Elizabeth: December 1560, 26-31

Pages 463-480

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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December 1560, 26-31

Dec. 27. 820. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Sends the writings omitted in his last. Reminds him of the matter he last wrote upon as of a thing in some men's heads deeply conceived. Doubts it rather to be forged at home. It is now whispered amongst them that "she" intends to marry in Denmark. Heard these matters talked of before it was possible that the news should come so far. Thereupon they have many discourses what may issue, which proceed from the clergy and their faction. Some wish her at home, for that she may not marry any sovereign Prince without the consent of the Estates, as was agreed in the contract of her late marriage, Many desire that whereever she marry, the amity between the two realms may long continue; amongst whom are those who are able to most further it. The Earl of Argyll is at Stirling. Lord James to-morrow intends to go towards him, and thence to St. Andrews, for six or eight days.
2. Is sure Cecil is not ignorant of Patrick Hume, who lately passed into France; his chief occasion is to supply Alexander Clark's place, that the Lords may be better assured of the state of things there. The Lord of St. John's has not yet made report of the French King's answer, for that few of the Lords were present. Lord Seton has not yet been here or spoken with any of the Lords. Though he will be well received, yet some there are who would that he should know that he has not so well deserved as others who have travailed for the liberty of their country. Is required by the Duke to write to him in favour of a poor man named Cuthbert Vesie, who has been out of England these four years for a slaughter, in whose behalf the Duke and Arran have themselves written to Cecil.—Edinburgh, 27 —Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Dec. 28. 821. French Hostages in England.
Such as be named to be Hostages in England; viz.:
Le Marquis De Canilhac, of Auvergne, commonly called De Beaufort; Le Conte De Benon, brother of the Seigneur De la Tremouille; Le Baron De Courtalein, heir of the Count Chateauvillain d'Avaugour; the Provost of Paris, Nantouillet. 28 Dec. 1560.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 28. 822. John Shers to Cecil.
1. Both the Duke of Florence and his Duchess are yet at Rome. The return of the posts from the Emperor and Spain is answered to the satisfaction neither of the Pope nor Duke. Shortly after this holiday the Duke returns, as before; for albeit "Papa omnia potest" if these Princes would not so take the matter, the days are such that this Pope's authority might soon be put in the balance of abatement, and this will be the stay that the Duke return without a King's crown. A disputation has lately been at Rome among the Cardinals, and the Pope has had the hearing of what is the cause that France has thus rebelled from them. The Romans would conclude that the dissolute living of the French Cardinals, Bishops, and clergy, was the cause; but the French party and the Bishop who is Ambassador there say, that nothing has wrought so much in France as of late the practice in Rome of divers of the nobility of France, where they have seen such dissolute living of the clergymen, as returning into France they have persuaded the rest that the clergy of Rome is of no religion. Divers write that this Ambassador has spoken so frankly in the Pope's presence as men do marvel of it.
2. The General Council goes forth, as appears by the Bull, and yet before the appointed time there will come out a new delay. There is news that the Spaniards, unshipped again in Flanders by the King of Spain's commandment, shall come into Italy. The Turk's army towards is great, as well for the Goletta and to drive out the Spaniards of all ports of Africa, as for Malta. In the mean season the Pope takes his time, advances his kindred with all haste, and makes no Cardinals; but shortly some look for from him, "qualche bel tratto di prete."—Venice, 28 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 29.] 823. The Queen to Randolph. (fn. 1)
He, having showed himself diligent and faithful in her service, is directed to abide at Edinburgh when the Estates of Scotland shall be there, and there to continue, or else with the Duke of Châtellerault, or his son, or otherwise as occasion shall move, to further the good intelligence begun between her and Scotland, and to advertise her from time to time of such occurrences as shall be meet to be known. Has ordered the Treasurer of Berwick to pay him an entertainment of [blank] by the day.
Draft, in Cecil's hol.
Dec. 29. 824. Randolph's Pay.
Warrant to the Treasurer of Berwick to pay to Thomas Randolph the entertainment of [blank] by the day, in monthly payments.
Draft, in Cecil's hol., and endd. by his secretary: 29 Dec. 1560. P. 1.
Dec. 30. 825. The Queen to Mundt.
He shall repair to the assembly of the German Princes. "which accord with us in profession of religion," and show them her good meaning, and deliver certain letters to the different Princes. He is to follow the enclosed instructions. Sir John Mason, Treasurer of her chamber, will see Mundt's charges satisfied.
Draft, in Cecil's writing, and endd. by him and his secretary: 30 Dec. 1560. P. 1.
[Dec. 30.] 826. Memorial for Mundt.
1. He is to repair to the assembly of the Princes Protestant and to declare to every of them, (especially such as mean to keep their States free from (fn. 2) such as mean to offend them in the profession of the Gospel), that the Queen, considering how meet it is that the Protestants should accord amongst themselves, and perceiving how busy the Pope is to stir up daily other Potentates to offend and oppress such as he esteems adversaries to his pomp and tyranny, (fn. 3) wishes that they should league amongst themselves, and not permit any of their people by wage or hire to increase their adversary's part.
2. Whereas the Pope makes pretence to have a General Council, under the cloak whereof is meant to maintain and recover his tyrannous authority; (fn. 4) the Princes Protestant should not assent thereto, except it be held in Germany, and in such place where the parties coming thither may be free from danger of apprehension; or else that none at all be agreed unto. For it is seen that no other thing is meant but a show in words of reformation of the corruption of the Prelates of the Church, and in very deed a surprise of such as do reprehend them, and consequently an augmentation of their worldly authority and pomp.
3. It will also much advance the cause if it be accorded that all soldiers who shall go out of the countries of the Princes Protestant, and serve the French or other Princes not of the Protestant religion, should first make oath that they should never employ their weapons against any Protestants.
4. The Scots in Parliament, (which was kept in August last by consent of the French Ambassadors, in the name of the King and Queen) have with one consent renounced the authority of the Pope in that realm, and received the same religion that is used in Almaine; wherein the progress is so great and acceptable through the whole realm, that no manner of difficulty or refusal is had therein. And in all other things saving this which appertains to God, the whole realm is very obedient to their Queen; ruling the realm in her name with great quietness.
5. It cannot be denied but that the whole people of Scotland, (partly for the Queen's benefits bestowed on them in saving that realm last year, and partly for love of religion,) bear more good will to the Queen of England than ever they did to any Sovereign of England. The French move the Scottish Queen to be offended therewith, although the benefit bestowed by the Queen in preservation of that realm from conquest does now by the French King's death tend manifestly to the weal of the said Scottish Queen.
6. All this Mundt shall utter at length to the Princes Protestant, and conclude with them that as the Queen means if she be provoked to send to the General Council to impart to them her resolution, so she wishes to be made privy of theirs; considering that as their cause in this point is one, so their answer and dealing may also be one.
Draft, in Cecil's writing. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 30.] 827. Memorial for Mundt.
Another copy of the above, with the following addition in Cecil's writing. Whereas the Queen understands by the report of Huggins, an Englishman, (who was about October last with the Landgrave of Hesse, for obtaining licence to carry certain armour through his country towards Hamburg,) that she has received courtesy therein, and the said Huggins having reported that the Landgrave is disposed to send one of his sons to her Court; Mundt is to assure the Landgrave that the same will be welcome to the Queen, and he shall lack no favour as though he were native born.
Draft. Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 30. 828. Sebastian, King of Portugal, to the Queen.
Recommends Manuel Daranjo, whom he despatches to her upon certain important matters, and for whom he asks credence.—30 Dec. 1560.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Portug. Broadside.
Dec. 30. 829. Sebastian, King of Portugal, to the Earl of Pembroke.
Asks him to assist Manuel Daranjo, despatched to the Queen on certain important business.—30 Dec. 1560.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Portug. Pp. 2.
Dec. 30. 830. Sebastian, King of Portugal, to Cecil.
Asks him to assist Manuel Daranjo, despatched to the Queen on certain important business.—30 Dec. 1560.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Portug. Pp. 4.
Dec. 30. 831. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. Has not heard from him since Davis came with tidings of the French King's death; they are in some perplexity what shall be the cause. Are occupied with many vain tales of accidents in France. The Ambassador as yet hath delivered no letter from the new King to the Queen, whereby she ought to take notice of the death, "or of his joy;" so that as yet no special gentleman can be sent over for condolence. The bearer is a servant of Lord James, who was well recommended out of Scotland.—30 Dec. 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—"Whatsoever reports or opinions be, I know surely that my Lord Robert himself hath more fear than hope, and so doth the Queen give him cause."
Orig. Hol. Injured by damp. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 31. 832. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 19th Dec. he received her letters of the 13th, by Henry Middlemore, instructing him to tell the French King and his ministers plainly that if they mean not that the treaty shall be ratified out of hand, they may forbear to send any messengers to her; together with other matter which she had caused to be declared to the French Ambassador. At the writing thereof he perceives that she was not advertised of the late French King's death. At the end of the letter she writes of the receipt of his of the 6th, advertising the King's death, but makes no alteration in her instructions in the former part to be declared to the King and his ministers, which he could not do, the present reign requiring no such thing to be demanded. Yet as her instructions bound him to repair to the Court, and for that the other resident ministers had been with the King, the Queen Mother, and King of Navarre, to condole with some and visit others, he took occasion to ask audience of the Queen Mother and the King of Navarre, which he had of the Queen Mother on the 22nd Dec.
2. At his access to her he gave the Queen's doleance for her son's death, and professions of desire for the continuance of peace. After some good words, he told her that she could well remember upon what terms the ratification of the treaty made in Scotland stood at his last audience with the late King, herself, and the Council, whereof he advertised the Queen; whereupon, when M. De Sevre had audience with her, he was told that she found it strange that such delays should be used, and that in case the King and Queen minded not to ratify the said treaty, they should stay the sending of any personages.
Dec. 31.
Throckmorton to
the Queen.
3. The Queen Mother made answer that since the King was dead, it now was in the Queen of Scotland to make answers for the matters of Scotland. Throckmorton said that though the King's death might change the nature of the matters of Scotland, yet, to clear all doubts, he prayed her to devise how a perfect amity might be established. She answered that she would not fail. Throckmorton said that the Queen had not yet received knowledge of the said King's death otherwise than by his letters; but that, upon knowledge thereof from the French Ambassador, she would not fail to send a gentleman express to condole. And seeing the King standing fast by her, although he had no commission to do any message to him, yet he desired to know of the Queen Mother whether he might speak to him, and present the Queen's hearty commendations, and condolence unto him, which she prayed him to do. Which when he had done, the King thanked her, and said that he would entertain good amity towards her.
4. The Constable next presented himself to Throckmorton and asked him how the Queen did, who replied that she was in good health, and had commanded him to present her commendations to him, adding that she rejoiced that the Queen Mother and the King of Navarre desired to have him as a counsellor. The Constable assured him that there was no Prince to whom he owed his humble services more than to her. Throckmorton told him that though he was not at Court at his last audience with the late King, he doubted not but that he understood in what terms the ratification of the late peace stood. He answered that as for such matters as were betwixt the Queen and the French King, there should be no occasion given of doubt, but as for the matters of Scotland, it was in the Scottish Queen to answer. After this Throckmorton was brought to his horse by M. De Vielleville.
5. At this audience he found the Court very much altered, and yet very great; for about the King and Queen Mother he found the Constable, the Admiral, the Cardinal of Châtillon, D'Andelot, and a great many of that house, and not one of the house of Guise, nor but few of their friends.
6. Because the King of Navarre was gone to visit the Marshal St. André, (who was not well at ease,) Throckmorton sent Somers that evening to him to know when he might have access to him. He answered that as he would be occupied next morning about affairs, and their dinner and leisure afterwards was so short, and for that he desired to commune with him at some length, he asked him to come to supper next night. This he did on the 23rd, and found his brother the Cardinal of Bourbon, the Dukes of Nevers and Bouillon, the Admiral and the Count D'Eu. The King took him by the hand and led him to his bedside from all the company, and said that he was sorry that he was absent from the Court at his audience. Throckmorton remarked that the Queen was rejoiced that he had the chief handling of affairs, for he had chiefly in regard the true glory and Word of God in France; the rather that God had dealt very favourably with him, who lately was beset with some danger. She trusted he would entertain amity between the French King and her, so that the subjects on both sides might perceive the difference between the government of those that profess the true Word of God and such other as persecute and oppress it.
7. The King thanked her, and said that he was specially affected towards her, for that by her the true religion of God was greatly set forth through all Europe, and he trusted that by her the same should be amplified. Throckmorton said that nothing would more further it than that they should be of one mind in religion, and now that he had the power in his hands he might strike a great stroke in that matter. If the King, with his consent, agreed to accept the Council at Trent, it would not only overthrow religion in France for ever, but decay the same greatly in other places where it had taken root. He answered that they were not determined to accept the Council as published; for they had sent to Rome against the continuation and suspension of the old Council at Trent, and to demand a new Council; and although they allowed the place, they did not allow the continuation of the old that was begun in the time of Pope Paul III. Throckmorton said that they had reason so to do; for if they accepted the Council as it was published by the Bull, they would accept all the Articles which were concluded from the beginning of that Council, and so conclude before they began to talk of any matter in question, or of any reformation. The King said that this moved them to do as they had done, and that they were minded not to send to the Council, unless the German Princes either went or sent thither also. Throckmorton asked him whether he meant the Papist or Protestant Princes? he said the Protestant; and asked what the Queen minded to do in that matter? Throckmorton said that he knew not assuredly; but thought that if the Princes Protestant would send their legates thither, she would do the same. The King said that she would do well, and that every party must be content to leave off obstinacy, and give place in some things for unity's sake. He also thought that if they could not accord upon this General Council, they should make a National Council in their own country; and that if the Queen would send some learned personages thither it would do great good. He said that he was not so ambitious as to desire to rule alone, nor so wilful as to do anything of his own head. The Queen Mother, (thanks be to God, said he,) begins to take some taste of the true religion; he hopes she will bring up the King, her son, in the true fear of God. Throckmorton said he feared that the Cardinal of Lorraine and his brethren had too much credit with her, as to turn her from the Papists' religion. The King said he feared not that, for she was a wise woman, and made him believe that she reposed great trust and confidence in him; for a proof whereof she had agreed that M D'Anjou should marry his daughter, and that his son should marry Madame Marguerite, her daughter. Throckmorton said that these were goodly means to advance the glory of God in this realm; yet he feared it had too many adversaries. The King trusted God would bring it to a good pass, and said that as the Queen said He had done much for him, if she knew all she would indeed say so. He asked him what he thought was meant when they had him in a town enclosed, his brother in prison, (who is now in his [the speaker's] hands,) and had ordered a great band of horse and foot, Spaniards, to enter his country, but that his wife had taken good order for the matter in time. Throckmorton said that there was a bruit that the Spaniards had passage given them by Bayonne, and other forts of the French King. The King said that it was true, and that he was about to verify the letters that are yet denied. Throckmorton said that it was a strange counsel to be given to any Prince to suffer so many strangers to enter into his country and seize themselves of his forts. The King said that although he had learnt from the Queen how to forgive his enemies, still he made a difference between them and his friends, and thought that they should not have so great a power as they had before; which he thinks the Queen had done with her adversaries. Throckmorton said that she had none in her realm. The King asked whether the Queen was married, or towards marriage. Throckmorton said that she was as far from marriage as the first day that she came to her crown. The King said that he always thought she would match herself to her honour and not abase herself, as the bruit was she would. The King also desired Throckmorton to write to the Queen his opinion for an agreement between the two realms in religion; which he has done.
8. The King further said after supper, to Throckmorton, that whenever he had occasion to ask audience of the King he should send to him, and put it to his choice to come to dinner or supper with him whenever he would, either as Ambassador or otherwise privately, to devise with him at any time.
9. The management of affairs rests chiefly with the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the Constable. Cannot but fear the Cardinal of Lorraine's finesse to bring him again into credit; because he and the Duke of Guise are in great favour with the Queen Mother. The Estates assembled at this town on the 13th Dec., but have done little or nothing; divers of them will not put forth such things as they were instructed in by other provinces now the King is dead. They say that by his death many of the people's doleances are ceased, as the government that they complained about is ceased. The government by all opinions will light upon the King of Navarre, for they cannot like that the Queen Mother, being a woman, should have the pre-eminence in matters of state; considering the law Salic precludes women from authority, though she be a daughter of France. Takes the King of Navarre to be either so modest or circumspect as that he will not take so great a charge upon him alone without her.
10. On 20 Dec. the Vidame of Chartres (being released from the Bastille to the Tournelles, one of the French King's houses in Paris, but as prisoner,) departed to God, and made M De Boisy, Grand Ecuyer, his uncle, his executor. He has given M. Dampville, the Constable's second son, a lordship of his, called Milly en Gatinois, near Fontainebleau, worth 3,000 crowns yearly. The Prince De Condé was delivered and sent out of the town on Dec. 24, and is gone to La Fere, in Picardy, a house of his brother, the King of Navarre, where and at Haen [Ham] he shall continue till he be called.
11. On Dec. 23, M. Morette, who was lately with Her Majesty from the Duke of Savoy, arrived. In talk with the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the Constable, he has behaved himself so that he deserves better usage than Throckmorton hears he received in England. Being straitly demanded of a matter wherewith the Duke of Guise had incensed them very dishonourably of the Queen, he affirmed constantly that he had been misinformed. If she thinks good to make him a present, he will not depart hence this month.
12. On the 28th the Count Marsell, kinsman to Count Roussy, was with the writer and brought the names of certain gentlemen, whom the King minded to send to redeem the hostages in England, and asked him to accept them. Throckmorton replied that he had no commission to do so, but would send them to the Queen, which he accordingly does. Has heard that when the King removes hence (which shall be in twelve or fifteen days,) the Scottish Queen goes to Joinville, a house of the Duke of Guise in the skirts of Lorraine, which is a long way from any place where the King means to be this good while. Asks the Queen to instruct his successor whether he shall ride thither to her.
13. The Duke of Ferrara has sent Signor Guido Bentivoglio hither to condole. The said Duke through a distemperance in his head is out of his wits. There has been with him Charles O'Connor, the fourth son of the old O'Connor of Ireland, aged about 20. He declared that when a child he was brought to the Queen Dowager in Scotland, with whom he continued nine years, and lately at the coming away of D'Oysel came with him to France; he now submits himself to the Queen, beseeching her to grant him pardon, and permit him to return home. He promises to travail in her service with all his family and friends in Ireland.—Orleans, last of Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 17.
Dec. 31. 833. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. Recapitulates his interviews with the Queen Mother, the King, the Constable, and the King of Navarre, as is contained in his letter to the Queen of the same date; but adding that he begs them not to bring the King of Navarre forward as the author or utterer of anything that passed between them. Sends them a copy of the Emperor's opinion touching the General Council, also a copy of the Bull sent from Rome for the publication of the same at Trent next Easter. Gives similar information touching the Government, the Parliament, the Vidame of Chartres, and Signor Morette, as is contained in his letter to the Queen. He then proceeds thus:
2. The Duke of Savoy takes it strange that the Lords have not answered his letters. The Bishop of Glasgow is one of the principal doers about the Scottish Queen for the matters of Scotland. Understands that the Pope minds to send shortly an Abbot, who is brother to Count Martinego, into England, by the advice of the Emperor and King of Spain, to persuade the Queen to accord and send to the Council; and that the Emperor undertakes to persuade the Princes Protestant to send their legations to the said Council.
3. "Now that death hath thus disposed of the late French King, whereby the Scottish Queen is left a widow, one of the special things your Lordships have to consider, and to have an eye to, is the marriage of that Queen. During her husband's life there was no great account made of her, for that, being under band of marriage and subjection of her husband (who carried the burden and care of all her matters), there was offered no great occasion to know what was in her. But since her husband's death, she hath showed (and so continueth) that she is both of great wisdom for her years, modesty, and also of great judgment in the wise handling herself and her matters, which, increasing with her years, cannot but turn greatly to her commendation, reputation, honour, and great benefit of her and her country. Already it appears that some such as made no great account of her, do now, seeing her wisdom, both honour and pity her. Immediately upon her husband's death she changed her lodging, withdrew herself from all company, and became so solitary and exempt of all worldliness, that she doth not to this day see daylight, and so will continue out forty days. For the space of fifteen days after the death of her said husband, she admitted no man to come into her chamber, but the King, his brethren, the King of Navarre, the Constable, and her uncles; and about four or five days after that was content to admit some Bishops and the ancient Knights of the Order, and none of the younger, saving Martigues, who having done her good service and married the chief gentlewoman of the chamber, had so much favour showed him. The Ambassadors were also lastly admitted as they came, who have all been with her to condole, saving I, which I have forborne to do, knowing not the Queen's pleasure in that behalf."
4. The Ambassador of Spain has been with her above an hour together, which is thought to be for more than the ceremony of condoling required. He has also since that time dined and had great conference with the Cardinal of Lorraine, and though the writer thinks the Council of Spain too wise to think of marrying her to the Prince of Spain without other commodity, yet it is not amiss to hearken to the matter, "for the using herself as she beginneth will make herself to be beloved, and to lack no good means of offers. As long as the matter shall be well handled in England, and that now in time good occasions be not let pass, the King of Spain will have little mind that way. And for my part, I see her behaviour to be such, and her wisdom and kingly modesty so great, in that she thinketh herself not too wise, but is content to be ruled by good counsel and wise men (which is a great virtue in a Prince or Princess, and which argueth a great judgment and wisdom in her), that by their means she cannot do amiss, and I cannot but fear her proceedings with the time, if any means be left and offered her to take advantage by."
5. Understands very credibly that she desires to return to Scotland, but wishes it to be at the request and suit of her subjects, to compass which she has sent Robert Lesley (who pretends title to the earldom of Rothes) to Scotland, to work by such as are hers and of the French faction. Amongst others, she holds herself sure of the Lord James, and of all the Stewarts. She mistrusts none but the Duke of Châtellerault and his party. She nothing doubts to assure to herself with easy persuasion all those who hold themselves neuters, besides the common people, who now, to have their Queen home, she thinks will altogether lean and incline to her. She will demand that the principal forts and holds shall be delivered into her hands, or to such as she shall appoint. She also works that those who shall request her to come home shall also promise all obedience, to whom she will assure all good favour that a Prince can promise to a subject.
6. The Spanish Ambassador has of late visited him, who said that though the Abbot of S. Salute could not be admitted to come into England, yet the Emperor and King of Spain have persuaded the Pope to send thither again to solicit her to send to the said Council. Throckmorton told him that he thought that she would send if it was a free Council, and no prejudice.
7. Being the other day with the Admiral, a French captain named Languedoc told him that Mr. Harleston, late Captain of Ruisbank, was his prisoner, and that he let him go into England upon his faith to return thither again by Easter last, or send 1,500 crowns for his ransom. He prayed Throckmorton as did the Admiral, to write hereof to their Lordships, that he might have reason therein. Sends his request in writing herewith. Hears that the French King is about to change his Ambassador in England; there is some talk of M. De Noailles. On Nov. 6 there passed George Dudley, a Knight of Rhodes (brother to Henry Dudley), coming from Malta; by him Throckmorton wrote to them concerning himself only, and sent the copy of the letter which he received from Sir Francis Inglefield, dated at Rome. Has not yet heard of his arrival.—Orleans, last of December 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 20.
Dec. 31. 834. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. By his letters to the Queen and the Lords, Cecil may perceive the proceedings of the writer and the state of things here since his despatch of Dec. 9. The writer has sent to the Queen his letter to Lethington, unsealed, for her to allow the same; begs Cecil to seal it and send it by his next despatch, and to let Francis Lenant, the Scotch merchant of Edinburgh, perceive that he has done amiss in delivering the packet to the Regent of Scotland, whereby sundry letters addressed to Scotchmen here from their friends are in a way to occasion some trouble. He is a very lewd person; he has the Queen's passports to come and go through England; it will be well to say something of him to those in authority in Scotland. Prays him to help to repair the injury done to M. De Morette, the Duke of Savoy's Ambassador, as since his return he has said very well of Cecil to the great personages here, who have been very curious to know of him touching the Queen, her marriage, and her Council, unto whom he has so behaved himself that Throckmorton must say he is an honest and good-natured man. Has spoken of him to the Queen and Lords.
2. The house of Guise does presently bear small rule; the continuance and hope they have is of the King of Spain, who for religion and other respects will help their credit. The principal managing of affairs is with the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the Constable; therefore the Queen's letters to them, and his instructions who shall come hither, should be framed thereafter.
3. As the King of Spain will earnestly travail to repress religion, so it is the Queen's policy to be as diligent to advance it. He sees that if she does all the good offices that are necessary, the true religion is very like to take place in France, and so throughout all Europe. Has lately addressed himself to the Admiral, who for his virtue and wisdom is much esteemed; he has great credit above all others with the King of Navarre and his uncle, the Constable. Finds by him that if the Queen will put to an earnest mind and hand in this matter, it will be here well accepted and work very good effect.
4. He [the Admiral] thinks the General Council cannot take place, but that the King must assemble a National Council, whereunto. if the Queen send some great learned man, he does not doubt all will be well; in the meantime he wishes good intelligence and mutual conference between the Princes by their ministers. Will declare at good length when he comes home what his discourse was on those matters. Wishes the Queen to write a friendly letter to the Admiral by him who shall come next hither, who should be here before the 18th January, as the Queen of Scots will depart hence for Joinville about the 20th.
5. "But if Her Majesty do so foully forget herself in her marriage as the bruit runneth here, never think to bring anything to pass, either here or elsewhere. I would you did hear the lamentation, the declamation, and sundry affections which hath course here for that matter. Sir, do not so forget yourself as to think you do enough because you do not further the matter; remember your mistress is young, and subject to affections; you are her sworn counsellor, and in great credit with her; you know there be some of your colleagues which have promoted the matter; there is nobody reputed of judgment and authority that doth to Her Majesty disallow it, for such as be so wise as to mislike it, be too timorous to show it; so as Her Majesty's affection doth find rather wind and sail to set it forward than any advice to quench it, my duty to her, my good will to you, doth move me to speak plainly." Prays him to procure the Queen's good grace and clemency upon young Thomas Oliver.
6. Has an inkling of a matter that should have heed taken to it in time. It is no matter that shall be handled by the rulers here, nor does it directly touch this State. One of the best places to decipher it is Venice; Guido Cavalcanti is the fittest to be chosen for that purpose, if he were for a time the Queen's agent to the Signory. The parties who have to do in this matter are these:—the Emperor, the Kings of Spain, Denmark, and Sweden, the Pope, the Queen of Scotland, the Cardinal of Lorraine, and the Dukes of Austria and Guise. The matter is, that the Duke of Austria shall marry the Queen of Scotland, and the Kings of Denmark and Sweden two of the Emperor's daughters. These matters are like to be treated with great secresy. Cavalcanti has great means to know what shall be contrived either at Venice or Rome, and for the time the Queen has need of an instrument which shall be able to tell more than the news of the Rialto, and either Rome or Venice are the places to decipher the secret practices of Princes.
7. The Ambassador of Spain has just visited him, who did, amongst other matters, "earnestly require me to tell him whether the Queen, my mistress, were not secretly married to the Lord Robert; for, said he, I assure you, M. l'Ambassadeur, this Court is full of it, and whatsoever any man doth make your mistress believe, assure yourself there was never Princess so overseen if she do not give order in that matter betimes. The bruits of her doings, said he, be very strange in all Courts and countries. He said the Queen, your mistress, doth show that she hath honour but for a few in her realm, for no man will advise her to leave her folly;—with other things which were grievous for me to hear."
8. Encloses copies of his letters to the Lord Robert Dudley (fn. 5) and the Queen, to remove suspicion of double and indirect dealings.
Copy, slightly injured in the outer margin. Endd.: Ult. Decembris 1560, by Mr. N. Tremaine, and (by Throckmorton's son) Dissuading the dishonourable matching with the Lord of Leicester. Pp. 4.
Dec. 31. 835. Original of the above, as despatched.—Orleans, last of Dec. 1560. Signed.
Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
Dec. 31. 836. Memorial for Throckmorton.
"Things to be answered to the Ambassador in France at the next despatch from the Queen and Council."
1. The Queen to write kind letters to the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the Constable.
2. To write to the Queen of Scotland, if the Queen thinks good.
3. To bring letters to the Cardinals of Lorraine and Tournon, the Duke of Guise, and the Admiral.
4. If the Queen of Scotland is gone to Rheims, or Joinville, before his coming that shall condole, etc., whether he shall go where she shall be?
5. To bring copies of all such letters as the Queen shall write.
6. To know her pleasure for Charles O'Connor's pardon.
7. To remind her for M. De Morette's present, the same to be sent by the next; and such of the Council as the Duke of Savoy wrote to, to be moved whether they will write to him again.
8. To have answer for the acceptation of the new hostages; named Dec. 28.
9. To have answer touching the ransom of Mr. Hurleston, late Captain of Ruisbank.
10. To have answer of his letter to the Queen.
11. To send the Laird of Lethington the said Ambassador's letter.
Endd. Pp. 2.
[Dec.] 837. Government of France.
It is thought the government of affairs shall be ordered thus: the Queen Mother, principal; the King of Navarre, the Cardinals of Lorraine and Tournon, the Duke of Guise, the Constable, the Marshals Brissac and St. Andre and the Chancellor, to be counsellors. Signed: N. Throckmorton.
Orig. Written on a leaf of paper, headed: Practice discovered at Calais. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
[Dec.] 838. The Queen to [the Queen Mother of France]. (fn. 6)
Condoles on the death of the late King and congratulates on the accession of the present King. Is especially glad to be informed by the English Ambassador of the Queen's desire to reform the abuses in religion at present so rife and to endeavour to re-unite Christendom, on which heads the Ambassador will communicate with her more fully.
Copy. Fr. P. 1.
[Dec.] 839. The Queen to [the King of Navarre].
She has commissioned her Ambassador, Throckmorton, to assure him of her desire to support his [the King's] administration of the present government of France along with the Queen Mother. Hopes that they will aim at the reformation of abuses and the union of Christendom.
Draft. Fr. P. 1.
[Dec.] 840. The Queen to [the Constable Montmorency].
She has heard of the valuable services he has rendered to the advancement of true Christianity, and of his efforts for the removal of the great abuses which have been dominant until the present time. Hopes he will persevere in these, aiming at the union of Christendom. She has commissioned her Ambassador to discuss these subjects with him more fully.
Draft. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 31. 841. Jones to Throckmorton.
1. Beseeches him to decipher this letter himself. Directs this letter as it is, for that it is committed to the conveyance of the French Ambassador. Is ready to go to horse towards his old mansion to Drayton. Wrote on Christmas Eve by George Barnesby, Lord Robert's servant. Mr. Secretary is Master of the Wards, and Steward of Westminster, an office worth three hundred marks a-year. He still keeps the privy seal and executes the secretaryship; whereby he declares his ability for execution of many offices without other aid. Thought that some of the windfalls happened by Mr. Treasurer's death would have lighted upon Throckmorton; but there blew so many contrary winds as nothing can pass the sea, nor he come over. Mr. Vice-Chamberlain will be Treasurer and Mr. Wroth Vice-Chamberlain.
2. It is said that Lord Robert about Twelvetide shall be created Earl of Leicester, and his brother Earl of Warwick. Mr. Secretary is the only minister for Lord Robert, and so has been a good time; this comes from a good place, and how it is to be credited the circumstance of some doings can well declare. Fears that Throckmorton's friendliness has at his hands been used thereafter. Asks him to take no knowledge thereof at his hands.
3. Mr. Tamworth has said that all goes well on their side, and that some matters shall come to pass sooner than was looked for; and preachers convert their sermons that we may have no strangers to rule over us. Mr. Killigrew is often with the French here, and knows their occurrents "The Bishops and others of the old crew" will not receive their liberty upon the conditions proposed unto them, and mentioned in his last. My Lady has not yet returned to town.—London, New Year's Eve, 1560. Signed.
Orig. Injured by damp. A few portions in cipher, deciphered. Add.: A M. mon mary, M. De Throckmorton. Endd.: 1 Jan. 1560. Pp. 3.
Dec. 31. 842. Lord Grey to Cecil.
1. Is much comforted by his letter of Christmas Day thanking his diligence "in reformation of Northumberland's disorders." Perceives how Cecil esteems his [Grey's] favour to France and the house of Guise, to whom he bears such good will as they have given him cause. Whereas the writer is required to lay strait watch that the base money should not be gathered and sent into Scotland, it has been one of his chiefest cares; for the more surety whereof he has comforted the soldiers to search the passengers, and has from time to time appointed his own household servants to the same. This he will continue till such time as the Lords of the Council shall appoint a searcher with some reasonable fee.— Berwick, last of December, 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Desires that a Marshal may be sent, as he is left without any man who can counsel discreetly.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Dec. 31. 843. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Wrote on the 17th that the death of the French King might cause the assembly of the Protestant Princes to be postponed; but he has now learnt for certain that they will meet on the 20th Jan. at Naumberg in Thuringia, to the number of three Electors, and twenty-one other Princes. This place is chosen because it is equally convenient for the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, and the Elector Palatine, and also for the Princes of Saxony, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Lunenburg, Hesse, and Anhalt. The Duke of Wurtemberg has determined to set out on the 8th. It is probable that they will deliberate as to the conditions on which they will assent to the General Council, for it is affirmed that the Pope desires that the Council of Trent should be continued; and because the dispute about the mode of the Presence in the Sacrament of the Supper has broken out again, whereupon the Princes will enjoin moderation on their preachers, and that they shall abstain from abusive and libellous words. Desires to be informed speedily whether he is to go to the assembly of the Princes.—Strasburg, 31 Dec. 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—This letter will reach Antwerp by Jan. 6, and the Court four days after; the deliberation and answer will take up four more; the answer will arrive at Antwerp on the 18th and will reach him late on the 25th. It will take him nine days to get to Naumberg, which will make it 4th Feb. It is probable that the Princes will be occupied about fourteen days in their deliberations.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
[Dec.] 844. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
"A brief note of all such sums of money as that I, Thomas Gresham, have received and paid for Your Majesty's behoof since 21 Dec. 1558." viz.:
£ s. d.
Sum total paid 339,996 13 4
Sum total received 337,958 14 0
2,037 19 4
exclusive of charges for transportation of armour. Signed by Gresham.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 1560. Pp. 4.
[Dec.] 845. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
1. Money prolonged and taken up from the payment of the Syngzon Mart, 1560, till the payments of the Cold Marte 1560, being six months.
2. Sum total, with interest and brokerage, 92,232l. 13s. 4d. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
[Dec.] 846. English Ecclesiastics Abroad.
A list of twenty-seven names of Englishmen, chiefly priests and deacons, with sums of thirty or twenty florins placed after their names, being the amount of the alms awarded to them by King Philip. Dr. Story and Henry Jolliffe, almoner to the late Queen Mary, are provided by the King's special letters to the Duke with one hundred florins a-piece out of the abbey of St. Gertrude in Louvain. Mr. Bell is with Lady Dormer. If her Grace likes, the writer will send some of these forms to be corrected and altered, and having been put into Spanish by Mr. Kempe, they may be sent to Gayns to procure it to be signed.
Endd.: Names of certain in Louvain; for the distribution of the King's alms. Pp. 2.
[Dec.] 847. Bond for the Appearance of Lord Grey.
Bond by Sir Walter Ker of Cessford, Sir John Ker of Farnihurst, and Sir Ralph Grey of Chillingham to the Queen in 1,000l. for the surrender of the Lord Gray of Scotland, taken prisoner in the late wars.
Draft. Lat. and Engl. Pp. 3.


  • 1. This and the following document are on the same sheet of paper.
  • 2. Originally: From the tyranny of the Bishop of [See of] Rome.
  • 3. In the fair copy (see next number) "showing no hope of amendment or alteration of his tyranny."
  • 4. "And at the same Council to trap and take such as he shall please into his own hands." Both of these additions are by Cecil.
  • 5. Throckmorton to Lord Robert Dudley.
    Dec. 31.
    Harl. 6990. 2.
    Wright, i. 58.
    Stevenson's Illust.
    1. Since the death of the late King [Francis II.] things proceed so that those that were most desirous to trouble England shall not have so ready means to execute their malice. Trusts this will be no occasion to make her less considerate, or her Council less provident, for assuredly the Queen of Scotland, her cousin, carries herself so honourably, advisedly, and discreetly, that he cannot but fear her progress. It were to be wished that one of these two Queens of the isle of Britain were transformed into the shape of a man, to make so happy a marriage as thereby there might be an unity of the whole isle and their appendances. Whoever is conversant in stories will perceive that estates have by no one thing grown so great, and lasted in their greatness, as by marriages. The proof is notoriously seen by the house of Austria, in whose hands the half of Europe is at this day, which is come to pass by marriage only. Their first ancestor, not many years ago, was a mean Count of Hapsburg in Switzerland. As they have come to this greatness by this means, so that race retains still that principle to retain and increase their greatness. Believes his Lordship shall see it verified, by bestowing of the Prince of Spain and the Emperor's children in marriage.
    2. Lately here [Paris] arrived from thence [Spain] M. De Morette, that was sent in legation from the Duke of Savoy to the Queen. In his [Throckmorton's] simple opinion it was evil forgotten that he had no present; this is a new discourtesy shown to him and to his master that was never used to any Prince or Prince's minister. The honour that his master did to Her Majesty deserved good acceptation. Since his return to this Court he has made so good reports of her, of her Councill, and all her ministers, as he deserves not to be forgotten. Begs his Lordship that the gentleman who shall come hither to condole might bring the said M. De Morette a chain of 400 or 500 crowns from her.—From Orleans, the last day of December 1560.
  • 6. This and the two following letters are written on the same sheet of paper. Endd.: A portion [sic] of those letters that are to be sent from thence hither, if you shall think so good.—N. Throckmorton.