Elizabeth: November 1562, 16-20

Pages 459-480

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 5, 1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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November 1562, 16-20

Nov. 16. 1056. Cecil to Windebank.
Wishes his son to see Italy and pass by the Helvetians and to Geneva. "Marry, I wish you have good regard to pass as unknown as ye may, because of the malice that I know the Papists owe me, and could be content to avenge the same in my son." Means to marry and plant his son when he comes home. He is to use reverence to Knollys, and to learn to wear his apparel cleanly and courtly, for of himself he is somewhat negligent.—"From my house next the Savoy," 16 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Nov. 16. 1057. John Young to Cecil.
1. This day there came a boat from Dieppe with certain people from Rouen, who say that the King and his mother have departed towards Paris to the Guises; so there remain there but four ancients, which number but 300 men, and very small number of people in the city. They put to death all the chief of the city with their wives. M. De Clere is near the city with 100 horsemen and De Villebon with fifty, which is all the power remaining about Rouen.
2. They say that the King of Navarre departed on Tuesday at night about 8 o'clock, and that the Prince with M. D'Andelot was last Thursday within six leagues of Paris, and that M. D'Andelot's men of war have given a great overthrow to the Guises about Paris on Thursday or Friday last, for they came before the Prince and D'Andelot to make the ways clear before their coming; so that at this time the Prince is there. Many of the Almains and Swartritters are departed from Guise and gone to the Prince. When Montmorency made his entry into Dieppe there came many Papists with him, and for the space of two days went to mass, but as soon as he departed they went their ways also, so that they are all quiet in that town. M. De Bacville departed from Dieppe to the King on Monday, and Ricarville remains, who has but 100 men; and they say that he is sent for also. Desires to know whether he shall make stay of the passenger boats.—Rye, 16 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 17. 1058. Warwick to the Privy Council.
Has received their letters of the 10th inst. Has omitted no occasion of writing.—Newhaven, 17 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Nov. 17. 1059. The Privy Council to Smith.
1. Having seen his letters of the 5th inst. they have considered his proceedings since he first came to Rouen until the 10th inst. In the matters wherein he requires speedy answer (grounded upon conference with the Cardinal of Ferrara), they allow of his doings towards making peace, but they cannot hope for a good end, when the Pope's Legate shall be a principal actor, nor would they that he should have dealt so deeply with him; for there must needs follow to his party a comfort upon too much yielding on their part, and a discomfort to the Prince to find that (without his understanding) he [Smith] had entered into such a talk of a peace as to make the composition of Dieppe an example to the Prince. They have also considered the paper of the articles for the composition of those of Dieppe, and they see no cause to approve of such a treaty of peace to have those articles that a poor fishers' town was constrained to take after the loss of Rouen. They think he should seek no more the Cardinal, but abide his seeking him; and neither with the Queen Mother or others deal otherwise than to continue to declare the Queen's desire to have a perfect end of these troubles, viz., for the Prince and his to have their reasonable requests.
2. For the matters of the Prince, he may offer that the Queen would be glad that he [Smith] should labour to bring things to a reasonable end; and for her own causes she will refuse no reasonable offers to continue in amity. Smith may say that the conspiracies lately begun by some named Pooles in favour of the Guises, show how necessary it is for her to provide for the same; yet he is not to give them cause to think that he touches it but upon remembrance, and not as from fear of them.
3. By some means he shall inform the Prince and his that the Queen intends not to deal in this matter without knowledge of such as have practised with him [Smith]. If the Cardinal or the Queen Mother ask what answer he has from England concerning the articles sent hither, he shall say that he finds the Queen of her first mind, viz., that if they trust her to be a means of pacification betwixt the Prince and the Guises, she will labour therein; otherwise she will not meddle in the matter.
4. Concerning the spoils made upon the Queen's subjects in Bretagne, it is not true that restitution has been made. The English, finding themselves destitute of relief, may be bolder with the French King's subjects than their Lordships would wish.
5. They wish he could procure Throckmorton's safe-conduct to return; for now being but a private man, the Queen Mother's former answers take no effect, and therein the Queen would that he should deal as earnestly as he can.
Corrected draft in Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 4.
Nov. 17. 1060. Thomas Wood to Cecil.
1. Has written to Lord Robert of the great number of French men of war in Newhaven, and of the danger thereof. There are above 500 French soldiers, and not less than 2,000 men and women; these his Lordship has no commission to remove without M. Beauvoir' consent, whose doings he must not seem to suspect, but who is not forward to redress the inconvenience that may ensue hereof. Yesterday their water and victuals were cut off again by the enemy. The Duke of Guise will shortly come with his force towards Newhaven, whom they would not fear if they were sure of those that are amongst them. They hear for certain that the King of Navarre is dead. The Countess Montgomery received letters that before his death he confessed that the hope of being restored to his kingdom made him go against his knowledge, and that he gave an admonition to the Queen Mother in time to prevent the ruin of her children and their kingdom. In his former letters he reminded Lord Robert that Mr. Crofts (fn. 1) would be a meet man to assist the Lord Lieutenant, in case the service of the Prince were preferred to private displeasures, of whose company his Lordship would be glad. Crofts is well persuaded in religion, whereof he has a good testimony that he wrote whilst he [Wood] was in Germany and he [Crofts] in the Tower.—Newhaven, 17 Nov. 1562.
2. P. S.—It is reported this day that the Rhinegrave with his band is departed towards Guise. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 17. 1061. Articles touching Newhaven.
William Winter's answer to the Privy Council concerning certain Articles sent to the Earl of Warwick.
1. There are in Newhaven 340 French hackbuteers; 491 householders; of ship-keepers who come to and fro, 400; the French inhabitants (having no armour), and a number of women and children.
2. So many French being now in the town is a peril to the same. The best way to avoid it is (by M. Beauvoir' opinion) that the English soldiers and labourers as they arrive should be placed in the houses which the French now occupy, whereby they would depart. This opinion was thought good by the Earl of Warwick and the Council there. Three galleys to be armed, and every galley to have 300 men, who may be of the garrison of the town, and also 200 rowers, who may be also employed about the works of the town; so there will be a total of 900 men.
3. Item, 1,500 pioneers; 100 marshmen for cleansing the ditches; 40 wood fellers; 100 miners, to serve under Goodaylle. Also are wanted French money, mattresses, and shoemakers.
Endd. Pp. 3.
[Nov. 17.]
Forbes, ii. 188.
1062. Answer to the French Ambassador's Second Declaration.
1. Certain speeches have been used by the Ambassador, which he, being admonished, will revoke; but if they come from those that direct the King by force, they are to be admonished to use comelier words to Princes.
2. The Queen has caused her intentions to be declared privately to the King by her new Ambassador, and publicly by writing; yet for satisfaction of the Ambassador she will answer the subject of the whole as shortly as may be.
3. The whole matter is to move her to revoke her subjects sent into Normandy, and to deliver certain French subjects that have come into this realm.
4. She answered that it well appears by these negotiations who are the directors of the King, and the promoters of these troubles in France, who use his name to obtain their private ends.
5. On the other part, all that has been done has been to defend themselves in the quarrel of the King, on whose behalf they only required that his governance during his minority might be observed according to the ordinances of the three estates of the realm, and other edicts of the King.
6. Concerning these troubles in France, she still continues in her judgment that those who have possession of the King and Queen Mother by force of arms are guilty of all the blood that has been shed in these troubles. The King (once delivered from the tyranny of the Guises) will see cause to allow that those on the other side are his faithful subjects, and not rebels. She necessarily concludes that until the lawful requests of Condé are granted, she will continue her purpose in succouring the cause of the King.
7. The private causes that moved her to intermeddle therein are approved of by all Princes.
8. New injuries have occurred this year, viz., the spoiling of divers of her subjects and ships in Brittany; and lately the intelligence had by those of Guise with certain traitors here, not unknown to the Ambassador, who conspired in favour of the Guises against her and her crown. She cannot see why upon requests devised by the Guises in the King's name, she should revoke her subjects whom she has sent into Normandy.
9. And whereas the authority of the request both for this and the delivery of certain Frenchmen is grounded upon a treaty betwixt the King and Queen, to this she has made sufficient answer by private letters to the King. The same treaty was violated in the reigns of Kings Henry and Francis, and has never since been restored, but refused.
10. In conclusion, she requests the Ambassador to observe that she means to observe the treaty and peace with the King. If the violence of them who now detain the King shall use his authority to offend her, she means to redress the same in all respects.
Corrected draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by his secretary: Vacat. Pp. 8.
[Nov. 17.] 1063. Another draft, corrected by Cecil, with the addition that when France shall be free from these intestine wars, the whole world shall see how friendly minded she has been to the King.
Endd. Pp. 11.
Nov. 17. 1064. Copy of the above in French.
Dated by Cecil, and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 9.
Nov. 17. 1065. N. Stopio to Sir John Mason.
Wrote last Saturday, as usual, and now sends such additional news as he has heard since then.—Venice, 17 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
Nov. 18. 1066. Smith to Cecil.
Sent this letter in cipher and orange from Rouen, by Clint, a merchant of London, on the 14th inst.
1. Recapitulates his letter of the 14th.
2. On the 14th inst., when this was sent, it being Saturday, he left Rouen, and made for Paris. Before he came to St. Denis he learnt by the Grey Friars, who fled from Etampes, that Condé had taken it, 4,000 men being in the town, and without firing an arquebus; for as he entered by one gate they went out at another. Paris is full of soldiers, and his host (Verberies) is glad to remove his stuff. Smith's man (Wilson), who was sent to prepare his lodgings at Paris, was there in such danger for wearing his [Smith's] livery (whereby they know him to be English, and a Huguenot,) that if he had not been saved by the soldiers, who took him into a church, he would have been slain after their accustomed manner. When one chances to cry "A Huguenot, a Huguenot," this beastly order is now allowed in Paris.—St. Denis, 18 Nov. 1562.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. In cipher, blank. Pp. 4.
Nov. 18.
Forbes, ii. 192.
1067. Throckmorton to Warwick.
1. Since he arrived at Orleans he has written four times to him [Warwick], and this bearer having brought him nothing, he supposes they have miscarried. One he knows was taken by the enemy, in which packet he sent a letter to the Queen, and a cipher to be used betwixt Warwick and himself. The party who carried this packet was named Captain Salles, a Gascon, who was put to death by the Constable's means. Warwick, and those under his charge, had better take heed of the Rhinegrave. He is to beware what promises are made to him, and not to suffer any of his Almains to enter Newhaven; for there is nothing meant but treason. This bearer gave Condé to understand that he [Warwick] had there for him 100,000 crowns, to be delivered when the Prince sent for them.
2. Is ashamed that Dieppe was abandoned, as the loss of it was of great consequence. Now the place where he [Warwick] is, is in a manner besieged, and no other port favourable to him, except Caen, which is commanded by the castle. The Count Montgomery was not within it. England won much honour at Rouen, and so did Leighton and Killigrew; but those of Dieppe are not so well spoken of.
3. The Prince departed from Orleans to the camp on the 8th inst. On the 10th he made his approaches before Pluviers, which having battered for four hours with two cannons, the next day the town surrendered. On the 14th inst., his army being within five miles of Etampes, eleven ensigns of the enemy abandoned the same, whereupon entrance was offered to the Prince into the town. He passed by without entering, and marched towards Corbeil, there to win the passage of the Seine, about which he is occupied now with his army. The enemy have there and thereabouts 2,000 horsemen and 4,000 footmen, who keep the passages of Melun and Corbeil, to have the commodities of the rivers Marne and Seine for provisions for Paris. They will give battle, or quit the passages. The Prince is strong in horsemen by aid of a number of ruiters, and of footmen, also having a good band of lansquenets well armed, besides the Frenchmen.
4. Has accompanied the Prince for causes which he passes over, because it is not meet to be written out of cipher. He is to take heed the French do not serve their turn with the cipher which has fallen into their hands. The Prince would like to have the aid of some of his [Warwick's] footmen and horsemen. Cannot see safely how Warwick's force can join the Prince unless he sends a good band of horsemen to conduct the footmen. It would be a good enterprise if he [Warwick] could recover these places which besiege him on the Seine on both sides, as Caudebec, Honfleur, Harfleur, and others. The Rhinegrave by his doings here is discredited amongst the Princes of Germany. Has lately sent three or four despatches to the Queen, and is afraid they have miscarried, he having no safe means to send by the way of Smith. The loss of Dieppe has been a great hindrance to give the Queen intelligence of this country. Requests Warwick to inform her that he sent sundry ways two despatches to her; one the 30th ult., the other the 8th inst. As to the men of the Rhinegrave who offer to revolt from their captain, his opinion is that he shall try them by such means as this bearer can tell, and as Condé and the Admiral have advertised Montgomery, and MM. Briquemault and Beauvoir. Advises him to treat Montgomery well, for he is one of the worthiest men of his nation.—"From the Prince's camp, nine leagues from Paris, and four from Corbeil, the 18th November 1562." Signed.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 18. 1068. Munitions for Newhaven.
Estimate of charge for lining 1,000 morions and 300 burgonets to be sent to Newhaven, 18 Nov. 1562, buckram, tow, and thread, 13l. 9s. Also leather and buckles for repairing the armour, 6l. 15s.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Nov. 18. 1069. Windebank to Cecil.
1. Thinks that it would do Mr. Thomas good to see Italy and have the tongue.
2. But as there be commodities, so is there also great danger in that country of discommodities for young men by reason of the enticements to pleasure and wantonness there, from which he doubts much how he will be able to withhold him, having had some proof thereof during their stay in France. Besides Mr. Thomas may not well bear the great heats of the country, and being given also to eat much fruit, may soon fall into sickness as he did in France. The journey will be very chargeable, and to go as far as Rome or Naples will take the whole summer. Thinks Mr. Nowel a meeter man to go with Mr. Thomas than himself. If Cecil's pleasure is that they should go, the sooner they do so the better. As for the cold of the winter and the snow of the mountains, they must do as others do. There is a company of Italians who mean to go into Italy within three weeks. Mr. Knollys's man will not let them know the charges his master has been at for them. Sends his account up to the 18th inst. There are twenty-five crowns more than should have been spent, which happened thus; at their leaving France Throckmorton advised them to keep their going secret, fearing lest something might be done by their host for the stay of Mr. Thomas, for he is a great shifting man and very needy. Therefore they forbore paying two weeks' charges till the evening before their departing, and even then kept him in hope of their remaining. Their host asked for twenty-five crowns which Windebank said he had paid, but after much ado was forced to pay it. They have but seventy-six crowns. Is promised to have 200 crowns in ten days.
3. By them that have long experience of England it is much doubted that the Queen will not proceed earnestly enough, for lack of bestowing enough. The Princes, Electors, and other Protestants have looked for an ambassade out of France, to them, for their means for a pacification in France; but they think that the Guisians are so strong that they will make peace by their own force. It is said that King Philip takes up money in all places, but Windebank thinks that he is too far in debt to get much. Divers Princes are spoken to offer money to the French King for the maintenance of the Guisians, as the Dukes of Ferrara and Florence, and chiefly the Pope. The Marquis of Brandenburg has offered the French Ambassador 2,000 horse and a regiment of footmen for the Guises. All the Papists make a complot for the overthrow of the Gospel and the preaching thereof. They have yet two horses not sold. Mr. Thomas has great lack of an honest serving man. Wishes that Cecil would send one out of England with a good strong gelding for Mr. Thomas's riding, if he should go.—Frankfort, 18 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Nov. 18. 1070. Draft of the above in Windebank's hol.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Nov. 18. 1071. Windebank's Accounts.
Expenses for travelling in Germany from 10 Sept. to 18 Nov. Charges for their horses, clothes, etc., and four or five entries for "mending Mr. Thomas his dag." For going to the hot house one dollar, with various memoranda.
Endd. Pp. 11.
Nov. 18. 1072. Knolles and Mundt to the Queen.
1. Since their last letters from Frankfort dated 23rd ult., on the 9th inst. they have received hers of the 11th ult. On the 31st ult. they were admitted to speak with the Duke of Zweybruck, and at present have received no answer. They had supper with him the same night. On the 2nd inst. they received the answer of the Elector of Saxony; touching his resolution for the principal articles of their commission, he was sorry to consider the calamities of France, and with other Princes of Germany had prepared an ambassade, that the matter might be ended by the agreement of both parties. For himself, he and his ancestors had always continued in peace with the Kings of France. As the King and most of the nobility were of the contrary part, he could not maintain so doubtful a cause. To the second article, for entering into a league, he answered that at present he could not assent thereto; that as the matter appertained to all States that had received sound religion, it required consultation of many and a great time; that both the Catholics and Protestants in Germany were agreed upon a constant peace, and he doubted lest this confederation of one part against the other would be accounted for a breach of the pacification. It would give cause to the adverse party to enter into a contrary league. This was his answer.
2. They replied that as it required time, if the Princes present would appoint a time and place for conference, the rest could easily repair thereunto, and the Queen would not be behind in sending a legation to the same. Concerning the dread of breaking the general peace, and provoking their adversaries to a counter-league, they need not fear that. This conference took place about ten o'clock, at which time the Duke and Duchess were going forth to dine with the Duke of Bipont, and the Marquis of Brandenburg had come to go with them and stayed at the door. This answer was contrary to the hope they conceived at their being with him at Marpurg, but it is noted that his councillors tend all to this end, that in nothing he do offend the King of Spain.
3. Although they are at an obscure lodging, and never go abroad but on her business, yet being discovered before in so many parts of Germany they were notified even to the Emperor and the King of the Romans. After they had received the Queen's letters with commission to both of them, they presented themselves. The day after they received his letters (which was the 16th inst.) they signified the same to the Emperor's Chancellor, desiring audience, but they could not be admitted that day because of the Emperor hunting, nor the day after, because it was kept holy in the name of St. Martin. On the morrow they were received at seven o'clock, when they entered an inner chamber where the Emperor was with certain noblemen about him but standing aloof, and when they would have kissed his hand (which after the manner of the country he put forth to them) he withdrew it hastily. After they had made her commendations, they said that as soon as she heard he purposed to be at Frankfort, she testified by them her affection towards the house of Burgundy and Austria, and in particular towards him, and for better credit she had sent him her letters. The Emperor answered that it pleased him to hear of the amity which had continued for so long a time between the houses of England, Burgundy, and Austria; he would read the letters at his leisure, and that they were of authority for confirmation of the truth of their words. They then said that as the Queen had understood that this assembly was chiefly to deliberate about the election of a chief magistrate in the Christian commonwealth, she would perform the office of a friend by offering herself to further this election towards such an one as should be agreeable to his desire. This offer they made after being informed that the Electors had consented to the creation of Maximilian as King of Bohemia. Because it might also happen that some malicious persons would publish slanderous rumours concerning her doings in taking up arms, she had set forth an open protestation to the world declaring the end whereunto it is directed, and if the Emperor wished to have a copy they would present one to him, which they did. He answered that he would use her friendship herein, if occasion at any time hereafter required it. To the second part he said he was so well persuaded of the Queen that no rumours would lead him to think she would take an enterprise in hand contrary to equity. They excused themselves for their being so late in coming to him, by the default of those who had charge for conveying her letters to them.
4. On the same day at four p.m., they spoke with the King of Bohemia, to whom they declared what offer she had made to his father, and the reason to be because she knew of none so meet for the dignity as himself. His answer was to the same effect as his father's, adding that he was sorry he could not express his thankfulness to her, yet he hoped hereafter to find some good occasion to testify the same by his doings. He spoke divers times very reverently of religion, yet they could not discover if he was addicted to the Gospel, or otherwise. Many men have great hopes in him. Many say the Pope has tried all he could to stop this election. It is thought he will be published as King of the Romans on Monday next, the 23rd inst.; where he will be crowned and when is uncertain. They cannot learn what conditions are prescribed to him by the Electors, but as they may conjecture they think to conserve the peace generally agreed upon concerning the differences of religion at Passau and at Augsburg.
5. They have laboured with the Princes as occasion would serve and with their councillors to bring the matter to some good resolution. On the 6th inst. they dined with the Palsgrave, and after dinner reminded him of the Queen's chief expectation touching the conclusion of such matters as they attended hereupon. They declared how far they had proeeeded therein with the other Princes, and of their answers, as well of Augustus as of John Frederick of Saxony, and of the Landgrave. The two last he liked, and he expected nothing else from the other. He said he should have occasion shortly to treat with the Protestant Princes about other matters, and would move them in this, and doubted not but to draw them to some resolution therein.
6. On the 14th inst. they solicited the Duke of Wurtemberg, declaring the good inclination of the other Princes; he answered they had already partly entreated of that matter, and he hoped shortly to receive their resolution therein. They had supper with him that night. On the 10th inst. there were again with the Duke of Zweybruck, called Bipont, to remind him of his promise for furtherance of this cause with other Princes. He answered that the Protestant Princes were at that time assembled at the Palsgrave's house. Not being able to go himself, being troubled with a rheum, he sent a secretary to will his councillors that were there in his behalf, to propound the matter in his name; also that it would be good for the Queen to draw by large entertainment on her part certain captains now entertained by the French. To this they answered that the charge would be so great that the fruit thereof would scarcely come to a sufficient recompense. On the 18th inst. he left the town, but gave commission to his councillors to proceed as if he was present. After receiving their answer from the Elector of Saxony they declared it to a councillor of the Landgrave, desiring him to inform his master thereof, which he did; they had answer again from the Landgrave that he marvelled thereat, but for his own part he would keep that which he had promised unto them. This is all they have done concerning the Queen's commission.
7. Diligence shall not be wanting on their parts, now that they understand Rouen is taken, of which they had no knowledge before the 15th inst. It is uncertain what conclusion to expect at the Prince's hands, for they perceive that persuasion will carry no profit, nor will present danger prevail much with many. There is an Ambassador here from the Prince of Condé, called M. De Passey, sometime Bishop of Nevers, which bishopric he after resigned to his brother; he is a learned man and has been well heard of the Emperor and the King of Bohemia severally, and of the Electors together, whose oration to the Electors was in Latin, to the others in French. It tended to the justification of Condé in taking up arms. In his oration to the Emperor he confirmed his cause out of the ancient laws of France; to the others he adjoined the cause of religion, and showed openly the Queen Mother's letters signed by her, exhorting the Prince to take up arms for the defence of the King, of her, and the realm. She [Elizabeth] has probably copy thereof, but if not, they send such as they have.
8. The recusation of the Council of Trent (whereof she is promised a copy) is not yet presented to the Emperor. There has been a controversy amongst the Princes concerning the article of the Lord's Supper, but they are now agreed and intend shortly to deliver it to the Emperor. They are informed by a man of credit that the French Ambassador at Venice wrote not long ago to the Queen Mother, informing her that the Pope procured a league offensive and defensive of all the Catholic Princes and potentates, whereof the King of Spain should be at the head, and using all means to draw the Venetians thereto. The first time he failed, for they answered they would not enter into wars for religion's sake. He assayed them again, and offered them Ravenna and Sienna upon condition they should pay 300,000 crowns. This gentlemen affirms he saw the letters; he is one who has had commission from Condé into these parts. The King of Spain collects great sums of money on all sides. There is a bruit that he secretly pressed 8,000 horsemen and footmen. This assemhly will not last longer than the end of this month. There is a great feasting here, wherein the Emperor sits with the Princes, not as one over them, but as a companion. There has been much talk of the coming of an Ambassador from the Turk, who has been long expected.—Frankfort, 18 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 14.
Nov. 18. 1073. H. Knolles to Cecil.
Received on the 9th inst. Cecil's letter dated 10th ult. from Hampton Court. Hope the letters they now send by the ordinary post will have better speed. Refer to their letter to the Queen. Now that the King of the Romans is chosen (which will be published on Monday), the Princes begin to go homeward, so the assembly will not last beyond this month, in which case the writer and Mundt will go to Strasburg. Here is continual feasting. On Sunday last the Duke of Cleves gave a sumptuous feast, where the Emperor, the King and Queen of Bohemia, the Electors, and other Princes, and their ladies danced the greater part of the afternoon. After this Council is broken up the Emperor intends to go to Hagenau. Maximilian returns to Bohemia. The Duke of Wurtemberg has sent part of his train away already, and will follow very shortly. The Duke of Zweybruck has gone. Receives much comfort by the company of Cecil's son.—Frankfort, 18 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. [18]. 1074. Mundt to Cecil.
Rouen has been taken by storm; this will interfere with their business. The death of the Bishop of Cologne has delayed this Diet, as a new Elector must be appointed before the King of the Romans can be properly elected. This Diet may be shortly broken up, and the Princes will immediately go to their own estates, in this case he will go to Strasburg. —Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
Nov. 18. 1075. Cuerton to Challoner.
Wrote by Lenares four days since. Yesternight the bearer, Master King, arrived here. A Frenchman says that Rouen is not taken. Rochelle has yielded to the French King. The Spaniards who are in France are coming back.—Bilboa, 18 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner: Brought by H. King. Pp. 2.
Nov. 19. 1076. Vaughan to Cecil.
1. Has received his letters of the 11th inst. by Captain Jones, whereby it appears that he is troubled for want of intelligence from hence. Now Warwick has arrived Cecil must not hold the writer chargeable therewith. His office is now so weighty for want of clerks that he has little time to eat or sleep. Respecting the searcher and water bailiff. Cannot perform the office of Controller if men stand in those terms they do, for all in office here think none ought to meddle with them, or call for redress if anything is amiss.— Newhaven, 19 Nov. 1562. Signed.
2. P. S.—Cecil shall hear too soon of the loss of Mr. Killigrew, which is great, though he was but a mean man. If true, asks Cecil to remember his suit touching his [Killigrew's] office. Killigrew owes him 75l., which was lent for passing the seas, as by his bill appears.
Orig., Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Nov. 19. 1077. Thomas Kemys to Cecil.
Asks that during the time he shall employ his wages for refurnishing his band, which will be seven or eight months at least, he may have some further charge amongst such bands as come over, whereby he may maintain himself.— Newhaven, 19 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Nov. 20.
Forbes, ii. 195.
1078. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Wrote to her from Orleans on 30th ult. in answer to her letters of the 17th September, which he received the 25th ult., and sent the despatch by Dieppe. As the bearer came near Dieppe the day it was surrendered to Montmorency, he could neither pass nor send with safety into England, so he returned to Throckmorton with the despatch, which is now sent through Smith. It contains intelligence which may (notwithstanding the loss of Rouen and Dieppe) alter part of her determination.
2. Condé with his force, amounting to about 6,000 footmen, "armed so-so," and near 2,000 horsemen, marched from Orleans on the 8th inst. The 9th inst. the Prince sent a trumpet to Pluvieres to surrender the town, which is fortified and held by the Guises since the beginning of these troubles. On the 10th inst. the Prince approached the town, and on the 11th inst., about 8 a.m., a battery of two cannon was made to the town; also two sakers were employed to beat the flanks and defences. The battery and sap profited so well that the town surrendered about 12 o'clock the same day, without any capitulation, so it and the people are at the Prince's mercy. He pardoned those which bare no arms, but executed all who bare arms. The Governor (M. De la Masiere) is a prisoner.
3. The same day M. D'Andelot made the Almains, under the command of the Marshal of Hesse, join the Prince's force. There are 3,500 "ruiters," well armed and mounted; also 4,000 footmen, well armed, and of as good show as ever he saw. The Marshal of Hesse is the most moderate and advised Almain he has seen, but those under his charge "be very Almain soldiers, who spoil all things where they go." The same day M. De Gonorre, brother to Brisac, arrived at the Prince's camp immediately after the town was taken, who proposed to the Prince a plausible composition; saying they should have what they desired if they rid France of the English and Almains, especially the English, for they possessed the principal port of this realm. Gonorre remained in the camp that night, lodged in the Admiral's lodging, and made long discourses to them.
4. The next morning the Prince and Admiral made the writer privy to this conference, and asked what answer they should make. He told them that Gonorre's fair words had heretofore done them great harm, having diverted them from taking their advantage upon their enemies. He thought the legation at this time tended to no other end, for now their enemies' force was not comparable to theirs. They answered that what he said was true; but they desired to know of the Queen's determination, if they may be assured of a good end. He answered that they might see her determination by her protestation, but he said he could see no possibility how they could be assured if her forces left this realm; for if the English and the Almains were withdrawn, the Prince's force would be so small that his enemies would not offer so largely as they do now. They assured him, and desired him to assure the Queen, that they will not make an end but such as shall stand with her pleasure. They will answer Gonorre (and by him the Queen Mother and the King's Council) that they can see no surety for themselves, nor repose for this realm, unless the Queen and the Princes of Almain make the end. They despatched Gonorre on the 12th inst., in the morning.
5. The severity used at Pluvieres by the Prince is in revenge of the cruelties exercised by the Duke's party at Rouen against the soldiers there, but especially against the Queen's subjects, and of the death of the President Matreville, Marlorat, and Coton. The Prince caused to be executed at Orleans, before his departure, a Councillor of the Parliament of Paris named Sapin, and an Abbot appertaining to the Cardinal of Lorraine. On the same day (12th inst.), in the afternoon, the Prince with his whole camp marched from Pluvieres towards Etampes.
6. On the 13th inst. eleven ensigns of footmen of the Papists' camp left in Etampes to guard the town, perceiving the Prince's approach, abandoned the same, which they sacked before they departed. On the 14th inst., in the morning, the inhabitants, perceiving the Prince encamped but three miles from them, sent the keys of the town to him, offering aid to him of victuals. The Prince accepted their offer, and would not suffer his camp to enter the town. On the 15th inst. he marched towards Paris, leaving Etampes on the left, taking the way towards Corbeil, which is kept by the enemy, the passage being there by bridge over the Seine.
7. On the 16th inst. the Prince approached within three leagues of Corbeil, and sojourned there some time, by means of a great strait which his army had to pass at Ferté Alais. His light horse kept those of Melun, Corbeil, and Paris occupied with alarums the whole time of his sojourning there. The same day a messenger arrived there from the Earl of Warwick, who brought a letter to the Prince. The messenger declared to the Prince in the hearing of the writer that the Queen had sent over 100,000 crowns and above to aid the said Prince, and that it was ready for him. Supposes the Prince will commission M. De Briquemault or M. De Beauvoir to repair to the Queen shortly. He desires some force to join his under the command of Warwick. The messenger also declared (and confirmed by letters from Briquemault and Beauvoir) that the Rhinegrave desired Warwick to make neighbourly war, which is bait to get Warwick's good opinion, so that he may the more easily abuse him.
8. Thinks she is now informed by Smith in what evil terms he stands here with the Queen Mother and the Council about her. Smith advises him to beware how he falls into their hands. She may perceive that he had reason to eschew to commit himself to their courtesy without a sufficient safeconduct, which the Prince has requested Gonorre to obtain for him from the Queen Mother. Assures her that they meant, having him in their hands, being without a safeconduct or promise, to have despatched him.
9. The election of Maximilian not being solemnized, it would be convenient for her to recommend him to the Princes of Almain, which will be thankfully taken of the Emperor, the King of Bohemia, his brethren, and the Princes of Almain.
10. Lately here have been rumours spread of her sickness, and the cause of it. Her friends here fear it has proceeded of some violence of her enemies. It is believed here for certain that lately the Grand Prior, disguised, entered her realm, there to practise things which were accompanied with peril to her own person. Cannot vouch for the truth of this, but hopes it may cause her to be vigilant of her safety, "as well in her feeding as otherwise."
11. It seems strange to the Prince and also to himself that Dieppe was by her men and the French captains abandoned as it was, for the town was more guardable than Rouen, the enemy lacking powder and other things necessary. That place was of great importance, Newhaven being situated as it is, and as it were besieged; Harfleur, Honfleur, Caudebec, Rouen, and Fécamp being held by the enemy; and the Rhinegrave, with Almain horsemen and French footmen, being in those parts, as it were to make siege to Newhaven. Assures her that the French captains who gave advice to abandon the town will never be well looked upon again by the Prince. The matter had need now to be handled, that Newhaven and her ships may impeach the navigation and the trade of the Seine; also of the herring fishery along that coast, for nothing will grieve them more than that. The Rhinegrave practises that two of his ensigns, under colour of revolting from him for religion's sake, should enter Newhaven to serve under Warwick, which is a bait to betray the place. There is no good meaning in him, nor any under his charge.
12. The King of Navarre is either dead or will be dead within a few days, and the Prince having this great force together shall be able to enjoy the authority that his brother enjoyed. Perceives there are practices in hand, set on by the Queen Mother, secretly to accord with the Prince of Condé, so that the Cardinal of Ferrara, the house of Guise, the Constable, and Marshal St. André may remain in their estates in Court and Council about the King; which tends to exclude the Admiral, his brethren, and such as favour the religion, and are no good Spaniards. Asks her to advise the Prince, by letter, in general terms, and by speech to M.M. De la Haye and De Bricquemault, to admonish the Prince that the proceedings of his brother may be "a glass and teaching" of what may ensue to him if he does the like.
13. The matter of religion is like to be compounded by means of an Interim, until by some Council there may be some universal reformation ordained for the Church. Hopes she will provide for the quietness of her realm, so that no practiser may be suffered to work within it, as that an Interim may be introduced in England.
14. The Prince writes to the Queen and to the Earl of Warwick. De la Haye has complained that he is not most grateful to her. It would be better for her service, by her gracious usage of him, to move him to change that opinion. M. De Foix is taken to be the minister of the Queen Mother and the Papists, whilst the other is the minister of her friends and well-wishers.
15. The Prince is somewhat jealous that Smith makes such court to the Cardinal of Ferrara. Has given Smith a hint to eschew those haunts at this time.
16. The Prince was obliged to waste the 17th, 18th, and 19th inst. before he could approach Corbeil, partly for the repose of the Almains after their long travail, and partly in consequence of the narrowness of the passage, wherein there are to pass 6,000 horsemen of all sorts and nations, and 10,000 footmen to fight. The cause of the delay before Corbeil is, that it standing as it doth, he may cut off their victuals coming to them from Orleans, Pluvieres, and the Beauce. For these respects the Prince assays to recover it, although there will be somewhat ado about it, for within it there are 4,000 footmen and 2,000 horsemen, with the Duke of Nevers and Marshal St. André. At the despatch hereof the artillery was in position before it.
17. On the 18th inst. the King of Navarre died betwixt Rouen and Paris, being brought up by water. If the Queen is disposed to aid Condé with money, she should stay the payment thereof until she sees how the Queen Mother and the Prince will agree.—Essone, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 11.
Nov. 20. 1079. Ponyngs to Cecil.
1. There marched on the 1st inst. towards Rouen 2,000 footmen and 400 horse, Bretons, under the Marquis D'Alborgge [D'Elbæuf], who was met by a messenger from the Duke of Guise, willing him to march towards Paris. He sent his people according to the said orders, and came himself with 100 horse to the King at Rouen, whom he met, with the Queen Mother and the Duke of Guise, passing out at the gate by the river where the ordnance and munition was loading in "a cabberde" to be sent to Paris. On the 5th inst. the Constable left for Paris, and rests at Pont De 1'Arche, whither the King's carriages went on the 9th inst. from Rouen with all the pioneers; and three days before they had sent all their horsemen which were in Caux towards their camp. The Rhinegrave rests at Newhaven with two ensigns and 600 horse. It is thought his being here is to victual Caudebec, Harfleur, and Montivilliers.
2. On the 11th inst. the King left Rouen for Paris, leaving 2,000 soldiers under M. Villebonne, who has charge of the whole town. The Duke of Guise, before leaving, caused a barge to be made to carry the King of Navarre to Paris, as though he were alive, but it was known for certain in Rouen that he died two days before. Mr. Killigrew has been very secretly kept, and none suffered to speak with him; he is now sent to Paris.—Newhaven, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 20. 1080. Vaughan to Cecil.
1. Has given instructions to the bearer, his servant, repairing into England, to inform Cecil of the estate here. Speedy order should be taken of two offices here of great charge, viz., the munition and victuals. It is requisite to have an auditor appointed to view the doings of the Treasurer, the Victualler, and the Master of the Ordnance.
2. Concerning the pay of the labourers, he lately spoke with Mr. Pelham, and finds him unwilling that any of them should run in cheque, but go wholly in pay, like the soldiers. Also finds that Pelham expects 20s. per diem for his entertainment, and 10s. for his lieuteuant, and so after that rate for all other officers, as to a band of soldiers. He is worthy of good entertainment, but cannot advise the Earl to go through with him on those conditions. His Lordship has some of Lord Robert's faults, that is, loath to punish, glad to give, and loath to deny anything demanded.—Newhaven, 20 Nov. Signed.
Orig., with seal. The latter portion in Vaughan's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
Nov. 20.
Forbes, ii. 206.
1081. Warwick to Cecil.
1. Has received the Council's letter. There was never seen in any town such a mixture of English and French as there is here. The Queen told him that it was agreed upon between her and the Vidame that no soldier should remain within the town, but only the town dwellers, but he found it different, for there were at least 300 or 400 here; and he was answered, that as Rouen and Dieppe were taken, this town was the only refuge that they had.
2. With this answer he knew not what to do, his instructions commanding him to aid them and keep this town on behalf of the French King. Seeing the danger from the great number of French here, he declared to M. Beauvoir that he had intelligence from the Council that there is a great number of soldiers coming from England, for whom there was no room. He therefore desired that the greater part of the French soldiers might be placed in the villages without the town; Beauvoir seemed content.
3. In the meantime he has the town strongly guarded day and night, and has made a proclamation that no Frenchman is to leave his lodging after 9 o'clock, upon pain of death, and that they are not to lodge together, but in several places.— Newhaven, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
4. P. S.—They all are happy in having such a man amongst them as Mr. Whittingham, who deserves great thanks from the Queen.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Nov. 20.
Forbes, ii. 204.
1082. Warwick to Cecil.
1. Complains that he has not that liberty which all others have had, viz., that the Lieutenant's hand is a warrant to the Treasurer without the Council. Has written his opinion touching the number of French within this town, which is so great that they doubt them more than the enemy abroad, and he has not commission to remove them. What he could obtain by M. De Beauvoir's consent (which he purposes to execute) shall also appear in his letter. They mislike of their being here more and more.
2. M. Bricquemault was with the Rhinegrave three days ago, who with his band continues as neighbours; at which time he told him that Guise wished to be reconciled to the Prince, and offered to submit himself, but had small hopes to obtain his request, and he thought the Queen Mother would send to the Prince by reason of his brother's death. The Rhinegrave seemed "to mislike with Guise," and asked how he might obtain the Prince's favour, which he told him could not be got better than in forsaking Guise and joining the Prince. He [Warwick] cannot verify these accounts. However, it behoves them to stand upon their guard; therefore prays Cecil to hasten all such things as by the answer to Winter's instruction are requisite.
3. There is one article in his privy instruction to inquire what profits the French King had by customs, rents, taxes, etc., which cannot be come by but by the French, who are suspicious already. All the offices of this town are let to farm by the King; those that have them make account to enjoy them, insomuch that Beauvoir denied the water bailiff to have anything to do with the French or their ships. He [Beauvoir] has given liberty to a captain to go to sea against the Papists; in his commission he writes himself Governor for the King of the French town of Newhaven.
4. This day received two letters from the Ambassador, whereof one is directed to Cecil, which he sends here enclosed. —Newhaven, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
[Nov. 20.] 1083. — to —
Has forgotten to include in the discourse given to Guillegre [Killigrew] the following particulars respecting the revenues of Normandy. Besides other advantages which they might draw from Rouen, Havre, and Dieppe, the archbishopric of Rouen is worth 50,000 francs; the two abbeys inside the town are each worth 10,000 francs; the abbey of Fécamp is worth 40,000 francs; the benefices within the town are worth half as much as the archbishopric. The gabelle on salt and other royal rights in Rouen and Dieppe are worth 50,000 crowns, which would double when the English merchants came. Thus the profit which would be obtained would be more than the garrison would cost.
Fr. Pp. 2.
Nov. 20.
Forbes, ii. 203.
1084. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. He has sent his despatch of the 30th ult. to the Queen by three different ways; fears two have miscarried; the third was by Dieppe.
2. How the French Ambassador is used there he cannot tell, but if he and the hostages are as badly treated there as he is here by the Queen Mother and the Council, they would shortly entreat for their better usage. M. De la Haye has given the Prince to understand "that he is not a grateful minister to the Queen." Asks Cecil to amend that fault. The Prince has written to the Queen, Lord Robert, and Cecil, and suspends his writing to others of the Council until he is informed either from Cecil by him or by De la Haye. Cecil must leave off giving the Prince's ministers secret and night audiences. Open dealing now will best serve the Queen's turn, and show that the Prince's ministers are as welcome to her and her Council as M. De Foix, who is the minister of the Queen Mother and the Papists. Cecil does well to treat kindly the Vidame of Chartres, for the Queen Mother and that faction hate him; all his lands are commanded to be forfeited.
3. It would be better for the service if he were not kept in such ignorance of Cecil's determinations. Fears the enterprise at Corbeil will not succeed so prosperously, for in making their approaches they have lost many good soldiers. Prays him to have consideration of the bearer for carrying this packet to the Queen.—Essone, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 20. 1085. William Bromfeld to Cecil.
There are left out of the book of supply for Newhaven many needful things (of which he encloses a list); there is also a great want of pioneers for fortifying the town. The town, being fortified, may be defended with little charge and loss. It is subject to inconveniences, especially the want of fresh water, which may be eased by making wells within the town, and although it is somewhat brackish, soldiers and beggars must not be choosers. Some places near them, if taken, might give them great displeasure. The Rhinegrave is within four miles; he makes sundry means to have conference with M. Beauvoir, but especially with M. Briquemault, who is somewhat pliable thereunto. The French increase daily in the town, to the dislike of the burgesses; for the surety thereof Warwick has a great ward and strong watch set nightly. There will want no manner of devices, howsoever dear the French pay for the same, for attaining their will and desires. Here is a want of baskets, shovels, and spades to furnish the pioneers.—Newhaven, 20 Nov. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
[Nov. 20.] 1086. Supplies for Newhaven.
List of articles required, such as "200 fellowes of ash for cannon and demi-cannon," etc.
Nov. 20. 1087. Warrant of the Justices of Essex.
Warrant by five Justices of the Peace for Essex to William Bromfeld for the delivery of certain armour.—Horndon, 20 Nov.
Copy. P. 1.
Nov. 20. 1088. News from France.
"News learned on Friday 20th November 1562 at the Court."
1. The Prince has 18,000 men, five cannons, two culverins, and six field pieces. D'Andelot is very sick of the quartain. The Admiral, M. D'Andelot, and the remainder of the noblemen and gentlemen (the Prince excepted), are condemned by the Court of Parliament to be beheaded, which has been pronounced at the bar in Parliament, but not publicly as yet. The Queen Mother being moved therein (by the Constable, the Duke of Guise, and the Parliament), and that they might be executed in effigy, answered that she would not consent to it, and that if they did it she would disavow it.
2. The Parliament has asked the Queen Mother to take the sole government of France, which is done to set a pique between the Prince and her. They think that now, upon the death of the King of Navarre, the Prince will declare his right to all such offices as his brother held; which, if he does, he will have her (who would rather die than lose her authority) for his greatest enemy.
3. There are expected shortly at Paris 2,000 Spaniards, which were sent from Spain long since, besides the 3,000 that came into Gascony at first.
4. Guise and the Constable have in all of footmen not more than 6,000 together as yet at Paris, and not many more than 1,000 horse. Upon the taking of Rouen they allowed numbers to go to their homes to refresh themselves, thinking the war at an end until the spring.
5. M. De Foix's secretary (who was then at the Court) reports the Queen had 16,000 men ready to be put into Newhaven. They still besiege Corbeil in three places; M. D'Aumale is in it with 4,000 men and a great store of ordnance.
6. All the relics, jewels, and ornaments at St. Denis were carried away a month since by order of the Cardinal of Lorraine (being Abbot thereof), under pretence to keep them more safely, but indeed to pay the soldiers.
Orig., with seal. Dated and endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Nov. [20.] 1089. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
A note of different sums of money prolonged, which are due in November, which amount to 187,598 florins 6 stivers, which makes about 93,769 crowns 6 stivers, and in English money, at 6s. the crown, to about 28,210l. 15s.
Endd. Pp. 6.
Nov. 20. 1090. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
A note of different sums of money taken up in Flanders, viz., taken up in Queen Mary's time, 57,921l. 6s. 8d.; interest and brokerage thereon, 21,000l.; in Queen Elizabeth's time, 338,459l. 8s. 3d.; total, 487,502l. 7s. Paid from 17 Nov. 1558 to the last of April 1562, 378,289l. 1s. 4d.; so there remain yet owing in Flanders, 109,213l. 6s. Flemish.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Nov. 20. 1091. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
Names of the Queen's creditors referred to in the previous document, with the sums advanced by each, with the brokerage and interest, amounting in English money (at 6s. the crown) to about 23,210l. 15s.
Endd. Pp. 2 and a slip.


  • 1. Cecil has here written Crofts' name in the margin.