Elizabeth: July 1563, 11-20

Pages 448-468

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 6, 1563. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1869.

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July 1563, 11-20

July 11.
Forbes ii., 458.
998. Warwick and Others to the Privy Council.
1. The plague increases daily here, whereby their numbers have so decayed within these four days that they have not 1,500 able men remaining. They die now in both places at the rate of a hundred a day, so they cannot get men to bury them, and double that number fall sick every day. If they do not have a supply there will not be 300 left within ten days. The enemy has brought a trench through the marsh and has cut the same through the beach, where they have made places for ten or eleven cannon within arquebus shot of Bulwark St. Addresses, intending not only to dismount their ordnance upon the bulwark but also to come nearer upon the back of the beach, thereby to take away the haven. They cannot prevent this, not having sufficient hands to make any defence against them (much less by sallying to impeach them), neither to man the fourth part of the town in case it be assailed. At the fort the enemy approaches nearer every night, and there their numbers daily decrease; out of 800 sent thither they are not able to bring 300 to the walls. The rest of their wants here they refer to Mr. Fisher, the bearer, whom they send over purposely to declare the same to them.
2. They have written divers times for a larger mass of biscuit and meal, whereof they are shortly like to have need, for the use of their windmills is taken from them, and the handmills serve to no purpose in effect. The Rhinegrave reported yesterday to a man of Warwick's, upon his honour, that the French King, the Prince of Condé, and the Admiral, with thirty old bands of Gascons would be here very shortly.— Newhaven, 11th July 1563. Signed: Warwick, Edward Randolfe, Denys, Vaughan, Fysscher.
Orig. Add. Endd.: By Mr. Fisher. Pp. 2.
July 12. 999. Denys to Cecil.
1. Since the money arrived not only pays for work already done but also for work done daily. The men are so "overhayled" with watch and ward that if it were not for ready provisions none would work.
2. Of the Norfolk and Suffolk men 600 only have arrived.
3. The Controller has viewed the labourers and finds not fifty able to work, whom he puts to Portinary, Warwick having otherwise employed Mr. Pelham. Also found 350 sick and unable to work. If God cease not this plague, or rather if new supply come not, here will not be sufficient to bury the dead. — Newhaven, 12 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol, with seal. Pp. 2.
July 12. 1000. Clough to Challoner.
1. Understands by his letter of May 13 that he has not received his 114l. because "the party" to whom the bill was directed was fled. He went to Catanes and Doria and showed what he had written, who answered that he had given order long ago for the payment to Spinola. If he has not been paid and will send his protest he will be allowed interest. Has received in a packet from England two bills for 184l. 1s. 3d. so that if Challoner has need of money he may charge him therewith.
2. About 7,000 or 8,000 men are in Newhaven, and the French are about 16,000. The French have had the worst of it, so they doubt not to be able to keep that town until they have Calais again. Mr. Dannet is sent over, and on his return they will know whether they shall have peace or war. The Commons are willing to help the Queen both with men and money. They cannot yet well agree in France. The Admiral is in Bas Normandy with 1,000 or 1,500 horsemen, and will not come to the Court. Montgomery lies about Caen. Some say that the Prince has gone to Orleans. They muster throughout England, and they say that the Queen will make an army royal under the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Montague. The Duke of Brunswick, who had a great company together, is fled away. King Philip is not so friendly as he might be.— Antwerp, 12 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner: Received at Madrid 3 Aug. 1563, by the ordinary of Antwerp, per manus Arthus. Pp. 7.
July 13. 1001. Mundt to Cecil.
Wrote on the 22nd ult. to Henry Knollys, signifying that the chief inventor of the warlike engine was willing to go to England, having been promised every assistance and help by Mundt. They have since written to him saying that the Queen does not appear to care sufficiently about the invention, she having allowed so long a time to pass without answering them. Has endeavoured to excuse her on account of the press of business and the war. Has found out that Sturmius has sent some one in post into France, and therefore thinks that he is the cause of this change, and has sent to offer this invention to the French King to aid him against Havre de Grace, which the makers say will not only breach, but utterly overthrow and subvert any fortification. They also say that they have been promised "mountains of gold" for it by the Kings of France and Spain. The Duke of Wurtemburg, the Marquis of Baden, and some other Princes have met the Emperor on his returning towards Austria. Some think that it is to ask him to reconcile the two Kings, others that it is to arrange a marriage between the Landgrave's son and one of his daughters. Soldiers are being enrolled as a reserve for the Rhinegrave's force. All negotiation is at an end between the Duke of Savoy and the Bernese.— Strasburg, 18 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal of arms. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 14. 1002. Smith to Cecil.
1. Thanks for news of Newhaven. Has sent about six messengers thither since he could have word returned, which was on the 6th ult.
2. The men here are desirous to get Newhaven, for they think then to have Calais for ever. None can perceive that Cecil is desirous of peace by his ambiguous dealing. The French think he seeks so to weary them and make them glad to deliver Calais. It will be hard to weary them, for reasons he wrote in his last to Lord Robert. Touching conditions, they think Cecil dallies with them, for they looked that Mr. Dannet and himself should have propounded something to them the last time, but they had no commission but to the Prince.
3. If the articles had been plainly written and authority given him to assent to them, peace had been made ere this. In his last negotiation they asked what commission he had to assent to articles. He told the Prince and M. Bricquemault how slender it was.
4. Is sent for to the Court to tell the Council to-morrow what commission he has, for they will not believe but that he has one to treat and conclude.
5. The Protestants would have peace, and the provokers to war would fain show to the world that the Queen dallies with them, and protracts the time. The Protestants are in a marvellous fear that Newhaven will be taken by force, and then they think themselves undone, to have lost the Queen's favour and to have an eternal reproach in France. News at Court is that on Saturday next it will be assaulted, and that it is almost assaultable in two places. Has moved Cecil's motion for abstinence, which they think mockery.—Louviers, 14 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 14. 1003. Middlemore to Cecil.
1. Since his of the 29th July [June] he resolved to go to Châtillon to the Admiral to declare many things on the Ambassador's behalf, which he did.
2. These men make account to get Newhaven out of hand. Marshal Brissac has taken the matter upon himself, and given them the greatest assurance thereof. On the 12th inst. they began their battery against Newhaven with twenty-four pieces, and beat the bulwark next the sea, towards Seine Head, which they will make assaultable shortly. There are 4,500 fighting men at it, and report says that they lose many of their men daily, and that M. De Levy, (son-in-law to the Rhinegrave) is hurt to death, and Brissac's esquire is slain. Some of the writer's friends from thence report that there are not above 8,000 men before it. The Duke De Nemours, accompanied by young De Rohan (who was with them of the religion during these troubles), went, but without charge, on the 11th inst. to the camp. The late broil at Orleans betwixt them of the religion and the Papists was no great matter; some heads were broken, but all is appeased, and Sipierre returned thither to stay all tumults.
3. The Admiral is still at his house. They have no great hope of his coming to the Court, not that he is not willing, but because they will not have him come. The Cardinal Châtillon will be at the Court shortly, together with M. De Soubize, who was all the time of the troubles for religion Governor of Lyons. They are with the Admiral, and are coming hither to prepare the way for him to follow. M. De Villeville has ranged them of Lyons, who are contented with three temples in their town until they can build others, and they have for Governor M. De Saule. De Vielleville, accompanied by M. De Cursolles, is gone into Dauphiné to bring that country into order. Those of Paris, instead of deposing their arms, have doubled their guard, and make daily researches, as they call them.
4. Louviers is yet in arms, but whether that be to keep the Ambassadors safe, or because they are of the league with Rouen, Paris, and other Papist towns, he knows not. Marshal Bourdillon is at Rouen, where he has somewhat to do to keep them quiet. He has set up so many gibbets in every street there that none dare stir. M. Bricquemault was despatched by the Admiral to the Court upon the writer being with him, where the Ambassador Smith has since met him, who has spoken plainly and honestly to the Queen here. They have of late pressed Scotland once again in the matter of the old league, and offer them the re-establishing of the company of the men-at-arms and the maintaining of the Scottish guard. The miserable Prince is every day less friendly towards the Queen. Prays that his heart be clear of treason towards her, for those who are most bounden towards her have him suspected for no less in their behalf. He shows himself a little before him, but without his calling, and still bears with him.
5. The writer asks Cecil what he should do herein, for this shift will serve him no longer. The Duke D'Aumale is to come to the camp shortly with his forces, which are fifteen ensigns of footmen. The Constable is still at Court, and rules all.— Louviers, 14 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., a few passages in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
July 15. 1004. Charges at Berwick.
The charges for the garrison and works there to Midsummer last amount to 23,427l. 6s. 10d., whereof 10,390l. 16s. were received from Arthur Dakin, Receiver of York, and others, leaving due 13,036l. 10s. 10d.
Copy. Pp. 2.
July 15. 1005. Another copy of the above, with the charges grown since, amounting to 12,369l., and other additional information.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 4.
July 15. 1006. The Queen to Philip II.
Congratulates him on the victory gained over the Moors before Oran. Has not written of late to her Ambassador, but he will now be able to inform him how matters stand between her and the French, and what are her intentions. Many reports have been current, to which she hopes he will not give credence.
Corrected draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 15 July 1563. Latin. Pp. 3.
July 15.
Forbes, ii. 460.
1007. Warwick and Others to the Privy Council.
1. Since the departure of Mr. Fisher, the enemies have not only battered the steeple and made it unserviceable, but have also applied their battery to Bulwark St. Addresses from the beach, within arquebus shot, with eleven cannon for these two days; whereby the English ordnance has not been able to annoy the enemy to any purpose, for the place was not well planted beforehand. Last night the French finished a trench from the said battery to the corner of the bulwark, where they have placed their baskets, and intend this next night to bring their ordnance and take away the flank of the bulwark towards the castle, and so batter both that curtain (which has neither rampire nor vaumure) and also the castle, thereby to take away the haven. Unless they have a number sent very shortly, so that they may sally withal to take their ordnance, it is not possible to preserve the haven many days.
2. Last night the English began to cast a trench from the water-gate to the seaside, where they purpose to make a traverse for the preservation of the castle and haven, but they are in doubt how to perform it for want of pioneers. The soldiers diminish at the rate of a hundred per day by death, and double that number by sickness, and they are wearied with watching and working, having (besides the 640 men lately arrived) not more than 1,200 serviceable men in the town. Unless a speedy supply is sent to drive the enemy farther from this town and fort, ("they lying now within five score of it,") the besieged cannot preserve these two places any time. Victuals also must be sent for the whole numbers, especially biscuits; for the mills are taken away, and the ovens are broken with the cannon, and the bakers for the most part dead of the plague.
3. Poulet arrived here yesterday, who has put them in hope that they will not want anything for their relief. The enemy approaches nearer daily, and their forces are already above 20,000 men. The French King and the others which are shortly expected will bring a great number. Yesterday the enemy came down from their trench upon thé beach, to the jetty, where there was a skirmish for a time; but in the end the enemy's horsemen and footmen came down in such numbers that the English were forced to retire, and the enemy carried away a little field-piece, which not two hours before was brought to the jetty for scouring the back of the beach.
4. The numbers appointed to come thither, being (by Poulet's report) 3,000 soldiers, will not supply the bands to their former numbers, and 1,000 labourers are not sufficient in their present state. The remainder of their victuals, with the supply brought now at Paulet's arrival, their Lordships shall receive herewith.
5. Yesterday they sent out the Fox and the galley, and as soon as the Fox was in the road, offering to fire a piece, she sank before the enemies' eyes, having in her fifty men, whereof forty were lost; and immediately after the galley was in great peril, which they are informed this morning was the poisoning of their ordnance. One of the hoys that went from hence with Mr. Fisher was taken at Fécamp. They hear nothing of Highmor and his men, nor of certain of Captain Ligen's band, and others of the Norfolk and Suffolk men; 460 have not yet arrived.
6. It is requisite to have more of the Queen's ships abroad for keeping the seas and wafting the victuallers, and also to have some galleys and small vessels to keep the river as far as Honfleur, for from that side the enemy have their chief relief of victuals. The French galley and gallion and three pinnaces are abroad in the river, which came also into the road before this town. The Flemings are not to be trusted for transporting their victuals or men, being afraid to enter into the haven already. If a sufficient number of crayers could be provided it would better serve their turn.
7. They hear war is proclaimed in these parts. A hoy was taken by the French at the arrival of Poulet, with 160 men, nine "fatts" of the Queen's harness, and other country harness, coming under the conduct of the Jenet.— Newhaven, 15 July 1563. Signed: Warwick, Poulet, Edward Randolfe, Denys, Vaughan.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
July 15. 1008. Vaughan to [Fisher?].
Has received his letter, for which he is thankful. Has no leisure to discourse of the approaches since the departure of the person addressed, but they are in a doubt that this night the French will approach between the bulwark Des Addresse and the castle, not only to the danger of the haven, but also for battery of the castle within two days. Their numbers are so decayed, and their best soldiers so spent both by sickness and hurts, that they are not able to make any sally without putting the whole in peril; so they are driven to suffer them to do what they will, and have to seek defence within the town, which they cannot long keep if they are not speedily revived with men and victuals. They have no hands to work for their defence, nor yet to aid a third part of the town if it were approached round. Trusts he will solicit their causes with the Queen and Council.—Newhaven, 15 July. Signed: Cuthbert Vaughan.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 15. 1009. A Plat of Newhaven.
Showing the tower of François Premier, Fort Warwick, and other fortifications, the haven, the position of the besiegers, French, Swiss, and Germans. There occur a few descriptions in English and French, in one of which the date of 15 July is mentioned.
Endd.: Plat of Newhaven, by Sir T. Smith. Folding sheet.
July 15. 1010. Stores at Newhaven.
Victuals received, expended, and remaining at Newhaven, the 13th and 14th July. Also of "money growing of the same victuals, issued unto the garrison in this month," 2,900l.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 15 & 16. 1011. Soldiers for Newhaven.
Notes (at a meeting of the Privy Council) of the number of soldiers and pioneers to be raised in various counties.
Draft, partly in Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 3,800 soldiers, 1,400 pioneers. Pp. 3.
July 16. 1012. The Queen to Valentine Browne.
Warrant to pay to John Selby Esq. (who has remained in charge of the Eastern Marches since the death of Earl Grey) the sum of [blank] for his allowance during his continuance in that charge.
Draft. Endd.: 16 July. Pp. 2.
July 16. 1013. The Garrisons at Berwick.
At the muster thereof this day by Thomas Jenyson, Clerk of the Check, Sir Thomas Dacre, Marshal, and Valentine Browne, Treasurer, there were present of the old garrison 194; sick, three; absent by passport, one; and nine absent who had not appeared. Of the new crew there were 617 present, eleven sick, twenty-one absent by passport, and two who had not appeared, total 651.— Berwick. Signed: Thomas Jenyson.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
July 16.
Forbes, ii. 462.
1014. The Queen to Warwick.
She has heard Signor Meliorino, and seen his inventions for the defence of Newhaven, which she thinks are cunningly devised; she therefore returns him, and wishes that the inventions (with certain ships) were put in readiness for defeating the enemy's battery. The other matters to be attempted she defers until the Admiral comes hither. She has given Meliorino in reward [blank].
Corrected draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 16 July 1563, by Meliorano. Pp. 2.
July 16. 1015. Middlemore to Cecil.
1. The French here presently treat with Cecil not to accord, but to hinder his preparations for Newhaven. They are determined to assault it on Sunday or Monday next, the 17th or 18th inst., having made a breach which is saultable. The Constable goes thither.
2. They seem to give a more ready ear to an accord than before, hoping thereby to have peace, if they fail in the assault.
3. M. De Byron was despatched from Gaillon to Her Majesty on the 14th inst., who was sent expressly to put her in hope of peace, that thereby the care of providing for the danger that hangs over Newhaven might be taken out of her head.
4. The Prince says he will send the writer forthwith to Her Majesty with his letters and some charge, but it is only to be rid of him.
5. They mean to assail the town and fort at one time, that they may bear away one of them, and they have got the ditches, but whether of the fort or town he cannot learn.
6. It is reported that the Rhinegrave is slain, that the soldiers in the camp have been paid, and that now they will die but they will have the town. The King removed this day from Gaillon to Louviers, thence he passes by Rouen, and so goes within eleven leagues of Newhaven to Estelan, three leagues from Caudebec. All the ambassadors are at Rouen. News came lately that the Cardinal of Lorraine has levied in Almain 5,000 horse and 8,000 footmen, and that he comes to France shortly, also that the Duke of Brunswick is chief and leader of all the forces.—Louviers, 16 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Passages in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 16. 1016. Beauvoir's Receipt.
He acknowledges that he has received 2,900 crowns (of 6s. sterling each) from Gresham. — London, 16 July 1563. Signed: Johan de la Fin.
Orig. Endd.: M. De Bevoys acquittance for 2,000 crowns for Benedict Spenole, and 900 for Paul Fortewne. Fr. Pp. 2.
July 16. 1017. Cecil to Challoner.
1. Cannot write so often as he would. The realm is quiet. The city of London is a little touched with the plague. Their greatest peril in Newhaven is death, which hitherto has wasted only the common soldiers and no captains. The Lord Admiral has with him thirty-three of the Queen's ships and 8,000 men. It is meet to raise the siege by some policy, whereof Smith will best advertise him. Thanks him for his hangings, and will pay him when he knows the price thereof. —Greenwich, 16 July 1562. Signed.
2. P. S.—Whilst these French garboils last there is no opportunity to revoke him home.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner: Brought by John Garcias, 1 Aug. Pp. 2.
July 17. 1018. Thomas Jenyson to Cecil.
1. Thanks him for the Queen's warrant to pay him his moiety as Controller of the works so long as he remains here. Cecil has framed a brief of the last muster of this garrison. There were lately 400 soldiers at Newcastle under the leading of Captains Fairfax and Thompson, whom the Lord President was commanded to have in readiness for this place in time of need.—Berwick, 17 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
July 18.
Forbes, ii. 467.
1019. Smith to the Queen Mother.
1. In order to stop this war the Queen of England has agreed to withdraw her demand for the immediate rendering up of Calais, and to wait till the eight years are completed, according to the provisions of the treaty of Château Cambray, and to surrender Havre to the King. She will do this provided that she is assured that at the end of the eight years she shall have Calais without any cavillations. The King of France is content with these terms, so that the peace may be considered as completed, except for the distrust that the Queen and her people have lest evil people may persuade the King not to observe the treaty.
3. To remedy this, the Prince of Condé, by the orders of the King and Queen Mother, has made certain offers to the English Ambassador, which he finds good and reasonable, but not sufficient. He has therefore proposed that Commissioners should be appointed by both parties, who might agree as to what securities should be sufficient. This the Prince has rejected as taking too much time. Nevertheless, the Ambassador understands that not only the offers of the Prince, but also his own were approved of by the King, the Queen Mother, and the Council, at Gaillon, on the 15th inst., when he was with them, and has therefore sent over to England for Commissioners.
4. The other articles proposed by the Ambassador on his own responsibility are those which were treated in England between the Lords of the Council and MM. Bricquemault, D'Allouy, De Foix, and Lethington. They are to the following effect:—That six hostages should be given for the restoration of Calais, chosen from the best houses in France, not being of the blood royal, or members of the Privy Council; that some foreign Prince, like the King of Spain, or some German Prince, should become bond, either by hostages or writings, or by some important cities like Antwerp and Bruges, Frankfort and Augsburg; or that the King of France shall be bound to the King of Spain, or some other Prince, to observe the treaty, and that certain towns like Paris, Rouen, Dieppe, Brest, Nantes, La Rochelle, and Bordeaux, should also become bound in a large sum for the rendition of Calais. The Ambassador thinks that all these articles, or some part of them, will be demanded when they come to particularize the securities, and he has sent them to the Prince who has rejected them all as being unreasonable. For those who intend to keep faith there is no danger, whatever securities they may give.
5. As to the cost of the war and the fortifications of Havre, the Prince of Condé has taken upon himself to answer the Queen concerning them. Has put in writing all the other articles touched on by the Prince and himself.—Rouen, 18 July 1563.
Copy, with Smith's seal. Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
July 18. 1020. Smith to Cecil.
1. Is pressed on every side by D'Aubespine's letters, and the writing he now sends to the Queen here. The haste they make to Newhaven, and the brag comes of letters sent by M. de Foix to the Queen here, to the effect that Warwick sent word to the Queen that he is not able to keep the town, and that she has charged him, if pressed, to make the best bargain he can, and if he cannot make a good one, to embark his men, and at a flood come his way.
2. Has evil luck in that the men he sent to the camp and Newhaven come not again. His money goes, and he can learn nothing of the doings there. Let him make haste to send hither such Commissioners as the Queen trusts, and let them have their commissions large enough, and their instructions plain enough. Wotton is the meetest man in England for one. If he will not send a nobleman, Wotton and the writer would do well enough. Prays him to let Wotton pen the instructions before he comes.
3. If the Queen had written his instructions in the three degrees and given him authority, he would have concluded all without more ado. It is marvel they would join so near with him, but he used a little French trick, that they thought he had more authority than he had.
4. Condé will not write now, nor send Middlemore to the Queen, nor suffer him to tarry about him. There is a muttering that M. De Byron is sent to England. "The next way" by the Court is by Dieppe, for the King is said to tarry about Rouen a time, and thence removes nearer to Havre.
5. Understood this morning that all the Ambassadors save himself were sent for to the Court. Sent his man thither for a passport for the goer and another for him that should come. They make their accounts of the men in Newhaven so far from Cecil's that he wots not what to think.—Rouen, 18 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
July 18. 1021. Denys to Cecil.
1. Since Powlet arrived the French have daily encroached upon them, and still win ground upon them for lack of men. One hundred or six score die of the plague a day. The supply of men comes not so fast as they wish, and the full numbers appointed hither remain away after having received their money. Some are taken by the French as they come hither; at this last despatch 160 were so taken.
2. The French have now come with their baskets betwixt low water mark and the beach, as far as the mills which stood before the Water gate, and have planted there this night three cannon, which may beat the flanks of the Green Bulwark next the Water gate, and the curtain of stone betwixt the bulwark and the castle, as also the castle, which they have already a little beaten, and dismounted three of their pieces therein, but have not yet begun to batter any of this, for their battery remains as before.
3. Warwick (perceiving their only mark that way is the haven,) made a trench betwixt them and their gate into low watermark, so to the jetty and the little tower upon the stone wall which the English fortify day and night, and hope with more men to make it so strong that it shall defend the haven and the castle shortly. They lack men and tools, especially pickaxes. The trenches are so nigh together that this day the French applied their great ordnance, and hurt more of the English than they have done since they came hither; for they shot off Charles Leyton's leg, killed four, and hurt more. They have also this night approached the fort within eight score of the ditches, and begun to plant new batteries.
4. The Water Bailiff is slain, and Tremayne also this day. The Master of the Ordnance is hurt, and gone to England. There is lack of one in that office; for since his departure Cook, his clerk, has died, and so have many of the captains, and many are sick and gone to England. The Marshal is sick of the plague, and his Lordship has appointed the Controller to occupy his office. The chief porter is with him in England, and the under porter being sick, it would be well to hasten him hither.—Newhaven, 18 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 18. 1022. Troops for Newhaven.
The numbers of soldiers and pioneers appointed to serve out of each county since the 25th June to 18th July.
Draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him. Pp. 2.
[July 19.]
Forbes, ii. 474.
1023. The Queen to Warwick.
1. Has caused great numbers to be levied to reinforce him; whereof part is sent thither. Has had sent from her Ambassador in France certain articles and overtures of peace, whereof a copy is sent to him, which were offered by the Prince and afterwards agreed unto by the King and his Mother, but not allowed by her Ambassador. She prefers the surety of him and her people before any town, and has therefore resolved to send Throckmorton with sufficient commission to join with the Ambassador there to treat of some accord. Therefore she makes the foundation of her doings herein upon certain knowledge from him and those there, how he is able to keep that town, having respect of the numbers there and those that are coming, not only with the Admiral (who has this day gone to ship) but also from Portsmouth; the number of deaths, whether it diminishes or increases, the strength of the place, the approaches and assailings of the enemy, with their power.
2. She commands him to assemble those that are there of her Council and such of the wisest captains as he shall think meet, and propound to them what they think of the ability to keep that town from the enemy. He shall put the same in writing, and send it to her Ambassador in France, or else to Throckmorton, he having gone to him by Abbeville. And for more secret dealing, to put the material points in his cipher, whereof Smith has the counterpart. Her meaning is that the bearer may be secretly and speedily sent from thence by sea, to land if he possibly can at Boulogne or Dieppe, or at Rye or Dover, and so pass to Boulogne or Dieppe, and from thence to her Ambassadors.
Corrected draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 19 July 1563. (fn. 1) Pp. 4.
July 19.
Forbes, ii. 475.
1024. Warwick and Poulet to the Privy Council.
1. Since writing their former letters of the 15th inst., the enemy has approached nearer the castle, where they have planted ordnance upon the beach, midway betwixt Bulwark St. Addresses and the Water Gate, intending to take away the Haven, and beat down the castle from their first battery upon the beach, which they diligently applied. For resistance whereof the English have cast a trench from the Water Gate to the jetty by the entrance of the haven. Numbers die so fast, and fall sick, that those which they have received are not sufficient to supply the old bands; and with the 800 lately arrived with Mr. Winter, and the other sent from Gloucestershire (which are very simple men,) they are not able to make 2,000 able men in this town. As for their shot (especially the old and best soldiers,) they are so consumed that out of 2,000 they have not above 300 left, being so necessary that they are not without a great number able to keep the enemy out of their ditches; and to put pieces into the hands of these raw countrymen is to no purpose.
2. Pelham is appointed to have charge of the new fort, and Mr. Portinary of all the pioneers; as yet none have come from Devonshire and Cornwall; they have such want of them as the importance thereof cannot be expressed. The enemy has placed baskets for twenty-six cannons at the forts, part whereof are already planted very near the same, so as their force increasing (being daily encouraged by this plague not unknown to them,) they cannot see how, with such small numbers they can preserve these places any time. The Marshal is sick of the plague. They return the Almain rivets and country harness with a note thereof to the captain of Portsmouth, to be delivered to the county again.
3. The cast-iron pieces sent from the Tower seem to be old waste pieces, unserviceable. Here is also great want of axletrees, stocks for cannon, wheels, and wheelers; also plates for ladles. They are short of rods for maunds, those they had are used, double the number will not serve their turn. The soldiers that lately arrived here came without any conductors, whereby the men cannot be presented to the musters. Many of the carpenters sent hither are unskilful, and altogether ignorant of their art.—Newhaven, 19 July 1563. Signed.
4. P. S.—Since writing hereof Winter (being sent for out of the road for conference) came with his boat into the haven, who had two that stood by him struck dead, whereof Botolph Mungge was one. Similar things to this have so frightened the Flemings that none will enter but by force. To-morrow they purpose to take the haven, for this evening they have brought down divers cannon, intending to place them very near to the entry of the haven, which the English intend to impeach with the hazard of a number of their lives. The Treasurer has fallen ill this day of the flux. They have requested the bearer, Mr. Winter, to repair to the Queen for the more certain declaration of what he has seen.
Orig., with Warwick's seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 5.
July 19.
Forbes, ii. 569.
1025. Smith to Cecil.
1. If Cecil determine to send Commissioners hither, prays him to send some of his men here, whom he has in England; for besides Barlow, he has Henry Crampe, Edward Tureur and William Cathorne. He is not so desirous for the return of Percival, the bearer; Mr. Dudley told him that he would place him with Lord Robert. Wishes to have his own men, for the Queen's are not at his commandment, either to post into England, or otherwise to go when the Queen's service needs, it, but as it pleases them, though they are charged to him, and furnish his house.
2. If the matter requires such great haste, that the Commissioners cannot come so soon; prays Cecil to send him the Queen's mind in plain (and not ambiguous) words, and with what articles he shall affirm that she will be contented; and to send him authority to conclude.—Rouen, 19 July 1563. Signed.
3. P. S.—He has delivered to this bearer towards his charges twenty-one crowns, at six shillings and eight pence the crown, seven pounds.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
July 19.
Forbes, ii. 470.
1026. Middelmore to Cecil.
1. Went to the Prince on the 16th inst. for his despatch to the Queen, as he had been promised the day before. Finding Stuart there he desired him to inform the Prince of his being there to speak with him; who being in his cabinet, none could see him until commanded to do so. Stuart after tarrying half an hour with the Prince brought answer that the Queen Mother had "defended" him to write to the Queen, and therefore he durst not. He had only to say to the Ambassador, that if he would that any good should follow upon his late conference, he should use all diligence in sending to her to get answer thereto; that he [Condé] durst not speak with him [Middlemore]; and that if he followed him it would be his ruin.
2. The writer desired Stuart to tell the Prince, that he thought the language very strange, and that the Queen would find it stranger; considering he had made the Ambassador and him send word to her that he would write, and send him to her with something else. Since he found this manner of dealing with the Queen, he thought it time to go. He therefore desired the Prince to give him two or three words in his hand to the Queen for his discharge. The Prince returned an answer that he would not write in any sort; but that he should go and stay with the Ambassador until some answer came from England.
3. Notwithstanding all that he had said before, and the persuasions of Stuart, he would not be brought to any other point. The writer is therefore obliged to stay with the Ambassador, who is at Rouen; where open war is declared against them, as Cecil may perceive by that which is sent in this despatch.
4. The Prince said secretly to a friend of the writer that it will be ten or twelve days before the assault can be given, for those within Newhaven give them enough to do outside; but within seven or eight days, the battery will begin with forty cannon (which must make a great breach within two days), and the next day they will give the assault.
5. He wrote in his last of M. De Bricquemault's earnest desire to bring these differences to an accord, and how frankly he spake in them to the Queen Mother. He could not see then, what he has been credibly informed since, that Bricquemault (in hope of being a Knight of the Order) has played on both sides, and has given them his best advice for the taking of Newhaven; bringing a plan thereof to the Queen and Constable, which he had taken at his last being there, and declared how to get the place. The advice he gave is said to be thus. He liked the battery begun against the bulwark next the sea side; which he knows to be strong and well built, and flanked by the tower, which they call the castle; which tower, although it appears of force, yet the stone is soft, and is more easily to be beaten down than the bulwark; and until they took away the said flank in the tower, they could not by any means make the place assaultable. Having choked that flank, although they could not so soon beat down the bulwark, they might lodge their soldiers in the ditches betwixt the bulwark and the tower, that none within dare look over the walls; and might work outside without danger from the inside. He says the wall betwixt the bulwark and the tower is the weakest place in the town; and that having dammed the flank of the tower and the bulwark, they might make a breach in the walls, and their soldiers might come to the assault without danger. That was the place where they must take it; otherwise he thought it impregnable. His counsel was so liked, that they intend to follow it.
6. On the 18th inst. they sent for all the Ambassadors, except the Queen's, and by way of protestation declared to them their right, that the cause of this war was through the Queen refusing all reasonable conditions; and they put all the wrong on her. They talk now to assail the fort out of hand. If those within Newhaven repulse them once, it will abate all this pride. It is said here that Warwick has written to the Queen, that Newhaven is not guardable; and that she has given orders, in case it come to any effort, to save himself and his people the best he can by sea.—Rouen, 19th July 1563.
7. P. S.—There are not 10,000 men before Newhaven. The miserable Prince goeth with the rest to Newhaven; but there is none more afraid than he. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
July 19. 1027. Sir John Mason to Challoner.
Advertised him in his other letters of the state of Newhaven, of the commission for the sale of land, &c. The French are come to Newhaven with 30,000, and the English have reinforced the garrison to 7,000 or 8,000. The Admiral prepares to the sea with 2,000 soldiers. The worst is that the plague is entered into the town, but they hear that it is double in the French camp. The plague is entered into London, and has shown a shrewd proof of itself, howbeit none have miscarried there but very poor men, who (upon some necessity of grain this year) have been driven to eat bread made of corrupted corn. The Queen lies yet at Greenwich. Thanks him for his wine. Sir Thomas Chamberlain has long sued for some consideration of his charge in Spain, and is answered that he must have consideration of the Queen's other charges, and so is gone to Gloucestershire. Gresham has lost his son by a pleurisy. Mr. Englefield having refused to return to England, has had his goods and lands sequestered to the Queen's use. Charles Howard will within seven or eight days marry Lord Hunsdon's daughter. Lord and Lady Lennox are continual courtiers, and much made of. "My Lord Darnley, their son and heir, is also a daily waiter and playeth very often at the lute before the Queen, wherein it should seem she taketh pleasure, as indeed he plays very well." The Queen removes to-morrow to Richmond and thence to Windsor.—Greenwich, 19 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner: Received at Saragosa, 3 Oct. 1563. Pp. 4.
July 20. 1028. The Queen to the Constable of France.
Credence for Throckmorton and Smith, who are charged to declare to him the points on which they are commissioned to treat.—Greenwich, 20 July 1563. Signed.
Modern transcript, with the outer leaf of the original. Fr. Pp. 2.
[July 20.] 1029. The Queen to Smith.
Has received his of the 16th by his servant Barlow, and now sends Throckmorton with commission for both of them to treat of peace.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 20. 1030. Instructions for Smith and Throckmorton.
1. Throckmorton is to repair to the French King, or rather to Louviers or where Smith resides. They shall then both repair to the French King, and offer to treat with such persons as he shall authorize upon a reconciliation of peace, for which they shall consider these things following:
2. They shall be certified from Newhaven whether the English be able to keep the town. If they are able to keep it, then Smith and Throckmorton shall treat with the French in such straight terms for the redelivery of Calais, that she may be sure to have it without any cavillation. If they are unable to keep it, then they are to consider such articles as Condé lately offered to Smith, which were avowed by the King, the Queen Mother, and the Council, as things to have been granted if Smith had sufficient commission to have accepted them. (fn. 2)
2. They are to let it be understood that whatsoever has been sinisterly interpreted against her for the retaining of Newhaven, she never from the beginning intended to retain it otherwise but thereby to procure the restitution of Calais. As she understands that the Prince has propounded articles in which appears the intention to make an assurance for Calais, and thereupon to have Newhaven, she is content that they should treat therein for the restitution of Calais at the time appointed by the former treaty.
3. In the meanwhile they are to leave no mean unassayed to compass a suspension of arms at Newhaven. As they find the state of the town certified to them, so are they to deal in this point the more earnestly or the more remissly. It is very requisite that some number of good hostages be delivered for the performance of the treaty, especially for the delivery of Calais, for those hitherto appointed have served but for a sum of money. This was offered by Bricquemault, but refused for his lack of authority to deal with her. They may also make mention of some intervention of bonds to be made to the King of Spain, or other stranger princes. If they perceive the state of the town to be in danger they are not to insist upon these two later additions, or spend time without hope to obtain them; for the principal scope she makes in that treaty is to save her men in Newhaven, not only from the enemy, but from the plague, which wastes them more than the enemy.
4. For the first article offered by the Prince, they cannot render Newhaven as they found it, especially for the ships; but they may covenant that she will deliver all the ships there and all others that she can by any means recover. They are to make motion for recompense for the amendment of the fortifications of the said town, and the expenses sustained in keeping it, which have been offered by some of the ministers from thence. In this point they are to deal with Condé and his associates, and likewise for the money lent to him and the Admiral; of which they are to get as much as they can in ready money, and for the rest she will be content with bonds on the merchants of Antwerp, with whom she is indebted.
5. They are to press the Prince to have regard to bring her to the end of these great charges, into which only upon their soliciations and for their cause she entered. And if he and his party have either regard of conscience or of their own honour, they are surely bound before God and man to procure some speedy end hereof.
6. Finally, knowing both their discretions and experience, she remits them to use this commission given to them as they shall think best, regarding as they may these general instructions; that is, the preservation of her people in Newhaven; the procuring some reasonable assurance for Calais, as well for her honour and reputation as for the peace itself, which is to be hereafter gotten by other dealing than by covenants, words, and French promises. If necessary occasion shall be given to alter any part herein, she leaves it to their discretions.
Draft. Partly in Cecil's hand, corrected throughout by him. Endd.: 20 July 1563. Pp. 8.
July 20. 1031. Warwick and Poulet to William Winter.
1. Yesternight before the enterprise should have been executed one of the French pioneers was taken, who confessed that there were appointed to guard the ordnance 2,000 foot and 500 horse. Both the captains and soldiers being unwilling to prosecute the matter, he thought best to stay it. They have not above 2,500 able men, and their shot is utterly decayed. The clerk of the victuals is sick, but has sent word that there is not beer to serve above four days. Prays him to send beer and biscuit with all speed. The opinion of the captains is that the trench before the gate is not to be kept, but that they should draw all their force into the town. The haven is in effect already taken away. The Controller is sick and looks for present death. Desire him to send hither Mr. Basing this night that they may confer with him what may be done for their safety by sea, if the uttermost extremity shall happen.—From the town, 20 July 1563. Signed.
2. P. S.—Has appointed Captain Reade to supply the Marshal's room, and made him and Mr. Pelham counsellors.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 20. 1032. M. De Foix to Cecil.
Desires him to give credence to the bearer, and to send him the Queen's answer by him at once.—London, 20 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
July 20. 1033. Rantzow and Brocktorff to the Queen.
Remind her of their letter, in which they informed her that they could not any longer wait for the money she owed them, to which her Council replied that it should be paid on the 5th of August. Beg that the payment may not be deferred after that day.—Gottorp, 20 July 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 20. 1034. Challoner to the Queen.
1. Has not heard from home since the receipt of a letter from the Council dated 29th May. The difference between England and France has already ministered no small matter of consult here, as to how far the King should intermit himself in the matter. Sundry of the Council are inclined to be spectatores fabulœ; others that he should be a stickler between both parts in time for sundry respects. This motion has been not misliked of the King, the causes whereof he partly attributes to their ordinary slowness in resolutions. The King has heard of her intended sending an express personage to confer with him, whereupon he suspends all. Has heard the advice revived, naming Sir Henry Sidney or Lord Montague. Marvels that he, as Ambassador, should hear the first news of such a matter at foreign parties' hands.
2. It is bruited here that the plague is so spread in Havre de Grace as forty die in a day, and that the French make account rather with a lingering war to prevail at length. It is to be weighed whether this difference continued hinders or advances the proceedings which she has recommended. She should take such order in her finances as France and Spain do.
3. The King's journey towards Monçon is fully determined on. The ordinary Council of those States departed thither ward a fortnight past. Eight days hence the King removes to his house beside Segovia to take his pastime in hunting. The Queen and the Princess, his sister, will not accompany him thither. Divers talk of his repair next spring by Italy into Flanders. The Prince of Florence departed three weeks past. The two sons of the King of the Romans are here looked for about the end of the summer. The remain of those 4,000 Spaniards who served in France, being not above 1,500, returning by Catalonia, mutinied for fault of pay. Begs for his revocation.—Madrid, 18 July.
4. P. S.—Through the desperate heat his Secretary and most of his folks are sick, so that he hath scribbled this with his own hand. Upon the news of Oran rescued he congratulated on her behalf with the King, who accepted the office in very good part. So, feeling his mood to be good, he fell in discourse with him of Havre and Calais, praying him to consider the scope of the Queen's intent, her folks all this time having kept themselves within Havre; and enlarging of what moment the restitution of Calais should be to him as well as her. The King took his motion very well, and confessed the utility that it should be to him that Calais were eftsoons restored to her. Parting from the King he declared to the Duke of Alva what he had negotiated with him. The French Ambassador had not for six days past any advice of the total rupture between France and England. There was a speech upon the return of Secretary Robertet from England, what answer the Queen (moved by some pique of his threatening message) should make him tending to the comparison of herself, como Inglesa, with the Queen Mother, como Fiorentina. The report of the French Ambassador that his master's ministers at Rome had obtained the dispensation for the sale of 100,000 crowns church lands is not confirmed by the last letter thence, but rather that M. D'Allegre upon soliciting his errand found the Pope and the Consistory loth to hear on that side. Allegre has also made motion for the removal of the Council from Trent to some city in Almaine; but neither the Italian and Spanish prelates nor this King will be content. The last letters from Rome mention how the Queen of Scots has offered to send her prelates to the Council at Trent, with other words of good hope.—20 July 1563.
Draft, in Challoner's hol., and endd. by him: To the Queen, 18 and 20 July 1563. Sent by the ordinary of Flanders, by means of Arthur. A few passages underlined to be ciphered. Pp. 15.
July 20. 1035. Fair copy of the above.
In Challoner's hol. Add. Endd. A few passages in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 14.
July 20. 1036. Another copy of the above. Signed.
Endd. by Challoner. Pp
. 6.
July 20. 1037. Challoner to Cecil.
1. His house is well nigh a hospital, with so many sick folk and visits of physicians. Now (on God's half) they are going towards Aragon, and unless he be holpen with his diets he cannot stir. From the day that his servant receives his diets at the Exchequer it is three, four, or five months ere he receives it by exchange. Will be fain to lay the key under the door. Since March last he has only received 100l. by exchange. If the Queen would put it to his choice to lie a year in the Tower, free prison, or to tarry here as long as he has done with the recompense of 200l. land, he would accept the first. Hitherto he knows not by any word of letter whether his service is well accepted of the Queen or not.
2. In the affair of Havre de Grace and Calais he has as prone a will to the recovery of that piece as any subject in England; but as long as he sees no hope of marriage or settlement, what should he wish for conquest? "We want not for heads full of misliking and gaping for a new day." The treasure spent over Havre if laid up for a year's siege of Calais would carry it. For his part he would remit all enterprises as this to a deeper foundation of ordinary revenue much more augmented than now it is, until which time he never makes account that victories or conquests well obtained can at length be as constantly maintained. Knows what grudges will arise from these pecuniary exactions, "specially in the nature that we use them, which I would wish were avoided for diverse respects, specially dum fructus ventris omnia sigillet." "For God's love, sir, help me home."— Madrid, 20 July 1563. Signed.
3. P. S.—Of Lord Montague perchance here they will account as "ubi nemo vult mihi obtruditur." If Sir Henry Sidney had come it would have been thought they had furnished the place with one, though not so great in appearance, yet perchance accounted nearer the Prince's hand.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Passages in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 7.
July 20. 1038. Another copy of the above.
Passages in Challoner's hol., underlined to be ciphered. Endd. by Challoner: Sent by the ordinary of Flanders. Pp. 4.
July 20. 1039. Another copy of the above.
Passages in cipher. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 3.
July 20. 1040. Robert Cullen to Challoner.
Since he advised him of the succour of Oran there have come the galleys of Malta, those of Genoa and Savoy, and others newly made in Barcelona, in all fifty, which remain here, taking in victuals and necessary munitions, and tarry for order to go into Barbary and take Pinion.—Malaga, 20 July 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 2.


  • 1. This date is cancelled.
  • 2. Here ends the portion in Cecil's hand.