Elizabeth: December 1560, 21-25

Pages 451-463

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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December 1560, 21-25

Dec. 21. 815. Guido Giannetti to the Queen.
1. Having written fully to her on the 7th Dec. concerning the General Council, he now informs her of the contents of the Papal Bull regarding it, since published.
2. In the said Bull the Council is convoked in the city of Trent, by the removal of the suspension by Julius III.; is to begin next Easter, and is to extirpate heresy and schism, and correct manners. As usual, there are invited Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and others who have the privilege of sitting and giving sentence in a General Council; and those whom they call heretics are warned to be present.
3. The Pope understands that the former Council of Trent is to be continued; although in the Bull the word continuation is not made use of, as in that of the jubilee, and a show of deference thereby made to the Emperor and the late King Francis, who demanded a new Council in which the Germans might be heard. Meanwhile King Francis died, which will cause great trouble in this matter. For although, while the Cardinal of Lorraine was at the head of affairs, such a Bull of a General Council would perhaps have sufficed to prevent the National; another form of Council would be required to satisfy the present rulers of that kingdom. So that it is very evident that neither the Council of France nor the Emperor will accept a Council under these conditions; which the Pope understands. But he, not to fail before the world in so great a need, concedes, not indeed what is required, but what appears to him convenient, viz., that which is most advantageous to his Church.
4. It was thought that two or three Cardinal Legates de Latere would be named in the Bull as Presidents to the Council, to represent the Pope; but this has not been done, because they were waiting a reply from the Emperor and the King of France, whether the form of Bull pleased them or not. For if it shall not please them, neither presiding Cardinals nor other Prelate will be sent to Trent, and the appointment of Presidents to the Council is likely to offend the Germans. They will take great care not to be compelled by the Sovereigns to do anything in Council contrary to the authority which they claim to have; but in any case the result is likely to be opposed to their intention.
5. Before the death of King Francis, it was said that Mons. De l'Isle, Ambassador of France to the Queen, was sent by that Court to explain the reasons why the King was unwilling to confirm the treaty; and it was consequently thought that war was to be expected from France, which Rome would willingly foment. At present it is reported that the Guises and the other counsellors of Charles IX. will send their Queen back to the Scotch, who is to marry one of them, and has agreed that Scotland shall renew its former friendly relations with France.
6. Before the death of Francis it was also said that the King of Navarre, (reminding the late King Francis of the services of himself and his house to the French crown,) complained that they had been ill requited, and that although he had held certain opinions in matters of religion, he nevertheless wished to be Catholic and obedient to the Apostolic See, and that therefore, as King of Navarre, he sent his Ambassador to render public obedience to the Pope. He had moreover caused one of his men to be taken by the Lords of Guise as being a promoter of a sect in communication with Geneva. Vargas, the Ambassador of Spain, had objected to the acceptance of the obedience, asserting that the King of Spain is King of Navarre, and not Anthony, Duke of Vendôme, nor Jeanne D'Albret his wife; but the Pope decided to accept the obedience, with the protest that it be without prejudice to the King of Spain; and the ceremony took place in public Consistory, in the hall of the Kings. The King of Navarre feared to lose the inheritance of his wife, on the borders of Spain, and his own patrimony adjoining, on account of the hostility of the Guises, and the offer of the aid of the King of Spain, by means of Don Antonio of Toledo, against the rebellious French. But now the King of Navarre has less to fear from King Philip, who has resigned the absolute government into the hands of the Duke of Alva.
7. The Pope has sent a commission to Delfino, his Ambassador to the Emperor, to go to the Princes and Catholic Prelates of Germany to treat with them concerning a Council. Another Prelate named Commendone, Bishop of Zante, sent by the Pope, goes first to the Emperor to obtain letters and secure passage, to announce the Council to the Bohemians, to the Dukes of Saxony and other allied Princes, and onwards to Flanders, returning thence by the banks of the Rhine. This Commendone (formerly in Flanders, secretary to Cardinal Dandino, at that time Legate of the Pope to the Emperor Charles,) was sent from Flanders to the late Queen Mary secretly to treat for bringing back England to the obedience of Rome. The Pope also wished to send the Abbot of Martenengo, a noble of Brescia, to inform Elizabeth of the Bull of Council, but he refused, being less ready for such an undertaking than the Abbot of San Salute would have been; who, when recalled, set out from Flanders in October, having distributed amongst the English 500 ducats of papal alms, which was perhaps thought a small sum amongst so many.
8. The Pope, by the intercession of the Duke of Florence, has granted to the King of Spain power to raise a sum of money from the first fruits of Spain, for arming sixty galleys against the Turks, who are expected next year to send a large army to subdue La Goletta, which is held by the Spaniards in Africa.
9. Andrea Doria, (who for 32 years had been Admiral of the Emperor Charles and the King of Spain,) being dead, the Duke of Florence endeavoured by means of the Pope to obtain the command for his son, Don Garzia dei Medici, and waited in Rome for an answer from the King of Spain, to whom the Signor Emps, nephew of the Pope, had been sent. The Duke of Florence wishes to be created King of Tuscany, by the Pope, with the consent of the Emperor. The Pope would consent; but the Emperor boldly refused it to Delfino, the Pope's Ambassador; and, having learnt that it would be displeasing to the Princes of the Empire, repeated the refusal, saying that he, being King of the Romans, could not introduce another King into Italy. This proposal was rejected by the King of Spain, who was requested to persuade the Emperor to grant it. The Duke desired the crown, in order to facilitate the marriage of his eldest son with the sister of the King of Spain; she having refused because the Prince was not a King's son. But King Philip declared his consent, and the Princess herself being consulted, frankly made known her intention not to marry again.—Venice, 21 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
Dec. 21. 816. John Shers to Cecil.
1. By his letter of the 7th he sent the Bull for the Jubilee. Sends herewith another for the Council towards at Trent, if before that time there fall not a new delay, of which he could write many things if he did not well perceive that Cecil esteemed not his pains for so much worth. The Abbot, Martinego, who should have gone to England with this Bull, has made sundry excuses, and therefore goes not, neither can the writer learn of any that is named in his stead. He that is appointed to the Protestants in Germany is now here towards his journey; he first goes to the Emperor, where (as most think) he will be stayed, lest he stir up some tumults in Germany.
2. The Duke of Florence is yet at Rome, and departs not before the return of a post sent to King Philip. Some say that he tarries to return with the title of King of Tuscany. The Duchess, his wife, is also still at Rome. The Ambassador for the King of Navarre, M. Vendôme, has had public audience this week past in the hall of Kings; but a protest was first made that he should be admitted without any prejudice to King Philip, which with the Pope allowed. In the ante camera of the Duke of Florence the Barisello arrested one Lopez, a Spaniard, a kinsman of the Count of Tentaglia, whom the Duke's gentlemen would have defended; but when the Barisello told them he was arrested for matters concerning their Duke, they suffered him to go to prison. Cardinals they make none yet.
3. From Constantinople, by letters of the 13th ult., they write that the Turk prepares a great power to drive out the Spaniards of all place in Africa this spring time; and that Sicily and Malta will not be without danger of damages, for the army will be greater this summer than any Turkish army has been hitherto. Of matters between the Duke of Savoy and the Switzers there is much talk, and of the proceedings in France.—Venice, 21 Dec. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Dec. 23. 817. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. On the 10th inst. imparted to the King her last letters and such instructions as he had received from Throckmorton, with his advices of the French King's flat denial of the performance of the agreement made by his Commissioners with her. He gave the King also to understand that the French delays chiefly seemed to stay upon knowledge of the Scots' proceeding in their Parliament, which the French mislike upon pretence of revenge upon the Scots, being their best means to utter their malice to the Queen. That the King might better understand the whole state of the Scots' proceedings, he declared the manner of the assembly of their Parliament agreed upon by the French Commissioners at the last accord, and how many of each Estate were present, how quietly they met, how orderly they proceeded, and finished it with contentation of all; whereof they had by the Prior of St. John made their most humble signification unto the French King and Queen; which was nevertheless taken in evil part by them, the Duke of Guise, and Cardinal of Lorraine, that the Scots like rebels had assembled in their own name, and therefore the same could not be ratified, uttering besides words of choler tending to revenge. And when the Scots (said the writer) had not fulfilled their duty reason and equity would that the French King should have observed with the Queen such covenants as were agreed upon, bond fide et in verbo regio; which words were contained in the French commission for the last accord, with such general terms as Princes in like case heretofore used; wherefore King Philip might perceive manifestly the French intents, the meaning whereof could bring none advantage to him; and therefore, like his progenitors, would count the case common, seeing the adversary had always shown himself common to both. He further showed the King that the Queen stood in no better case with the French than she did last year, notwithstanding her great travail. Wherefore she imparted thus much for two respects; the one, for declaration of her good zeal for the common cause, and the other for signification of her acknowledgment of his good office of friendship, praying for his assistance; and in the meantime she would put in order all her pieces upon the frontiers. And further that Throckmorton had advertised the writer that the French still usurped the Queen's arms, which they had lately set up at the entry of divers towns; and thereof answer was made that the King had long borne them and had just title so to do.
2. The King, having heard him at good length, said that he took it very friendly that she so frankly declared her good will towards him in imparting her present estate, and was sorry to hear that the matters between her and the French were in no better terms; whereupon he would consider with himself, and within a few days give Chamberlain to understand his determination. He liked that the Queen provided for herself, and wished her so to do at all times. Chamberlain finally desired him to continue in his friendship, and not to credit the sinister reports of the French, suspending his judgment until such times as from the Queen he may understand the truth.
3. Thinks that she could not do better than follow the same order as her adversary, in writing every fourteen days unto this King, promising to "inculk" into him her inventions and devices, whereas she should occupy him with nothing but truth. Thinks that a general credit given to her Ambassador does not so much suffice as continual visitation with letters of friendship.
4. On Thursday the 12th inst., the Duke of Alva sent for him, to give him to understand that the King, having considered what he had proposed unto him, had appointed him [Alva] to talk with him; whereupon Chamberlain recited unto him all that he had before said to the King; and made him at length understand the matter according to the instructions of herself and Throckmorton. The Duke said that the King and all the Council did treat upon how they might stand the Queen in stead, and that she and her realm might be conserved from dangers, not to come, but imminent and even at hand. He then said that he talked to Chamberlain, not as the Queen's Ambassador, but rather as one coming to treat with the King for the safeguard of the state of Naples, Flanders, or any other of the King's own dominions; and pledged his faith and honour as a true gentleman that he spoke from the bottom of his heart. Wherewithal he began to ask on the King's behalf, what aid the Queen could devise he should give her, and in what sort, and whereof she was afraid?
5. Chamberlain answered that he had not made motion unto the King or him, as though the Queen had presently great fear of the adversary; but had given the King to understand her great zeal for the common peace of Christendom, and to ask him to do that good office that belongs to such friendship, and imparted to him in what terms she found herself with the adversary. She did this to the intent the King might better understand what hold was to be taken of so earnest promise as was made, and whereunto the adversary's proceedings tend.
6. The Duke replied she must come forth in particularities how each might conserve the other. If she proceeds in such sort in her government, she would not only make herself unable to withstand the adversary, but also cut off the means they might have to defend her. The Duke also desired to know in what sort the Queen had begun to fortify her pieces, wherein the King would not only advise her, but also give that aid that might be asked. "But if you think (quoth he) to pass over the matter generally, as though you talked with such as did not thoroughly understand your whole state both in force and otherwise, you shall put yourself to the hazard, which how near it is I can say no more than I have; but if since I came from my house, (which is not two months,) I had not with the adversary's ministers stood earnest in this matter, they had had new power in Scotland, and that such as would have given the Queen a new trouble; and therefore it is no time to hang long on the determination of the matter." Descending into particularities, he said that if the French with their galleys that they had already, and ten more that they had sent for to Marseilles, should set foot into England, either at the Isle of Wight, Dover, or some other place, with 10,000 or 12,000 men, it would be a shrewd piece of work, and would be the ground of more difficulty than all men would think.
7. Chamberlain told him of the quiet proceedings of the Scots in Parliament, and the French misliking without cause, whereupon he broke out in a matter of religion, saying they had, by decree in the same Parliament, established the like unto that which the Queen now used; and in that respect the French King might say they were rebels, not for holding the Parliament without his consent, but for making alteration of religion without his commandment. Chamberlain still persuaded that in the Parliament was no such motion made; the Duke, the contrary, and that they had writings to show of all that passed out of England as well as Flanders, and by other means. "What, thinks the Queen, has the French King no party in England? Yes, (quoth he) I fear me I may say as great as the Queen, or greater." To this the writer made such general answers as he could, adding the adversary coloured his evil intent by the matter of alteration of religion; but he trusted the King of Spain would suspend his judgment. The aid of Spain would be sufficient, if he would but show himself indifferent, and give the adversary to understand from time to time that he could not sit still and suffer his malice indirectly offered to touch him, his state, and friends.
8. The Duke still persisted that, all that notwithstanding, the King's aid would come too late, if, by the former means, she would cut off that means. Chamberlain asked why, if the adversary had not other meaning, he could not bear with the Scots' alteration of religion, until such time as by the General Council now at hand order might be taken therein. Whereupon the Duke said it was not to be suffered; neither in that case would the King hinder, but rather assist the French King to bring his subjects unto the most ancient religion. Herewith he also touched the late imprisonment of the Bishops, saying that they were of the Queen persecuted for the ancient religion.
9. Chamberlain answered that they were nothing molested but for their evil demeanour, and provoking her subjects to rebellion, which the Duke denied. Finally, after wishing he might have as free talk to the Queen to signify to her his good will, he said he would make report unto the King and signify his resolution. Upon the Duke's conference, the writer took occasion to say that if there were such imminent peril to the Queen and her realm, no doubt the King would assist her with counsel and aid; to which the Duke said, "What boots it for the King to give her counsel when she will not follow it?" To which the writer answered that the Queen had such affection and confidence in him that she would sooner follow his counsel than any other. The Duke asked if she had done anything for her defence against the enemy; to which he replied that she had lately come to the throne, and that she had found her state greatly indebted; but that if the King would be her friend, so that she might be at peace for one year, she would be quite out of debt, and so little by little be able to set in order the rest that were needful. He was sure the Queen would follow the King's counsel. Finally, he persisted that if the King would tell the adversary that he could not bear with his proceedings against the Queen, neither endure his claim to her arms and title, nor seek indirectly to molest her as he did with colour to subdue the Scots as rebels, he was sure that, standing in the terms he did, he would be advised wherein he did. Upon this the Duke said that matters in France began to come to a good quietness, and that they were better furnished than all men would think; for though at the conclusion of the peace with Spain they were exhausted, they have ever since gathered their taxes as though they were still at war. Besides, the King has not paid to the merchants what his father owed, which makes the Spaniards bestir themselves to be in readiness. Finally, Chamberlain could get none other from the Duke but that he would the Queen should say what she lacked, and frankly declare her estate to the King, and wherein she would have him aid her.
10. By divers circumstances in this conference it seems that they would hearken to any device the Queen should propose that might tend not only to the adversary's resistance, but further, if it could be brought to pass. Happening to say to the Duke that if the Queen, last year, being in force, had gone through with that she might have done in Scotland, (which she only refrained from for fear of giving cause of misliking to the King of Spain,) she needed not to have stood in her present terms with the adversary; for all the while he was content to come to parley, and misliked not that the King of Spain should show himself willing to take up the matter; upon this the Duke said, (as he had once before to Lord Montague and the writer at their first arrival,) (fn. 1) that if the Queen had begun sooner and gone lustily forwards as she might have done, it had never been misliked on this side though she had possessed all Scotland; and that the King, thinking she would do so, had delayed upon such resolutions as the adversary required at his hands from time to time. Chamberlain replied that the Queen was not desirous to seek the right of her neighbours; and that she chiefly letted to do what she might have done in respect of the King, who in that case might have had the same jealousy of her that all Princes have each of other, if they wax greater or increase their estate. Yet for all this the Duke promised to give him the King's resolution. One thing he specially noted in the Duke's earnest talk, which was, that the adversary had as many friends in her realm as she herself; and also gave him to understand that the adversary had means of practice in England. Whereupon the writer told him that he had learnt that the adversary's minister had asked of one who he thought practised in England for the King of Spain, who declared his upright dealing and good intent, thereupon he told the Duke that of all nations they had in England least devotion unto the French, and therefore he feared not their practises within the realm. "Yea (quoth the Duke) I have always heard that the children are from their beginning to understand, taught to shoot as he would shoot at a Frenchman;" and so such as never came out of the realm may believe it to be in the same state that it was heretofore when a Prince of Wales was able to overcome the realm of France; but such as have been abroad can perceive what alteration time has made. Besides, alteration in government and misliking of the same breeds also alteration in the people's affections, and therefore the Queen had more need to look to herself. This is the sum and effect of their talk.
11. For the rest, but for some misliking with the Queen for matter of religion, (though the King speak to him nothing thereof,) he would show himself more to her satisfaction. The French quarrels against the Scots for the same brings them more in question and remembrance of her proceedings; the adversary giving out that she is the only provoker and fautor of the Scots in matters of religion.
12. Thus departing from the Duke he attended some few days to hear from him the King's answer; who on the 20th sent for him to come to him, and said that he had conferred sundry times with the King, who willed him to say that he took it in good part that the Queen imparted unto him in what terms she was with the French. To this he meant to have a special heed, and to correspond the Queen's friendship with his counsel and otherwise; and he thought it most meet to attend the establishment of the new government in France, which could not as soon be set in order; that the Queen would do well by her Ambassador still to call upon them for a ratification of the last agreement. The King would also give order to understand their disposition towards the same, and work as the case required for his own and her benefits; and would still remain her good brother and assured friend.
13. On this Chamberlain returned thanks on her behalf, and fell to talk of the widow; whether the Duke thought the French would let her retire to her own. The Duke said that he thought not, but rather that they would seek to have the disposing of her again; and therefore Chamberlain should write to the Queen that for this time God had diverted the French intents, (fn. 2) which were evil enough, and would have burst out within less than three months, as he said he had well understood, and not of good peace, and (fn. 3) also to write on the King's behalf, signifying his good will, that always they would wish her to be putting in order her forts and places, mistrusting the worst, and he durst well assure her that the perfect amity of so long continuance should never fail. The writer thanked him, and said that if the Queen were let alone in peace for a convenient time, she would put her realm in so good order that they would have cause to say she had followed his advice.
14. Writes to Throckmorton this King's conclusion, to the intent he may solicit ratification, and signify how he speeds, that from time to time it may be imparted to the King of Spain.
15. The discourses of this Court upon the Scottish Queenwidow are diverse; some think with dispensation the French will seek to match her with the new King; others, with one of the uncles, the Prior of St. John; some talk of the Prince of Spain, wishing this match between them. Others remember the King of Denmark, and the new King of Sweden. Hopes that her bestowing again do not turn the Scots in as evil estate, or worse, than they were in before. Can write no more than he did before of the solemn embassy from Venice.
16. Of the molestation offered to him by the Inquisition he hears no more, saving that the Duke of Alva told him that it was no matter of great moment, neither anything meant to him or his, but his man's declaration required upon the case of a Fleming; and he pledged his honour that it was none otherwise.
17. With his last letters before this the writer sent to Throckmorton part of such "pilloberies" and such other work as he had provided for the Queen, which he trusts she has re- ceived ere this, and that she will let him be the bearer of the rest.—Toledo, 23 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 12.
Dec. 23. 818. Randolph to Cecil.
1. The Earl of Arran has returned from his voyage against the thieves on the Borders, where (both from what he saw and was informed by others that have been doers,) so good order has not been taken in many years before. Besides he has informed the Governor of Berwick of the state of things at his being with him at "the day of treves" at Ridingbourn, the 17th inst., yet he thinks it good to send Cecil in writing the chief points that were determined upon for the order upon the Borders, taken by the Earl of Arran for the time that he was at Jedburgh, and thereabouts.
2. At his Lordship's being there, advertisement came from Lord Grey of the death of the French King. The benefit that may ensue to both England and Scotland, and the happy relief to so many afflicted souls who were in danger of death and banishment, gave him great occasion to praise God, for His benefit so unlooked for in taking away so great a scourge that was hanging over it, to the subjection of the whole state and nobility. The Duke, his father, is much bound to the Queen for such speedy advertisement. He had good occasion to doubt the French devotion towards him, as Cecil may understand by the enclosed letter, which he is charged by the Duke to send him as a thing already in their minds to be put in execution. He received another letter from a friend in France, that this matter was in communication immediately after the death of the King. This matter he judges of such importance that he wishes the Earl of Lennox's son were called nearer unto the Court, that all practice to draw him into Scotland, or convey him to any other place, might be taken away. At the time of his communication with Randolph, he affirmed that whatsoever success he might have in this suit he would remain the Queen's most affectioned servitor. Thus much he charged him to advertise Cecil and make no man alive privy hereof.
3. Before the news of the King's death, by reason of the reports that came out of France of their preparations, and that the Lord of St. John had nothing prevailed in his mission, divers consultations were had among the parties what should be their part if any force should be sent into Scotland. Their conclusion was that as many as would promise their aid should subscribe a bond to that effect. Their convention was on the 10th inst. at Dunbar; the chief of those that were there was the Lord Hume, with other of his friends in the Merse, with whom he has lately been in the north. Unto this convention there is privy the Earls of Huntly, Sutherland, and Eglington, and Lord Ruthven, not without suspicion for his great friendship with Lord Hume, whose journey into France Randolph thinks is stayed. The Earl of Eglington continues his purpose that way, the more because he has been lately passed by the Duke for the divorcement of his daughter. The case is somewhat strange; the wife complained of the inability of her husband, and he like to be divorced for adultery, for since his wife left, he has got a wench with child. "The Earl of Cassilis wished unto her, if she were at liberty."
4. The Earl of Argyll is daily looked for; his mother-in-law repents the bargain she made in Ireland, and will shortly return. Lord Ruthven was never here since the Parliament. Trusts that his meaning is better than the opinion men have of him. Letters are directed to all the Lords and Barons of this realm to be here the 16th proximo, as the enclosed letter imports. Sends a copy of a letter sent hence into France to divers of the ministers there; the answer thereunto is that very shortly there shall be letters sent according to the tenor thereof. Of this matter he is sure there are very few privy.—Edinburgh, 23 Dec. 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—Cannot send the order taken upon the Borders, as he cannot have it so soon, but sends a letter.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: Received 28. Pp. 4.
Dec. [25]. 819. Jones to [Throckmorton].
1. Excuses himself for not writing oftener on account of the matter he has in hand, which, with the attendance on his office, gives him little leisure. Does not let anything pass in which he may do him service. Mr. Middlemore was despatched hence with hopes of his [revocation], but he understands that it is in no wise thought necessary as yet, at least for six months. Advises him not to think of his coming home, but to order things for his commodity and make a virtue of necessity. Has received a bill of 15l. from the Lords for his charges; Davies received one for 20l. for his good despatch with news of the French King's death. Has not been able to get payment until he obtained Mr. Sackville's hand. The French courier arrived with pleasant news . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Treasurer is dead and was buried at Westminster and a sermon preached there; he died very poor . . . . . has wept twice or thrice; medicine it is said killed him. Changes are like to ensue through this vacancy.
2. On the . . inst. the Scotch Ambassadors departed, and have been presented with about 500 crowns worth of plate, accompanied with very good words, and promises to continue the alliance between the Queen and Scotland. The chief point of their errand is altogether unanswered. The Scots (as far as he can gather). move their Queen to come home, and wish for a marriage there. The Bishops and others of the old crew shall be at liberty, so as they conclude to come to church to Common Prayer, and neither openly or secretly to talk or do anything prejudicial to the Queen's proceedings.
3. M. De Morrette has departed unsatisfied, and says that besides the Earl of Bedford, no man in England has offered so much as to buy him drink, and that he was the first Ambassador whom the Duke of Savoy had sent. The cause is thought to be because he had to do with a marriage. There were lately at Calais 3,000 men of war, and a number of labourers, who, together with the garrison of the town, made a show before Gravelines to have stolen the place, with the aid of two soldiers within Gravelines, who are since taken and executed.
4. Cecil has told M. De Noailles that Throckmorton's revocation depended on the declaration of the King his master; he has not been at the Court as yet, making excuse that his mourning garments are not ready. The Ambassadors of Sweden [have arrived] from the King who died in October; it is said that the new King minds to be a King in perfection and to come over here in the spring; many would fain have him marry the Queen. Mr. Horne is Bishop of Winchester, and Downham Bishop of Chester. "My Lord of Bedford is . . . . . where he keepeth his Christmas. My Lord of Hertford goeth . . . . Tremaine have a mind. Lord Hertford is his good . . . . of late the Lord Keeper . . . . the Lord Robert it is said . . . . appointing out of 6,000l. . . . . . purpose the auditors have, . . . creations begin to be made."
5. It is thought that [Lord Robert] shall be advanced to the degree of an Earl; begs that he may deliver Throckmorton's next letter to him . . . . . . friends labour to have him remove Throckmorton . . . .
6. If Cecil be master of the wards, it is judged that Mr. Mildmay or Mr. Osborne shall be assistants [in the secretaryship]. On the . . Dec. the Lords dined with Mr. Brie . . . . servant to the Lord Robert, who [wishes] to remove Mr. Gresham from his agency. His [Throckmorton's] wife has gone on Christmas Eve to Mr. . . . . . . She sent letters to him by Cavalcanti, who is gone into Flanders, and who will send the same into France; would also have sent by him but that he thought the way too long . . . . . . his matter is utterly dadhed, and place . . . . . she suits. I am in by the week already . . . . a month I will play hab or nab, I . . . . matter against me than with me for ought I . . . . me get the nature of the causes is such . . . . . leave off without an apparent reason . . . a little wiser and therefore howsoever it . . . will not trouble me."
7. Mr. Peyto is at his brother's, whither he minds to go on Wednesday . . . time; if aught happens, Throckmorton shall be advertised thereof. If he had a cipher [he could write more at large]; has one that he cannot use, as it is "theirs." D . . . at night 1560.
8. P. S.—The Queen and Council are in good health. "My Lord Admiral rep . . . ships go still forward . . . . The Court remaineth at West [minster]. Russes are like to have a fall . . . The Vidame of Amiens . . . Some guess my Lord . . . .
Orig. Greatly mutilated, and in a fragile condition. Endd.: 2[5] Dec. 1560. Pp. 7.


  • 1. This portion of the letter is written in cipher.
  • 2. In cipher.
  • 3. This passage is in cipher.