Elizabeth: January 1563, 1-5

Pages 1-19

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 6, 1563. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1869.

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January 1563, 1-5

A.D. 1563.
Jan. 1.
1. The Queen Mother to Smith.
Returns to Paris within two days, where she will give him and the Secretary, who has come from England, audience. If her journey is stayed she will send for him. Sends him a passport for his courier, in which is comprised one for the man who was arrested at Boulogne. It was the fault of one of Smith's people, who having obtained a passport for one man sent two.—Chartres, 1 Jan. 1562. Signed: Caterine; — De L'Aubespine.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 1 Jan. 1562. Fr. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 1.] 2. Charles Utenhove to Cecil.
Sends verses in Hebrew, Latin, Greek, French, and English, to be presented to the Queen, urging her to marry. The English verses commence thus:
Some present doth my hart desyr to geve unto your Grace, As custom is when yere renewd beginnes againe his race, But what may I, that nothing have, geve yow that nothing want ? This one that yet yow want I pray our God to yow to graunt.
Also a French anagram on Madame Elizabeth Royne, i.e. La rosee de May m'ha benit.
Orig., with seal. Endd. Pp. 10.
Jan. 1. 3. Passport for Francisco.
Passport for the English Ambassador's courier, who is authorized to take with him into England an Englishman named "Achelay," who has been arrested at Boulogne.— Chartres, 1 Jan. 1562. Signed: Caterine; — De L'Aubespine.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 1 Jan. 1562. Pp. 2.
Jan. 1. 4. John Frtzherbert to Lady Cobham.
1. Certain detestable and abominable slanders are spread abroad of the Queen. Then are so devilish that neither his pen or his mouth should make mention of them, if it were not that the Queen might thereby understand by whose malice they have been raised. The working thereof is done by Frenchmen about the King of Sweden, and in very deed in great favour with His Majesty, who by no means would that he should obtain the Queen, knowing that then they would not be in the authority they now are, for the Swedish Lords cannot well bear them. They and their countrymen in France (knowing that the King is a lusty and valiant prince and exceeding rich), fear lest the Queen and her realm should be revenged for Calais; and they devise by sinister means to let the King from going into England. Their practice is chiefly two ways, the one in raising slanders of the Queen (blazing abroad that she has had two children), as in uttering what goodwill they bear unto her. The other, they vent abroad that the King of Sweden has done with his suit to her, and is minded to take another. They have not letted to treat in that behalf, as one Carolus de Mornai, asking leave for his own business to go into France, without the King's assent sued unto the Queen of Scots, who said that if he knew this of a truth he would strike off his head. This the King told Fitzherbert four days before he departed.
2. They hear now that the King has sent a Frenchman named Claudius to have one of the Emperor's daughters, and that he has given over his suit to the Queen; which is done to move her to signify to him that he should not have any mind to go thither. Has furthered the King's going into England, for neither the Queen or her realm can receive any prejudice thereby.—1 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: Jan. 1562. Pp. 4.
Jan. 2. 5. Somer to Cecil.
Wrote to him from Calais, where he landed on the 27th ult., and left on the 30th. He was evilly horsed the most part of the way, the King not having paid the post in Picardy. Found both the Ambassadors here, Throckmorton having come hither the day before. The Queen Mother left Paris for Rambouillet on the 28th ult., and from thence went to Chartres on the 30th. As soon as he came here the Ambassador sent Middlemore by post to the Queen to desire to have speedy access to her, for a passport for Francisco. On the 2nd inst. Middlemore brought answer that she would be at Paris within two days. Middlemore brought a passport. The English Ambassador here has cause to complain, for his servants are not only forbidden the passage at the sea-coast without a passport, but from all their towns, and they cannot go to Paris without some trouble, and being brought before Marshal Montmorency, or the Provost Marshal.—St. Denis, 2 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd.: 2 Jan. 1562. Pp. 2.
Jan. 2. 6. Battista Petri to John Shers.
Received a letter of the 5th ult., with one from the Secretary. On the 26th sent a letter with some particulars touching a money transaction. Despatched a packet of letters of considerable importance to Shers, by which, and by the present, Shers will be able to inform the writer whether he has done ill or well in sending them, and in causing the courier to go out of his way to Rome, where finding this gentleman, the bearer (who was desirous of ascertaining something of the mode of government in England), he offered him the opportunity of so doing, since otherwise he could not have gratified his wishes. . . . . . 2 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To Shers, in London. Apparently a P.S. to a letter. Ital. Pp. 2.
Jan. 2.
Forbes, ii. 247.
7. Admiral Châtillon to the Queen.
Has already informed her of the issue of the battle fought by the Prince of Condé. Although their infantry was routed without fighting, the cavalry (which alone did any service) continues entire and in good heart; so that they only remain here for a short time to refresh the reiters. Supplicates her (she being their chief help) to continue to aid the cause. God has put the sword in her hand to protect His true religion. As they have no foot soldiers, he begs that she will send them as many as possible, and also furnish them with the money that she promised, in order that they may pay the reiters, to whom they have promised a month's pay in addition to their arrears.—Camp at Meur, 2 January. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Almost entirely in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 2 Jan. 1562. Fr. Pp. 3.
Jan. 2.
Forbes, ii. 249.
8. Smith to the Queen.
1. Understands by Somers that she thinks his demands too easy; yet he asked more than he had commission to do by 200,000 crowns.
2. Wrote before to her and Cecil to know what he should demand, but has had no answer. The sum is not mentioned in Throckmorton's nor his letters and instructions. Having now seen the treaty, he perceives there are 500,000 crowns which the merchants should pay for the breach of the treaty, which are still due. Had he seen the treaty (which hitherto he could not get) he would expressly have put it in his demands. Seeing they have proclaimed war, she has the advantage to make war if she thinks good. They being occupied about Orleans, and all their forces going thither, they fear her nowhere but in Normandy; she having a force ready for the said place; and if she landed 5,000 or 6,000 men suddenly about Calais it could be taken easily. There are not 200 men in it, and with women and children not above 300. The best soldiers have gone to Guise. The country about it is well stored with victuals, it being now the most plentiful in all France. She has plenty of ships at Newhaven for landing the men; he would have them in a moonshine night run a land, so many as could first keep Newnham Bridge, and then adventure upon Calais. It is now half made, none of their fortifications are perfect. At this enterprise they will so fear treason that they will not abide in the town.
3. A great number in the French Court would be glad if it was taken that way. Whether by dissimulation they leave it so weak, because they would so lose it (as Queen Mary did) he cannot tell. If it can be so taken, they will immediately sue for peace. Then she may sell Newhaven to them at such price as she thinks good.
4. If this be not attempted, he must confess himself no man of war.—St. Denis, 2 January 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 2 Jan. 1562. Pp. 4.
Jan. 2. 9. Smith to Cecil.
1. After closing this packet on the 29th ult., for Francisco, Throckmorton came here. The Queen Mother has gone to Rambouillet to speak with Guise and the Prince, and goes this day to Chartres, where the Prince is to meet her. Men talk again that they haste to make peace between themselves, and of their being somewhat entered into a communication for a cross marriage between children of the Prince and children of the Duke of Guise.
2. There is now about the Queen, the Prince of Rochesurion, the Dukes of Boullion, and Montpensier, M. De Lansac, Cardinals Bourbon and Guise, and MM. Martigues, Gonorre, and L'Aubespine.
3. The Queen goes from Chartres to Orleans to speak with the Constable, and conclude an accord among all the rest; and thereupon turn all their forces against Newhaven, whereof they marvelously brag at the Court.
4. On the 30th ult., Mr. Somer arrived here, and this day (the last of December), the writer sent Middlemore to the Queen to ask audience for Somer and himself.
5. The King lies at Paris, and Bourdin and others are here, but he does nothing, not so much as despatch a passport; so detains Francisco here until he can get one from the Queen. The Duke of Guise's camp had advanced towards Orleans, when he was sent for to meet the Queen at Rambouillet. They cannot do anything very hastily to the English, for this day they have been busy at Paris, and sent from hence twenty-two cannon, and 2,500 men to escort them towards Orleans. The Admiral and D'Andelot are going towards Blois. Thinks as soon as they understand that this army is besieging Etampes they will give them battle. The Queen of Navarre has twenty-one ensigns of footmen to aid the Prince, and they are marching towards Orleans.
6. MM. Vielleville and De Bourdillon are made Marshals of France, in lieu of St. André and Termes, and Vielleville is made Governor of Normandy, whither ten ensigns of the Almains about Lorraine were sent two days ago with Bedsteine or Bassompierre as their captain.
7. Recommends Robert Percivall of London, and Gilbert Hawkins of Gosfield, Essex; the former has not only helped Sir Nicholas, but also himself in the Queen's affairs; and received a mark therein, which he will bear to the grave. He is earnest in religion, and by his zeal therein has given offence, lost his living, and has been sacked here, for it was transfugiendo to Wyatt in Queen Mary's time; upon which matter he was fain to avoid England and was entertained here. Now he desires pardon and leave to return to England. He is a good soldier. Hawkins is the best miner hereabouts, and a long beaten soldier. He fled for a robbery, and was entertained here, and did not stick to serve still as long as it was among the French.
8. Complains that upon his first coming he was kept at Paris more than five weeks without speaking to the Queen, and after he had spoken to her, has had one to guard him, when he had only moved her for peace, and is now lodged here, five miles from Paris and the Court, where no other Ambassador lies, has to pay 120l. sterling a year for his house, which is not half so fair as the French Ambassador's, for he has but one chamber in which to dine, lie, and write. And when his men arrive at Paris they are pulled off their horses, carried from one to another, and then sent home. Has to send to Paris daily for his wine, flesh, and fish; and though he has agreed for a house in that city, he is not suffered to lodge there. They promised by the Queen, before Marshal Montmorency, that he should have what house he marked, and after he has found from two to five which he is content to have, he is not allowed to have any; and he would sooner live in the Tower, than in the house which the eschevyns of Paris found for him.
9. Has this day been fain to keep Francis for lack of a passport. Middlemore was told by order of the Queen, that it would be dangerous for him to come there again.—St. Denis, 2 Jan. 1562.
10. P. S.—Middlemore told him that there is a talk of this camp going to Blois, which is besieged by the Admiral and his company. The Queen is still at Chartres, where it is thought the Prince is. Whether he is there or at Nogent-leRoy, he is still a prisoner; but he is merry, and stouter than he ever was.
11. Has sent a list of the slain, hurt, and prisoners in this battle, and noted where it is false. The Queen sent word to Sir Nicholas that she would be at Paris in two days.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 2 Jan. 1562. Pp. 4.
Jan. 2. 10. Montgomery to Warwick.
Begs him to send five ensigns to garrison this place, as it is of great extent. Would be glad if Captain Tremaine and his people might be sent. The soldiers are crying out for their pay, which should be sent to him within four or five days.— Dieppe, 2 Jan. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3. 11. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Cannot think it to be without some mystery, that the intercourse of letters, as well betwixt the two Queens as them, is ceased.
2. Sends him the heads of the Master of Maxwell's complaints. The Queen has also written in favour of his man, Graham.
3. All things in this country are quiet. Seeing that matters are (as appears to him) purposely kept so close from them, he will not be curious to inquire any more of them, knowing that with time he shall know enough, and perchance more than he would.
4. Asks him to recommend him to Lord Pembroke, and other Lords there.—Edinburgh, 3 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 3.
Jan. 3.
Forbes, ii. 251.
12. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Perceives Smith has advertised her of the battle of the 19th ult., betwixt Dreux and Masieres. The writer being a spectator of it, will signify what he saw and knows.
2. Both armies were determined, as it seemed by their proceedings, to give battle; Condé being resolved to pass the river Dare at Dreux, which the Constable and Duke were resolved to impeach. Each party persisting in their opinions, the battle began at noon, and continued till night. The vanguard of the Prince's side (being conducted by the Admiral and his brother), accompanied by the Marshal of Hesse and five cornets of "reighters," defeated the Constable, who was taken, being wounded with a pistol-shot on his nether lip, but not dangerously; who was with speed taken to Orleans. Having thus defeated the Constable, they followed the enemy so broken. The vanguard, led by the Duke of Guise, stood firm in a place of advantage. The Prince charged the same, and was defeated, he being also taken by M. D'Anville. Four cornets of reiters accompanying the Prince were so " esbranled " with two or three shots of great artillery, that they would not come to the fight.
3. The footmen of the Duke of Guise did their devoir well, especially the Swiss; but those of the Prince, as well Frenchmen and Almains (both in the vanguard and the battle), behaved very ill; and such as he [the Prince] had the leading of, behaved much worse. Guise had twenty-two pieces of artillery, and shot four volleys against their enemies. The Prince's artillery was badly conducted, having four field pieces, two cannon, and a culverin, and never shot a shot, nor stood him in stead. D'Aumale was overthrown, and in danger of being taken, but was rescued by succours of his brother, the Duke of Guise.
4. The Duke behaved himself like a great and valiant captain, for the victory is to be ascribed to him only; although being victors their damage is greater than those who are defeated. He remained lord of the field; he won four pieces of artillery; he encamped over the dead bodies; albeit the Admiral went not far from thence that night. The Duke caused view to be made of the dead bodies, his army had the spoil of them; and caused divers to be buried. His army won the ensigns of the Prince's footmen; which were offered up with procession and great solemnity upon Christmas Day at Dreux. Thus he was victor.
5. When it is remembered that the Constable, being chief of the one army, and the Prince of the other, are both prisoners; St. André slain, who is said to have had the principal leading of the vanguard, and the Duke of Guise the leading of the horsemen; the Duke of Nevers wounded, as it is not likely he can escape (although it happened by casualty); MM. De la Brosse and Givry slain; M. De Montbron, the Constable's son, and many other gentlemen slain and sore hurt, and six or seven score gentlemen of quality being prisoners; in counterpoise whereof, of men of quality only Mons. D'Arpajon was slain on the Prince's side, MM. De Mouy and De la Curée taken prisoners; the Prince not having lost above seven score of his horsemen (as the Admiral has sent Throckmorton word since the battle), the adversaries having lost three hundred gentlemen;—he therefore thinks the victory may be called doubtful, and not advantageous to the Prince's adversaries; and he is sure it is of no advantage to the French King and his country.
6. The Prince's Almain footmen did not strike stroke, therefore they were defeated in running away. The Duke of Guise took to mercy 2,000 of them, whereof he has sent into Almain 1,500 of them (without weapons) with white rods in their hands; who have made oath never to bear arms against this King nor the said Duke. The other 500, being very well armed, have taken oath to serve the King against her [Elizabeth], and are sent with Bassompierre, the Rhinegrave's Lieutenant (who has also with him the ten ensigns of Almains, who were under his leading), into Normandy, there to be employed against the English, where also is sent to be the King's Lieutenant, M. De Vielleville, now Marshal of France, having the state of St. André.
7. When the writer saw the Prince taken, he retired himself with three of his servants, and Perucel, the Prince's preacher (sometime the Queen's servant, by the name of Francis De la Riviere), to Nogent-le-Roy; where the Duchess of Bouillon with difficulty suffered him to enter the Castle. She immediately advertised the Duke of Guise of his being there, and that night order was given for a guard to watch him in his lodging; which was coloured because the people should not commit any excess against him. In the said town he remained under guard five days, in which time he spoke twice with the Duchess, who treated him very well, and gave him a dinner in her castle. She is a widow, and daughter to the Duchess of Valentinois.
8. The 24th ult., he was sent with guard to the Duke of Guise's camp. The Duke (who had almost dined before his arrival) gave order that he should dine in his [the Duke's] chamber, where he remained two hours after dinner before he spoke with the Duke, who excused himself by the manifold business now cast upon him through the misfortune to the Constable and St. André. They were now, he said, without a commander, until the King or Queen Mother appoints one; during which time the army had appointed him for their chief. He said he knew Throckmorton was at the battle, of which he desired his opinion.
9. Throckmorton answered he was there at the beginning; but when he saw every man prepared for fighting, he withdrew himself. The Duke asked whether he bore arms, and how he was mounted. He said he was mounted upon a little "hacquenay," and armed as he saw him then. The Duke made great search to find out whether he wore armour or not. Having spent an hour in discoursing of the battle, the Duke told him he could not very well accommodate him [Throckmorton] with lodging in the camp; and so much the worse, because he understood Throckmorton had lost his train and baggage. Thereupon he called M. De Surdeval (Captain of Belle Isle and Croissy in Brittany), to accompany him to the castle of Mesieres, where he should lodge for that night. The Duke desired him to dine the next day with him, when he would talk more at large.
10. The 25th ult., being Christmas day, he went to the camp about ten o'clock a.m., the Duke being at Dreux with his captains at high Mass, to offer up the ensigns won at the battle, and to make a general procession for their victory; so it was twelve o'clock before he returned to his camp, at which time the Duke of Etampes arrived from the King and Queen Mother. He dined that day with the Dukes of Guise and Etampes, who were accompanied by MM. De Sansac and De Martigues, and Counts Charny and Brian, MM. D'Ossune and De Biron. After dinner the Dukes retired to confer together, and left him with the Knights of the Order. Having spent an hour together they sent for him into the Duke of Guise's bed-chamber; the Dukes with MM. De Sansac and D'Ossune and himself being the only persons there.
11. Guise said that Throckmorton had been some time at Orleans in the company of these men whom they had defeated, but who may still cause trouble to this realm; the rather if they have the Queen's aid as she has done, at which the King marvels. He being her minister here, and suspected of being a great author of all these troubles, they had thought good to confer with him, and to know by what means he can help them out of their trouble as he had done to get them in; and further that they may know by him the Queen's intention, and what she desires.
12. Answered, that since being at Orleans (which was caused through the difficulty made to grant him a passport to come thence), he has but little understood her determination; because he could not send safely to her, nor she to him. By his last advertisements from her, he perceives that she would be contented this realm were in repose, and would more readily put her helping hand thereto than some of the officers and councillors of this realm. Being charged as an author of these troubles, he said he would tell him frankly what he heard, and what he judges; at which the Duke said it would give them pleasure if he would deal with them frankly.
13. He then declared the state of the realm since the decease of Francis, until March last, not forgetting sundry conferences passed betwixt the King of Navarre and the writer concerning religion. He touched the establishing of the edict of January, how the same was infringed; who first took up arms, how Condé for his own surety was forced to do the like, and was commanded to do so by the Queen Mother; also the ordinance of the Estates, as well for the government during the King's minority, and the authorizing of Condé to be the King's Lieutenant, in case the King of Navarre should miscarry. He said the Queen Mother held her rank by the same authority as the Prince did his lieutenancy. Also remembered the conferences at Beaugency, Paris, and other places.
14. They had long disputes about these matters; some the Duke denied, interpreted some otherwise, and took exception to the assembly of the Estates; disavowing their authority. When the Duke spoke of the offers made to the Prince, answered that the Prince esteemed them as traps to beguile them, as appeared by their late proceedings at Paris, when they secretly practised to observe nothing that should be concluded with the Prince. At this the Duke was somewhat offended, and marvelled how he knew it. The Duke then asked what this matter concerned the Queen, whether evil or good. Answered, it touched her as much as it did the King of Spain and the Bishop of Rome. The Duke said they helped the King to chastise the rebels, whilst the Queen gives the rebels comfort. Answered, the Queen did not repute them rebels, but the King's good subjects. In the end the Duke said they would gladly know the Queen's opinion how they may be at rest. Answered, that some of these matters are domestic which must be cured by themselves; others are public, wherein princes have interest; these matters must be handled impartially; for in pleasing one you displease another; this matter he means is religion. Other things there are which concern the Queen only, as the faithful observation of their treaties with her, which must be ended to her satisfaction. And if by means of the troubles of France she has become possessed of some of their pieces, the way to satisfy her is to give her her own, and she will restore them theirs. She may say that Newhaven and Tancarville are hers; and yet she was requested by their inhabitants to take them into her protection. The writer also declared what arguments she had to mistrust their meaning for observation of the treaty, alleging their fortification of Calais, which was to remain in their hands but for a little term; the sale of the lands; letting to farm the appurtenances belonging to Calais, with the King's warranty, so she seeks to be assured for the rendition of Calais. The Duke said the term had not expired. Throckmorton said, if they made any scruplosity she would retain Newhaven for pledge until the term should expire. The Duke said Newhaven would cost more than it is worth. Answered, Calais yields France as little profit as Newhaven does to England, but the keeping of Newhaven will annoy France more than the keeping of Calais can England. The Duke said they had heard what he had to say, and will declare it to the Queen Mother, who will give order what is to be done with him; and that he must be contented to lodge where he was the last night; and to-morrow a gentleman will be sent to conduct him to St. Denis.
15. Then the Duke took him by the hand and led him to a cupboard, and said to him that the Queen had set forth in print her whole displeasure upon him and his house. He will not offer any defence, but desires him [the writer] to say it is an unusual manner for princes to treat persons of quality by defamatory libels, they having had the honour to make alliance by marriage with England; so she cannot dishonour them without touching herself; and when she has passed more years in this world she will respect those more who are allied to her than she does now. On the 26th ult. the Duke sent to him the Baron de Magniac to Mezieres, to accompany him to St. Denis. On his way he met the Queen Mother at Villepreux, with whom he desired to speak, but Magniac would not accord him the same. He then sent his cousin Henry Middlemore to her, to know whether he should go, and to require a passport for him and his train to return to England. She appointed him to go to St. Denis where he was to remain until she returned to Paris. The Baron having spoken to the Queen, she willed him [Throckmorton] to go to St. Germain-en-laye, where he understood that he was to be constituted prisoner in the castle.
16. The 29th ult. (after the Queen Mother had conferred with the Duke of Guise at Rambouillet), she despatched a courier to Magniac, at St. Germain, willing him to accompany Throckmorton from thence to St. Denis, there to leave him with Smith. Having arrived there, Magniac told him he was not to depart from hence without the pleasure of the King and Queen Mother. He has reminded the Queen Mother thereof, so has Smith by his letters lately sent by Middlemore, who was sent in post from hence to Chartres (where the Queen Mother is) to ask audience for Somer. Throckmorton's despatch and Somer's audience is deferred till the Queen repairs to this town, which will be in two or three days.
17. The Queen has spoken with the Prince of Condé, who notwithstanding his imprisonment shows himself very stout, and would yield nothing to his adversaries. Has also heard that the Prince is inclined to relent. He uses the best means he can to be better advertised thereof. The Admiral has sent the writer word that he will make no end but to God's glory and Elizabeth's satisfaction. The Admiral has also sent two messengers to her since the battle. The Constable practises to make peace; employing for that purpose the Prince of Malfi's son, lately Bishop of Troyes. These treaties by the Queen Mother, the Constable, and the Duke of Guise tend only to make an end with their countrymen and the Almains, that they may be employed against the Queen. If they cannot accord with them, they will treat with her [Elizabeth] favourably and satisfy her about Calais; provided that from henceforth she does not aid the Prince and their rebels (as they term them,) and that their forces at Newhaven, Dieppe, and Tancarville be retired.
18. The best means to make a good end for herself is to animate the Admiral, D'Andelot, and De Rochefoucault to stand to their tackle, and to assure them of her aid to release the Prince from prison, and to advance God's cause. These comforts should be sent speedily and very secretly. The Admiral is at Blois; does not know whether he has taken it, but Guise marches with speed thitherward, to succour the same. The Marshal of Hesse (who was hurt in the face) is very willing to try the battle again. The pieces in Piedmont are rendered to the Duke of Savoy, and M. De Bourdillon is made Marshal of France. The Admiral has better than 5,000 horse, and not past 2,000 footmen, which are very evil armed. The Duke has 3,000 horse and 16,000 footmen, who are better armed than they were, "by devalising of the Prince's Almains."—St. Denis, 3 January 1562. Signed.
Orig., a few passages in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd.: 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 12.
Jan. 3. 13. Another copy of the above.
Partly in Throckmorton's hol. Endd.: By Francisco, the courier. Pp. 12.
Jan. 3.
Forbes, ii. 260.
14. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Cecil had better receive information from Smith, who is at liberty, and in better credit here than the writer is. Cannot get liberty, or passport to send away any part of his train. "These men have two strings to their bow, to accord with the Prince and his, to accord with her Majesty also, but not with both at once to both satisfactions. They seek to make a divorce, and then to assail the party left at the cart's tail."
2. No man means more contrary to the Queen's profit and honour than M. De Chantonet; none so earnest to keep Calais from her. The profit of the haunt of our merchant staplers to Bruges, and other respects of like nature, may move him to disfavour them. Has delivered to Smith the treaties made at Cambresis, both for England and Scotland; and also the Queen's plate.—St. Denis, 3 January. Signed.
3. P.S.—Perceives Smith is not affected to serve himself by any of his here, inasmuch as he [Smith] would gladly be rid of Middlemore. Causes are alleged, such as they are; but he knows the Cardinal of Ferrara is the worker of this humour. Mr. Shers is much desired here. Prays God it may prove well.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 3.
Jan. 3. 15. Smith to Cecil.
1. The Cardinal of Lorraine has collected money at the Council of Trent to continue the war here; whereof the Italians brag. Cannot learn how much; can Cecil ascertain the sum ? They still ascertain themselves of some practice in England. The Spanish Ambassador and the Legate are the chief workers.
2. Is grieved that he is still kept at St. Denis, and can have no house in Paris.
3. Asks him to send the pardons for Robert Percivall and Gilbert Hawkins. The latter is as tall a man as any in the guard; will keep the former awhile here. Has got the treaty of Cateau Cambresis, and of Scotland, from Sir Nicholas. Lacks that made between the Emperor Charles and the English for the Low Countries, also a certain declaration which was afterwards made thereof by some commissioners.—St. Denis, 3 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3.
Forbes, ii. 261.
16. Warwick and others to the Privy Council.
1. Received this day a letter from Montgomery (which is enclosed), with two others directed to Poulet, by which he earnestly requires aid of money and men. After conference with Beauvoir, they purpose sending him support. They are destitute of money.
2. Preparations of men, victuals, and artillery are now massing at Montreville, Harfleur, and other places thereabout; meaning some attempt towards this place, Dieppe, or both. Whereof there is some likelihood, by reports that the Rhine grave has advertised Beauvoir of great hope of peace; and that the Prince is permitted upon his faith to go to Orleans for that purpose. There is a bruit that the Constable is licensed to come to Dreux, where Guise continues with his army. It appears on the other side, both by letters sent to Beauvoir and other intelligence to him from the Admiral, that the said Admiral lies betwixt Chartres and Orleans with 5,000 or 6,000 horsemen and 5,000 footmen. He stands in some terms with them for want of pay, and attends the Queen's aid.
3. It seems good to have more staples of victuals than one for this place; as to have one at Portsmouth, Dover, Rye, and Weymouth. Also to have a certain proportion of wheat meal, biscuit, wine, oils, honey, vinegar, beer, beef, butter, cheese, etc., to furnish the town and garrison for many months. For the which, as also for horse and hand-mills, beds, and of the danger they stand in of the taking away of their water and windmills by the enemy, they have already written.
4. The galley for want of men is not able to do service; yet the Queen is charged with a number reserved, in hope of the rest coming. They are informed that vessels are preparing here for cutting off their supplies, and they have none of the Queen's ships here.—Newhaven, 3 January 1562. Signed: Warwick, Poulet, Ponyngs, Denis, Vaughan, Bromefeld, Fysscher.
Orig. Add. Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 4.
[Jan. 3.] 17. Warwick to Cecil. (fn. 1)
1. Asks that such inhabitants of this town as shall traffic between here and England may be free from all customs so long as they remain under the Queen's subjection. Also that they may have a staple of Newcastle coals here, and that the impost upon wines carried from hence to England may be discharged. Signed.
2. P. S.—Has received a letter from Montgomery from Dieppe; those there were glad that he had gone thither, and he has already five ensigns of footmen and a band of horsemen, and looks for an ensign of footmen; whereof he desires that the Queen will have consideration.
Orig. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3. 18. Montgomery to Warwick.
Having heard that they intend to surprise him before the arrival of the English, he begs that the Earl will send him a reinforcement of five ensigns.—Dieppe, 3 Jan. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3. 19. The Rhinegrave to Montgomery.
1. The men of Arques have staid these men of Dieppe and sent them to him, and as he does not wish to displeasure any man, he has sent them to Montgomery, after declaring to them what affection he has for the Count, and what he might do for him and them. That is, that he withdraw himself from this trouble (as he wrote to him before), if he will have pity upon his children, and consideration of his estate. Is willing to come and speak with him.
2. Asks for an answer after to-morrow at the farthest. Professions of friendship, and asks credence for the bearer.— Montivillier, 3 Jan.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3. 20. Translation of the above into English.
Endd., 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3. 21. —to—
1. Is sorry for the death of De la Meissoniere. There is a report that they will play an ill turn for those at Lillebonne, and that some great galley or gallease will come from Rouen.
2. Captain Lyon has gone there. There are four ensigns of Picards at Bolbec, and a man reports that there are eight others at Yvetot. There are a great number of soldiers with twelve cannon at Pont De l'Arche, who are going to Tancarville. The soldiers are angry because they cannot get their pay, and are often mutinous. Monsieur has written to the Queen that this may be stopped. The persecution at Rouen causes many to retire to Dieppe.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil., 3 Jan. Fr. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 3.] 22. The Battle of Dreux.
1. The Prince, finding that he was losing time about Paris, determined to possess himself of Honfleur and winter in those parts. The Duke of Guise (knowing the advantage the Prince would have thereby) devised to let him from his purpose, and set his army forward on the 13th of December, thinking to overtake him before he passed a river between Chartres and Dreux, and so by Louviers into the Seine. On arriving at the river he found the Prince had passed it the day before. Resting the beginning of that night, he raised his army about midnight, and by the morning had passed the river. The Prince did not suspect the Duke was so near; who on the morning of the 17th was within three miles of the Prince, and marched towards him in battle array. The Duke marched until he came within the shot of the great ordnance, where he commenced the battle by discharging thirty-two pieces of ordnance three times into the Prince's camp. The Prince consulted others what was to be done, who concluded to charge them. Thereupon he ordered six cornets of ruyters out of hand, (300 being in each cornet,) whom he divided into two parts, with a good band of Frenchmen, to set upon the Swiss, Spaniards, and French under the leading of the Constable. They did so, and overthrew them and took the Constable, whose youngest son Montbrun, M. De La Brosse, M. De Guirey, etc., were slain.
2. In the meantime M. De La Curée set upon St. André, who was killed, with a number of others with him. The Prince had not yet stirred, remaining with four cornets of ruyters and French lances, flanked with a battalion of Almains conducted by M. De Grammont, with whom he set upon the Duke, but not being followed by the ruyters and Almains, "he was put to the worse," himself being taken after his horse was slain. With him was taken M. De La Curée, and M. De Mouy slain. By this means the Duke recovered many prisoners before taken, and six pieces of artillery.
3. The Admiral seeing this misadvantage, retired, and attended to receiving such as came back from the field and to the keeping of the Constable and other prisoners; and so were left to the Duke the field and the dead bodies.
4. The Prince had in the field 7,000 horsemen and 8,000 footmen. The Duke had 4,000 horse and 12,000 footmen, with thirty-two pieces of great ordnance which he discharged thrice before the battle joined; whereby the Almains' stomachs were so taken away that they made no haste to follow the Prince. He had but eight pieces, which never did him service. The Constable was sent to Orleans with such speed that he drank but once by the way, and that on horseback; and with him was sent as prisoners MM. De Bevaies and De Rochefort. The Constable was shot by an arquebus between the chin and the teeth, where the pellet stuck in such sort that no remedy was there but to cut away the piece of the jaw where it fastened, which he sent to the Duke for a token.
5. The next morning the Admiral (between whom and the Duke was but half a league all that night), having gathered together his forces, marched towards the enemy and presented the battle, which being refused, and the enemy having been reinforced that night, there was no forcing them to fight without great disadvantage; he therefore marched towards the Beauce and came as far as Etampes and Joinville, where he stayed with his army. The Duke also raised his camp and went to Nogent-le-Roy, where he remained at the return of Francisco, and the Prince with him. The Queen Mother, being then at Rambouillet, took her journey to Etampes to commune with the Admiral whether any way could be devised of composition, by marriages or otherwise.
6. The band which the Admiral brought to Etampes was accounted 4,000 horse and 6,000 footmen. The loss on both sides amounts to 7,500. Throckmorton, who was unarmed at the Prince's camp on the day of battle, seeing the two armies ready to join together, retired before the battle to Nogentle-Roy, where he was received by the Duchess of Bouillon, by whom he was sent next day to the Duke, who sent him to the Queen Mother, who discharged the guard sent with him, and sent him with certain gentleman to St. Denis where Smith lodged, and there left him at liberty.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Jan. 3. 23. Clough to Thomas Windebank.
1. Sent his last of the 24th ult. by order of George Wollfe. Has received Windebank's of the 21st ult. from Strasburg and the enclosed letters to Mr. Secretary, which he has sent. The French gentleman is not here now, to whom he will give his letters when he returns.
2. Informs him how to make bills of exchange, as desired, and sends a form thereof; in Germany never more than three bills are taken out, but in Italy and Spain four or more.
3. Cannot say for certain how many men have left England for France, but he understands not more than 6,000 footmen, and 500 or 800 horsemen are sent, but he has not heard of their arrival. There are at Newhaven at least 8,000 soldiers, labourers, and miners.
4. Windebank writes that he understands by letters from Antwerp that one of the noblemen that was with Condé left him before Paris, being one of the order. He has now received his reward, according as such creatures ought to have.
5. On the 19th ult. a great battle was fought between Guise and Condé, whereby both camps are utterly destroyed. Some say that when the Prince saw the Guises he fled towards Dreux, but the Duke pursued him, and they entered the town together. Most of the Italians say it was not so, but that after the Prince had overthrown the two battles, and taken the Constable and fifteen noblemen prisoners and sent them to Orleans, Guise not being by with his company, gathered his men together and made an oration to them. The battle beginning about noon lasted till night; the next morning the Duke set upon them again, overthrew the Prince's camp and took him prisoner. Another party say that when the Duke and Prince entered the said town, the inhabitants shut the gates and would not let either be masters. In his opinion he believes both are in the town, and the Prince's men are before it and will not depart until they have the Prince, for one has come from Paris this day who was there on the 28th ult., and says it was talked of that the Prince was taken, but none could tell where he was; but at his leaving Paris the Queen of France had gone towards Dreux, to make peace. The Council of Paris has sent for all the Guisians at St. Quentin, Calais, Boulogne, &c., to make a camp to raise the siege of Dreux. Most men think they will make peace. Appended is a list of the slain and wounded.—Antwerp, 3 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 3 Jan. 1562. Pp. 12.
Jan. 4. 24. Knollys and Mundt to the Queen.
In their last, dated Dec. 14 at Rhinehausen, by Mr. Manley, they signified their leave taking with the Emperor and the King of the Romans, and other occurrents. Have written to Cecil on the 21st and 28th Dec. On the 29th they received letters from the Landgrave, requiring them to convey his letters to her; he sent a copy of his letters and of the Emperor's answer to the Princes at Frankfort touching their recusation against the Council of Trent, whereof they send her a translation. The Emperor's offer concerning a league might be taken doubtfully; he is strong in horsemen but not in money. Enclose a letter from Mme. De Roye and one from the Duke of Wurtemburg in answer to her demands.— Strasburg, 4 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd.: 4 Jan. 1562. Pp. 3.
Jan. 4. 25. Madame De Roye to the Queen.
The news of the capture of the Prince of Condé (the writer's son-in-law) has made her very sad. Begs that she will not withdraw her favour from the Prince.—Strasburg, 4 Jan. Signed: Madelene De Mailly.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 4. 26. Montgomery to Warwick.
Sends the bearer to ask him to send hither the five ensigns, Newhaven being of no use to the Earl without this place. They go about to cut off Warwick's victuals by having this town, and arm great numbers of vessels to keep the Head of Caux, besides others in the Seine. Will be too weak here; the naughty people have been about capitulating with the Rhinegrave, and have brought him letters, which he sends to the Earl. Asks him to send Captains Tremayne and Horsey, the latter understands their language.—Dieppe, 4 Jan.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 4. 27. Translation of the above into English.
Draft. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 4. 28. Juan De Ayala to Pedro De Ayala.
Narrative of the services of the Spanish troops in the army of the King of France during the battle of Dreux, 19 Dec. 1562. Founded upon a letter written 4 Jan. 1563 by Juan De Ayala captain of the Spanish infantry.
Copy. Endd. by Challoner: To Mr. Secretary. Span. Pp. 3.
Jan. 5.
banoff, i. 169.
29. The Queen of Scots to the Queen.
The Master of Maxwell, warden of her West Marches, having often complained to her that he cannot obtain at Lord Dacres's hands redress of such attempts as have been con tinually committed there these three or four years past, she has required Mr. Randolph to signify the same. Desires her to take speedy order for the rule of that March. Has com- manded Lethington to send unto him the heads of her warden's complaints. She wrote also before to her in favour of her subject, Graham, who by her command obtained a commission to the Lord Gray, Sir Thomas Dacres, Sir John Foster and to the Treasurer of Berwick, to make restitution of certain goods spoiled from him and his colleagues by the inhabitants of Northumberland, conformable to the decree obtained by him in her Court of Admiralty.—Palace of Holy- rood House, 5 Jan., 21 Mary. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 5. 30. Randolph to Cecil.
1. His letters sent at two several times came to hand, and he has made others partakers of the news.
2. Such letters as he received of Captain Colborn he thought fittest to be given to his wife to be delivered to this Queen. She was not content until she had spoken with the writer. He let her know what he had heard, but gave her as little comfort of any good that was likely to ensue unto her uncles as he could. She wept her fill, and yet she knows not herself (as she says) why she is sad. They live yet in hope of some better news. A greater sorrow, he is sure, there was not of long time amongst those that fear God of this realm than it was to hear that the Prince was taken.
3. This Queen is advertised by Captain Colborn's letters that Raulet, her secretary, is coming. Her great desire is that he may have good expedition because that Chartillier, M. D'Anville's man, was stayed, as he reported here eight days; she fears that the like will be done unto the other.
4. Her mind remains always one towards the Queen. Sends herewith her letters with articles containing the disagreement of Lord Dacres and the Master of Maxwell.
5. Cecil will hear at length from the Laird of Lethington. Told him that he was in great choler when he wrote his letters. It is suspected that there will be somewhat wrought this Parliament amongst them [the English] that they here shall take little pleasure of, for the bruit is here that some- thing shall be done for the establishment of the crown. It proceeds rather from the Queen than of any other. They are now here greatly given to policy, frugality, and good government. They have made laws that no victuals saving fish, nor hides, skins, nor wool, shall be carried out of the country; no wine shall be sold above 6l. the tun. Laws are also made against great hose and costly apparel. The most difficulty will be to put order unto the beggars; the ground will not, he believes, bear many others. The necessity next year must be very great, all kinds of victuals are grown so dear. Of this Parliament he hears yet nothing. Their ministers have been these six days consulting what articles they may give in it for the establishment of religion.— Edinburgh, 5 Jan. 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 5 Jan. 1562. Pp. 4.


  • 1. This is obviously the P.S. of a letter, probably 3 Jan. 1563.