Elizabeth: July 1561, 26-31

Pages 198-217

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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July 1561, 26-31

July 26. 334. Guillaume Heusey to Throckmorton.
Thanks him for his letters. Intends to go into England within a fortnight, and after visiting London will go and see all his relatives. Will carry letters for him. Has given the bearer, M. Jacques, two table napkins for Lady Throckmorton. Will write from England, and on his return. Desires him to send the names of all the Heuseys in England.— Valferrant, 26 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: Lettres de Guillem Heusey, Seigneur De Valferrant. Fr. Pp. 2.
[July 26.] 335. Throckmorton to [Leicester].
His Lordship has seen what he has written to Mr. Secretary of Captain Melchior's Portuguese offer. Mr. Secretary answers that the same is accepted, and that his Lordship, the Lord Mayor, and Mr. Carret will give the adventure. Has warned the Portuguese to be in order to come to him out of hand, which he promised to do. He will bring of his own nation, Spaniards, and one French, the cunningest in navigation, he saith, of Christendom, and one Englishman as interpreter. Though he doubts not that his Lordship has given orders to the Lord Mayor what the said Melchior is to do (for that he will not be there this progress time), yet he reminds him, lest if he have not so done, Melchior should come after the Court to seek him out. He recommends his good usage. As for the tin and iron his Lordship minded to send, Melchior says the same may be in such blocks and bars as the English merchants cast theirs in. At his coming will send letters. Refers him to his despatches to the Queen and Council.
Copy. Pp. 2.
July 26. 336. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. Received the Queen's and their letter on the 17th, but according to his instructions he did not accomplish the contents until M. D'Oysel had delivered the Queen's letters to the French King, the Queen of Scots, and the Queen Mother, on the 20th. Nevertheless, on the 18th, he required audience of the French King, and on the same day repaired to the Court at St. Germain, where the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and sundry other great personages were in the place of state to hear what he had to say to the King her son, who was absent, to whom he declared the Queen's pleasure touching the acceptation of the hostages signified in her letter of the 17th of June. For answer whereunto the Queen Mother said that she marvelled that the Queen made now more stay to receive her son's hostages than she had done heretofore; for from the beginning since they were sent into England, neither her husband nor her late son either recommended them by their letters or caused him [Throckmorton] to do so; but their presentation by their Ambassador in England sufficed. Throckmorton answered that they were hostages for a matter of some moment, and if they had neither the King's or his assurance for their validity, some unmeet persons might be sent. Yet it was not for this reason that the Queen required the manner of recommending the sufficiency of the hostages, but rather because a friendly and sincere fashion of dealing should be betwixt the King and her. He also said that the King had notified to him and the Earl of Bedford the names of some of the hostages, as the Count of Benon, as M. De Sault would inform her, so that this motion need not seem strange for the newness. The Queen Mother replied that as the Queen required it from henceforth it should be done.
2. Having intelligence that M. D'Oysel had advertised the Queen of Scotland by Rollot, her secretary, on the 17th instant, of her answer, and hearing also sundry praises and discourses of the same, he sent to Dampierre to require audience of the Queen, which she appointed on the afternoon of the 20th at St. Germain. She was accompanied at Dampierre by the Cardinals of Lorraine and Guise, and by the Duke of Guise; there was also the Duke of Nemours, who the same day arrived in post out of Savoy. On the 20th he had access to the said Queen, with whom he found M. D'Oysel talking, when he entered her chamber, whom she dismissed and rose from her chair when she saw Throckmorton. He told her that the Queen had not thought good to suffer M. D'Oysel to pass into Scotland, or to satisfy her desire for her passage home; neither for such other favours as she required to be accommodated withal, inasmuch as she had not accomplished the ratification of the treaty accorded by her deputies in July, now twelve months past, at Edinburgh, notwithstanding the many promises made in her husband's time and since; and that it was agreed by her Commissioners to be ratified within sixty days; so as upon these unamicable and indirect dealings, the Queen has refused her these favours. Nevertheless, the Queen had commanded him to tell her that if she ratified the treaty, as she was in honour bound to do, the Queen would not only give her free passage, but also be most glad to see her pass through her realm.
3. Having said thus much to her, the Queen of Scots sat down and made him sit by her. She then commanded all the audience to retire further off, and said that she knew not well her own infirmity, nor how far she might with her passion be transported; but she liked not to have so many witnesses of her passions as his mistress had when she talked with M. D'Oysel. Nothing grieved her more than that she had so forgotten herself as to require of his mistress that favour which she needed not ask. She might pass well enough home to her own realm without the Queen's passport or licence, for though King Henry used all the impeachment he could to stay her and catch her when she came hither, yet she came safely; and she might have as good means to help her home if she would employ her friends. She was so far from evil meaning to the Queen of England that at this time she was more willing to employ her amity to stand her in stead than all the friends she had, and yet she had both in France and elsewhere friends who would be glad and willing to employ their forces to aid her. Throckmorton had often told her that the amity between her and Elizabeth was very necessary to both; she had now some reason to think that his mistress was not of that mind, for if she were, she would not have refused her thus unkindly; and it seemed that she made more account of the amity of her disobedient subjects than of their Sovereign. She perceived that the Queen of England thought that because her subjects had done her wrong, her friends and allies would forsake her also. Indeed, the Queen gave her cause to seek friendship where she did not mind to ask it. She desired him to let his mistress think how strange it would be thought amongst all Princes and countries that she [Elizabeth] should first animate her subjects [Mary's] against her, and now, being a widow, impeaches her going into her own country. For her part she asks nothing but friendship; she does not trouble her State, or practise with her subjects, and yet she knows that there be in her realm that are inclined enough to hear offers, who are not of her mind, either in religion or other things. The Queen says that she is young and lacks experience, yet she has age enough and experience to use herself towards her friends and kinsfolk friendly and uprightly; and trusts that her discretion will not so fail her that her passion shall move her to use other language of her than becomes a Queen and her next kinswoman. She further said that she was allied and friended as she was, and that her heart was not inferior to hers, so as an equal respect might be had on both parts. She also told him that the accord was made in her husband s time, by whom she was governed, and for the delays used then she was not to be charged; and since his death, her interest failing in the realm of France, she left to be advised by the Council of France, and they left her also to her own counsel. Her uncles, being of the affairs of that realm, did not think meet to advise her; neither do her subjects think that she should be advised other than by the Council of her own realm; and as the matter touches them as well as her by the wisest of them, and she had often told him, she said that as soon as she had their advices she would send reasonable answer. Now that she is about to hasten home, to the intent that the matter may be answered, the Queen of England will not suffer her, or him whom she sent, to pass into her realm. It seems, therefore, that she will be the cause why this matter is not satisfied, or else she likes to make it a cause of quarrel. His mistress has said that she was young; she might as well say that she was as foolish as young, if in the State and country she was in she proceeded in such a matter without counsel. That which was done by her late husband must not be taken to be her act, so that neither in honour or conscience was she bound to perform all that he commanded. She never meant more harm to the Queen of England than to herself. She desired to know the matter that so offended the Queen, his mistress, to make her thus evil affected towards her, as she never did her wrong, either in deed or speech.
4. Throckmorton answered that having declared his charge he had no more to say, but to desire to know her answer for the ratification of the treaty. She answered that she had already told him that she could not proceed therein without the advice of the nobles and Estates of her realm, which she could by no means have until she came amongst them. Since the King's death none had come but such as came about their private business, or who dared not stay in Scotland. She again desired to know how this strange affection in his mistress arose, to the intent she might reform herself if she had failed. He replied that he had already declared the cause of her miscontentation; but he would without instruction by way of discourse tell her further. He then said that she had quartered the arms of England with her own, which she had not done in Queen Mary's time, and used the style and title of England. She said that she was then under the commandment of King Henry and of her husband; and that since their deaths she had neither borne the arms or used the title of England; and that she thought that this ought to satisfy the Queen, his mistress, that this was done by those that had commandment over her, and that Elizabeth ought to be satisfied, seeing that she [Mary] ordered her doings as she did. Besides it were no great dishonour to her if she, a Queen, also bore the arms of England, for some inferior to her and not so well apparented bore the same; and she assured him that she never thought or meant anything against the Queen. Indeed she would be loath to do others wrong or to suffer too much herself; and begged him to behave like a good minister, whose part was to make things rather better than worse.
5. The same day after this audience, Throckmorton required an audience with the French King, which was assigned to him on the 21st, at which time he set forth, according to his instructions to the Queen Mother, the good reasons that moved the Queen of England to refuse her safe-conduct to the Queen of Scotland, and why she did not accommodate her with such favours as she required in her passage, and why she sent D'Oysel back again. The Queen Mother said that she and her son were sorry to hear of the refusal of the safe-conduct to her daughter-in law, as this might be an occasion of further unkindness, and so prove a cause and entry into war. They were both cousins and neighbours, and had great friends and allies, so that it might chance that more unkindness might ensue than could be wished for. She perceived that the matter of this unkindness was grounded upon the delay of the ratification of the treaty, and the Queen of Scots has declared that she stays the same until she may have the advice of her own subjects, wherein the Queen Mother thought that she acted discreetly for many respects. Her uncles, being subjects and Councillors of the King of France, were not the meetest to give her counsel in this matter; and her subjects would neither like nor allow that she should resolve without their advice in matters of consequence. She therefore thought that the Queen of England ought to be satisfied, and accommodate her with such favour as she demanded.
6. Throckmorton answered that his mistress trusted that she would interpret the matter as favourably on her part as on the Queen of Scotland's, and that she would consider how much it imported her not to suffer so dangerous a matter to pass unprovided for. It seemed by the many delays that the Queen of Scotland has not meant so sincerely as the Queen of England; for by this time she might have known the minds of her subjects in Scotland, if she had liked to propound the matter to them. There had been since the King's death two or three assemblies of the nobles of Scotland, and this matter was never put forth amongst them; also hither had come many of sundry estates, and some that the Queen sent with commission thither, as the Laird of Findlater, to treat on her behalf with the Estates; so if she had been minded to end this matter of the treaty she might have her subjects' advice. Thereto the Queen Mother said that she would be glad to do good between the two Queens, and to hear that there was good amity between them, and that she, her son and his Council, would not show themselves other than friends to both in the matter.
7. After this Throckmorton took his leave of her and addressed the same speech to the King of Navarre; adding, that the Queen did not doubt of his good acceptation of her proceedings with the Queen of Scotland; and that for her purpose of having reason at all times with the Queen of Scotland, it were better that she were in her own country than here. The said King conceived that the Queen need not doubt that the King of France would show himself more affectioned in this matter to the Queen of Scotland than to her.
8. Taking his leave of the King he went to the Constable and declared to him the same, who humbly thanked the Queen for communicating her affairs to him. As for the matter of the Queen of Scotland, he trusted that time would repair these unkindnesses. He said that he would never give other advice to the King, but such as should increase the good amity betwixt him and her.
9. To the intent that the writer might better decipher whether the Queen of Scotland minded to continue her voyage, he repaired to her on the same day to take his leave of her; and declared to her that, inasmuch as he was Ambassador to her as well as to the French King, and hearing that she meant to take her voyage shortly, he thought it his duty to take his leave of her, and was sorry that she had not given the Queen so good occasion of amity that he could not conveniently wait on her to her embarking. The said Queen answered that if her preparations were not so much advanced, peradventure his mistress's unkindness might stay her voyage; but now she was determined to adventure the matter whatsoever came of it. She trusted that the wind would be so favourable that she need not come on the coast of England; and if she did, then the Queen, his mistress, would have her in her hands to do her will of her: and if she was so hard-hearted as to desire her end, she might then do her pleasure and make sacrifice of her. "Peradventure that casualty might be better for me than to live; in this matter, quoth she, God's will be done." Throckmorton answered that she might amend all this matter if she would, and find more amity of the Queen and her realm than of any other Prince or country. The Queen said that she thought that she had offered and spoken what might have sufficed the Queen of England, if she would take anything well at her hands; and trusted that for all this they would agree better than some would have them. For her part, she would not take all things at the worst, and hoped that the Queen would do the like, whereof she did not doubt, if ministers did no harm between them. And so the said Queen embraced him.
10. Hears that Villegaignon and Octavian have the principal order of her voyage, and mean to sail along the coast of Flanders, and so strike over to the north part of Scotland as the wind shall serve. She once meant to use the next pas sage, but now dares not trust the Duke of Châtellerault nor the Earl of Argyle. Hears that she desires to borrow of the French King 100,000 crowns, to be paid out of her dowry, which is 28,000 crowns by the year. The Queen Mother is willing to help her, but the King of Navarre seeks to abridge the sum.
11. Is constrained to dislodge from Poissy for the assembly of the clergy, who meet at the end of the month; and the Ambassadors are now appointed to lodge at Paris. (fn. 1)
12. The morrow after his last audience the Constable sent him a pasty of a stag, and a warrant to hunt at his pleasure in the Bois de Vincennes, where he is a captain. He desires that some of their Lordships will bestow some greyhounds on him.
13. Hears that in Gascony the people stir apace for religion, as they do in many other places; and being assembled to the number of 4,000 have entered a town, thrown down the images, and put out the priests, and will suffer no Mass to be said there. There is a bruit that the Turk is greatly impeached, both by a sort of Jews within his own country, and also by the Sophy. (fn. 2) —Paris, 26 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 13.
July 26. 337. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Received the Queen's packet of the 14th July by Francisco on the 18th, with two letters from Cecil of the 14th and 15th.
2. Marvels at this resolution upon the Queen of Scots' demand for passage, and the rather for that by all former writings it seemed that the Queen was minded to have her go home and be advised by the counsellors of her own nation; whereby many occasions of practice and unquietness might be taken away, which her being here might work, both by the heads of such as here she is ruled by, and also by the solicitations of such Princes as like to entertain cumber and be desirous of her. Muses somewhat at Cecil's writing that their friends in Scotland most allow this resolution, seeing that the Lord James at his late being here wrought what he could, and in the same mind has continued to persuade the said Queen to come home. If he be now of another mind, Throckmorton does not know what he means; but if he persists in his former opinion, then it is to be feared lest they offend more than the Queen of Scotland. Notwithstanding the Queen's answer to M. D'Oysel, the said Queen continues in her intended journey.
3. Has declared to Captain Melchior, the Portuguese, the acceptation of his offer, who puts himself in order to depart home out of hand with seven or eight persons, some of them Portuguese, some Spaniards, and some French, all cunning in navigation, as he says. He brings with him an Englishman, who has been a soldier in Spain, to be his "trucheman." As for the tin and iron, he says that the tin may be well carried in blocks of five cwt. or six cwt., and the iron may be in long or short bars as they come from the forge, or as they may be best bestowed in the ship. He says that the place where he would go is not thirty leagues from the Straits towards Cape Verde; the "Sheriffe" is King thereof. As the Queen is on her progress from London, Throckmorton has addressed the captain to the Lord Mayor, and therefore it will be well for the Lord Admiral to leave orders as to what he shall do at his coming. He makes his account to be principal captain of the ship, otherwise he will not take upon him the voyage; and he says that the Kings of Susa and Morocco would not gladly have to do at first with any other. He forgets not his reputation more than a Portuguese can; but remembers that he has been the French King's Ambassador to the said "Sheriffe," and has had the captaincy of three or four ships in sundry voyages.
4. There are very great bruits of the rebels' prosperity in Ireland, and of their great victories; desires therefore to know the truth of the matter. As to the secret matter conmunicated by Cecil to him to accord the two Queens, he must say that it seems for both very profitable, honourable, and without danger. Whensoever the matter shall be handled, there are some provisions to be considered for the Queen's surety, and other circumstances well weighed for the commodity of the realm of England. Returns him his own words. "This matter is too big for weak folk, and too deep for simple."
5. His [Cecil's] son will be placed at the beginning of the next month where he will have less occasion to speak English. They can as yet agree no better cheap for the diet and lodging of Mr. Cecil, (Mr. Windebank, his servant and lackey, having their chamber, fuel, and candles,) than twenty-five French crowns a month; but he trusts that with this cost, he will be so well treated that they will not think the charge evil bestowed. Upon his late presentation of Mr. Cecil to the Queen of Scots before this unpleasant news came, she said that if he proved as wise as his father the one might be glad of the other; for though she had never seen his father, yet she had heard of him, and did not let to say that the Queen had a very good servant in him. Will send the Queen's packet into Spain. Chamberlain is more happy or more beholden to his friends than the writer is, in being revoked. As he hears of no equipage or force by sea in readiness to impeach the Queen of Scots' passage, or make that good which M. D'Oysel reported that she said, which was that she would provide to keep her from passing home, he thinks it would have been better if no such thing had been said, but passage granted. If no provision be made to impeach her in deed, at least it were to some purpose that some bruit of some preparation were made, to the intent the world may see that they do not brag, but speak in good earnest. Warns Cecil against bringing themselves to be noted boasters. Would not counsel the Queen to be at great cost, as the certainty of the Queen of Scots' journey is not yet known, or the place of her embarking; albeit she makes presently a show that she would embark at Dieppe, and sends certain of her train and baggage to Newhaven. The Lord Admiral and Lord Warden may find means to give the Queen more certain intelligence than he can. Thinks that the Queen of Scotland does not mean to embark until she may hear how all things are in readiness to impeach her, for which purpose she goes to Calais (fn. 3) to linger there; and it may chance that she will go into Flanders, where she looks to find great favour.
6. As he despatched this bearer, he heard that he might somewhat suspect his safe passage, but the fair weather that he has received at the hands of the French animates him to think the intelligence more suspicious than true; nevertheless he has by other means given him to understand of this despatch, and desires to know of its safe arrival.—Paris, 26 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
7. P. S.—If they mean to catch the Queen of Scots, their ships must search and see all, for she means rather to steal away than to pass with force. Forwards a letter from the Lord of St. Colms to Lord James.
July 26. 338. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Since the Queen will not trust only to the auditors' declarations for any sale of lands, it will be Michaelmas term before any new certificates can be made, which shall be done for the manor that Bavand desires to purchase. Sends Jenyson's bill of the Queen's charges in Berwick from Michaelmas to Midsummer 1561. Is clearing off the pay, and hopes to have a great part of the workmen discharged at Michaelmas till next spring. Perceives that the monthly charge is 681l. 19s. 3d., which is too great. The victuals must also be renewed, else neither workmen nor soldiers can tarry there. The Queen must take up more money by exchange, to her great loss and increase of the debt, which in time will impoverish the realm, and she must first bring herself from debt to treasure, and then spend as need shall require. Trusts against Michaelmas to have money to discharge half the charge at Berwick, which shall be rebated when the pay shall be made. When the works are discharged, the quarriers, hard hewers, and lime burners shall be kept, and all the others discharged till next summer.—26 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
July 27. 339. The Chancellor of Sweden to Cecil.
1. Objects (as he had done on the previous day verbally) to a clause in the safe-conduct which the King of Sweden wishes to be renewed, in which it is said that the King is not to come into England in warlike guise, as this may prevent his coming with a suitable train. The writer therefore asks that it may be altered.—London, 6 Cal. Aug. 1561. Signed: Nich. Guildenstarn.
2. P. S.—Separate enclosure, signed by Martin Helsinger, asking for a safe-conduct in order to leave England.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 4.
July 27. 340. Gresham to Cecil.
Encloses a letter from Dr. Mount, and another from his factor, Richard Clough. Perceives the Lord Treasurer can do nothing more with the staples than for their custom, which they will pay in Antwerp on the last of August; therefore his Lordship is practising with the merchant adventurers for taking up 10,000l. for a longer time upon interest, wherein Cecil must write most effectually, for it concerns the Queen's credit. Received Cecil's letter and cannot send any particulars touching his account, because it is kept beyond the seas, having bespoken him six velvet and six leather chairs, which account he will bring home with him. Asks Cecil to have him in remembrance for passing his account upon his return to Enfield; and to address his letters to Sir Walter Mildmay. Sends his commendations to the Lord Admiral and Sir Francis Knowles.—London, 27 July 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
July 27. 341. Complaints against the Grahams.
The Queen grants a commission to the Master of the Rolls and Sergeant Carne to inquire into the complaints against the Graemes. If nothing will satisfy the Master of Maxwell but to have the extremity of the law against them, they are to answer for all offences committed in time of peace until September last, according to the old customs of the Border; and for all attempts since, according to the new orders made betwixt the Wardens. If Sir Thomas Gargrave or Sir John Forster are there with them, they are to join them in this commission.
Draft, corrected by Cecil and endd. by his secretary: 27 July 1561. Pp. 3.
[July.] 342. Survey of the Duchy of Lancaster.
Memorial for Sir William Cordall, master of the Rolls, and Thomas Carne, giving them commission to survey her castles and manors in the duchy of Lancaster, which the Chancellor of the duchy, Sir Ambrose Cave, cannot do by reason of sickness.
If they come to the West Borders they shall survey the lands of the duchy in the occupation of the Graemes, and examine their lease; and also consider where convenient residences may be procured for the Wardens of the East and Middle Marches, and the keepers of Tynedale and Reedsdale.
Draft, in Cecil's hol Endd. Pp. 4.
July 28. 343. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Encloses a proclamation which the Admiral sent him, in which the King commands all such his subjects to come to the assembly of his prelates at Poissy as have anything to say on the matters which shall be there proponed. And for that the Admiral is informed that there is a French minister in the French church at London, of whom he has a very good opinion, he has sent to bring him hither, and has required Throckmorton to accompany his messenger with his letters to the Queen to give the said minister a passport; which he has done. The minister's name is M. De Sau, or Sault. The French King is minded to admit none to this assembly but of his own subjects, thereby to give the Pope no suspicion or jealousy.
2. On the 26th of July he despatched Francisco with advertisement of his negociations with the Queen of Scotland. As far as he can learn, her embarkment shall be at Calais. At the despatch hereof the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise were fallen sick at Meru, (11 leagues out of this town,) the Queen of Scots being there on her journey, which chance has stayed her.—Paris, 28 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 28. 344. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Informs him of the King's intentions with respect to the assembly at Poissy, and of the Admiral's desire that M. De Sault should come over. For that he is like to find hard parties here, it were not amiss that he conferred with some in England before he come over who are acquainted with such controversies; and also bring with him some short collections of the ancient writers, both in the Greek and Latin Churches, concerning their opinions for the matters presently in controversy; for Throckmorton perceives that the adversaries mean to arm themselves with them and the Councils.—Paris, 28 July 1561. Signed.
2. P. S.—Yesterday the Spanish Ambassador told him that he had word lately that Chamberlain was in such extremity that the physicians had no hope for his life.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 28. 345. Throckmorton to Cecil.
For certain special causes touching the Queen's service he has advised this bearer, Mr. Charles O'Connor, to throw himself into the train of the Queen of Scotland, both to the coast and by sea into Scotland, and for that he may happen by some casualty to be landed in England, he had thought good to accompany him with his certificate. If he shall come to Cecil by any such means, he will declare to him what has passed between them.—Paris, 28 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
July 31. 346. Armagil Waad to Cecil.
1. On receipt of his letter of the 27th, containing information of cruelties committed on certain English in Spain, he repaired to the Ambassador, with whom he declared what Cecil required him in behalf of the Lords of the Council. The Ambassador answered that they should not credit such informations of triflers; for it was not to be believed that the party complained of (being a man for his worthiness meet to govern any realm) would commit so cruel parts upon the persons of any Moors or Turks, "and that he was not used to understand in matters of religion." That Spain was no barbarous, but a civil country. That there might be search for books, but not with such circumstances. That for his own part, if any such wrong were done, he could not repair the same; it was to be reformed by the King, and therefore the office belonged to Chamberlain, to whom, if the Queen would write, he would accompany their letters with his.
2. The writer told him that whereas he could hardly believe that the case was handled in so cruel sort; that the two boys, who had been so used as was contained in the information, were in London; and although he had not spoken with them, yet had he heard of such persons to whom they and others in the ship had reported the case, to whom he could give undoubted credit. To this he answered the same as before.—London, 31 July 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—Delivered Cecil's offer of pastime to the Ambassador in case he would hunt in Mortlake park, for which he gave his hearty thanks, and said that he had no great delight in hunting, unless it was when he waited upon the Queen, and that he lead an ill life, of which he was somewhat weary, If he should happen to embrace his gentle offer he would give knowledge thereof to some of Cecil's servants.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary, Pp. 6.
July 31. 347. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. Has not only paid Lord Grey all his fees and allowances according to the Queen's warrant until Midsummer last, and lent him 80l., but also promised to lend him 120l. Is warranted to pay him as Warden of the East Marches 424l. per annum, which he has done. Notwithstanding which, his Lordship, having a patent of that office to be paid at the receipt of the Exchequer, has by Thomas Capell, his servant, received the same again at the hands of Mr. Roger Alford, who has shown Browne his acquittance for the same, alleging his warrant under the Seal to be of more force than Browne's only under the Queen's signature. Alford also showed him divers other payments made to Lord Grey, amongst which one was for his fees of the Middle Marches, wherewith he has not to do, but Sir John Forster, who is wholly unpaid. Of both which matters, that they might be taken up upon assurances between him and Mr. Alford for their indemnity, he has already advertised Lord Grey, who very much blames his breach with him, with words of his grievous displeasure.
2. Desires to have resolution touching the redemption of the lease of the demesnes of Sheriff-Hutton for store of beeves and muttons for the town, without which it is not possible to serve without greater loss than the price will stand the Queen. In case she be not determined thereon before the next payment, he will be forced to leave the same. Has remaining in hides 260, fells 900, and about 5,000 weight of tallow, whereof there is no utterance here without the loss of one half the value. The transport of the same to London or elsewhere and the cost of such as must attend thereon, will be more charge than the whole value thereof, besides the adventure; whilst he can get here for the same without adventure, both clapboards, iron hoops, high wainscoats and other provisions needful for the place, at more reasonable prices than he can otherwise provide by ten or twelve in the hundred.—Berwick, 31 July 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—Encloses a memorial of the premises and his wants for this service.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
[July 31.] 348. Valentine Browne to the Privy Council.
He petitions them to the following effect:—
1. To obtain a licence to sell the hides, fells, and tallow of the beasts slaughtered at Berwick, in exchange for clapboards, hoops, and other provisions.
2. That they will take some order for the payment of the workmen and labourers who are now behind unpaid by the space of half a year; whereby the store of victuals which they have spent, being above 2,500l., may be renewed.
3. That the lease of Sheriff-Hutton may be had, for feeding and keeping of beeves and muttons.
4. That the great storehouse, which is now occupied as a stable by Sir Richard Lee's men, may be used for the ordnance and powder which is now stored in the grain stores next the bakehouse and brewery.
5. That he may understand whether he shall make any further provision of victuals, by reason of any new number of workmen to be employed in the spring.
6. As the new orders are very strait touching the departure of any officers out of the town, he desires licence to be allowed to go wherever his charge may require.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
[July.] 349. Valuation of Sheriff-Hutton.
The yearly value of the grounds, &c, called Lillinges, parcel of the lordship of Sheriff-Hutton, co. York, viz.:—
1. Four ox gangs of arable land; 1,140 acres of pasturage; 220 of meadow, tithes, 56l. Yearly rent due to the Queen, 35l. 16s. Yearly rent due to Sir Nicholas Fairfax, 149l. 15s.; and 32l. 4s. for the tithes. Total yearly value 217l. 15s. Common for 1,500 sheep and 400 young cattle.
2. Thirty-two years of the lease are yet to run, for which 1,283l. 13s. 8d. is promised.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
[July.] 350. Valuation of Sheriff-Hutton.
Another estimate of the demesnes, giving their annual value at 168l. 1s. 8d.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
[July.] 351. Necessaries for Berwick.
"Memorial to the Governor of Berwick of wants to be supplied in the offices of the Treasurer and Surveyor of the victuals there."
1. For treasure to pay the garrison and workmen for three quarters, amounting to 25,606l. 2s. 11d., whereof 13,473l. 16s. 8d. is yet due.
2. There has been disbursed to the workmen more than has been received, which has been borrowed out of the store of vietual 3,600l.; in case the full may not be spared, that this may be forthwith disbursed for provision of new corn, butter, cheese, etc., and winter provisions, which after the rate that it is now spent, will not continue above four months.
3. To provide three new coppers for the brewhouses in Berwick, which having continued for ten or twelve years are worn out, so that there is but one brewhouse that is able to be occupied, and that will not last two months.
4. All the brewing vats and vessels are in like manner worn out, the repair of which will come to above 500 marks.
5. All the cooperages are pulled down, and there is no place to set coopers to work in.
6. All the brewhouses and bakehouses at Holy Island are in decay, and some of the garners, slaughterhouses, and stables clean fallen down.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: Val. Brown's Remembrances. Pp. 3.
[July.] 352. The Victualling of Berwick.
The Treasurer of Berwick offers to pay all the wages of the men connected with the commissariat, all the freights, repairs, and expenses for pasturage, etc., for 1,406l. 18s. 8d. per annum, together with the lease of Sheriff-Hutton, specifying the cost of each department.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 2.
[July.] 353. Estimate for Berwick.
"Orders for a town of war of the circuit of Berwick." Upon the supposition that it is in circuit 3,300 paces, it will require in time of war 3,300 men to defend it, with 1,000 in reserve, making 4,400. In time of peace, placing one man to every three paces, it would require 1,100 men with 300 in reserve.
Orig. Endd. Three sheets, pasted together.
July 31. 354. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. Three days after his last despatch, which was on the 14th, there came a courier from Rome, out of whose letters he has got the enclosed intelligence. Spoke to the King for the matter of Hickman and Castlellin, who has written to the Governor of the Canaries in the general favour of all her subjects, not being pirates. This exception is made by reason of Poole and Champneys, who arrived there with a rich French ship that they had taken, but by another French merchant ship coming thither they were stayed. It seems that they were well used and dismissed to go where they would; and they, hearing of a ship of this country bound towards the Indies to be on the seas, hired a bark and fell on the said ship and took her; wherewithal they have since haunted the Azores. Although he desired the King by his letters to require them of the Inquisition in Seville and the Canaries to make restitution of all goods found in any man's hands by them apprehended, belonging to others, and not to the parties, he could get no letters or recommendation. Hears, however, that the Archbishop of Seville, the Chief Inquisitor there, hearing of his complaint, has caused the books to be delivered of one condemned to perpetual prison, to the intent that all his creditors therein appearing may before the temporal justices make their proofs and claim their goods; and by this he guesses that the King has done the like to them of the Canaries.
2. As for the continuance of the common traffic, especially in Biscay, although the King promised some redress, the Duke of Alva told him that the learned men of the Royal Council would in no wise advise him to break the laws; which if they in Andalusia should so straitly execute, it were good to spare their hot wines, to their quite undoing, as they have no other vent for them. Howbeit he trusts that there will be better consideration had.
3. There is arrived a fleet of nine ships from the Indies, bringing 200,000 ducats for the King, and for other particulars greater sums. The captain of the same, whilst passing the Azores, spied at sea, on the coast towards England, three ships of Bristol and two of Barnstaple, which had sold in the islands certain English commodities, and had laden with woad, which they have had for an old trade. The captain caused them to " amain," and laid to their charge that they were pirates, notwithstanding that he found them deep laden with wood, small quantity of ordnance, and very few men, an argument sufficient to prove that they were none such; but pretending to make his prize of them he searched them, and found five or six pipes of wine that they had brought from Champneys and Poole, which were well to be known by their iron hoops to be taken from some ship bound to the Indies. Thereupon, seeking no further to see their charter parties and other scripts that would have declared for their truth, he has brought them all to Seville, and there put in prison the merchants and mariners; whereupon Chamberlain is treating with the King.
4. Upon St. James's Eve [24 July] there came news that Dragut Raiz, the Moor pirate, had taken six or seven galleys belonging to Sicily, which were all they had left for the defence of that island. The loss is great to this King, but much greater to all Christendom, by reason that the common enemy thereof is thereby, and by the loss of Algerbes last year, so greatly increased in strength. The enemy have within this year got forty galleys belonging to this King and others, a thing not to be so soon repaired, but that in the meanwhile many a Christian soul will fall into captivity and thraldom. The King with time will be able to set up more galleys, by reason that the Pope granted him long since his Bull to recover of the clergy as much as would furnish fifty galleys, which is not yet thoroughly concluded upon by them. They say that the Pope and this King are still at loving and bidding about the same. The Pope claims the disposition of the galleys as a thing proceeding from the Church by his consent; and the King as a thing proceeding from the ecclesiastical estate of the realm for the defence of the same, so that the Pope begins to propone conditions for the matter; that is, that the King should give to Count Hannibal his nephew, now being at this Court, 20,000 ducats of yearly revenue, that he had appointed to the Duke of Paliano, who lately suffered, but which was not performed before his death. Besides, the Pope claims the King's consent to a marriage for his said nephew with a gentlewoman of the house of Aragon, remaining in the company of the Marquis of Pescara, which neither the Marquis nor Marco Antonio Colonna, her cousin, are willing to consent unto. These are the conditions whereabout his late Nuncio came to treat.
5. The King has made his Bishops to assemble more than these two months past to determine who shall go to the General Council. As yet they are not named. He has said what shall he do to send to the General Council before she and the Germans have also sent? Her refusal of the Nuncio is of this nation much misliked. Advises her to use this goodly time of repose in setting in order her own state, and of bestowing herself. Trusts that she will give him leave to come to her presence, and declare the experience which this travail has taught him in these matters. When he is discharged of this charge he will be no meddler, but use the office of a private faithful subject, praying to God for her long life and prosperity, and that he will be her marriage maker. His health is no better, for so fast as he dismisses the physician with a reward one day, he is driven to call for him again the other, so that it seems as if all the money he can make was appointed to that purpose.
6. There is none other marriage here meant for this Prince by common talk but with his aunt by dispensation, (fn. 4) how unlike soever the same may seem to be. At the enclosing of this letter there arrived an ordinary from Flanders, out of whose letters report is now made that she [Elizabeth] has at last sped herself at home, which is believed at this Court. Has so often heard the same bruit that he hopes it may be true.—Madrid, 31 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
July 31. 355. Chamberlain to Cecil.
Thanks him for his letter of the last of May, and by the copy enclosed in the same perceives the Queen's good beginning of proceeding this way, which cannot but take good effect. Cecil writes that the chief matter is yet imperfected; they say here that it was long since done, with the parties' names put at the conclusion. Wishes that the causes of such bruits were taken away by the only means that must make England recover estimation or the contrary. Has with much ado made up a letter to the Queen, to which he refers him, and prays him to make his excuses to the Lords of the Council. Looks for his revocation now at God's hands only. There be in this Court that have better and speedier advertisement of the proceedings in England than he has; whereof such bruits are here often spread, that he wots not what to say. Even now there has arrived an ordinary post from Flanders, out of whose letters it is reported that the Queen has at last sped herself at home.— Madrid, 31 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 31. 356. Chamberlain to Throckmorton.
1. If his secretary's letter of the 4th instant be come to his hands, he will have perceived the cause of the writer's silence for answering his letters and other scripts sent by means of the Bishop of Limoges, which came on the 11th. At the time his secretary wrote he was not in case to write, nor had any hope to do what he now does. As touching the Nuncio's refusal in England; the King answered Chamberlain that he wished that the Queen had admitted him, seeing that his message tended only to the repose of Christendom and the unity of the same in one religion; and said that he would write to his Ambassador with the Queen, thinking it more than reasonable that she should send to the General Council to hear and understand the matters in question talked of, which otherwise can never be decided. He gives him very good words, and good redress to all suits that he has occasion to make to him.
2. Thinks that this is the time appointed for the Queen to settle her estate, and put her royal person and her realms in such order as the estimation, somewhat decayed, may be recovered, and England be as able to withstand the adversary as always it has been, because it depends wholly upon her well bestowing of herself. He still in all his letters puts her in remembrance, as he cannot otherwise discharge his bounden duty; and when he returns home (as he wrote to the Queen) he will remain as a private subject and meddle no further. Looks for his revocation at God's hands, and not at the Queen's. Begins to be weary to service, which will in the end be his death.
3. The party who went last towards him with his letter can certify if there is any such matter as he writes of, whereof he can learn nothing certain here. There is a fleet arrived from the Indies reported to bring 3,000,000 or 4,000,000. The captain thereof met with five English ships of Bristol and Barnstaple going home from the Azores laden with woad, whom he misliked for carrying the flag of St. George in his company, and brought to Seville as pirates. The merchants and mariners remain in the common prison; whereupon he now treats with the King. On St. James's Eve [24 July] news came that Dragut Raiz had taken seven galleys of Venice. The strength of Christendom has lost forty galleys in one year. The loss is not so great to the King of Spain in particular; yet he goes earnestly about the same, and has by the Pope's means a goodly portion of the clergy to help the matter. They hear that the French have made some stir, saying that they would have none other than the old religion, and that the chief governors begin to yield. Sends by Mr. Harvey a pair of silk hose. They wax dearer every day. Upon the arrival of a post from Flanders the bruit is that the treaty matter is at home concluded.—Madrid, 31 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Beza, Hist. Eccl. i. 294. ed. 1841.
357. Proclamation of Charles IX.
Forbids the preachers to say anything in their sermons to irritate the people, also all unlawful assemblies for the purposes of religion. The edict issued by his brother in May 1560 is to be observed. Heretics are not to be punished more severely than by banishment. An amnesty is granted for past offences. False accusers are to be punished in the same way that the accused would have been if really guilty. Firearms are forbidden to be carried in towns or elsewhere, with certain exceptions, under a penalty of 50 gold crowns.—St. Germain-en-Laye, July 1561.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 6.
July. 358. Instructions to Sir Thomas Gresham.
1. To repair to Antwerp with all speed, and receive about the 20th August next, of the merchant adventurers, 30,000l. sterling, at the rate of 22s. 6d. Flemish for every pound sterling; and with the same he shall pay to the Queen's creditors so much of the debt due in August next, as far as it will extend; and to put over the rest, viz., the 50,000l. until February next, but in no wise to exceed twelve per cent. per annum. The other debt due in August, he is to put over for a twelvemonth. If the merchants of the Staple pay him any money there, he is to employ it in discharging the debts due next August, in the same manner as he shall do with that received from the merchant adventurers.
2. He is also to take order that the debts due in November and December shall be put over for a year. If he finds great difficulty therein, he shall do what he can to take up 10,000l. in November, and as much in December, upon more reasonable interest than has been heretofore; and shall content with those sums such of the creditors as are unwilling to put over the same.
3. He is to have allowance for his service, and his clerks, as heretofore.
4. He shall pay to Volrad, Count Mansfeld, his pension due at Midsummer last, taking acquittance for the same under his hand and seal.
5. He is to forbear to pay Brigantine any more money for his entertainment further than the 1st of August next, and to give him knowledge that the Queen does not intend in this time of peace to entertain him any further.—[Blank] July 1561.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Upon the same day as this letter was written, Throckmorton wrote to the Queen. The two letters are so far duplicates; but at this point occurs a passage in the latter which is not found in the former. It is here given from the copy in the Cabala, p. 349 (ed. fol 1691) and in Keith, ii. 53. The original letter to the Queen is no longer extant in the General Record Office. (See B.M. MS. Cott. Calig. E. v. 87.) "The Queen of Scotland departed from St. Germain's yesterday towards her voyage, as she bruits it; she sends most of her train straight to Newhaven to embark, and goes such a way between both as she will be at her choice to go to Newhaven or Calais. What she will do she wills not to be known to never a Scotchman, and but to few French. For all these shows and boasts some think that she will not go at all; and yet all her stuff is sent down to the sea, and none other bruit in her house but of her hasty going. The certainty would be best known by sending some privily to all the ports on this side. She has said that at her coming into Scotland, she will rid the realm of all the English there; namely, of the Queen of England's agent, and forbid mutual traffic with the English. Two or three days ago the French King was troubled with a pain in his head, and the same begins to break from him by bleeding at the nose and running at his ear. It is taken to be the same disease whereof his brother died, but by voiding it he is amended. At the despatch hereof the King of Navarre was disquieted by a flux and a vomit, and the Queen Mother by a fever."
  • 2. The Laird of Livingston, being ready to go homewards through England went to the Queen of Scotland for her leave, who commanded him to tarry for her at Abbeville, without letting him know anything else. He sees no likelihood but that she will go to Calais, there to hover and hearken what the Queen of England does to stop her, and according thereunto to go or stay. He has required letters of recommendation to the Queen's officers in England, which for his good devotion towards her Throckmorton has not refused (Cabala, p. 349).
  • 3. M. De Chantonnay to the King of Spain.
    July 26.
    Teulet, ii. 6.
    1. Queen Mary has changed her route, and goes direct to Calais. The Ambassador of England has called on him, and (at the request of his mistress) declared at great length the causes why she has refused a safe-conduct to the Queen of Scotland. She has done this chiefly because Mary refused to confirm the treaty of Edinburgh. Elizabeth fears that if she were in Scotland she will marry the King of Sweden, or some other powerful Prince; and that the party which supports her in England, in consequence of her religion, is considerable. The writer hence perceives that they have not ceased to be apprehensive of a marriage with Prince Carlos of Spain.
    2. Having thanked Throckmorton for his confidence, he told him that he [the writer] had informed the King of Spain and the Duchess of Parma that Elizabeth had invited Mary to pass through England on her way homewards, and that at the present time peace was most essential. It was too late to ask advice when the course is decided on. The refusal of a passport is equivalent to a declaration of war. The course adopted by the Queen of England is likely to rekindle ancient hostilities, as well between England and Scotland as with France, the King of which would naturally see to the safe arrival of his kinswoman within her own kingdom. As for her marriage with the King of Sweden, it can as easily be effected in France as in Scotland, in which case the influence of France would be augmented to the prejudice of England. In his [Chantonnay's] opinion, however, the Scots would decidedly prefer that their Queen should marry a Scotchman rather than a foreigner. Elizabeth must know that intelligence respecting the movements of the English fleet can reach Calais so frequently and easily that Mary can time her departure so as to pass homewards without much danger, if it were calm weather, in her galleys, or even in a single vessel. The reasons which have induced her to delay the ratification of the treaty of Edinburgh are not without their weight, and Elizabeth would do well to reconsider them. Mary is going home to obtain the very power which Elizabeth urges her to exercise.
    3. The English Ambassador again referred to Mary's claim to the throne of England, to which the writer answered that all had been done under the control of her husband, and that of herself she had given no occasion for umbrage. Throckmorton admitted that he did not understand the reasons why his mistress had changed her determination respecting Mary; that he had no power to treat with her, and that he had stated all be knew on the subject.
    4. Apparently the design of the Queen of England is to keep her fleet in the north, and by doing this to compel Mary to sail westward towards Ireland, by which means she will be driven to pass along where the force of the Earl of Arran lies. It is obvious that whatever course she may take in respect to her marriage it will be a cause of offence to the English. Signed. Span.
  • 4. The passage is in cipher in the original.