marriage of the young French Queen be not so prejudicial to us as the first was, and the next may be, if by good policy it be not provided for now in time. As far as I can learn, she more esteemeth the continuation of her honour, and to marry one that may uphold her to be great, than she passeth to please her fancy by taking one that is accompanied with such small benefit or alliance, as thereby her estimation and fame is not increased.
3. He begs that now that the question touching the ratification is brought to a good end, they will obtain his revocation.—Orleans, 6 Dec. 1560.
Orig. Draft, with corrections. Endd. by Throckmorton's son. Pp. 4.
Dec. 6. 774. Fair copy of the above, as despatched. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Dec. 6. 775. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. The Queen has cause to thank God for all His mercies. The health of the late King of France was of great moment, and the death of this King of much more, who departed this world on 6 Dec. (fn. 7) Has written to the Queen advising that letters of condolence should be sent to the French Queen, to the King of Navarre, and other principal personages, copies of which should be sent to the writer. Will advise him that shall come to stay as to the delivery of such letters as he [Throckmorton] sees meet. Knows not who shall be the principal manager of this realm. God has done marvellously for the Queen in this matter. Now they have time to provide that the second marriage of the Queen of Scotland shall do but little harm. The superscription of the Queen's letter to her ought to be to the Queen of Scotland and Dowager of France.
2. Knows not what speech to use to the Queen or her Council to induce them to revoke him, and especially since he has had the legation in hand to two French Kings. Trusts that he is likely to be revoked, and that he who is sent to condole may reside in his place. The Court of Spain is full that he is in disgrace at home, as he will perceive by Chamberlain's letter. Is sure Cecil has heard from Gresham how a preacher in Flanders has taken his pleasure lately in his sermons of the Queen, for this Court rings of it. Marilliac, Archbishop of Vienne, is said to be dead in his diocese in Dauphiné. Has not heard from England for eight weeks.— Orleans, 6 Dec. 1560. (fn. 8) Signed.
3. P. S.—This despatch is longer in coming because the passage was stayed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
776. Cecil to—
[Dec.] The person addressed (having asked whether Cecil had heard of the French King's death, and having at that time been answered in the negative,) is informed that at 8 o'clock this night the writer was advertised from France that the said King died on Thursday last.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Written on the back of Mundt's letter of 26 Nov. (No. 736). P. 1.
Dec. 7. 777. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. On the 21st ult. certified the occurrences of the Court, with such other matters as he had occasion to write of. Repeats the information concerning the Council proposed to be held at Trent, and the opinion in the Spanish Court about her marriage as contained in his letter to Cecil of the 7th inst. He then proceeds as follows;—
2. If she die without a successor, England will be a prey for the strongest. The King is of his own disposition most friendly addicted towards her; but when he is put in remembrance of the dangers towards his own estate by her proceedings, he wishes that she had better consideration both of herself and of him as her assured friend. Other means of surety to both is there not, but her speedy resolution in the bestowing of herself, whereby the common enemy is put beside his pretence and purpose, all question for time to come taken away, and both her own estate and the King's brought into quietness. Has been continually occupied with these discourses since his being here, the continuance of which talk makes him believe that they proceed from the King, and that he would that Chamberlain should give her understanding hereof.—Toledo, 3 Dec. 1560.
3. Keeping this open upon the despatch some days protracted, there are come to his hands the instructions by her last letters appointed that he should receive from Throckmorton; all which he has considered, with his advice besides of the resolution he has been able to get of the French for the ratification of the last accord. Of this he will give the King to understand, as soon as he can get access, and procure all the knowledge he may of his liking of this their dealing; and if he finds him anything cold, he will do his best to stir him to a more regard unto the common dealings that may follow.
4. Has written her long since that the Pope had given faculty to the King to sell of the revenues of the Church for the sum of 25,000 ducats by the year; and (as they now understand) has granted the like to the French King, meaning to serve them to execute upon such as shall refuse the order now to be taken at the General Council, which carries a shrewd meaning in general and serves well to the adversary's purpose. This matter brings to his remembrance the stir of the kingdom of Navarre, possessed partly by this King, whereof he doubts not but that she has read or heard, and by what title he became possessed of the same. Prays God that the like may not speed against her. Has divers times certified the King's inclination to peace, and other disposition is not able to judge in him; but the Queen well knows what he is in matters of religion and conscience, and what ministers he has able to lead him in that trade. Besides that, he has the adversary's minister continually whispering in his ears in that sort, taking that for his chief and only means to be able to work the Queen trouble, and make him think well of the French King's proceedings. Wherefore she ought to make all the demonstration of amity possible, and continually keep her Ambassador occupied with delivering friendly letters unto him, persuading the augmentation of amity by one device or another; for by such means she will both stay him from giving ear to the French and also move him to the better consideration of both their estates, as it stands to reason that she should not give the adversary time to work by himself.
5. Reminds her of one thing, which all the time of his being here he has not been able to forget, or to attain to the meaning thereof. It were not amiss at his leaves-taking for him to reiterate unto the King the motion made at Lord Montague's first coming, touching the ratification of the treaties between her and his progenitors, to the intent that the meaning of the refusal thereof might be understood; for the denial of so reasonable a thing where so great amity is pretended does not argue any good meaning. The deeper he enters into this matter the more he finds why he should refrain his pen and wish he might have some convenient talk with her. She does well to make much of the Spanish Ambassador; but having experience of his proceeding last year, (when he wrote all things hither according to her desire, but only in the manner of recital, and nothing to induce consideration of the matters in hand,) it will appear that her best means to work for her commodity is by her own letters and ministers. The adversary's minister has been diligent to advance and give all colour of good meaning to his master's intents.
6. Has sent to his wife certain pilloberies and cushionclothes, which she shall deliver to the Queen. His choice in the same ought not for reason to be disallowed, for that he was fain to put others in trust to buy the same in divers parts almost 300 miles from him. If the work do not like her, the coarse cloth may be taken away and other put in. Has written for more, which he will send as soon as he may, wishing to have the deliverance himself, according to her pleasure last signified to him, which has brought him great comfort and some health. Has put the prices of every thing upon the same. Goes in hand as fast as he can with her gloves.
7. There is newly arrived a solemn embassade of two persons from Venice, sent to congratulate the King of the peace and his marriage. It is said that they have brought him a goodly jewel. Some say they come to make some stay of the Pope's intent to make the Duke of Florence King of Tuscany.—Toledo, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
Dec. 7. 778. Chamberlain to Cecil.
1. Has had many occasions to move him to write as he now does to the Queen since he has been in Spain; and being now, as it were, a minister of his country, he is the more bound like the good husbandman to be careful of that he has taken in hand. When he retires into his former state of a private person, he will continue his former office as he does now. Trusts that the Queen, the Lords of the Council, and he [Cecil] will judge well of his good meaning, as he has been driven to answer for their doings in this case, the time lost being imputed to them for lack of calling on, whereof, as he is assured, they are guiltless, so has he answered the same. The assurance that Cecil's good ministry has not been wanting has been the cause of his stay in writing, until now that he driven to conjecture by the circumstances such continual discourse and conference to proceed from the King, and to be told unto him as the minister that might serve to do them some good office. Cannot persuade himself but that the King is as well disposed towards the Queen as perfect friendship may demand, but has others about him having care of his estate, and seeing dangers towards the same depending upon others may from time to time breed in him alteration. The writer has been most careful in his dealing with those that are of the same. Will leave off to wade further in this matter with his pen, reserving a great deal more to talk of with him at his return, which, by the hope that the Queen has given him in her last letter, he believes will be shortly.
2. Has long since, upon Mr. Treasurer's advertisement, sought to provide the Queen with "pilloberies," cushion-cloths, and handkerchiefs, for which he has sent to divers places of the country, and some he has ready, the rest he looks for daily; and being not able to send all he has ready, he sends as much as he can by this post, which he sends to Throckmorton. The rest he will not fail to send with the next, if he can get carriage. Finds no gloves ready dressed, but will see the same performed with all speed, like to that which Cecil sent unto him. Sends the Queen two pairs of gloves for a sample, whereof he prays him to tell him her liking. Is ill at ease.—Toledo, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 8 Dec. [sic]. Pp. 4.
Dec. 7. 779. Chamberlain to the Privy Council.
1. Gives the same information touching the Council to be held at Trent, and the opinions of the Spaniards on the Queen's marriage as are contained in his letter of the 7th to Cecil. The French put forth that the Queen has broken the last accord by sending preachers into Scotland; which, together with their delay of ratification of their promise, argues their good meaning towards England. Craves their favours to be means with the Queen for his revocation, seeing he lacks health.—Toledo, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Mentions the arrival of Ambassadors from Venice, as in his letter to Cecil of the 7th.
Orig. Add. Endd.: By the way of France. Pp. 3.
Dec. 7. 780. Chamberlain to Throckmorton.
1. Has answered his letter of the 29th October, by a post despatched towards Flanders on the 21st Nov., which the postmaster caused to be put in M. Chantonet's packet. Since then he has had no occasion to seek access to the King, hearing no more of the molestation that the Inquisition began to make him. If Throckmorton will send such things as Mr. Secretary wrote Chamberlain of, he will give the King once again to understand the delays and dallyings for the ratification of the last accord.
2. The Court is occupied with discourse upon the Council appointed at Trent, and assented unto by the Pope, the Emperor, and the Kings of France and Spain, holding opinion that the Queen (for the quietness of Christendom) would send thither to hear the matters in question debated. The well bestowing of herself is expected, and well wishers to her realm wish her good resolution without delay. It is here bruited that she has broken the last accord by sending preachers into Scotland.
3. His silk hose, put to making in Seville, (where they are best cheap,) shall be sent as soon as they are done.
4. Throckmorton's letter and packet with the Queen's instructions have just come to hand, all which he has perused, but is not able to put in use, for the hasty departure of this messenger. Will ask audience and inform the King of the whole state of the matter, and seek his liking thereof, and disposition towards reformation. It is good to be seen that the adversary, not being ready to execute his malice, was content to serve the time with conclusion upon an accord, which, beforehand, he determined never to observe; his dealings ought not to be unknown to them or the rest, who had given ear to him or had to do with him.
5. The Pope's grant to each of these Princes to sell great sums of the revenues of the Church is to be thought of, as Throckmorton writes, and so has been here talked. It the more behoves them to take heed lest he who now claims title, or other with him, take the like pretence of interest whereby this King possesses the kingdom of Navarre. The Duke of Florence has been as solemnly received into Rome as ever this King's father was, which argues somewhat of the matter Throckmorton wrote of, but here it is nothing meant. It was for a while well talked of, and the young Duke expected for the purpose in Throckmorton's letter contained. But the matter was smelt out that it rather tended to the advancement of the house of some one, than to the safeguard of those things this King ought chiefly to look unto in these parts. A solemn ambassade of two persons has arrived from Venice, besides their resident here, which is limited to come only to congratulate the King of the last peace and his marriage, a thing long overpast; but is of some judged that they come to put a spoke in the wheel for the matter before, as it might bring prejudice to their state. This King's natural inclination is disposed unto all quietness of itself; but for matters of religion and conscience he is easy to be persuaded. Whether he might be brought for execution against such as would refuse the order now to be taken in this General Council, the writer cannot say. Does not perceive that any of their letters have miscarried, if Cecil receives one of the 21st ult. addressed to Mr. Chantonet, for whose courteous dealing he has thanked M. Champeney, his brother, who has now departed towards his country, to be married.
6. It was here put forth that great execution has been lately done in every town and place in France, which now he learns to be nothing so. Of the Turk's matters is here no great understanding.
7. There has been almost two months a renegade in an ambassade from the Turk's son with the Sophy; he has had entertainment according, but as yet no audience. The bearer of Throckmorton's single letter is a chief minister of the French Ambassador resident here. Of English matters in Flanders he can hear nothing from this bearer, who came last from thence.
8. By these two posts, named Henry Trapetier and Colin Pirault, now despatched for Flanders, sends two small mails, or portmanteaus of leather, with things for the Queen. They are locked and sealed, and upon the side of the flap a card sewed, and written, to be delivered unto him. One is with "pillowberies" and cushion cloths for the Queen; the other for Lord Robert Dudley. Prays him to send them away as soon as he can, but to address them to his wife, with a letter going herewith, to deliver them as he writes, because there is in the said mails somewhat for herself; and to charge the messenger to deliver them to her before he goes to the Court. Throckmorton will not now complain of short advertisements. Prays him to pay the couriers fifteen crowns, which he will repay in silken hose. Has delivered the keys of the mails to the couriers sealed up in a paper, addressed to him; if they should be obliged to open them at the frontier notwithstanding the King's passport, they are to bring a certificate that they were forced thereto. Is to send the keys to Chamberlain's wife.—Toledo, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: By a Spanish courier; received 18 Dec. Injured by damp. Pp. 5.
Dec. 7. 781. Frederic, Count Palatine of the Rhine, to the Queen. (fn. 9)
He has been informed by his cousin, the Princess of Condé, of the imprisonment of her husband at Orleans, and of her mother, Mme. De Roye, at St. Germain-en-Laye. The writer has heard of no other cause for this except that of religion, and the favour which Condé has shown to those persecuted men in France who hold the same religion as is professed by the writer. Begs that the Queen will assist the Prince and Princess, in which the writer will willingly act along with her.— Heidelberg, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 7. 782. Guido Gianetti to the Queen.
1. She will be pleased to hear the more important details concerning the Council, and the causes by which the Pope has been influenced in his proceedings regarding it.
2. From the first election of the present Pope, the King of France has been urging him to grant a General and free Council, being moved thereto by the great change in religion discovered in his kingdom, and has endeavoured to bring this about, not only by means of the Bishop of Angoulême, his Ambassador, by the Cardinals, and others of his ministers, but also through the Bishop of Rennes, Ambassador to the Emperor, and the Bishop of Limoges, Ambassador to the King of Spain. He has also, through the Bishop of Dax, his Ambassador, requested the Venetian Senate to use their good offices with the Pope to the same effect, which they have done.
3. But as the Pope wished only to gain time by fair promises, the King of France, with the advice of his States, resolved to assemble a National Council, to begin on the 20th January next, to provide for that nation, if the General Council should not be held. This alarmed the Pope and Consistory, both because it would diminish their possessions, and because, even though nothing should be resolved on in opposition to the See of Rome, the assembling of a Council by France without its consent would be prejudicial, and might be made a precedent by other States.
4. They have certainly much to fear; it being understood generally, and by the Church of France in particular, that King Francis requires a Council superior to the Pope, and in which the Germans may be heard. This the Pope would never grant, for a Pope never willingly submitted his doctrine or superiority to free judgment; he being understood, whether present or absent, to be the head of and superior to all Councils.
5. They console themselves, however, by saying that the French Council will not take place, it being only intended to hasten the Pope to grant a General Council, and to pacify the French people, as if it were demanded by the Evangelical party, and were not rather directed against it.
6. They say also that the Guises must prevail in the present assembly of the States, so that the Pope will have the power to silence the National Council, which, even if held, will not be to be feared, because it is promised in the name of King Francis that nothing shall be done which may be opposed to the Apostolic See and Catholic faith.
7. They had hope also in the influence of the Cardinal Tournon in opposing such a Council, and chiefly in the King of Spain, who, partly at the instance of the Pope, sent to the King of France Don Antonio of Toledo to persuade him to consent to an universal Council, and to abandon a National Council as pernicious, offering his arms and his personal assistance against his rebellious subjects.
8. They were comforted also, inasmuch as the Emperor had expressed himself willing to please the Pope by accepting a Council in the way and place he should grant it.
9. But, on the other hand, they learned that the answer given to Don Antonio of Toledo was this;—that the King of France had in so many ways sought a General Council, in which the Germans might be heard, but they did not consent to it, and that therefore a new Council must be assembled to hear the opposite party, and to try to bring them back by reason; that as this matter was protracted by the promises of the Pope, he, by the advice of the States, resolved upon an assembly of Prelates, from which nothing was to be feared for the Apostolic See, it being only intended to provide the necessary remedies, and that it will not be an hindrance, but rather an aid to the General Council, for, when the latter shall be opened, the Prelates will find themselves already assembled, and well informed as well of the evil as of the remedy, and that when it shall have once begun, it will put an end to the lesser assembly.
10. Besides this, the Bishop of Angoulême, Ambassador in Rome, having received letters from his King in conformity with the above-mentioned answer to Don Antonio, the Pope asked for the copy of it, and learned therefrom how the King proposed to hold a National Council in case the General should not open in time, saying, amongst other things, that that party must be heard who for conscience sake did not refuse death, and that means should be sought to pacify them, and to bring them back to the right way.
11. As to the place of the Council, the French would have it meet in one of the towns of Germany on the Rhine, between Constance and Cologne, in order that the remedy might be applied where most needed, that is, at a convenient place between France and Germany. They suggest Besançon, in Burgundy, the country of King Philip, that city having been put forward by the ministers of the Pope, who had proposed Vercelli, in Piedmont. Afterwards, in the answer to Don Antonio, and in his latest orders to Rome, King Francis agreed to accept whatever place the Emperor and King Philip shall decide upon.
12. As to the continuation of the Council of Trent (which would involve also the confirmation of its decisions, and the carrying out of the oppression of those whom they call heretics), the ministers of the King of France have refused it; and it being said that the King of Spain is satisfied with its continuation, he has answered that he and King Philip are quite agreed, because Philip accepts the continuation, which, although it suffices for the need of his dominions, is not sufficient for the necessity in which the kingdom of France is placed.
13. The Emperor Charles V. having protested, through Vargas, against the suspension and translation of the Council from Trent to Bologna, King Philip approves of the continua tion of the Council at Trent, and King Henry of France, having caused protest to be made in Trent of the nullity of that Council, from its not having been free, King Francis, his son, does not as yet think well of the continuation.
14. They were able to learn, moreover, that the Emperor having required the party of the Confession of Augsburg to declare their opinion of the Council offered by the Pope, these latter expressed themselves unwilling to accept a Council otherwise than in a free city of Germany, to which place they should be called, not by a Bull of the Pope, but by the Emperor, who should provide them with a safe conduct; that the Pope be subordinated to the Council; that those of the Confession of Augsburg have a vote and suffrage therein equally with their adversaries; that the judgment be according to Holy Scripture, and not according to decrees of the Pope; that the Prelates of the Council be absolved from the oath by which they are bound to the Pope and the Church of Rome; and that the acts of the Council of Trent be annulled, with certain other things.
15. The Pope having learned what is here stated was greatly perplexed, being unable with safety to grant a free Council, or to refuse the General one, desiring by this means to silence the National Council of France, by which he feared to lose the first-fruits of the Church, and finally the obedience of that kingdom. He has accordingly invited the Duke of Florence to Rome and entertained him at his own expense, to consult with him concerning the Council and other matters. They have finally resolved to reassemble the Council of Trent, inviting thither the Romish Prelates, to determine. differences concerning the place and other circumstances. This Council has been preceded by a general jubilee, giving power to confessors to absolve from all sins, even from that of having read prohibited books. The Bull of the jubilee also warmly exhorts the extirpation of heresy, which is more likely if possible to intimidate rather than encourage Germany.
16. This jubilee was celebrated first at Rome, on Sunday, 24th November, by a procession, with the Pope walking at its head, from St. Peter's to the Minerva, a distance of a mile. Similar processions are now taking place in Venice and throughout Italy. The Bull of indiction was not yet printed at the end of November, because the Pope was waiting for the consent of the Cardinal of Mantua to be appointed one of the presiding Legates.
17. News have arrived from Rome that the Pope has received a despatch from his Ambassador to the Emperor, with the articles of the Protestant reply, which, if he had received before, he would not have opened this Council, the Bull for which has already been submitted to the Emperor and the Kings of France and of Spain.
18. If France does not accept the continuation, this summons to Trent may give occasion to the French Prelates to do more than they otherwise would have done.
19. Invokes God's blessing on the Church and on herself.— Venice, 7 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 6.
[Dec. 7.] 783. John Shers to Cecil.
1. Sends herewith the new Bull for the jubilee. On Sunday last the Pope, the Cardinals, and all the clergy made a solemn procession, not bare-footed (as was first said), but with white hose. To-morrow there will be here a solemn procession, the Duke and the whole Senate will honour the same. The like shall be in all the cities of Italy. This Bull pretends to work miracles, yet is very vehement, not alone against the Germans, but also against many other Christian Princes. The Pope says (and others concur with him) that he will extirpate these heresies, meaning the Princes that favour religion. At the procession, the continuation of the Council of Trent was not published, yet it is promised before the answer yet looked for from divers Princes.
2. This day arrived letters from Constantinople, dated the last of October, that the Turk arms 150 galleys and a great number of other vessels, and that he threatens to drive out the Christians from all parts of Africa this year. It is feared that he has some designs on Malta and Sicily. He has sent two galleys with Ambassadors to the King of Tunis and Dragut, to present each of them with a goodly sword, as token of their valiantness in the enterprise of Gerbes. The Ambassadors have to salute divers of the Princes of the Moors, and present them, in the Great Turk's name, with presents for their favour at Gerbes. The enterprise of the King of Spain has rather waked a dog that was half asleep than otherwise.
3. Letters of the 11th ult. from Toledo bring news that the King of Spain is content for the continuation of the Council at Trent, but thinks it might better be removed to Vercelli, in Savoy, or Besançon, in Burgundy.—[Blank] Dec. 1560.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 7.] 784. The Lords of Scotland to the Privy Council of England. (fn. 10)
1. The last time that the writers had access to "their Honours," they requested them to consider by what means this good intelligence betwixt both realms might be continued to their posterity. Since that time they have propounded to the Queen, upon the behalf of the Estates of Scotland, the way which they have thought most convenient for the purpose, which, if the Queen will take, the amity shall be assured for ever.
2. It is this; that she shall marry the Earl of Arran, who must by inheritance succeed to the Queen Mary, failing succession of her body (whereof to their grief they see as yet no likelihood), and thereupon might in time gain the union of the two kingdoms, whereby the hope of all differences shall be taken from their adversaries for ever. This is the only means in their sight to make the friendship constant and indissoluble. Other devices may seem probable for continuance of amity, but only for a season; but if this way may take place, then are all doubts removed for ever.
3. In this there are two considerations; the one chiefly touching the English, the other common to both. That the Queen is not yet towards a marriage, what grief it is to her subjects and danger to the State ought to be the most part of their care. In this point they forbear to deal, for being strangers, it becomes them to speak modestly in it, as their Honours best know the uncertainty of their own case. What ruin has in times past chanced to England by diversity of claims, history is full of examples. But, the writers having had long experience of their wisdom, they presume that they travail diligently with the Queen that it may please her to refuse the same solitary kind of life; and they see that, of very duty to her native country, she must shortly yield to their request in that behalf.
4. The consideration with whom she matches herself partly touches Scotland, for if she marry one beyond the sea who is no puissant Prince, they see not what commodity he will be. And if he have a great estate, he cannot always continue in England; and if he do, it is like that he will rather study to increase his own state. They have no King to offer, but they present him who, being in the next place to a King, shall bring the friendship and force of a kingdom. They cannot allure her with show of riches, but they can assure her with him of the hearts and goodwill of a whole nation, which they could never by riches obtain, and which has been the occasion of spending more treasure than the richest of them all has in store. They present no stranger, seeing this isle is a common country, but one who has a special will to England. England need not fear that her pre-eminence might be defaced, for that should always remain for the worthiness thereof, and the Kings of Scotland would ever desire to make their residence in England, as the better part of the isle. Neither need they fear any alteration of laws, seeing the laws of Scotland were taken out of England, and both realms ruled by one fashion.
5. It is worthy to be noted that France and Spain have of late so increased their estates that now they are nothing like what they were, and yet England remains always one, without accession of any new force. For avoiding the peril thereof, united strength, by joining the two kingdoms, having also Ireland knit thereto, is worthy consideration. By this means Ireland might be reformed and brought to perfection of obedience, and the Queen would be the strongest Princess in Christendom upon the seas, and establish a certain monarchy by itself in the ocean, divided from the rest of the world.
6. For the person of him whom they present, there is nothing to be misliked; he is young, disposed, as toward a gentleman as is to be found; well and civilly brought up, and for such qualities as Princes commonly delight in, nothing inferior to the best; hardy, and for his experience in war to be compared with any, being trained up therein from his childhood. They do not so much seek his preferment as the preservation of the whole isle. They know what mind some bear to them, and how unable they are of themselves alone to bear their enmity; neither do they owe England so much goodwill, but they could find in their heart to take their time of them. They make full account in England of the Queen's title to the crown, (and good cause why they should do so, and they for their part acknowledge it to be most true,) yet is it not so altogether taken abroad, and the French do not stick to boast of the contrary ; insomuch that King Henry of France was chiefly moved to be contented with so disadvantageous a peace with the King of Spain upon hope to recompense on this side all the loss he sustained. Though he be dead, the cause is not buried, and there are yet alive who will be more glad to prosecute the quarrel. Some one within these few days has solemnly sworn that he will hazard 20,000 men upon the recovery of that title, and that at least he will drive her to the point to jeopardise one battle within her own realm. Are sure they know that this mind is borne towards them, and provide for it, whereof marriage is the only means. The writers deal with them as the chief noblemen and principal estates of one realm, being directed from the nobility and estates of another, since both are in danger. They doubt not, therefore, but that the Privy Council will earnestly move the Queen to marriage for the comfort of her people. Experience has taught them how foully they erred when they did not embrace the occasion when it was offered of the union, for which they have been so wrapped up in misery that they are not as yet rid of it. And if it is refused again, they have cause to fear that they shall both repent it hereafter.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: A motion of the Lords of Scotland for a marriage of the Queen to the E. of Arran. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 7.] 785. A later transcript of the above.
Endd. Pp. 7.
Dec. 8.
Burnet, Ref. vol. iii. App. p. 309.
786. The Queen to the Scottish Ambassadors. (fn. 11)
1. In return for the thanks of the Three Estates, for benefits received from her this last year by her aid, she is glad to perceive her goodwill and charges so well bestowed. If the like case may happen, wherein her friendship or aid may profit them for their just defence, it shall not be wanting. And though in former times benefits bestowed upon divers of the nobility there by her father had not such success, she can now see that the cause thereof was that his benefits were supposed to be to the discommodity of the land, whereas hers tend directly to its surety; and so the diversity of the bestowing has made the diversity of the acceptation.
2. As respects the suit of the Earl of Arran, she interprets that motion to come of a good meaning of the Estates, pretending thereby to knit the kingdoms in perpetual amity, and also of a goodwill towards herself, offering to her the choicest person they have, and that with some danger of the French King's displeasure.
3. For answer thereto she, finding herself not presently disposed to marry, (although it may be that the necessity of her realm shall thereto hereafter constrain her,) wishes that the Earl of Arran should not forbear to accept such marriage as may be made to him. She thinks many great reasons ought to induce the people of both realms to continue in as good amity as by marriage. For if every nobleman in Scotland will consider how necessary the friendship of England is to Scotland for the preservation of their liberties, they will all (chiefly for safeguard of themselves) join together in concord with England. As to the person of the Earl of Arran, she surely has heard very good report of him, and thinks him to be a noble gentleman of great worthiness.
4. She thanks the Lords for their pains; and for demonstration of her goodwill she requires them not to forget the practices that are past, by such as before time sought their subversion, and now much more will do it if there may be left any entry for corruption by reward, or other scope of practice. She therefore wishes that they all persist fast in a good concord, and not to dissever themselves into any factions. The proverb is very true, that darts foreseen hurt very little, or not at all; and for her part, nothing shall be neglected that may further this common action of defence of both realms against any common enemy.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 8 Dec. 1560. The Queen to the Lords of Scotland, viz. to the Earls of Morton and Glencairn, L. of Ledington: Marriage with the Earl of Arran. Pp. 4.
Dec. 8. 787. Count Mansfelt to the Queen.
1. After congratulating her on the flourishing state of her realm, he informs her that the King of France has sent into Germany to the commanders of cavalry, whom he had employed two years before, to the effect that he had no intention of employing them in attacking the Protestants; whereupon they have again engaged themselves to him.
2. On the 20th of next January certain of the Electors and other Princes will assemble at Naumberg on the Saal, six miles from Mansfelt; namely the Elector and other Saxon Princes, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Duke of Wurtemberg, the Margrave of Baden, and many others; chiefly for the purpose of settling certain controversies that have arisen amongst their preachers, (to the great offence of many,) and to deliberate how they may stop the cruel persecutions of the Pope and the Papists. This being done, they have determined to form a league of the nobility and great cities. This assembly, although it has been so long thought of, has nevertheless been hitherto delayed on account of various obstacles. Will inform her of whatever is transacted at Naumberg.
3. His brother Charles has informed him by letter, two days ago, that on the day on which he wrote the Archbishop of Saltzburg whilst he was hunting with the Duke of Bavaria was thrown from his horse and killed; he was noted for his persecutions against the Protestants. She will be better informed about the civil war in Switzerland from other sources.
4. The Rhinegrave was lately sent by the French King to the marriage of Duke William of Saxony with great gifts. The Prince of Orange of the Nassau family has a few days past given his sister to Count Gunther of Schwartzburg, to which ceremony the writer went. It was very splendid, and there were there above 3,000 horsemen. When the ceremony was over the Prince of Orange set out for Dresden, the residence of the Elector of Saxony, in hope of obtaining the daughter of the late Elector Maurice of happy memory. Understands that the King of Spain would not approve of this marriage. The Prince of Orange has with him Lazarus De Suienda, a soldier. Mansfelt thinks that they are sent to see how matters stand in Germany. In eight days time the said Prince and the Rhinegrave are coming to Mansfelt, at which time 2,000 horsemen will come to the wedding of the daughter of the writer's sister, whom Count John George of Mansfelt is about to give to the Count of Loxingen. After the old German custom there, a castle will be stormed and similar military exercises at the ceremony. Many other Princes and nobles are invited. The Rhinegrave does all he can to obtain the Prince of Orange's friendship for the French King. Prays her to pardon his rough writing in consideration of his sincerity to her cause.—Mansfelt, 8 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 11.
Dec. 9. 788. The Queen to Lord Grey.
Whereas in his discourse lately sent to the Council, among other things he thinks it necessary to meet with them of Scotland, she likes his opinion therein, and gives him licence so to do whensoever he shall see occasion necessary. This licence, however, is not to be used but as the importance of the service requires.
Draft, corrected by Cecil, and endd. by his secretary: 9 Dec. 1560. Pp. 2.
Dec. 9. 789. Throckmorton to the Council.
1. Has been advertised by letters from Rouen that there are shipped at Dieppe, in a ship and two hoys, twenty cannon, demi-cannon, and culverins, with their ammunition, to depart for Calais; but as the bruit was, he thinks for Inchkeith or Dunbar. The Parliament begins in this town on the 12th. Since the late King's death great love is made between the great here; the King of Navarre is reconciled with the Duke of Guise and the Queen Mother. She is tutrix of the King, her son, who lies in her own chamber. She and the King of Navarre are assisted with these counsellors; the Cardinals of Lorraine and Tournon, the Constable, the Duke of Guise, the Chancellor, and the Marshals of St. André and Brissac. The Prince of Condé is not yet at liberty, and it is thought to rise of himself, for that he will be justified by law. In the spring the Queen of Scotland will be sent to her own country, convoyed by the galleys. She is now called La Royne Marye.
2. On the 7th the Constable arrived with his two sons, the Marshal Montmorency, Dampville, and two others, and was well received. The publication of the General Council to be held at Trent is looked for daily.
3. On the 8th the heart of the late King was solemnly buried in the quire of the church of St. Croix, carried there by the Prince of Rochesuryon.—Orleans, 9 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 10. 790. Antonio Bruschetti to Cecil.
1. Is sorry that his misfortunes for many years past render him unable to repay either the 451l. lent him by Gresham, concerning which Cecil wrote to him, or other large debts on the continent.
2. Trusts that the Queen, in consideration of his past services, will grant him an extension of time for payment.— London, 10 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Ital. Pp. 4.
Dec. 10. 791. Jones to Throckmorton.
1. On the 30th ult. wrote him what he had passed in his charge with the Queen. Has received Throckmorton's letter of the 18th and 28th ult. the first by M. De Moretto, (to whom he did all the honour he could but not all he would, for such causes as Mr. Middlemore can tell,) and the latter by an acquaintance. Knows not what order is like to be taken here for prevention of things. Either things are very secretly handled out of Council, or else nothing is done; Wotton and Petre are the only ones of the Council who have questioned with him touching any matter for their information. The writer thinks that he is utterly neglected or feared; for all who at his last being here, except the Earl of Pembroke, showed him great countenance, scarcely vouchsafe to look upon him. Whether Throckmorton's or Lord Paget's case be the occasion he cannot guess.
2. The Ambassador of Savoy told him that, besides his visitation on the Duke's behalf, he had to treat of an alliance between the Queen and him in respect of the French, and that the building of Savigliano is like to breed a breach, for the prevention whereof he has demanded the restitution of Thurino and the other piece, as also two galleys which the French King promised him. The Scots mislike the coming of the Ambassador, because he is accompanied with Lignerolles, and believe there is a mystery in the matter, as Lethington says. Within two or three days the Scotch Ambassadors are like to get their answer, which they have in part already; very good in words, and not void of hope of their principal matter. They can find no fault withal, and yet they say that the Queen can dissemble, and small is their hope of the rest, seeing they know not what account to make of their doings here.
3. There was a fray here the 1st of this month, whereof Mr. Middlemore can tell; it was abated on the 8th in favour of the Mannfelds [sic], whose partakers by the order of the Lords were set at liberty, and the others remain prisoners, wherewith some are not content. The Duke of Holstein is now to be installed; some thought that a chapter should have been holden for some election out of Scotland. The Lord Admiral is in Lincolnshire. The Lord Robert takes no more occasion to talk with him, but looks as though he were offended. Wilson will be his chancellor, to hear and determine causes and suits to be made.
4. The Queen has in talk greatly commended Throckmorton for his service and fidelity, not without good remembrance of things passed before she was Queen, which she did to Lethington, who says that she likes not some of his proceedings. She uses all means not to marry; the Council desire the contrary; betwixt both bruits nullus est consilii locus. The bearer will inform him more fully of all things. His own matter has more hope than he looked for, which may keep him longer over here.—London, 10 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. A few passages in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 3.
Dec. 10. 792. The Convention at Dunbar.
1. "The names of those that were at the Convention at Dunbar, 10 Dec. 1560.—Lord Hume; the Abbot of Jedburgh, his brother; the Laird of Langton; Mr. William Ker, Parson of Roxburgh; Sir Andrew Ker, the Lairds of Greenhead, Handly, and Ormiston, with others whose names are not known."
2. This Laird of Ormiston was charged "at the day of treves" at Ridingburn, to have received certain oxen stolen out of England. The matter being in question before the Wardens of either Marches, Ormiston challenged his accuser to fight with him, and cast his glove to the other. Until this debate may be better decided they are both commanded to ward, the one to St. Andrews the otherto St. Johnston. This is another Ormiston than the one Cecil knows. Sir Andrew Ker, who was all this voyage with the Earl of Arran, was burdened by him to have been at the same Convention, which he utterly denies.
Copy, in Randolph's hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 10. 793. Warrant for Jennison.
Warrant to the Treasurer of Berwick to pay Thomas Jennison, appointed comptroller of the works, his entertainment of 40l. and his two clerks 12d. per diem each ; to commence from the 28th day before his coming.—10 Dec. 1560.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. P. 1.


  • 1. Originally—He yielded his due to nature and his soul to God. The bracketted passage in this sentence is written on a blank space by a different pen, in the draft; and in the fair copy (see next number) the words as originally written were "in the morning."
  • 2. Originally, in the draft, "She and all the world know that the cause proceeded not of Her Majesty."
  • 3. In the fair copy the greater part of this sentence is in cipher.
  • 4. The numerals and words enclosed in brackets are later additions in the draft.
  • 5. This passage is marked to be expressed in cipher.
  • 6. Here, in the draft, a passage is so cancelled as to be illegible.
  • 7. The numeral is inserted in a blank space left when this letter was written.
  • 8. Jewels of Queen Mary of Scotland.
    Dec. 6.
    L. Paris, p. 738.
    A descriptive list of the royal jewels returned by Queen Mary upon the decease of her husband Francis II. to King Charles IX., and by him given into the custody of the Queen Mother.—Orleans, 6 Dec. 1560.
  • 9. Some extracts from the above occur in the Cott. MS. Galba, B. xi. 240.
  • 10. The Queen to the Three Estates of Scotland.
    Dec. 11.
    B. M. Cal. B. V. 319.
    Has received letters from them by the hands of the Earls of Morton and Glencairn and the Lord of Liddington, who have also motioned her in a matter of marriage. She has signified her mind therein to the Ambassadors. She thinks her care well bestowed on the realm of Scotland but being not disposed presently to marriage, she will be content to continue with the Three Estates in constant amity. God will give assistance of His grace as long as the Gospel shall be taught through both these realms, from which she hopes that none of them will be led by any false persuasions to swerve. As she did not withdraw her aid from them in their necessities, so means she not to diminish it at any time to come. Commneds the Ambassadors.—Westminster, 11 Dec. 1560.
    Copy, in a Scottish hand. Pp. 2.
  • 11. Another copy occurs in B.M. Calig. B. X. 133.