Elizabeth: May 1561, 1-10

Pages 90-109

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.

Please subscribe to access the page scans

This volume has gold page scans.
Access these scans with a gold subscription.Key icon

May 1561, 1-10

May 1. 157. The Queen to the Lord Admiral.
Encloses the double of a writing delivered to the Ambassador of Portugal, declaring how her subjects shall use themselves towards the said King's subjects. Orders him to send duplicates of the same, under the seal of his office, to all the Vice-Admirals upon the south seas, and to command them to give notice thereof in the port towns to all mariners. He shall also give notice to all manner of persons to forbear their preparations for any voyage into Africa or Myna, or such like places, without notice given to him.
Corrected draft, in Cecil's hol., and dated and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
May 1.
Burnet, iii. Collect. No. 72.
158. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Mr. Somer having arrived here from Nancy with answer to Throckmorton's letter to the Queen of Scotland, the writer sends the same herewith. Somer used the best speech he could to get some direct answer from her according to her late promises, yet he got none other than that contained in her letter. Seeing she has deferred making answer to him until their next meeting, which she reckons will be at Rheims, (where she minds to be on the 8th, the sacre being on the 15th, at which he will not be present,) he advises the Queen to send letters of credit for Mr. Somer to receive her answer therein. And though it be the same as she made to the Lord James, which is the means to draw the time into greater length, yet the same being made by herself to the Queen, the latter would the better know how to proceed afterwards. The Queen of Scotland was accompanied at Nancy with the Dowager of Lorraine (whom they called there Son Altezze), the Duke and Duchess of Lorraine, M. De Vaudemont, the Cardinals of Lorraine and Guise, and the Duke D'Aumale. One of the chief causes of her going thither from Jenville (eighteen Lorraine leagues off) was to christen M. De Vaudemont's young son, born lately at Mallegrange, a quarter of a league from Nancy.
2. Wrote on the 23rd April that the Queen of Scotland would authorize Lord James (as she had told him herself) to have special charge of the government of the affairs in Scotland till her coming thither, and would for that purpose give him commission under her seal. For which commission and other letters he left a gentleman with her to bring them after him to Paris, who has returned with the letters, but with no commissions. Understands that she has now changed her mind, and will appoint none to have authority till she come herself. And as to suits and requests for benefices and other things, she will not make answer therein till her coming thither, which she does to bestow the same upon such as she shall see worthy of her favour, and upon others to win them to her devotion. The special cause why she has changed her opinion of Lord James is because she could not dissuade him from his devotion to the Queen of England, and the observation of the league between her and the realm of Scotland; and also for that she and the Cardinal of Lorraine could not win him from his religion, wherein they used very great means and persuasions. Seeing that Lord James has dealt so plainly with his Sovereign, he deserves to be well entertained and made of by the Queen of England as one that may stand her in no small stead for the advancement of her desire. He has dealt so frankly with Throckmorton that he believes he will so continue after his return home, and that in case she would now in time liberally and honourably consider him with some good means to make him the more beholden to her, it would serve her to great purpose. He departs homeward about the 4th of May by the way of Dieppe, and minds to land at Rye. Advertises the Queen thereof, that he may be "received and accommodated as appertaineth." The Queen of Scotland makes account to find a good party in her realm of such as are of her religion; and among others the Earl of Huntly has promised that having the Duke on his side, he, with such other as he holds assured, will be able enough to make head to the contrary party; and so has promised to bring great things to pass for the Queen's purpose and affection. Understands (partly by Lord James' own words) that he will soon after his return marry the Earl Marshal's daughter.
3. Informs her of the tumult between the Protestants and the Catholics which he had mentioned in his letter to the Lords of the 30th April. The people murmur greatly at the slaughter, and the other party are not a little moved to be assaulted and molested contrary to the King's edicts. Between the two parties, justice is so little feared and policy has now so little place, that greater things are to be dreaded. The Queen of Scotland has hitherto no great devotion to Lethington, Grange, and Balnaves, whereof he is nothing sorry; she minds to use all the best means she can to win them to her, which she trusts well to compass. It is to the King of Denmark (and not the King of Sweden) that the Baron De la Garde carries this King's order. The King's intended departure from Fontainebleau towards Rheims is retarded from 28th April by reason that the Queen Mother is fallen sick of a catarrh. Sends herewith the Pope's demand of the Princes of Germany and their answer.—Paris, 1 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
May 1. 159. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Will see by the several despatches sent by this bearer that he cannot contain himself in his limits, as he vowed, and as a wise man would. The occasions are such as he cannot keep promise with himself. Prays that Mr. Somer may be, by the Queen's letter to the Queen of Scotland, authorized to demand the answer for the ratification of the treaty, which she said she would give the writer at his coming to Rheims.
2. "Sir, Her Majesty and you of her Council cannot bestow too much favour and benefits, in my simple opinion, on the Lord James." It is high time to entertain the mightiest, wisest, and most honest in Scotland, ne forte veniant Hispani. Their jealousy must now be cast upon Spain, Austria, and the Queen of Scotland. The French are neither willing or in case to do England harm. If they can retain the best party in Scotland, no Prince or state is able or has opportunity to do them harm, and England would be the most happy state in Christendom. No cost is to be spared for this felicity. "It is the best and most necessary contribution that ever the realm stood charged with to buy your security."
3. Such intelligence as he has here makes him afraid, as well for fear of change of religion in England as for fear of incantations which will move them to be partial to the Spanish fortune.
Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici,
Expertus metuet. (fn. 1)
They say here that by his means the Duke of Brunswick and the Bremeners stay the Queen's armour and munition. The French are not sorry for the Turk's preparatives, nor of the Duke of Florence's greatness; at length they hope a jar will arise between Spain and Florence for the state of Sienna. In his opinion Spain is at this day too great, and therefore intolerable, and has become a monstrous member of Europe. A feather or two plucked in his broad wings will make him prove a better friend and ally where he ought to be; so as France catch them not to make them fly the higher, which they are not in case to do. Munera sœvos illaqueant duces.
4. However, the writer may be reputed to affect his indisposition, assures Cecil that he cannot long make account of his lasting, and therefore it will be needful that they acquaint some man with the affairs here. In his judgment it were of great purpose to bring Mr. Somer in some credit here, in whom there wants nothing that should be in a Prince's minister but credit at home and ability; he therefore prays, as an introduction, that he may be authorized to demand the Queen of Scotland's resolute answer. Sends letters of Lord James to Cecil and his wife, Lord Grey of Wilton, and a packet to the Lord of Coldingham.—Paris, 1 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 1. 160. Draft of the above, omitting the last sentence.
Endd.: By Stephen Davis. Pp. 4.
May. 161. M. Sechelles to —
"The gentleman" has returned from the Court, and has informed the writer that the King of Navarre will be here early to-morrow, and the Prince, his brother, also. The Queen is slightly indisposed, nevertheless the Court will depart on Friday from Fontainebleau. The Admiral will return on Friday to Châtillon, to whom he has written this morning. Has inquired about Court Lorein, who has left this town three days ago; he is the King's "trucheman" [interpreter]. This is all that he can say at present, but hopes to see him to-morrow. The "gentleman" will leave the Court early to-morrow, in order to go and meet the King of Navarre. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with fragment of seal. Endd. by Cecil: From M. Sechelles, May 1561. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 1.
Hardwick, i. 180. Tierney's Dodd. ii. App. No. 48.
162. The Reception of the Abbot of Martinego. (fn. 2)
1. Note of a consultation at Greenwich upon May Day 1561, by the Queen's command, upon a request made to her by the King of Spain's Ambassador, that the Abbot of Martinego, being a Nuncio from the Pope, arriving at Brussels, might come into the realm with letters from the Pope and other Princes. Present: Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper; the Marquis of Northampton; the Earl of Arundel, Steward of the Household; the Earls of Derby and Pembroke; Lord Clinton, the Admiral; Lord Howard, the Chamberlain; Sir Edward Rogers, the Controller; Sir Francis Knollys, ViceChamberlain; Sir William Cecil, Principal Secretary; Sir Ambrose Cave, Chancellor of the Duchy; Sir William Petre, Chancellor of the Order of the Garter; Sir John Mason, Treasurer of the Chamber; Sir Richard Sackville, ViceTreasurer of the Exchequer; Nicholas Wotton, Dean of Canterbury and York.
2. It was fully accorded by all and every of the said Councillors, without any manner of contradiction or doubt moved by any of them, that the Nuncio should not come into any part of the Queen's dominions; using arguments of which the following are the chief:—
3. First, that it is against the ancient laws even for any person by word or deed to allow of his coming.
4. Secondly, if the Pope's authority be acknowledged, then there will follow great peril to the surety of the Queen's undoubted title to the crown.
5. Thirdly, he cannot come without great peril likely to follow. For, whereas the noise only of his coming has given courage to sundry evil-disposed persons to break the laws with great audacity, and to disperse abroad false reports of the Queen's disposition to change her religion and the governance of this realm; who also have conjured with the devil, and cast figures to know the continuance of her life and reign, and have devised that the devil should in their conjurations make answer that she should not long continue, whose answers be always and shall be in this part (as they trust) mere lies. Therefore, it may be great danger to have the Nuncio come hither after these preparations, and that towards summer, in which time the devil has most opportunity to make troubles and tumults. And as the evil sort of subjects (who desire alteration and change) might receive comfort, so the true subjects might forbear to show their affection to the Queen. They compare this to the danger of a man relapsing into sickness; for nothing does so much damage to a commonwealth as change or hope of change.
6. Now to answer the objections; it may be said that he will swear that he will do nothing prejudicial to the crown and realm. It may be doubted whether he will swear, and if he do, he may presume that it is no perjury to break promise with heretics. And though the Queen might dispense with the pain, yet none would be willingly reputed a breaker of that law, made so lately by Parliament; and mainly all such inheritors and possessors as have anything by the laws of the realm, being contrary to the laws and constitutions of Rome. It would be great folly to adventure the same danger of the subversion of the policy of England that there was in Queen Mary's time. It is an abuse to bear them in hand that the Pope means no hurt, when he has at present in Ireland a Legate who is joined already to certain traitors, and is occupied in stirring up a rebellion, having already by open acts deprived the Queen of her right and title there. When the Abbot of St. Salute came last year as far as Brussels, it was proposed that he should do his best to stir up a rebellion in England by colour of religion; and why this Abbot has not the like secret errand there is no reason shown. There are more reasons to show it likely, especially such preparations used before-hand to prepare the hearts of discontented subjects.
7. It has also been said that he will lodge apart from the other Ambassadors; this is a simple offer and so to be waived, and not worth answering.
8. But it is pretended that he only comes to move the Queen to send to the General Council, as other Princes have been moved. Nothing would please her more than to hear of a good General Council, for which she will spare neither travail nor treasure. When such a Council shall be called, she will (as one not subject to any potentate, spiritual or temporal, under God,) send thither such persons as will declare her mind to have one unity in all matters of Christ's religion. But as to this Council, she cannot make a resolute answer to send thither. For if it be called by the Pope's authority, then the Queen finds thereby no direct meaning to come to concord. Other Christian Princes have been long since sent to, and their opinions and consents required before it was appointed; and now they send to exhort her to send to that Council without requiring her opinion therein. She thinks that there has been a determination to prejudice her realm of her profession, and to establish and confirm the authority of the Pope with all his abuses and errors.
Corrected draft. Endd. Pp. 8.
May 1. 163. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 8.
May 1. 164. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 8.
May 2. 165. Volrad, Count of Mansfeld, to the Queen.
Certain learned divines of the University of Jena, who are engaged in writing an ecclesiastical history, have already requested her to lend them certain ancient writers from her library. Although they have received good hope of having their request granted through the Archbishop of Canterbury, still they have begged him to intercede for them. Considering the great importance of the work for the whole Church, she will probably assist them. Guarantees the safe return of the books.—Mansfeld, 2 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 4. 166. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Recommends this bearer, the Lord James Steward, to her. In all his doings here his good affection to her has well appeared. On 1 May the King of Navarre came to this town accompanied with the Prince of Roche-sur-Yon, the Duke of Longueville, M. M. De Lorges, Termes, and Candalle, Knights of the Order, the Cardinal of Châtillon, and a great number of gentlemen. His coming was to give order for these late disorders, and to recommend to the Parliament of this town the Prince of Condé's process.
2. On the 2nd of May he called before him in the hall of the Louvre all the head curates and church-wardens of all the parishes of the town, and two of every religious house, with the regents of the colleges, exhorting them in the King's name to quietness; and charging others for seditious preaching, and rather moving the people to tumults and sedition than edifying them. He assured them that where the same should happen hereafter, the King would make them feel his indignation; and advised them not to molest any man living without open slander, nor to seek men in their houses, as had been done at the instigation of some there present, whom he said he knew, and had changed their own weed under colour of scholars.
3. According to her pleasure (signified by her letters of 19th of April) the writer sent Somer to the King of Navarre to make him understand what had passed between her, her Ministers, and the French Ambassador, touching the Baron De Courtellain. The King marvelled that she had any difficulty to accept him. Thereto he was answered that being a stranger she could not know so much, except by the King's or her Ambassador's letters, neither of which he brought with him. The King said that if he conceived displeasure and came away, there would be more difficulty used of others to go hereafter. Thereto was answered that a letter from the King, or advertisement from the Ambassador, would remedy that matter. It was further said to the King of Navarre, that since the late King's death, their Ambassador in England had not been presented, as is used of all Princes after the death of any. The King desired that Throckmorton should require the Queen to accept the Baron of Courtellain; and as for the establishing of their Ambassador, they had not done it in Spain, nor in any other place. Somer answered that it had been always used. Navarre said he knew not what the King would do; on being pressed he said that the King had named one to reside as Ambassador in England, but would not tell his name. Throckmorton has learnt that it is the President De l'Aubespine. After this Somer spoke for Mr. Cotton's son. The King said that it was very reasonable, and should be performed, and that he would constrain De La Haye to keep his promise.
4. On the 3rd inst. the said King went to meet the French King, who departed from Fountainebleau towards Rheims, where he minds to be on the 11th, and within a day or two after to be sacred, and after two or three days to come back to Villers-Cotterets, there to remain till his entry into Paris on the 20th of July. Whilst the King of Navarre was here, the Prince of Condé came in post for his matter; neither he nor the Admiral mind to be at the sacre, as he told the writer. The Lord James being with the King of Navarre was asked how he would like the Queen of Scotland to be married to a Popish Prince (meaning the Prince of Spain), which matter was very far forward. He answered that he would be sorry for it. He also discoursed with him in matters of religion, and of the league between the Queen of England and Scotland. Sends a copy of the Admiral's letter.—Paris, 4 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Injured by a large ink blot. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 4. 167. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. Recommends Lord James Steward to them. He is one of the most virtuous noblemen, and one in whom religion, sincerity, and magnanimity as much reign as ever he knew in any man of any nation. "What a great benefit it is for Her Majesty and your Lordships to deal with such an upright man and in so weighty affairs as betwixt Prince and Prince, realm and realm, and more especially when the press of men be much subject to dissimulation, cautels, and finesse, I leave to your Lordships to consider."
2. It is now resolved that the sacre of the King (hitherto uncertain) shall be at Rheims on the 12th or 13th of May, where he minds to make but small abode, and from thence to Villers-Cotterets in Valois, and there will abide until his entry into Paris about 20th of July. The King of Navarre repaired to this town the 2nd of May, to give order for the garboils here, which are like to grow daily; and also to recommend the Prince of Condé's protest to the Parliament, where he abode two days. A very strait ordinance has been published to restrain the excess of apparel, as well of women as men. It will be more precisely observed of all sorts and estates than the statute of apparel has been in England.—Paris, 4 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 4. 168. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. "If it were needful to better your opinion of this nobleman (as I am sure neither I need nor cannot) I would tell you truly of him what I judge. For the benefit of the whole isle I would there were many such, and then I durst say it must needs prosper and accord together." The Queen has gratified many of sundry countries and conditions, but in his judgment she shall never gratify a more worthy or thankful gentleman. "If all King Henry the VIII.'s rich furs of sables and black genets be not spent and made fees, amongst other things, I could wish that he had two of the fairest; but, howsomever, you do let him not depart ungratified nor unpresented honourably. It may be truly said of him Cœlum non animum mutat, qui trans mare currit.' The Laird of Pitarrow is a honest wise man, so is Mr. Wood his secretary. If you think meet to retain amity in Scotland, who is so meet as the wisest and most honest to be cherished ?" No occasion will so aptly serve the Queen's purpose to entertain the amity of Scotland as to ground the same upon the league of religion, and therein will arise least difficulties amongst the Scots; for to have any ordinary league with them there will arise great difficulties, as well for the untoward devotion of their Queen, who greatly mislikes the English amity, unless it were by factions to serve her purpose; the inconstancy of the Duke of Châtellerault, and the uncertainty of his friends; the doubleness and covetousness of Huntly, and the unassuredness of his followers; the malice of the Papists and the greediness of many others of that nation. All these will so impeach an authentic league-making, either with the Princes' consent or by the agreement of the States, that there is no such issue to be trusted on or looked after.
2. "Upon the Lord James's home-coming, the favourers of religion of all conditions may amongst themselves assemble, and conclude a league for the defence thereof; which being so amongst themselves accorded, may serve the Queen as the principal foundation to build her amity with them, which motion I think will be to them almost plausible, and quench such scruples as otherwise will arise amongst them for ceremonies, (for form and matter is little,) and for their Sovereign's consent." Thinks it would be well if the Lord James were entertained with some pleasures, and that the Queen should recommend his good usage to the Earl of Rutland and others on the way.—Paris, 4 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 4. 169. Throckmorton to Lord Grey.
Recommends the bearer, Lord James Stewart, (returning from France) to his good offices. Since the death of the late King Francis matters of religion have been somewhat borne withal in this realm and persecution ceased; men have been the bolder in it. Many disorders have lately been committed in sundry places, as the other day in Paris, by forcing a house where an assembly was at a sermon; but it was so defended that of the people some were slain and more hurt. Justice is presently little feared in that case, and policy has little place among the unruly. If this nation was of as great execution as it is famous and of great show of bravery at the first, the writer would fear great things to ensue of these disorders, and yet is not without some fear of more unquietness. Prays to be recommended to Arthur Grey and other gentlemen.—Paris, [blank] May 1561.
Draft. Endd.: 4 May 1561, by Al. Clerk. Pp. 4.
May 4. 170. The Bishop of Aquila to Cecil.
Understanding from one of Cecil's clerks that to-morrow is appointed for him to receive the Queen's decision with respect to the Papal Nuncio, he requests that their reply may be confined to a simple assent or refusal, and that no controversial questions concerning religion may be introduced while he is present. He is the Ambassador of the King of Spain, not of the Pope.—4 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
May 4. 171. Immanuel Tremellius to Cecil.
1. Has already written at some length soliciting the recovery of his furniture, and the stipend granted to him by King Edward, together with the prebend of Carlisle, which he had originally obtained through Cecil's goodness.—Paris, 4 May 1561. Signed.
2. P. S.—Will Cecil write by the servant of Peter Martyr, or will he inform the Earl of Bedford, who will convey the information ?
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
May 5. 172. Reply to the Bishop of Aquila.
"Answer to the Ambassador of the King of Spain concerning a motion made to the Queen for the coming into this realm of the Abbot of Martinego, the Pope's Nuncio. 5 May 1561."
1. The Queen having communicated with her Councillors, thinks it not meet that the said Nuncio should be permitted to come into any of her dominions. His coming is directly against the laws of the realm, and the time and other late apparent circumstances persuade her and her Council that it is not meet for the policy of the realm that any such come. It is no new example to prohibit this coming, as may be proved by the late example in the reign of Queen Mary.
2. "But as to such letters as it is supposed that the said Nuncio hath from the Emperor and other Princes, it is thought by Her Majesty very convenient that the same should be by her received at the hands of the said Ambassador of Spain, if he so please, and that such friendly answer be made thereto from Her Majesty as the same shall require." (fn. 3)
3. And whereas it is pretended that this message is only to exhort her to send to the Council at Trent; she is very glad to hear of a General Council, and will speedily cause it to be understood whether this Council is like to be celebrated in such sort and with such conditions as are requisite for a General and free Council. If it may so appear, she fully purposes, as one of the principal Monarchs of Christendom, to send thither certain learned persons. But if it be otherwise, as the last Council at Trent was, then she will be very sorry, and will spare no good means to help that there may be such a General and free Council obtained for all estates of Christendom, so that better hope may be conceived of concord and unity. This answer proceeds not upon any partiality, but upon mature deliberation; and none other can be hoped for. Were it not in consideration of the said Ambassador, the laws of the realm and the examples of the Queen's progenitors in like case would not have permitted to a Nuncio from the Pope so quiet and mild an answer.
4. Present at the Council: Sir N. Bacon; the Marquis of Northampton; the Earls of Arundel, Derby and Pembroke; Lords Clinton and Howard of Effingham; E. Rogers, F. Knollys, and W. Cecil, Knights; A. Cave, W. Petre, J. Mason, R. Sackville, Knights; and Dr. Wotton. (fn. 4)
Orig. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 5. 173. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
May 5. 174. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 5. 175. Translation of the above into French, omitting the list of Councillors present.
Endd. Pp. 3.
May 5. 176. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3.
May 5. 177. Draft of the above in English, with corrections by Cecil, omitting the list of Councillors present.
Endd. and dated by Cecil. Pp. 3.
May 5. 178. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3.
May 5. 179. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3.
May 6. 180. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. Has received his letter of the 29th ult., "declaring such discourse as passed between one there [the Admiral], and you." For his singular zeal towards her and to the advancement of God's honour, she must and will allow and love him. Throckmorton is to inform him that he may boldly make account of her constancy and determination to advance the honour of Almighty God by maintaining the truth of the Gospel. As for the coming of the Nuncio, she has well considered what has been meant therein how to weaken her right hand and put her strength into her left, and so may he tell the same party, her friend.
2. Sends her answer to the Spanish Ambassador, containing in the first part a denial for the Nuncio to come into England, and in the second her good allowance of a free General Council, and her offer to send thither, if the same be called. Because she knows that such as be disposed to deprave her doings and bring her name into evil opinion, will be busy in utterance of the first part, and forbear to utter the latter, he is to impart the whole answer to such in the Court as he shall think meet, doing it as of himself. He will also receive a collection of such reasons as moved her hereunto, which also he may communicate. Is right glad of the determination of a National Council in France, and prays him to solicit the same, and when she has certainty of it she will have consideration of the request "moved to you by our friend."
3. He is to let no occasion pass to enquire certainly of the marriage of the Queen of Scots, for it behoves her not to be ignorant of the matter. "We mean to use the Lord James to his contentation." Sends a copy of her letter of credit for Mr. Somer to the Queen of Scots to demand the ratification of the treaty. Accepts his advice contained in his letter of April 29th in good part, and allows therein both his wisdom and his earnest good will. "We assure you, we do not mean, nor ever meant, to make change of the order o four religion."
4. If a General and free Council might be had by consent of all Christian Princes, without admitting the supreme authority which the Pope claims, and that it might be free for the Ministers of all Princes to show their advices how a unity might be had in Christendom, she would gladly be a party in it; and in this sort her speech being sometimes uttered, perchance it has been carried to such as have altered her meaning. Otherwise she assures him she never meant to allow of a General Council, for she cannot call it a General Council where none shall have voice but the clergy that are sworn to the Pope, and where the Ambassadors of Princes like herself shall be but beholders of them who will decree acts against Christ's religion, and consequently against her who professes the same. He may communicate this her judgment to her friend and others.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd.: 6 May 1561. Pp. 4.
May 6. 181. Modern transcript of the above, as despatched, of which the outer leaf with seal and direction only remain.
Add. Endd.: 7 May [sic] 1561. From the Queen, by Francis, 12 ejusdem. Pp. 4.
May 6. 182. The Queen to Mundt.
Commends his continual diligence. Perceiving by his information that the house of Guise is occupied in soliciting learned men in sundry parts to consent to the pretended title made by the Scottish Queen, she makes very little regard thereof, but requires him to advertise her of any of their devices, and to disprove the same. Because the Electors and Princes who were assembled at Naumburg sent the Queen a copy of the answer they made to the Pope's Legate, which is now dispersed through all parts, and as they understand a Nuncio is sent hither upon the like errand, and not knowing her answer, may conceive otherwise than is meet;—she sends to Mundt in writing the answer that was given in that behalf to the King of Spain's Ambassador, who was a suitor for licence to be given to the said Nuncio. Mundt may impart the same to the Count Palatine, as one to whom she attributes great favour, and to whom it appears the rest of the Princes holding the Confession of Augusta have referred the report of anything appertaining to religion. He may assure all the Princes Protestants that it is her full purpose to persist in the maintenance of the honour of God, by upholding the sincerity of the Gospel according to the good meaning of the Confession of Augusta.
Orig. Draft, in Cecil's hol. and dated and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 3.
May 6. 183. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
John Beverley, a justice of peace, (who with two sureties is under bond of 400l. to attend this Court to answer about a foul practice, which will probably fall out very evil against him,) has of late been subpœnaed in the Exchequer. Desires to know whether his presence there will be a greater benefit to the Queen than the searching out and punishment of his facts, as he supposes this is his own practice to delay his trial. Will Cecil settle the matter with the Lord Treasurer and Chief Baron? Has written to the Treasurer in the same matter. Asks credit for the bearer.—York, 6 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 6. 184. The Queen to the Senate of Hamburg.
Has received their letter of April 14th, and assures them on her royal word that all the arms and munitions shipped in her name from Hamburg are intended solely for the defence of her realm. Desires that the author of the rumour that they were intended for the Muscovites may be sought out and punished, and that the import of this despatch may be widely made known.
Orig. Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 7. 185. The Queen to the Senate of Hamburg.
To the same effect as that of May 6th. In order that she may be certain that nothing is wrongly shipped in her name, she desires that a list of everything may be sent by the bearer. —Greenwich, 7 May 1561.
Orig. Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May [7]. 186. The Council to Throckmorton.
On the 29th ult. the Bishop of Aquila having access to the Queen, made means on the part of the King of Spain that the Abbot of Martinego (Nuncio from the Bishop of Rome and now at Brussels), might come into this realm; pretending that his coming was only to move her to send to the Council of Trent. She referred the matter to the Council, who deliberated on it on 1st inst. The Queen having approved their decision, answer was given to the Bishop on the 5th by the Council. The Bishop alleged that his message was to the Queen, and that he looked for answer at her own mouth. It was appointed that the answer should be put in writing, and read to him by the Secretary; whereat he made some difficulty, as he had only proponed his master's motion by mouth; whereunto it was told him that it was not meant that he should have it in writing delivered to him. In the end he seemed pleased, and the answer was read to him. It was also told him that this was done more in consideration of the good amity between the Queen and his master than for any respect of this Abbot, or of him who sent him. With this answer he seemed to be satisfied, and said that the effect of his message was to understand the Queen's mind herein, yea or nay, which he now perceived, and of which he would advertise the King. They send him a true copy of the answer, that if he perceives it otherwise reported he may take occasion to open the whole to the King, or any other.—Greenwich, [blank] May 1561. Signed: N. Bacon, Winchester, W. Northampt., F. Bedford, Arundel, Pembroke, E. Clinton, W. Howard, G. Rogers, F. Knollys, W. Cecil, Ab. Cave, W. Petrie, John Mason, Ry. Sackville, N. Wotton.
Modern transcript, from the Conway Collection. Add. Pp. 2.
May 8. 187. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. Although Lady Throckmorton is coming, he will not delay this despatch. What the matters are the writings will declare; howsoever the end is, the way thereto was full of crooks. Found the Marquis, the Lord Keeper, and the Earl of Pembroke in this matter his best pillars, yet was he forced to seek bye-ways, so much was the contrary labour by prevention; this Bishop of Aquila had entered into such a practice with a pretence to further the great matter here, (meaning principally the Church matter, and perchance, accidentally, the other also,) that he had taken faster hold to plant his purpose than was Cecil's ease shortly to root up. But God and the Queen (the one by directing and the other by yielding) have ended the matter well, and if it may so continue he shall be in more quietness. Throckmorton's letters, though they came late, yet did they confirm to the Queen and others the former resolution.
2. Has imparted this answer for the Nuncio to sundry places, "lest our former inclination had been too hastily spread by the adversaries." When he saw the Romish influence towards about a month past, he thought necessary to dull the Papists' expectation by discovering of certain Massmongers and punishing them. "I take God to record I mean no evil to any of them, but only for the rebating of the Papists' humours, which by the Queen's lenity grow too rank. I find it hath done much good." (fn. 5)
3. As for Ireland, trusts that the Earl of Sussex will this summer make plain work with the stubborn sort there. A voyage is to be made upon Shane O'Neil, who usurps the state of Tyrone; he is great, crafty, and rich, and therefore the exploit is to be handled more substantially. The Earl of Kildare has come over at length, "half of his will and half enticed by us." Wishes that he had his earldom acquit with a better in England, which so surely should be if Cecil could persuade the Queen; "but such kind of matters, with many like good, be not here understanded." Throckmorton wrote since last Lent of a slanderous report made in France of the English clergy and their variety; thinks there is no great cause to blame them; saving three or four singular persons, as perchance Mr. Album Caput [Whitehead], etc. knows of no discrepancy amongst them; "but for satisfaction of such doubts I have caused the Bishop of Sarum to feign an epistle sent from hence thither, and have printed it secretly, and send you herewith certain copies. If more be printed there, the matter shall have more probability. I have caused an Apology to be written, but not printed, in the name of the whole clergy, which is wisely, learnedly, eloquently, and gravely written, but I stay the publication of it until it be further pondered, for so it is requisite."
4. Prays him to send this packet to Chamberlain, which contains their proceedings with the Nuncio; and if also by some other means Throckmorton send a double of the answer, with some part of his own opinion therein, he will do well.
5. "I will now enter into a prate that touches me nigh." Has forborne to send his son Thomas Cecil out of the realm because he had no more; now that he has another, he means to send him [Thomas] abroad for a year, and at his return to see him married, for that he will then be full twenty. Means not to have him scholarly learned, but civilly trained, and to have either the French or Italian tongue; in which, if he may entertain one in common speech of salutation, it shall suffice. Whither shall he send him, and how? Is inclined to send him into France, the rather because religion is in some good state there, but will rest only on Throckmorton's advice. If he might, without corruption of life, have been in that Court three months, he should thereby learn more, both in tongue and knowledge, than otherwhere in the double space. Has a disposition to send with him Windebank, his secretary, who is of much honesty and good knowledge in French and Italian, and to have a waiting man who can speak French. Desires his advice therein, and whether it were not unmeet for him to be preferred for the space of three months to the Admiral there. The boy is hard enough, and so his mind might be kept from hurt, Cecil would take small care of his body; for he wishes it hardened, and not made subject, as his own, by study to sickness. As for his allowance for apparel, horses, &c., desires Mr. Somer to write at full. Means to send him hence upon Throckmorton's advertisement within four days. "Blame me not if I be long herein, for indeed, though to this hour I never showed any fatherly fancy to him but in teaching and correcting, yet would I fain now towards mine age receive some comfort of his well-doing." Would have him like Throckmorton, whom he prays to deal frankly in the matter.
6. Sends herewith a certain rhyme from Edinburgh. Received a letter yesterday from him in behalf of Forbes, but he passed by sea from Dieppe, and thereof wrote to Cecil. Can find no such fault in the Earl, his master, for being refused; what should he do else but consider his own weal, so it be with honesty? Has laid wait for the Lord James' arrival at Dieppe, to the intent he may be met upon the way. If the writer may weigh in the matter, Lord James shall be well considered, and others also according to Throckmorton's advice, "but hitherto I can never be allowed in those things, for it sufficeth to note me addicted to that faction, which I assure you I never esteemed, nor shall, but for the Queen's own cause, and therefore, howsoever I have been noted, I have God to my testimony and defence." There has been some lack of consideration at this last St. George's Day of the Earl of Bedford, which has much discomforted him [the Earl], and not without reason.—Greenwich, 8 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: Per Franciscum, 12 ejusdem. Pp. 6.
May 9. 188. The Queen to the King of Spain.
Is sorry to address to him any message that might seem strange, but considers that his new order respecting the commerce between the two realms will be to the manifest damage of both, as will be represented to him by her Ambassador. She desires that the ancient manner of intercourse so long used betwixt their people may be continued.
Orig. draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 9 May 1561 Copy of the Queen's letter sent to King Philip. Pp. 2.
May 9. 189. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Lord James Stewart departed homeward on the 4th instant by Dieppe, and from thence along the coast to Boulogne, thinking the passage from thence to Dover to be easier than from Dieppe to Rye. Emanuel Tremellius (whom the writer and the Earl of Bedford sent to the Princes Protestant assembled at Neubourg,) is returned with their letters and instructions to the French King and the King of Navarre. He told Throckmorton that the effect of his instructions is to dissuade the said Kings from accepting the General Council as it is published, or sending the clergy of the realm to it; the said Princes promising that they will be ready to assist the King with all their best means in advancing religion. The said Emanuel has not yet spoken with the French King, but this other day spake with the King of Navarre, and is now gone to the Court to have audience, having promised to let Throckmorton know how he speeds. He has requested him to recommend his service and case to her, whereof he and the Earl of Bedford have written particularly to Cecil. In the beginning of Queen Mary's reign he was not only put by the Hebrew lecture which he read in Cambridge, but also had the arrearage of two years' stipend for the same kept from him. He had also a prebend of King Edward's gift taken from him without just cause, and besides these received other great losses. He is very desirous to do the Queen service, and is a very meet man for the same in Almain, where he is both well credited and acquainted, being of that nation, and also entertained by the Palsgrave. He is a sober, wise man, and for his skill in many tongues much to be made of.
2. The French King is on his way to Rheims to his sacre, which shall be on the 16th instant. On the 7th there arrived, as Ambassadors from Venice, Guan De Leggio, Procurer of St. Mark, and Marin De Cavallo, whose son is Ambassador in Spain. The Duke Charles of Austria is gone into Italy, to the marriage of his sister to the Duke of Mantua. There is some talk that the young Duchess of Ferrara, daughter to the Duke of Florence, is dead. The French King minds shortly to return his galleys to Marseilles, whereof Cornelio Fiasco shall have the conducting. There is a bruit that the Queen of Scotland is fallen sick of an ague at Nancy. On the 6th Sir Francis Inglefield came to this town out of Italy. He desires that his licence may be continued, that he may pass over next August at the baths of Liège for the more perfect recovery of his health.—Paris, 9 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 9. 190. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Sends herewith a letter from Emanuel Tremellius to Cecil, one for the Earl of Bedford, and one for Sir Thomas Wrothe, "for his children's matter that are in Almaine." Thinks that he is a very necessary minister for the Queen, wise, honest, and sincere, besides that he is well learned in the tongues, and has many of their neighbours' languages very familiar. Though she has Mont in Almain, yet by Tremellius she shall receive no small increase of service. Has written somewhat of him and his request to the Queen. The losses he received in Queen Mary's reign being made up by the Queen, would be honour to her.
2. Sir Francis Inglefield has arrived in this town of Italy; and means to sue to the Queen to continue his licence for the profiting of his health at the baths at Liège. Encloses Sir Francis's letter to the Vice-Chamberlain.—Paris, 9 May 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—The Spanish threatenings are now very rife in this country to see if that will serve to cool the heat here for the matter of religion. (fn. 6)
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: By Grisling. Pp. 2.
May 10. 191. Shers to Cecil.
1. Is in areadiness to leave Venice. From Rome it comes that the Pope, having set forth a vehement Bull against murderers, under colour of the same to shift divers gentlemen from their lives and livings, has this week prorogued the same for fifteen days. There is assembled at Valmontone (about twenty-five miles from Rome), a great number of that sect, and have driven the Pope for his defence to call to Rome the ordinary guard, as it were in time of war.
2. In Calabria about Cosenza, between Sabrana and Reggio, there are upwards of 3,000 men in an uproar. They have delivered all prisoners who were committed for religion by the Inquisition. The Viceroy of Naples will send horsemen and footmen to abate their courage, [which will be] good provision against the Turk's army.
3. A galley and three foists of Barbary have taken Cigalo, the great captain of the King of Spain, who was going towards Spain with a galley and a foist, having on board the Viceroy of Calabria, his wife, and other noble Spaniards. The galley is worth 300,000 crowns to the Turks.
4. The Pope has sent the Bishop of Chusa to appease the Frenchmen at Avignon, who are disobedient to the priests and the Church of Rome.
5. The Ambassador that was at Rome during the past winter for the King of Navarre, has arrived there again; and the Pope is at his wits' end to know what to do with Don John D'Ayala, who is there for King Philip, and requests the Pope not to admit the other as from the King of Navarre, because of the prejudice to the King of Spain's title. The Pope would fain set Spain and France at war again.
6. The gentleman sent from France to deliver the writing concerning the annates has done so, and has so replied to certain answers that the Pope has almost lost all hope for the recovery of the same. The Pope feigns he is sick of the gout to prolong the King of Navarre's Ambassador from having audience, and yet he confers daily with Ayala. There is no talk at Rome of the Council towards at Trent.—Venice, 10 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
May 10. 192. Intelligence from Rome.
1. From Rome, 10 May 1561. The Pope has so far recovered from the gout that he has been able to attend to business. He is now proceeding with the fortifications of Rome, and has repaired the bastions round the castle of S. Angelo. On Thursday forenoon about 13 o'clock he went to the bastions, where the foundations are already excavated for placing a curtain. The first stone was laid there, under which were placed several medals of gold, silver, and brass. He then returned to his palace, accompanied by many Cardinals and the greater part of the Court. He spent the day at S. Angelo, where many cannon were fired. The fortifications at Ostia and Civita Vecchia have been begun.
2. Yesterday forenoon there was a Consistory, and two bishopries were given; one, which had belonged to Caraffa, in France, was given to a bastard of the King of Navarre; the other, in Italy, was given to a brother of the Bishop of Civita Di Piuna, who was formerly cited to appear personally, it having been discovered that at his instigation Cardinal Caraffa (before he was a Cardinal,) had committed murder. It was also proposed to cancel the process commenced in the time of Pope Paul IV. against the Emperor Charles V. and his son King Philip, as unjust and unfounded. Further, the answer to the Ambassador of France was discussed; he having come to persuade the Pope not to require payment of annates; in which mission, notwithstanding his learning, he has not been very successful. He will return without a definite answer, which the Pope will send into France, and which will be there presented to the Council by M. De Sancta Croce.
3. M. De Terracina returns into Spain, where he will remain as Nuncio. M. De Bologna goes into Portugal. Yesterday M. Adamo Conaschi, Ambassador of the King of Poland, arrived here. The Pope says that he will speedily despatch an embassy to Bologna, but the precise time is uncertain.
Orig. Ital. Pp. 1.
May 10. 193. Iacomo Ragazzoni to the Privy Council.
Has presented to the Signori the letter of the Council, and added a few words. They were uncertain how to act, having before the arrival of the letter, determined to send Guido Giannetti to Rome, for which great persuasion had been used. At present, however no decision has been arrived at, but the writer hopes that the cause will prosper in his hands, for which he will exert himself to the utmost.—Venice, 10 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Ital. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Horat. Ep. i. 18. 86.
  • 2. See B. M. Julius, F. vi. 163 b.
  • 3. The whole of this paragraph, which occurs only in the English draft corrected by Cecil (see No. 177), is cancelled in that copy.
  • 4. The whole of this paragraph is in Cecil's hand.
  • 5. Several papers connected with these proceedings are contained in the series of Domestic Papers of Elizabeth, Vol. xvi., Nos. 49, 50, 55, 59, 60, and 65.
  • 6. This P.S. is in Throckmorton's hand.