Elizabeth: April 1561, 21-30

Pages 73-90

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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April 1561, 21-30

April 21. 129. The Chancellor of Sweden to Cecil.
Has heard that certain of the Council are not satisfied with him because at his late interview with them he did not advance more articles. He could not have offered more than he did, namely, a powerful King, a large kingdom, riches, wealth, and the alliance of the Gothic nation; and yet he received no answer. The chief matter is the offer which the King makes of his own person, the other matters are only subsidiary and of secondary importance. Will not propose all the articles that he has before he has had an audience with the Queen, which he desires may be to-morrow afternoon, after which he will state to the Council the nature of the other articles which he has in charge. If his master is rejected, he does not see how they can possibly expect a more advantageous alliance. Hopes to have a decisive and definite answer, as the matter will not bear any longer delay. If Cecil will assist him, he promises him the perpetual favour of the King, and the most ample honours and wealth.—Signed: Nicholas Guldenstern.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 21 April 1561. Lat. Pp. 4.
April 22.
Keith, App. No. 11. Burnett, iii. App. No. LXXI.
130. Mary, Queen of Scots, to Throckmorton. (fn. 1)
Has read his letter, and as she leaves this place very soon she cannot give him a reply till she comes to Rheims, where she expects to be at the King's coronation. The Lord James came only to do his duty to her, without any commission relating to anything else.—Nancy, 22 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Fr.
April 22. 131. The Cardinal of Lorraine to Throckmorton.
Has received his letter and given audience to the bearer. As Throckmorton will learn from the bearer and the Queen's letter, the reply and resolution which have been come to with respect to the affair about which the bearer was sent, the writer will not trouble Throckmorton further.—Nancy, 22 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Fr.
April 22. 132. Thomas Jennyson to Cecil.
1. Received his letter of the 10th inst. and is much bound to him for suspending his judgment as to the price of coals which he advertised. To the end that Sir Richard Lee's books should not discredit the true report of the writer, he declares the circumstances. Since the last pay till his first quarter's certificate, ending the 4th January, Lee's books do not contain any provisions; in which time the writer affirms that 341 chalders were rated to the Queen at 16s. the chalder, a certificate whereof is with Cecil in writing, and Grimston and Abington can witness with him of the state. For mitigating the excessive price, and to furnish the works which were almost at a stay, wanting coals, the writer travelled to Newcastle, and searching the purveyor's husbandry, found that he paid for the best 5s. the chalder, and 3d. keelage ready money. These he rated in his book, which he did not deliver till Lady Day last, after that he understood how Jennyson was grown privy thereto, framing his rates as follows, viz., 14 chalders at 6s. the coals and 10s. freight of every chalder; 186 chalders at 5s. 3d. the chalder, with keelage, and 9s. 8d. freight; 32 chalders at 5s. 3d., and 9s freight; 24 chalders at 5s. 3d., and 8s. 4d. freight; 26 chalders at 5s. 3d., and 6s. 8d. freight, and 48 chalders bought at Berwick at 16s. the chalder; total 341 chalders, for which was demanded 16s. the chalder. His own provision of coals cost 4s. the chalder on shipboard, amongst which he had 30 chalders of the best; the freights ranged from 10s. to 5s. 2d. which last rate in these works has seldom or never been seen, wherein Mr. Anderson has deserved thanks.
2. Lee's books make not prices so high as 5s. or 4s. 8d. from before Michaelmas last, for if the Queen be burdened with more than 2s. 10d. or 3s. the chalder for the coals most spent here, or with more than 3s. 10d., 4s., or 4s. 4d. the chalder of the best sort, it has been ill husbanded, for coals are now dearer by the fourth part, and the prices are no greater than the rates in Lee's books. Troubles him thus because Lee's books seem to have been shown for non-advancement of his credit.
3. The pickaxes brought in the three carts were received andcertified to Lee's men, and the carts carried to the Queen's stables to be occupied with those horses. The honesty and skill of Thomas Barton and John Bird may well allow their continuance as true servants, yet he fears means will be found to displace them by Lee, which the writer will not be able to help, albeit the Queen's instructions give him charge to choose such honest clerks over fifties and hundreds as will serve her. Trusts that he may have his full power.
4. Was suitor to Cecil in his letter of 23rd January for the consideration of the extraordinary furniture which he was obliged to borrow, coming to above 66l., and that the Treasurer might pay his entertainment from Michaelmas, seeing the same is paid quarterly, and he is burdened with the whole of the service. Touching Philip Butler, (alias Athlone,) conductor of the Irishmen, he may be considered according to appointment when the pay comes; which same, together with the conduct of the ten hard hewers who came out of Kent, he forgot in the last certificate. Has written to Lee what wants are most necessary to be supplied here.— Berwick, 22 April 1561. Signed.
5. P. S.—Lee has not advertised the Lords' resolution touching the works, more than that he has appointed that one Cripps, a mason, his own servant, should have the walling of one bulwark by task; so that the writer and the Surveyor are uncertain what to do.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 23. 133. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Wrote in sundry of his last letters that Cecil must wink at the follies and ingratitude of the Scotch, and again reminds him of the same. Supposes that Captain Forbes will shortly pass that way. Would wish that though Cecil tell him of his rash oversight in foiling the Queen's post and his suspicious passing, yet should he be chidden in such sort as he may not be driven to desperation of his favour, or his master led to think that he has lost the Queen's good grace. "I have an inkling of a matter that maketh me greatly afraid, and if it prove true, (as I begin greatly to fear it,) that it shall be needful that the Queen look well about her, and you and others of her faithful Councillors to give her sound and faithful counsel." Sent him word by Henry Middlemore of the Spanish inclination to further the Queen's marriage, where it is thought it is much coveted. He now begins to smell the reason and treason. Can assure him that the Queen of Scotland will never marry the Earl of Arran, and yet he knows the King of Navarre has given his ministers good words, and put them in hope it will take effect, as has the Queen Mother, and yet she bewrays all to the Queen of Scotland. Cecil may use this matter to the Earl of Arran as he shall think good for the Queen's purpose. Lord James has come to Paris this day on his way homewards, abiding a despatch from the Queen of Scotland, which Throckmorton thinks appoints him and others (but rather him alone,) to the management and superintendence of her affairs in Scotland till her repair thither, which is said will be in August next. Before that time the writer suspects she will be secretly fianced to her husband, and repair into her country as though she were at liberty, there and thereby the better to work her husband's purpose. This husband he suspects is the Prince of Spain, "which I am sure will make you look about you if it prove true." There is great working on all sides to bring it to pass, and yet he marvels greatly that Chamberlain finds not the matter; for the writer received a letter from him of the 7th of April, wherein he speaks nothing of this marriage, but says that the King of Spain looks to be advertised what answer the Queen of Scots makes for the ratification of the treaty made at Edinburgh, and so speaks of the Turk's great preparations, and the King of Spain's also. He mentions also that on May 23rd all the Estates of Spain will be assembled to delegate persons to go to the General Council at Trent. It will not be amiss for Cecil to move Chamberlain to have an eye to this matter. The packets betwixt Chamberlain and Throckmorton since the late King's death have been very ill handled, retained two months and six weeks undelivered, and some of them miscarried, so that they must find some other means of sending their letters than by the Spanish Ambassador.
2. At the writing hereof Sommer was not returned from the Queen of Scotland, who is at Nancy, in Lorraine; guesses that she will defer the ratification of the treaty until she come into Scotland herself, and propose that matter to the Estates. Thinks that the ratification of the French treaty will be deferred till that time also, which somewhat confirms his suspicion of the Spanish marriage. Need not use many words in favour of Lord James, whom he thinks to be one of the meetest men to be cherished and made much of by the Queen, of any stranger. "It is a great matter in this time to find a man of his credit in his country to be so faithful and sincere as he is. I find in him wit enough for his years, much honour and great fidelity. It is a good turn that so direct a man as he is hath the credit and love at home that he hath. He brought the Queen of Scotland four leagues beyond Jenville, where he took his leave of her. He meaneth to tarry in this town eight or ten days and then to return as he came, through England. The Queen of Scotland would in no wise suffer him to come at the Court in France, and did what she could to have diverted him from returning through England; so as I perceive, she seeketh no amity neither in France nor in England, but doth shape herself a new amity." An assignation has just been given him of a place not far from the Court where he should meet and confer with the Admiral.—Paris, 23 April 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—He who promised to carry this letter has deceived him, and gone without it.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 23. 134. The Admiral of France to Throckmorton.
Asks credit for the bearer, who will communicate certain matters.—Fontainebleau, 23 April 1561. (fn. 2)
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: The copy of the letter from the Admiral, 17 April 1561. Fr. Pp. 2.
April 23. 135. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Has seen directions from Lee and the Treasurer to the Controller and Surveyor of the works to discharge all workmen save 400. The Queen having appointed him Governor of this town, and not having signified her pleasure for dissolution of the works, he dares not consent to any such discharge. Has nevertheless counselled the Controller and Surveyor to put all things in readiness for such discharge. Having some experience dearly bought with many years exercise in the wars, and seeing that there is a meaning of abstinence from fortification here, if he could be heard speak before the Council face to face with the engineers and treasurers, he would make plain how the strength might be raised to sufficient force in saving the Queen great sums of treasure, where now it is so weak and out of frame that men were better for security to be encamped in the field. Has seen so many changes turn men's imaginations upside down, and felt so much of the smart thereof, that he is suspicious of alterations. If he is not to be heard, then he begs that he may be discharged of this office. " A burnt child fire dreads." If he is not heard herein, he will have wrong, wherefore he asks to repair to the Court.—Berwick, 23 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 24. 136. The Queen to the King of Portugal.
Has received letters written by his mother, and has at various times given audience to his Ambassador, Emanuel D'Aranjo, whose requests (although unprecedented) she has granted, and to whom she refers him for further information. —Westminster, 24 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
[April 24.] 137. [The Queen to the Queen Regent of Portugal]
Has received his letter of the 22nd of October last, and has heard all that the Bishop of Aquila has declared in his name. The answer which was sent by Emanuel Avalius has been observed, and strait commandment given to her subjects and merchants neither to traffic in any port of Ethiopia being under his dominion and tribute, nor to impeach the traffic of his subjects. If her subjects disobey she will upon proof thereof see them punished.
Corrected draft. P. 1.
April 24. 138. Safe Conduct for the Portuguese.
Upon the complaint and at the request of the Portuguese Ambassador, she grants to the Portuguese these privileges following, which are embodied in her letters patent.
1. That the Portuguese be used by her subjects with favour.
2. That (although she knows no cause why her subjects may not sail into any country subject to Portugal, paying due tribute,) the English are admonished not to enter any ports in Ethiopia "in which the said King hath dominion, obedience, and tribute."
3. That none of her subjects shall aid any Scotchman in spoiling any Portuguese, nor purchase goods obtained by letters of marque.
4. These her orders shall continue in force as long as the English are lovingly used by the said King. (fn. 3)
Draft, corrected by Cecil, and dated and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 4.
[April 24.] 139. Translation of the above into Latin, omitting the concluding paragraph.
Orig. draft in Ascham's hol. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 24. 140. The Queen to Valentine Brown.
Commission to sell the malt and oats stored up at Berwick for her army in the north, and which for want of vent and utterance are likely to be lost, and to transport the same into Scotland, Flanders, and other parts beyond the seas, or into the south of England.—Westminster, [blank] April. 3 Eliz.
Corrected draft. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 24 April 1561. Pp. 2.
April 24. 141. Thomas Jenyson to Cecil.
Received a letter from Mr. Brown, signifying that the Lords of the Council are resolved that the workers shall be discharged to 400, viz., 200 hard hewers, 128 labourers, two carpenters, four sawyers, six wheelwrights, eight clerks, and twelve smiths; which thing shall be put in readiness, albeit the same is not sufficient discharge for him. Thinks that it were much pity but that the great mass of stuff presently ready might this seasonable year be bestowed on the walls already begun, which would well nigh raise the same to the height, or at least make the same guardable, so far as the foundations are laid. Has but 100 mason layers to be taken in the northern counties, though there were as many discharged, not being so serviceable. The Surveyor of the works has received a letter to the like effect from Lee, who frames himself very diligently to observe the orders prescribed, though very loath that the works should not proceed.— Berwick, 24 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. P. 1.
April 24. 142. Rowland Johnson to Cecil.
Has received from Lee special letters of the 17th instant, willing him to discharge all the workmen here except 400. The Governor has no intelligence hereof. Will see the same done, as payment can be made for their discharge. Might the same number be appointed to some special needful service? There are in stone ready wrought 30,000 feet, and in lime about 4,000 chalders; with the addition of 100 layers the walls might be advanced where the foundations are laid, that between this and Michaelmas they would have been past the climb on the sudden. Could open matters very serviceable, were he but two days at the Court.—Berwick, 24 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 25. 143. The Bishop of Aquila to Cecil.
Having received a letter from the Abbot of Martinego, desiring him to communicate certain things to the Queen, begs that Cecil will give him an audience, and afterwards signify the same to Her Majesty. Has determined that he will take no step without Cecil's previous knowledge and concurrence.—25 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
April 26. 144. The Queen to the Council in the North. (fn. 4)
Commission to the Council in the North to take measures for the better governance and preservation of peace and prevention of crime in the northern counties.—Westminster, 26 April, 3 Eliz.
Copy, corrected and altered by Cecil. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
[April 26.] 145. The Queen to the Council in the North.
Three letters from the Queen to the Council in the North, to the following effect;—
1. Authorizing a quorum of them to address letters under her signet to magistrates and officers, when necessary for the suppression of disorders.
2. Discharging them from the necessity of holding a sitting both at Newcastle and Carlisle in the same year.
3. Directing them to abate certain disorders in the north.
Draft, in Gargrave's hol., with one correction by Cecil, and endd. by his secretary: April 1561. Pp. 4.
April 26. 146. Charles IX. to the Queen.
Having understood that she has some hesitation in continuing to accept M. De Sevres as his Ambassador, Charles not having written to her since his accession to the Crown, he now informs her that he has not done so previously, not deeming it necessary. No other Sovereign has raised a similar difficulty. Asks credence for Sevres,—Fontainebleau, 25 April 1561. Signed: Charles,—De L'Aubespine.
Orig. Add. Endd. Fr. Broadside.
April 26. 147. Shers to Cecil.
1. By his last of the 19th inst. he wrote to Cecil of the deferring of the Council towards at Trenta. By the news from Rome this week it appears the Pope had received at a secret audience the gentleman from France with his letters and demands, but had not yet answered any part of the same.
2. The Pope (having determined to go to Civita Vecchia to meet the Duke of Florence upon their new designs, and being troubled by this French gentleman's message,) would have put off giving audience to Giovanni Di Ayala, sent from King Philip, until his return, which will not be these twelve days; but Ayala made such earnest suit that the Pope was forced to hear him before he departed. He presented himself not after the wonted sort (on his knee kissing the Pope's foot), but lowly and bare-headed, saving that after he had entered into the pith of his matter, he put on his cap "unbadde," and never touched it after, although he was there above an hour. His behaviour has filled most mouths, and it is thought he had instructions to do so by his Prince's order. The vehement part of his message tended to lament of the Pope's behaviour to the King in sundry ways, in that he had admitted the Duke of Vendôme's Ambassador as from the King of Navarre, as it were to admit that title again into question; and also that the Pope had sought to advance the Duke of Florence to the title of a King of Tuscany. He spoke of this Council towards at Trenta as though the Spanish clergy should think meet that the Pope should submit himself to the same. Ayala had further commission to take new order for Sienna, and upon this point most men think fortune is against the Duke of Florence, and that the house of Farnese shall find some new stay, and that Parma and Placenza must join Milan, a matter of no small importance for Philip.
3. To inform himself more fully of this matter the writer had a discourse this day with the secretary to the Emperor's Ambassador, who showed him letters, and made copies of that matter, and that King Philip had travailed diligently by his Ambassador for the investiture of Sienna as of the empire, and had obtained the same of the Emperor. Upon these considerations they confirm that the Pope has prorogued this Council at Trenta for six months, or as many say ad Calendas Græcas, or at least during this Pope's time.
4. The Pope begins again to seek upon Marco Antonio Colonna for Paliano; and he has left Rome for Civita Vecchia, where he will stay ten or twelve days. The Duke of Florence's daughter, who was Duchess of Ferrara, died last Monday, so the Duke is again a young widower. Part of the Turk's army is abroad, and a great number of Turkish pirates, who commit such great depredations that none durst stir in their seas for them. The rest of Italy is at the old stay.—Venice, 26 April 1561, "and almost in order to take my journey homeward." Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
April 26. 148. Iacomo Ragazzoni to the Privy Council.
Is rejoiced to find that they recognize his former services to the Queen and have employed him again. Their letters have reached him only to-day; he will speedily present to the Prince that from Her Majesty, according to their directions. When in England he had formed a friendship with Guido Giannetti. The intervention of the Queen and Lords will probably be efficacious; at all events there shall be no want of zeal on the part of the writer, who feels confident of success in the matter with which they have entrusted him. M. Placido (the writer's brother, and the bearer of this letter,) will personally inform them of the news from Rome, respecting which Guido enquired very anxiously.—Venice, 26 April 1561. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
April 27. 149. Frederic II., King of Denmark, to the Queen.
She, (by her letters dated Westminster, 30 March,) having requested him (1) to grant to Thomas Alan, merchant, the privilege of trading through the writer's dominions without being searched or paying duty, as had been granted to William Watson, deceased; and (2) to establish a fixed and permanent rate upon all English wares imported into his realms; the writer gives the reason why he is unable to comply with these requests.—Copenhagen, 5 Cal. Maii 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 28 May 1561. Broadside.
April 27. 150. Throckmorton to Cecil.
This bearer Captain Forbes desires that he may pass into Scotland with convenient speed. He has declared to the writer at good length all his proceedings since he came forth of Scotland, and has promised to do the like to Cecil. It appears that he desires to make his purgation of all such things as may be suspiciously conceived of him, and for that purpose only takes his way through England; for otherwise he might have commodiously passed by sea in a ship of his own country from Dieppe, wherein are embarked divers of his own countrymen. He has been ascertained by one of the Duke of Châtellerault's gentlemen that he should find great difficulty in passing through England; who said that he and two of his fellows could not of late be suffered to pass, so as his companions were constrained to return from London into Scotland, back again. Forbes said that like as he knew his master of all others to be furthest off from double dealing, so he would be loath to commit any act that should breed any suspicion between the Queen and his master.—Paris, 27 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 29. 151. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 23 April the Admiral of France sent his steward to the writer with the enclosed letter, giving him the assignation of a place to meet the said Admiral on the 24th three leagues from Fontainebleau. When they met, the Admiral said that the goodwill that he bore the Queen of England was because she maintains and advances the true religion of God; and therefore, whatsoever he might know that might hinder the advancement of God's cause, he would declare it to Throckmorton.
2. He said that he had three things to communicate which especially touched the realms of France and England. The first was concerning the legation of the Abbot of Martinego into England (who has arrived at Brussels) to induce the Queen to acknowledge again the Pope's supremacy, and to embrace the Romish religion. This is not done (quoth he) without the solicitation of the Emperor and the King of Spain; for they have after many discourses concluded that there is no means so good to retain the religion they profess and to make their profit otherwise as to divert England from the religion it holds. For so long as the Queen stands fast in the Protestant religion, so long will many States of Christendom decline from the Catholic religion, and especially her countenance will be the occasion that France shall embrace the same; and France being won thereto, the rest of Christendom shall follow. "Do you not see (say they) within these two years since she came to the crown of England, that the same religion is not only planted in her own realm but also in the realm of Scotland by her means, and a great part of France infected also by the same means?" The Princes of Almaine are also more animated and begin to set light by the Emperor, and all the house of Austria, and all this is through the countenance of the Queen of England. If she be won from it the rest will fall asunder one from another, and the old religion be restored.
3. The second matter was about the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Prince of Spain, which the Admiral assured him was very like to take place, and so greatly advanced that it will not be broken. They did not believe, he said, that the King of Spain esteems that marriage for Scotland only, but had an eye to England; and that it would be better for him to marry in sundry other places, both for alliance and commodity than there, if he sought nothing else but the realm of Scotland. As that marriage might bring great danger to religion and to England, so it would be dangerous for France, and the more so if both England and Scotland fall into the hands of the King of Spain. Of the forwardness of this matter they are advertised by sundry good means from sundry places.
4. The third matter was that yesterday it was resolved in Council, that in August next the King would assemble his clergy and keep a National Council in France for religion. And as the Queen of England had dissuaded the King from accepting the Council at Trent, and to desire one in his own realm, where things might be handled with more sincerity, and that it was said that the Queen would assist him therein, it is now thought that she will show herself a good friend to the King and to the promotion of true religion if she will send some of her best learned divines to this assembly, and exhort the Princes Protestant to do the like; for they know that her authority is great with them, and that they will be much advised by her. Hereby she will so fortify her own doings, that such as like them not will be afraid to attempt anything against her; and she will also have the principal honour of the good that shall be done as the first mover of it.
5. Throckmorton in reply thanked the Admiral, and assured him that she would employ all her help to the promotion of God's true religion. As to her assistance at the assembly, the writer desired to know whether he should advertise the Queen thereof as from the Admiral, or by him from the King. The Admiral answered that he would be very loath to have his name brought in question to any person but only to the Queen; for this matter was but newly resolved among the King's Privy Council, and not yet published. He also said that his affection for religion had procured him many great enemies, who would be glad to have such a matter as this, that he should discover to another Prince's minister the King's privy counsel before it were ordered that it should be published, and therefore prayed him not to let him be known as the author of this, or any other thing that he told him, to any person but the Queen. He trusted that erelong Throckmorton would hear it from the King, or from the publication of the edict.
6. Throckmorton then spoke of the marriage of the Prince of Spain with the Queen of Scotland, saying that but that he heard it from the Admiral he would not credit the matter, for that he saw no commodity that could grow thereby to the King of Spain. For though he had secretly in his mind the compassing of England by having of Scotland, yet there was therein no great facility. Moreover the King of Spain could not be ignorant in what terms the Queen of Scotland stood with her subjects; also seeing it was so dangerous a matter for France, he could not believe that her uncles would suffer her to do an act so damaging to their Sovereign; for the King would hereafter repute them his enemies, and withhold from her all the dowry she had in France.
7. As to the Pope's Nuncio they need not, he said, suspect the Queen's proceedings in that matter, for she would not admit the usurped authority of the Pope there again, or change her religion, unless there were better authority to persuade her than the words of an Abbot or messenger sent from the Pope. It were no greater inconvenience for the Queen to admit him than any other Prince's Ambassador. As for the practices of the Pope and the King of Spain, there was no doubt they had their ministers as well in her realm as in all other Princes' states. Besides, he could not tell assuredly whether the Abbot of Martinego would be suffered to enter the realm.
8. The Admiral said that whereas Throckmorton had sent by M. De Secellus to be satisfied about a bruit of the rigging of certain ships, he assured him upon his honour, that there was no other preparation in hand at sea but that of their merchants. They make three notable navigations in the year; in the spring time to Newfoundland fishing, in August to the "Bourbage," and in October to Bordeaux and Rochelle for wines, at which time some of them go into Spain and from thence into Barbary. This was the substance of what passed between them, save that the Admiral wished that the King or the Duke of Orleans were of more years, or the Queen of England of fewer. And so the Admiral would needs have him dine with him at a place where he had prepared a very good dinner.
9. After dinner he made a short recital of the matters before rehearsed, and desired him to solicit the Queen that this National Council might be furnished of learned men by her means; and that the King, the Queen Mother, and King of Navarre, might be animated to proceed to assemble the said Council as it was now resolved. Thus they parted; the Admiral went to the Court, and the writer to Paris.
10. "The Lord James, being the same day arrived at this town came to my lodging secretly unto me, and declared unto me at good length all that passed between the Queen, his sister, and him, and between the Cardinal of Lorraine and him; whereof he will declare unto your Majesty, particularly when he cometh into your presence. I suppose he will be in England about the 10th or 12th of May." The writer notes these things specially in Lord James' proceedings with the Queen and the Cardinal.
11. That she would not suffer him to accompany her to Nancy, in Lorraine; whereby he gathers that there is something there in hand that she would be loath he should be privy to.
12. That she is not disposed to ratify the treaty of Edinburgh, deferring it until she come into Scotland, that she may have the advice of her three Estates.
13. That she is not glad of the kindness between England and Scotland, and does not like such as be affected to the Queen or realm of England, but covets to dissolve the league made betwixt the realms, and to provide that there shall be no traffic between them.
14. That she has said that she will never marry the Earl of Arran, for so lately the Duke of Guise's master of the horse told the writer.
15. That she will use all means to win the consent of her realm to marry some foreign Prince.
16. That she is as careless of the amity of France as she is of England, and means to defer the ratification of the French treaty until she come into Scotland; for she has commanded that the Estates of the realm shall not be assembled, or no matter of importance ordered or answered, until she come there.
17. That she means to return into her country by sea.
18. That she gives no great ear to the King of Denmark's suit for marriage. Nevertheless, many of her wisest subjects in Scotland greatly wish that if she marry not the Earl of Arran, she should marry the King of Sweden; for the King of Denmark is a dissolute and insolent Prince (albeit he be a Protestant), and the King of Sweden reputed to be a wise and virtuous Prince.
19. "Lastly, I do well perceive the Lord James to be a very honourable, sincere, and godly gentleman, and very much affected to your Majesty, upon whom you never bestowed good turn better than on him in my opinion." He is a man for many respects worthy to be cherished, and his amity entertained. For besides his own well deserving, he is as well able to serve her turn by himself and friends as any man in Scotland; though the Queen, his sister, will seek to bring in some puissant foreign Prince to subvert all upside down; or though she would seek to serve her turn by some others of her nation, who be inclined to great inconstancy and corruption. Believes that the Earl of Arran and his father will be glad to have the Queen of England's favour; for the writer cannot perceive that their friends in France are able to stand them in any great stead, and he suspects that the Queen of Scotland will bear them but hollow heart. "They be such as for your own surety and commodity you may take good of them; and therefore they are not to be neglected, nor cast off, or driven into despair by your disfavour or ill opinion conceived of them; for if I be not greatly deceived, no man can tell yet, or is able to ground a certain judgment what shall become of the realm of Scotland. And therefore it shall be good for your Majesty upon all events to retain and win as many friends as you can, that if one will not serve your turn another may."
20. There are attending here on Lord James two men, amongst others, who are to be cherished by her; one is the Laird of Pitarro, a grave wise man, and such a one as the Queen of Scotland for God's cause and Elizabeth's does much dislike. The other is Mr. John Wood, secretary to Lord James, in whom there is much virtue and sufficiency. There are two others who are in like case to be well cherished— Alexander Clarke and Robert Melvin.
21. Has been by other good means advertised of the towardness of the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Prince of Spain, and that the Spaniards assure themselves of a very good party within England when they see occasion. However the Spanish Ambassador makes fair countenance to her. (fn. 5) He has also heard of the discourse concerning the Pope's Nuncio, after the same manner as by the Admiral; with the addition that the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of Spain, make their account greatly to their advantage, if this legation might only bring her into suspicion among the Protestants, though she could not be reduced to the obedience of the Church of Rome. For they say that if she lose her estimation among the Protestants she will be easy enough to deal with, as the King of Navarre is, who is trusted on no side.
22. Was by the Lord James informed of the talk which the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Queen of Scotland had with him of the Queen's religion, "and how they made their advantage of the cross and candles in your chapel, saying you were not yet resolved of what religion you should be." Throckmorton is sure that the testimony of her conscience warrants the religion she professes, so that to so godly a Queen persuasions are superfluous. But if she were no otherwise stirred with religion than Numa Pompilius or Sertorius, she may not alter her religion for her safety and policy's sake. Her servants at home, being Protestants, are not the worst she has, and her best allies abroad are Protestants. Which of her ancestors had that power in Scotland that she has, or the same intelligence in France, or so many Almaine Princes at their devotion? It is her religion chiefly that has made her amity so valued, and herself so honoured through all Europe. Not many days past, in a discourse with the King of Navarre, the Constable said that the Queen of England was the happiest Princess, and her amity the best in Christendom. She has had great honour of her enemies, and has honourably kept promise with her friends. If any demonstration should make him [the Constable] change his religion, the Queen of England's felicity would have great power, for in three years it has made the most contemned state in Christendom to become the most honoured.
23. Throckmorton will now proceed to open the Queen's hidden perils. If she accepts the Romish religion she will recover the same amity that her sister bought to her cost. What benefit will she have by so pleasing the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of Spain? Either they will importune her to run their fortune and be unquieted with their quarrels (which are infinite), or she will be put in fear by their threatenings continually, which she will not want when she has lost the Protestants. Now she has war with nobody; but if she enter into further kindness with the King of Spain, about a year hence a quarrel must rise with France for the rendition of the towns to the Duke of Savoy in Piedmont, whereby she will be drawn into a new war with France. Then the Prince of Orange has another quarrel for lands in Bretagne, and the King of Spain has another for the county of St. Pol, besides an infinite number of other actions, as Milan, Naples, Sicily, Navarre, Rousilion, Franche Compté, the Comté Charolois, the duchies of Burgundy, Gueldres, Brabant, and Luxemburg. If her profit arises by trouble and partialities in France (as he is sure it does), nothing serves so well for her purpose as to maintain a Protestant faction, which cannot be done if she changes her religion, or gives any suspicion thereof. As the King of Spain, by countenancing the Papists in his own and other countries, greatly advances his particular greatness; so it will be her most advantage to sustain the Protestants in her own realm and other countries. Reminds her of the Queen of Scotland's pretence against her, and by what religion she fortified the same, and of what religion her kin, her new and old friends, are. It is more than strange that any well meaning man should persuade her to leave a certainty for an uncertainty, and adhere to that religion which shall quail her own prosperity and advance others' felicity. Peradventure she may marvel at his humour, which enters into those reasonings, doubts, and disputes of the stability of her religion. Assures her that the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of Spain are ascertained from England that there is no great difficulty to make her change the state of her religion, and are persuaded that now is the time to make an attempt of it.
24. Another matter offers her a present consideration. At this present she has peace with all the world, and no war will arise from any place or person but by the Queen of Scotland, neither any danger to her realm but by Scotland. Wisdom advises her to buy her surety, though it cost her dear. The means to assure this, is in time, before any other put in his foot, to win to her party the mightiest, wisest, and most honest of the realm of Scotland. Though this be to her great charge (as 20,000l. yearly), yet is it in no wise to be omitted. In sorting her entertainment to every person, there should be some special consideration had of the Earl of Arran, because he is the second person of the realm; "and in like manner to the Lord James, whose credit, love, and honesty is comparable in my judgment, to any man of that realm." And forasmuch as neither the Queen of Scotland can yet reduce the people of that realm or her subjects' affections to such point as she covets, and with speed intends, and also because no Prince that means to marry with her can resolve how to proceed to win the goodwill of that people, neither can well see the end and issue of that marriage, and therefore are compelled to prolong to put in execution their devices, and because the French can yet make no good reckoning to be at any cost with Scotland, by reason of the Queen's hollow affection;—so it is now the Queen's time, and she will never have better opportunity to work the Scotch affection to her devotion. Desires her so to use his letter that his liberal speech of the state of the Emperor and the King of Spain be not an occasion to bring him in disgrace of those great Princes and their well-wishers, for their hands and ears stretch far, "yea, if it be true that I hear, into your private chamber."
25. The more kindness that she shows the French the more she will advance her own tranquillity, for it shall be most to her profit to make them believe that they are in great security for anything she intends. Therefore, whensoever the French Ambassador shall conceive any jealousy, either of arming her ships or any other provision necessary for her affairs, it will not be inconvenient to satisfy him in his suspicions. The more they be assured of her, the more troubles will grow amongst themselves at home, and so prepare better her advantage than can be done by any other device.—Paris, 29 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 17.
April 29. 152. The Queen to the Earl of Rutland.
Thanks for diligent service, in which he is to persevere. Directs him to continue to be diligent in resort to divine service at the church, whereby others may be more provoked; to administer justice indifferently, and to cut off long delays of suits, whereby oftentimes the poorer sort are compelled rather to suffer wrong than abide the length of trial.—Greenwich, 29 April, 3 Eliz.
Draft. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 29. 153. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Encloses a petition from ten gunners of Carlisle, begging that their wages may be paid to them by the Queen's receiver at Carlisle, as they consume most of them in going to Berwick to be paid, being seventy-two miles distant. Thinks that if they continue at Carlisle their petition should be granted.—29 April 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 29. 154. Lord Grey to Cecil.
By Cecil's letters of the 24th the writer perceives he has not got the packet of Forbes's letters, which he lost between Alnwick and Morpeth, and which a soldier who found them brought to the writer. Guesses the number of them to be sixteen, to the Queen of Scotland, the Duke of Vendôme, and sundry to brethren of the house of Guise, with the Constable, and other Estates of France. Opened one to the Bishop of Glasgow, a copy whereof he sends. By it he perceived such cause for misliking the rest, that he thought it convenient to send them to him, which he did by the ordinary post. As he heard it reported how Forbes lay lingering at Alnwick, Morpeth, and Newcastle, after he had lost his budget, he conjectures that he has practised with some of the posts or postillions and recovered it. They use great negligence in delivering the packet to travellers for sparing their horses, whereby many letters have come to him opened, and such as he sends are many times opened; besides keeping letters in their houses that three or four may have conveyance together. —Berwick, 29 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 30. 155. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. Lord James Stewart departs from this town homewards about 4th of May. He has appointed to go by Dieppe, and so to land at Rye. He has made so good report here of his good usage in England, that the same was very well bestowed. Since his coming hither the writer has known him "to be a sincere and upright honest gentleman, and in all his doings declared his goodwill and constant affection towards the Queen and our country, by his frank and liberal dealings with me in the same." The favour and courtesy they shall bestow on him at his return will be right well bestowed.
2. The deliberation of the King's sacre to be at Rheims the 15th of May holds still; yet even this day, by reason of the Queen Mother's indisposition, begins to be doubtful.
3. According to the Queen's pleasure he has written to the Queen of Scotland, and sent Mr. Somer to Nancy in Lorraine to have her answer touching the ratification of the late accord made in Scotland. Mr. Somer returned on 28th inst. with such answer as he has sent to the Queen, to the effect that at her coming to Rheims (where she minds to be on the 8th May) Throckmorton shall have her resolute answer. For certain considerations known to the Queen and them, besides his indisposition, he cannot be at Rheims. Has therefore written to the Queen to send her letters of credit authorizing Mr. Somer to demand the said answer. As she will not tarry long at Rheims he begs that the letters may be sent with diligence.
4. On the 28th of April in the evening about one hundred gentlemen and others assembled in a house in the suburbs near the Pré-aux-clercs, and there had a sermon and such other service as they thought good. Wherewith the people offended gathered together in great numbers, and forced a breach through a wall upon them. The others (not able to assuage by words the people's rage,) stood to their defence with good harquebusses and other weapons that they had provided against all events, and slew seven or eight of the assailants; and so continued with great fury till the Parliament and Justice of the town retired the people. In the night the gentlemen shifted themselves away secretly without great hurt. Many of these disorders have happened of late in divers places of the realm; and unless better order be devised, greater matters may ensue to the unquiet of the whole realm.—Paris, 30 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 30. 156. The Senate of Cologne to the Queen.
Having heard that a very considerable amount of arms, offensive and defensive, were being shipped by her order, (especially of the kind required for men-at-arms, such as hand-guns,) they were unwilling to hinder the quiet transportation of the same for her service. It having just now come to their knowledge however, that certain English traders convey these arms either into Muscovy direct, or to parts from which they may be carried thither, contrary to the interests of the empire, the writers intimate to her that they cannot sanction such traffic. If, however, she desires to purchase any military stores she shall be provided with the same upon specifying in writing the kind and quantity she may require.—Cologne, prid. Cal. Maii, 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Broadside.


  • 1. This and the following document are written upon the same leaf of paper.
  • 2. So altered from April 17.
  • 3. This clause is in Cecil's hand, and is an addition to the draft as originally drawn.
  • 4. See B. M. Calig. B. ix., No. 71.
  • 5. Cecil has directed attention to this passage by a mark in the margin of the letter.