Elizabeth: May 1560, 26-31

Pages 80-91

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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May 1560, 26-31

[May 26.] 130. The Queen to Montague and Chamberlain.
1. Has received their letters of the 29th April, brought by a courier of the King of Spain on the 17th present, wherein she commends their diligence in sending away those advertisements tending to her danger. Trusts that God will not permit such wicked devices to take effect. Requires them to let the Emperor's resident Ambassador, from whom they had the intelligence, understand that she will requite his care of her welldoing by showing any friendship to the Emperor or himself, whom they are so to use as to obtain from him further matter touching the Lord Montague's revocation. She trusts that her letters hereof, being sent to them both by sea and by way of France, before this time be come unto them, and that he is upon the point of departure.
2. There is of late arrived out of France one M. de Randan, who it is said has matter of treaty between her and France; but there have been so many that have made a semblance thereof, that she has no hope that any good will ensue of his coming. If he mean good faith it shall soon be seen what her inclination to concord is, whatsoever the French list to bruit otherwise, so that she may be at surety with France, which is the only mark she shoots at, of which she requires them to persuade the King of Spain and his Councillors. They will perceive more fully her proceedings in Scotland by letters sent from her Council. Trusts either by treaty or otherwise shortly to come to some quiet end there. Her navy goes within six days to Portsmouth, and there it shall remain ready for any manner of service, whereunto the French shall provoke it.
Draft, corrected by Cecil. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: M. from the Queen to Montague and Chamberlain, May 1560. Pp. 4.
May 26. 131. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. This gentleman comes again to her hoping to do great things; he is also addressed to M. de Randan in this matter. Can say no more than what he has already written of these men still sending these small commissions, who thus have already won two or three months at least; which is the only means they practise to serve themselves, either in the meantime to win King Philip, or to be ready themselves.
2. If the French really mean to conclude matters they would not send such mean men, but some great personage, such as the Mareschal S. André; and as they seek to hide their sendings from him and so steal over their ministers without the knowledge of the writer, he believes they mean no better faith by Randan or this man than they did by Sevre or Valence. Advises the Queen that if they continue to send these mean personages with slender commissions without his knowledge, she give them plain warning that she will admit none to her presence.
3. Whereas the King now appoints the Queen Dowager, the Bishop of Amiens, Labrosse, D'Oysell, Randan, and Sevre to talk of these matters if the same be handled on the Borders; if the Queen give ear thereto then she shall cease to prosecute what is now so far forward and also give means to bring those great men out of Scotland, give them time to put soldiers into Scotland, to win King Philip, and make themselves ready.
4. Sends a copy of Valence's offers to the Scotch, as delivered in writing to the Spanish Ambassadors by the Cardinal of Lorraine; which they have sent to the King of Spain. Knows not if the copy be true, but wishes that the King of Spain were advertised of the truth from her, that he may not be led by them and their devices. The Grand Prior is sent for from Marseilles. Fourteen galleys are expected in the narrow seas, but not before the end of August. Hears that Villebon is too weak for them of Rouen, and has been driven from thence. Advises none be admitted to manage this communication but the Ambassador Sevre, the Bishop of Valence, and Randan, for if it be handled at London she will daily see what passes; and otherwise it must be on the Borders, far off, where will be the Queen Dowager, and then Labrosse will find means to come to France. In the meantime the Queen's forces will be wearied with sickness, great charges will grow in length, and worst of all, the Queen will be driven to have an abstinence, and so will Leith make sure work, the French refreshed, and the Queen be farther back than a month ago; which abstinence is by no means to be consented to, till all be concluded. These men are in very evil case, so the Queen may make her bargain the better.
5. Begs her to show the bearer more generous usage than he conceived she did at his last being there. (fn. 1) —Amboise, 26 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 26.
Forbes, 1.492. (fn. 2)
132. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. As Cecil handled this man [Florence Diaceto] very well last time he came, Throckmorton prays him to use him so again, taking care that in talk he receive no taunts or nippes which this time are to be forborne, and whereof he received good store when last in England. Also that he be used as though there is hope of his doing some great thing, for he has, he says, special commission from the Duke and Cardinal to talk with him [Cecil] and the Queen on private matters, and the writer thinks it not amiss he should see the Queen apart. It would be well to talk of the Court, and eschew the match of the Queen Dowager, La Brosse, and such as are in Scotland, and to go on with matters lustily. They will press the Queen for abstinence. The writer has sent Cecil's packets into Spain.
2. Has written to him for a copy of the treaty, if any were made, between France and Scotland, at the time of the marriage. Because the Ambassadors of Spain press much the sight thereof, upon which hangs a great deal of matter, he prays him therefore to send it with all speed.
3. By his letter of the 4th May, Cecil writes these words as answer from King Philip, "that if the Queen do not invade the French, then will King Philip aid her, if she do invade them, then the treaty between France and him will compel him to aid them;" whereby the writer thinks that a league offensive and defensive has been made that he knows not of. If so, mischief is a working, and the Queen should be even with him in time; and therefore the true words of the last treaty should be gotten, if it were possible, and the truth bolted out.
4. Doubts not that the Queen will have regard to the safety of her friends in Scotland, and not consent that the castle of Dumbarton be delivered up to any French or Scotch French for their own safety in England.—Amboise 26 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
[May.] 133. Preliminaries for the Treaty of Edinburgh.
Questions by Cecil, with "Answers to the questions, whereupon the instructions are to be formed."
1. As to the place of meeting?
At Newcastle on the 5th June, and there to accord upon a further place, and so to enter into Scotland or meet upon the frontiers.
2. Whether they shall refuse to have the three Commissioners in the town to confer with their two out of the town, or permit conference betwixt the French in Leith and those without, until the matter be concluded for the departure of the men within the town?
It shall not be suffered, but that conference may be betwixt the Commissioners and the French in Leith, so as no intelligence be given to the French outside.
3. Who shall be the third with them, if the treaty shall be committed to the three within the town ?
Sir Ralph Sadler.
4. Whether the French Commissioners, (Randan and the Bishop of Valence,) shall be suffered to confer with the Queen Dowager at their pleasure?
It shall be suffered, except there appear to the Commissioners cause hurtful thereof.
5. As to the length and manner of the surcease of arms?
At the Commissioners' pleasure, and the grant to be by the Lieutenant in the field.
6. What they shall make the Scots privy to before they enter into talk, and what they shall impart to them? (fn. 3)
To deal plainly with them in the whole matter, according to the directions of the Commissioners.
7. Whether they shall not first require the removing of the forces in Scotland on the French part, and accord to the like on their own parts?
It may be used either at first or otherwise, according to the discretion of the Commissioners.
8. How many French soldiers they shall accord to permit to remain in Scotland, and in what places, and how long?
To accord for the number, places, and time as shall seem meetest to the Scots.
9. In what sort the French shall remove; and what hostages shall be given for their due removing?
To accord thereupon as the time and matter shall seem meet, and hostages to be given for the removing and shipping.
10. What shall be required for the demolition of the fortifications of Leith, Dunbar, Inchkeith, and Eyemouth?
In all saving Eyemouth the opinion of the Scots is to be followed.
11. Whether they shall treat with the French for the government of Scotland, or shall be content that it be between the French and the Scots?
If the French press to treat with the Scots alone, it shall be granted.
12. What they shall do if they are pressed to break the league between the Queen and the Scots?
It may be made an article of request of the Scots to the French that the Queen of England may aid the party that suffers against that which breaks any part of the accord. (fn. 4)
13. Whether they shall break off if the French will neither be content for it to remain, nor that it shall be transformed in certain points, and brought to a pact between the Queen and her nobility, and the French King and Queen and their nobility?
If they will not agree to the pact, then to leave off treaty, and all to be done to retain the hostages of the Scots.
14. Whether they shall require a covenant that the French will not impeach England for anything done hitherto since the last peace, and what they shall require for Calais?
To have the peace newly confirmed, and Calais demanded, and all matters in Scotland passed over; but not to break off if Calais is not restored.
15. What redress they shall seek for the arms and style usurped by the French?
A public revocation of the arms and style, or at least to cease it by treaty.
16. How long the treaty shall continue?
As to the Commissioners shall seem meet.
17. What shall be said to the French in case they shall press the Scots to alter their religion?
To procure the Scots to remain in freedom of their conscience; but to agree that no alteration be made till next Parliament.
18. If it cannot be now, that then it be compassed to be in a contract between the Queens of England and Scotland and the French King, that in case of any violence used against the subjects of Scotland, the Queen of England may defend them in the absence of their Queen.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Pp. 8.
May 26.
Forbes, 1. 494.
134. Instructions for Scotland. (fn. 5)
Instructions given by the Queen to Cecil, Wotton, Sadler, Sir Henry Percy, and Sir Peter Carew, appointed to treat with the French Commissioners.
1. The French King having addressed M. de Randan with commission to the Bishops of Valence and Amiens, MM. d'Oysel, la Brosse, and himself to treat for the pacification between the two kingdoms; she has appointed the above, or any two of them, in the matter above said, and instructs them as follows:—
2. Cecil and Wotton shall repair to Newcastle by the 5th of June, and there meeting the Bishop of Valence and De Randan upon such matter as they shall gather, or that shall be signified to them by the Lords and Council of Scotland, and from the Duke of Norfolk, they shall agree upon a meeting, either within Scotland, or in some place on the frontiers.
3. If the Bishop and De Randan require to confer with the rest of the Commissioners, they being at Leith, it is in no wise to be granted; seeing their commission serves for any two of them. If the French will not yield hereunto, then this offer may be made: that the Commissioners within Leith shall have conference with the English Commissioners near Leith, but in this case, heed must be given that no intelligence of the state of the town grow unto the French without.
4. If the French agree to have the said three Commissioners within Leith communed with, Cecil and Wotton, if they may, shall join unto them Sadler, or in his default any of the other two, to make the third, to treat with the three French Commissioners who are within Leith.
5. If the Bishop and Randan desire to confer with the Queen Dowager of Scotland they shall suffer them so to do, unless they see any reason for the contrary.
6. If the French desire a surcease of arms during the time of the treaty, the same to be granted by the Duke of Norfolk if he be in the field, or by his lieutenant in his absence.
7. That the Lords of Scotland may perceive she means to deal honourably with them, her Commissioners shall confer and open plainly to them her whole meaning in this treaty, or that part which touches the said Lords and their country.
8. As the chiefest means to avoid suspicion, and to grow to a good agreement between the French and English, is to remove the forces of both sides out of Scotland, they shall demand at the first entry into talk of the treaty, to have the said forces removed reciprocally on both sides.
9. If the French press to have some numbers left in Scotland, after conferring with the Lords of Scotland they shall agree with the French thereon, or permit the French to accord with the Scots to have a certain number left in such places as will not affect the safety of their kingdom or England.
10. If the removing on both sides be agreed upon, they may accord with the French of the time and manner of removing, and other points; and if necessary hostages shall be given for the performance of all covenants tending as well to the removing of the force as for any other matter of the treaty.
11. They shall travail to bring the French to agree to have certain fortifications within the realm razed, as the Scots shall notify. The opinion of the Scotch is to be followed in all the rest, except for Eyemouth; the demolition whereof they must earnestly press, if it be not already well demolished; but they shall impart the same to the Scots.
12. If the French refuse to treat with her Commissioners for the governance of Scotland, but prefer treating with the Scots themselves, the English shall agree thereto, after having given their good advice to the Scots.
13. They shall use their best means for the French to allow the league between Scotland and England to continue as at present, or if it cannot be brought to pass, that at least the substance thereof, tending to the preservation o[...] the liberties of Scotland, may be agreed by contract between her and the French King and the Queen of Scots, and the nobility of Scotland; so that if either of the realms be invaded by strangers, or any violence used or prepared to the subjects thereof to the subversion of the liberties of the same, a mutual defence of either of the kingdoms and subjects of Scotland may be, during the absence of the Queen of Scotland out of that realm. But if the French will not agree to it they shall forbear to deal with them in this matter any further, and forthwith certify the Queen.
14. They shall require that the peace and treaty at Cateau Cambresis be newly confirmed; shall demand the restoration of Calais; and that all matters done by her in Scotland be passed over. If the English agree with the French in the rest, they shall not break off for the not restoring of Calais, although they shall use all the vehemency they can to obtain it.
15. They shall press that a public revocation be made of usurpation of the Queen's title by the French King and Queen, in France and in Scotland; and if that cannot be brought to pass, that the French King and Queen shall revoke it in the treaty and be bound by covenant not to use the same again, upon breach of treaty.
16. (fn. 6) If the Scots cannot obtain to live in freedom of their conscience, they are to persuade the French that they may so do, or at least that the penalty of the laws may be suspended against such as shall live according to their conscience, and so remain until the next Parliament in Scotland; whereunto if the French will not be induced, and the Scots will not therein accord with the French, then the English Commissioners shall forbear to conclude with the French.
17. If the English shall commune with the three Commissioners that are now in Leith, they shall permit the other two, or the Dowager, to write to them in that behalf, and answer also to be given thereto, so that they be privy to the letters; and if any of the three shall be out of the town their Commissioners shall also confer with them; with provision that none of them shall enter again until the matter be fully accorded.
18. (fn. 7) If during the treaty it shall appear that any matter shall be further requisite to be concluded that may tend to the conservation of amity betwixt her realm and Scotland, they shall proceed therein as to their wisdoms shall seem meetest; and as many occurrences may arise unthought of now, and as it shall not be convenient to use delay in sending here, she will approve their proceedings therein, trusting to their discretion and fidelity.
Orig. draft, with corrections and additions by Cecil. Pp. 12.
May 26. 135. Another copy of the above, embodying Cecil's alterations. Pp. 7.
May 27. 136. Levies for Berwick.
"A supply of men appointed to repair to Berwick by the Queen's letters of the 27th May" [1560], amounting to 2,900, with a statement of the counties whence drawn.
Endd. Pp. 2.
[May 28.] 137. Sir John Mason to Cecil.
1. Bids him farewell by writing. Cecil knows the blessings of peace. Thus much shall England gain if at this time they can make a reasonable bargain that King Philip (who now alleges the invasion by the English and therefore his bond by treaty to aid their adverse party) shall agree that whensoever the French shall break with England, he shall be bound to help England against them; or else show the world that he uses arguments as the same may best make for his purpose. This makes the writer wish some good end to follow of this assembly.
2. Would be glad to do him service during his absence; until his return the writer means to be no great courtier. Has had no small grief and vexation at the hands of some of whom he never deserved anything but favour and friendship; but now thanks God that he has digested it with other worldly things, reposing himself upon a true, upright, and unaccused conscience.—"Scribbled in haste, whilst I stood in contention with myself whether I were better to do this office in person or by writing, at my poor house this [blank] day of May 1590" [sic]. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil: 28 May, John Mason. Pp. 4.
May 28. 138. Intelligence from Germany.
1. Looks for intelligence whether he [Earle] shall proceed further with the nobility there. Tells his master that his long stay is wholly occupied in his business. He dare undertake to discover all the doings in Hamburg, alleging them to be worth understanding. For the better accomplishing whereof it is necessary for him to insinuate himself into the favour of the principals, which he thinks easy through the trade of merchandise he follows, the keeping them company when they are drunk, and to use liberality towards the secretaries. If within six weeks after the date of his letter he have no answer, he asks to be allowed to return home again.
2. A certain fellowship of Lubeck merchants has proffered to serve the Queen at Hamburg, with cables as good as any made at Dantzic, and cheaper by 10s. Flemish the ship pound, which contains 200 lbs.; this will avoid the bondage of the King of Denmark's straits: they will deliver them tarred, raw, or in yarn. Also, that the Queen's agent may provide munitions, especially saltpetre, long courriers and short, saddle pieces, and such other provision as is had out of Germany, shipping them from Hamburg and Bremen.
3. One Colonel Uxell was slain in Westphalia on the 18th of May by the King of Denmark's authority; he was confederate with Frederick Spitz, and had persuaded the Ditmarshers to a new rebellion, and turned other Princes against Denmark; letters were found about him which discovered many practices of Sweden, the Prince of Lorraine and Count Palatine; his commission gave him credit to levy 5,000 swartzritters, and (as the talk was) under the Queen's name. The King of Denmark prepares certain ships to come into England, but through the greatness of the number of lanzknechts, ritters, and munitions, it is thought to be for the west Germans. The preparation is for twenty-four tall ships of war. The men of war in Germany hope for war, in that the Duke of Brunswick has had newly made in his castle of Wolfenbuttel, thirty-five footmen's ensigns. A disputation was instituted in Bremen against Albert Hardenbergen, a sacramentary, but deferred to a more convenient time.
4. Melancthon is dead, and John Alasco is lately dead.
5. Westphalus of Hamburg never ceases in open pulpit to rail upon England, and spares not the chiefest magistrates, and is still permitted without check.
Endd.: In Herles letter of the 28th May 1560. Pp. 4.
May 29. 139. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote to him on the 27th with a letter from his friend Jasper Schetz. Encloses a letter from Waddington written in Groningen, by which he will perceive there are no men of war in Friesland or Guelderland. Has shipped this day four or five pieces of velvet of pile and a half, and 120 ells of crimson velvet, and desires the Queen's warrant for any more that she may want to buy.
2. Count Elverstein, the Emperor's Ambassador, departed this day to Brussels to the Regent, who spoke much honour of the Queen and her royal entertainment, lamenting that she was not minded to marry. All men of experience wish that Don Carlos might be the man. He likewise spoke much honour of Lord Robert Dudley, and desired his commendations to him, Sir T. Parry, Cecil, and Lady Cecil; what great cups of wine went out upon this recommendation he will not molest him with. There is news that the French King has gone to Newhaven to see his men of war shipped for Scotland.—Antwerp, 29 May 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Begs him to remember Paulus van Dall with a letter of thanks. Is informed that the Emperor is sore sick of a quartan ague.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: Received 3 June 1560. Pp. 2.
May 30. 140. Hampton to Cecil.
The Queen, understanding that Cecil means to depart on his journey this day and lie at Ware this night, directs him to write to inform her how he finds himself. She also begs him to remember the last words she spake unto him. And further, as she considers the appointing of Sir Henry Percy as a commissioner "and the leaving out of the party you wot of," (so she willed Hampton to write) may cause the same to think he is mistrusted, and thereby occasion him to attempt some desperate enterprise, and though the commission cannot be altered, yet for the satisfaction of her mind she desires to know Cecil's opinion whether it would not have been better if the same had been named as a commissioner, so that he might not have had liberty to do any hurt. Begs Cecil to excuse his enforced ambiguity. The Queen desires his answer, especially about his health. The Earl of Pembroke and the Treasurer send their commendations.—Greenwich, 30 May 1560. Signed.
Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[May.] 141. An Alternative Discourse as well on the Part of England as France.
1. Considering that the French King and his wife have pretended title to England, and notified the same to the world by all manner of means possible, and considering they have so ready a way to invade England by having power in Scotland, it is necessary not only that this pretence be falsified to the world, but that the realm of Scotland be so governed that no force of men of war be suffered to remain, nor any places of strength or receipt of strength by sea be suffered to remain in their hands. Though this may seem strange, those that have done so great a wrong must be content to render either amends, or grant to such conditions as may assure England not to fear the like.
On the French Part.
2. If the bearing of the arms and title be ceased, and the French removed out of Scotland, saving 400 or 500, then need no invasion be doubted; adding thereto, the Scots coming to their obedience, they may have all things pardoned, and the governance committed to some French and Scots mixed together.
Replication on the Part of England.
3. There will be no cause to keep men of war in Scotland when all things past are pacified.
Questions to be answered for the Commissioners sent to Scotland.
4. What shall be required of the French for using the arms of England? for removing their forces out of Scotland, the demolition of Leith, and for the confirmation of the bond between the Queen and Scotland, and of the peace of Cambray, and the redemption of Calais?
Draft. In Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: Memorial, May 1560. Pp. 3.
[May.] 142. Memoranda for Cecil.
Mr. Secretary is required to consider—
1. The new fortifying and victualling of Edinburgh Castle.
2. Whereupon, and by other parts of the letters intercepted, may be gathered that that castle [makes] some account to keep that piece. To cause my Lord of Norfolk to write to Winter to take heed to his charge.
Rough notes on the back of a letter. P. 1.
[May.] 143. The Queen's Loan from Flanders.
Bond of the Queen for the repayment of 23,359 florins borrowed by the Queen from John Pymells, merchant of Augsburg.—Westminster, [blank] May 1560.
Draft. (fn. 8) Endd. Lat. Pp. 7.
[May.] 144. The Queen's Loan from Flanders.
Bond of the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London for the repayment of 23,359 florins borrowed by the Queen from John Pymells.—Guildhall, [blank] May 1560.
Draft. (fn. 9) Endd. Lat. Pp. 7.
[May.] 145. The French Hostages.
Letters had been written to the French King, or rather to the Guises, saying that the three hostages, Count St. Maur, the Baron de Ponte, and the Vidame of Amiens, attended the preachings in the French Church in order to draw them into disgrace and hinder their return. The King and the Guises are consequently much incensed against them. It is thought that these letters have been written by the Count de Roussy, and the French Ambassador, who are hostile to them; it is certain that one Combes, who calls himself a servant of the Ambassador, and belongs to the Corporation of London, has written much to the French Court about these matters. The King and the Guises have accordingly resolved to delay their return, and have threatened that when they return they shall be severely punished, because by their example they confirm the Queen in her accursed religion, and persuade her that many of the chief people in France are of the same way of thinking; which is likely to be of great misfortune. The Guises therefore said that they should leave these three, but recall De Roussy as soon as possible. This also explains why the terms of the treaty have not been carried out respecting the hostages. It is asked whether this should be passed over in silence, or whether the Ambassador in France should not be ordered to look after the Queen's interests.
Endd.: To Mr. Secretary for the French Pledges. Lat. Pp. 2.


  • 1. This last passage is not printed by Forbes; it is in Throckmorton's writing.
  • 2. Forbes used the original draft, which he found among Throckmorton's papers.
  • 3. Here occurs the following entry, which is cancelled:—What we shall require for redress of usurpation of the title and arms of England.
  • 4. This answer is apparently cancelled.
  • 5. Another copy occurs in the B. M. Cal. B. ix. 118, the original; and a copy by Cotton's transcriber, Cal. B. ix. 149.
  • 6. This article, as originally drawn, stood thus:—"Item, our said Commissioners shall travail by all the best means they can devise to procure that the Scots may be suffered to remain in the freedom of their conscience without breaking of common tranquillity, on which point our Commissioners shall earnestly stick, and either bring the French to agree [yield] thereunto, or at the least that no alteration, or else not to agree [accord] with them at all; and yet in the end to agree that no alteration be made, but that all things may remain in case as they be, until the next Parliament there." Cecil cancelled the whole and substituted the clause as it now stands. He had previously written two marginal notes opposite the article: "Note; it were best that this article were turned for the Scots.—Query; if the French will not agree?"
  • 7. From this point to the end is in Cecil's hand.
  • 8. Adapted from a previous draft, dated at Greenwich, 1550.
  • 9. Adapted from a previous bond, dated [blank] May 1550.