Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1892.
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Brussels Archives, B.M. French MS. Add. 28,173.
113. The Same to the Same.
Since our last of 28th ultimo, we have received your Highness's letter of 2nd instant with copies of others from your Highness to MM. Chantonnay and Garcia Lasso with their replies.
With regard to the settlement between the French and English we have no other news except that after the seven days' truce which expired on the 22nd ultimo, hostilities were recommenced and skirmishes took place as before. Notwithstanding this the deputies met on the following Sunday, in Edinburgh, at the lodging of Secretary Cecil, where they stayed five hours. We were told this by the person we sent, as your Highness will see by the enclosed extract of letters. Since then the gentleman who was sent to France (M. de Bueil son of the Count de Sanserre) has arrived here, and after communicating the decision of his King to the Queen in the presence of Ambassador Seurre and the Count de Roussy, he left for Scotland on Thursday afternoon, where by our calculation he may have arrived on Saturday last, or at all events, yesterday. The only thing that can be learnt of the coming of this gentleman is that both sides declare that if peace be not made it will not be their fault. Count de Roussy came to see us yesterday, and amongst other things he told us that the people in Leith had received a supply of provisions from two French ships that had run the gauntlet of the English forces, and the place was now victualled for six weeks, besides what they had before. We asked the Count what he thought of the peace negotiations, and he said he had not much hope, as the Queen was not so anxious for peace as she was before. We asked him how that was, since they were willing to withdraw their troops from Scotland, and give satisfaction as to the arms and title. He said it was quite true they were willing to withdraw their troops, except a small number to occupy certain insignificant castles which could not offend the Queen, and they also gave her satisfaction as to the arms and style, and promised to leave the government in the hands of Scotsmen, but notwithstanding this she must have some secret designs or claims for reparation of damage such as are not usual amongst princes.
He also told us that the Queen had sent the Admiral to her forces at Plymouth (Pleve), and sent 12 more companies to her camp, which diminished his hope of peace. He said that there was a man in Boulogne who staked his life that he would always run small craft into Leith to revictual the place, and, speaking of the health of the queen of France, he said it was true she was very ill and not out of danger, and also that the queen regent of Scotland, her mother, before she died, had asked pardon of the rebels who came to visit her, and they did likewise of her. The earl of Arran was amongst these rebels. In addition to this conversation we have other reasons to believe that the peace is extremely doubtful, but we shall know something certain one way or the other by the end of this week, and will advise your Highness with all diligence by the courier you have sent us whom we have detained here for the purpose ; but have thought well to send the news contained herein by the ordinary post who leaves here this midnight. We have read the accounts given by MM. Chantonnay and Garcia Lasso to your Highness of their conversations with the Ambassador Throgmorton, respecting the marriage of the Queen with the eldest son of the Duke de Nevers, and from many indications we think that Florent must have come here about this business, and the Treasurer of the Household (fn. 1) must have referred to this matter when he spoke to me (bishop of Quadra) recently in the palace, about the friendship of our King, and asked me if I had observed that Florent was deep in the confidence of the Duke de Nevers. The Swedish Ambassador is spreading a report that the prince of Sweden is making preparations to come hither with a great train of nobles and a quantity of uncoined silver, and that he will arrive within five or six weeks.
Signed : Philippe de Stavèles. El Obispo della Quadra.
Brussels Archives, B.M. French M.S. Add. 28,173.
114. The Same to the Same.
By the regular courier leaving Tuesday last we replied to your Highness' letters of 2nd instant, and gave our opinion respecting the French and English agreement in accordance with the news then current. Since that date Lord Cobham, Warden of the Cinque Ports, has spread news among the merchants that the said agreement is entirely settled and concluded, but without his being able to say on what conditions. We went to see the Queen at Greenwich yesterday to obtain trustworthy intelligence of it. She appeared very glad of our visit, and after certain friendly chat said that even if we had not come she would have sent us the news she had received from Scotland two days before informing her that the accord between her and the Most Christian King was now complete, excepting some insignificant points, and she believed that proclamation to that effect had already been made in Scotland. She then descended to particulars, and said that the French would abandon Leith, which would be demolished, and that only 60 (French) soldiers would remain in Scotland, facilities being given to the rest to return home by sea and safe conducts provided for those who wished to go by land. She thought that the alliance between her and the Scots would continue, and for this reason hostages would be sent her and renewed every six months during the life of the queen of France, and one year after her death. The style and arms of king of England hitherto usurped by the king of France would be entirely abandoned, and all documents, &c., bearing the arms would be renewed with those of France alone. She will by this treaty be recognised queen of England and the government of Scotland is to remain in the hands of natives who will choose 24 Scots nobles from whom the Most Christian King will select seven and the Scots five, who shall together administer the government from which the French shall be excluded. She freely confessed that she had not obtained all she demanded, but said that the treaty would nevertheless be concluded. We think, however, that she is not quite satisfied with it, and that things generally are not going to her liking, nor are we sure that the agreement is certain to be effected even now.
We briefly repeated what we heard to Ambassador Seurre to learn whether he had received the same news. He told us that he had learnt as much by common rumour, and had started to visit the Queen for the purpose of speaking about it, when he met the Vice-Chamberlain, (fn. 2) who, when he heard the object of Seurre's visit, said if he had nothing else to go for but that he need not go any further as he would tell him himself. He had then told him that George Howard, (fn. 3) the Captain of the Queen's Guard, had told her that at the time of his departure from Edinburgh everything had been settled verbally, and there only remained to put the treaties in writing which Seurre believed to be true, although he had no letters himself, and he seemed to think that as the French had put some munitions into Leith (which the Queen could not entirely deny yesterday). and the Scotch Catholics declared against the rebels, the Queen was moved to more haste in concluding the agreement for fear of its falling through altogether.
During our conversation the Queen said she had heard that the queen of France was very ill a fortnight ago, and if she died without an heir the duke of Chatelherault would be glad for his son the earl of Arran to succeed to the throne, and this gave us ground for suspicion that her marriage with the said Earl might be arranged at some future time.
She also said that the Swedish Ambassador had assured her of the coming of the prince of Sweden who would be here next month.
We have thought well to inform your Highness of this by the courier we had kept back from one day to another in hope of decided news about the agreement.—London, 13th July 1560.
Signed : Alvaro della Quadra. Philippe de Stavèles.
Brussels Archives, B.M. French M.S. Add. 28,173.
115. The Same to the Same.
In our last of the 13th instant we conveyed to your Highness the news of the agreement between the English and French as we had received it from the Queen's own lips, and since then we have received your Highness' letters of 11th and 12th with enclosures, &c. As we expressed some little doubt about the agreement in our last we think well to lose no time in advising your Highness that we have since received further information. Ambassador Seurre sent his secretary to us to-day to say that he had letters from the French deputies in Scotland by a gentleman they had despatched to their King with the object of obtaining his sanction to the agreement and explaining its provisions. He had also brought the details to the ambassador, and amongst other points the French had abandoned Leith which was being dismantled. One hundred and twenty French soldiers would remain to garrison the castles of Dunbar and Inchkeith (Yuschif) sixty in each, and as to religion, everybody would be free to enjoy whichever he liked best. The secretary told us also that the deputies were already on their way back, so that although we consider the matter now quite settled, I (de Glajon) still propose to stop here for a few days longer to learn further particulars of the treaty, when, in accordance with your Highness' letters, I will at once return to give an account of all that has passed.
Your Highness will clearly see by the aforegoing that the endeavours of the French to obtain the aid promised them were entirely unnecessary.
We take note carefully of the instructions given to Don Juan Pacheco, of whose coming we have not up to the present received any news. Since, thank God, affairs here are in a very different condition from what they were when he left Spain, we will instruct him what he is to say in accordance with your Highness' letters in case he arrives before I (de Glajon) leave, and if not I (Bishop Quadra) will do what is necessary, since it will be superfluous to use the same mode of proceeding now, and particularly if the Queen has been informed of the object of his journey by her ambassadors at His Majesty's court. As your Highness is pleased to order it, the congratulations on the conclusion of terms of peace may be taken in good part and give us more advantage than we think. Respecting the complaints of certain fishing towns in Holland against some English ships of war, we will go to the Queen to-morrow to make the fitting protest, and demand punishment and restitution if possible, or at least provision against such pillage for the future, and I, de Glajon will make due report to your Highness on my return.— London, 15th July 1560.
Brussels Archives, B.M. French M.S., Add. 28,173.
116. The Same to the Same.
By our letters of 13th and 15th instant, your Highness will be fully informed of our certainty about the agreement, and that I (de Glajon) would leave here on my return shortly. I should have done so at the end of last week but for the coming of Don Juan Pacheco, who arrived here on Thursday last, not having been able to come sooner, owing to adverse winds that detained him at Boulogne. On Saturday we went with him to the Queen to present his credentials and instructions, in which he proceeded in accord with your Highness' orders, sent to us in your letter of 11th instant, in case the agreement should be effected as it was. After the customary salutations and congratulations to the Queen, on the conclusion of the peace, he remarked to the Queen that he had been instructed (in case the treaty had fallen through) to urge the restoration of all things to the state they were placed in by the treaty of Chateau Cambresis, for which, and for the great interest the King had shown in her affairs, the Queen thanked him with exceeding cordiality, saying that she was more and more obliged to His Majesty, whom she not only looked upon now as a brother but as a father also. After several things of this sort, she said that with regard to the last point, the same was settled quite in conformity with His Majesty's opinion, and she also gave us to understand with regard to her claim for 500,000 crowns indemnity, and the restitution of Calais, that within two months commissioners would be appointed to decide the question, and if they failed to agree it would be submitted to His Majesty's arbitration.
She also told us that the deputies were now occupied in deciding with the Scotch parliament certain questions submitted to the latter, and Admiral Clinton told me (de Glajon) that the French infantry in Little Leith had already embarked on their return to France, and the said parliament had to decide if the 120 soldiers who were to garrison Dunbar and Inchkeith were to be French or Scotch.
With regard to the pillage of certain Dutch ships, we remonstrated with the Queen very emphatically, and left her a memorandum of the affair, whereupon she appeared much surprised, and promised that strict inquiry should be made in order to punish the authors and obtain due restitution. I (Bishop Quadra) will advise your Highness of what is done. On Saturday last I (de Glajon) took leave of the Queen, and shall start after dinner to-day, embarking at Gravesend, in the hope, if it shall please God, of being with your Highness next week. Don Juan follows me in two or three days.— London, 22nd July 1560.
117. Bishop Quadra to the King.
The duchess of Parma will have informed your Majesty of the conclusion of peace between the king of France and the queen of England and the Scots. The settlement and terms have only been told me by the Queen tardily and piecemeal, and I have not yet been able to get a copy of the treaty, which I will send as soon as I obtain it.
What has been learnt hitherto is that the French (so far as regards their differences with the Scots) have agreed to leave the country with the exception of 120 men, who will remain to guard Dunbar and the island of Inchkeith. It is also agreed that the Parliament, which will assemble on the 11th August, shall appoint 24 persons of the country, from whom 12 shall be chosen, five by the States and seven by the Queen, to assist the Governor whom the Queen may appoint, the Governor being unable to do anything without the 12. It is settled that every person in future shall follow the religion which he prefers, and that no one shall be punished for what has passed in this respect. The castle of Dumbarton is to remain in possession of the duke of Chatelherault so long as the queen of France may remain without children, and one year after a child is born. This is for his own security, as he is to succeed to the throne if the Queen die without heirs. All other differences and claims on both sides are to be examined in this first Parliament. News has arrived that the French soldiers have already embarked in English ships, and hostages have been given for the return of these ships and the dismantling of Leith. As regards the differences with this country it is agreed that the queen of Scots will discontinue the style and arms of Queen of England at once, and proclamation is to be made both in Scotland and France that any person possessing documents of any sort bearing this style or seal must renew them within two months, failing which all such grants and documents shall be held invalid. Besides this the Queen says there is another clause in which the French declare her to be the legitimate sovereign of the realm, and that all other matters are restored to the condition in which they were at the time of the peace of Chateau Cambresi. As the Queen also alleges that the French have damaged her and been the cause of the war, and therefore should make some amend towards the costs she has incurred, on which account she claims 500,000 crowns and the restitution of Calais at once, it is agreed that Commissioners shall meet here with regard to this. If these Commissioners do not agree within three months the case is to be referred to your Majesty for decision within one year, with power to defer the question for another year by consent of the parties. A French gentleman named Lignerolles who took the treaties over some days since is shortly expected back with the ratifications. The Queen was dissatisfied with this peace, believing that the Scots will join the French as before, and with this fear Cecil concluded the arrangement in great haste, seeing some signs of it. Since then, however, I think they have again renewed the league, and ambassadors are expected here from Scotland to put it on a new and better footing. The French are I think displeased at this, and even at all that has been done. The Ambassador Seurre told me that the Scots wanted to break up the league, but the Queen would not allow it, and, as she has hostages, they have been obliged to do as she wished. The Queen says just the contrary, and I believe her, although I do not think the league will last long, and that the French will undo it by negotiation.
The French have agreed to the conditions, because their object was not to offend the Scots and carry on a war which might spoil their chance of occupying this country, as this war would have done if they had had your Majesty's troops in Scotland, and therefore this settlement seems to them the best way out of it. It has enabled them to save the people in Leith and leave Scotland in peace, although on terms both onerous and dishonourable, and has also allowed them to avoid the heavy cost of war and saved them from incurring the indignation of the Scots without being able to work their will in English affairs. To aid their cause they have made use of your Majesty's name, and spread reports that you would assist them. On the other hand the Queen, finding herself without money or men and the winter coming on, with no hope of taking Leith, and in fear that the Scots might fail her, has thought well to do as she has done before the weather and necessity compelled her to withdraw her troops and lose all.
In my opinion the French are dissatisfied and the Queen displeased, and, it may be feared that on the two points of the renovation of the league with the Scots and the indemnity she claims of the French, affairs may again become embroiled, unless indeed the displeasure and grievance they both feel against your Majesty may lead them to think of something worse. I say nothing of French affairs, as your Majesty understands them better than I, although I do not like what I see of these ministers here ; but, as regards this Queen, I can assure your Majesty she is so angry and offended at the thought that not only would you not help her, but had offered to aid her enemies that it is to be feared that she will do all the harm she has strength to do. M. de Glajon is aware how inconsiderately she one day showed her ill-feeling to him and me, saying that your Majesty was her secret enemy, and Glajon also knows how these people regard us, although the Queen uses extreme artfulness in trying to make me believe she is devoted to your Majesty. God knows I should like to say this was true, but as I do not think it is I am forced to make known to your Majesty the real position, so that any steps your Majesty may take should be founded on true information. The Queen told me the other day that we should see in two or three months how affairs would look here. I do not know what she expects to happen of so much importance in that time.
With regard to the marriage they think here that if the Queen of France were to die this Queen would marry the earl of Arran. Others say she will marry the prince of Sweden who is shortly expected here, and they say brings large sums of money. She laughs at both of them, but I do not know whether she is dissembling or not. I, for my part, do not think she will marry, at all events for the present.
Don Juan Pacheco arrived here on the 18th instant and saw the Queen two days afterwards. He told her that your Majesty, having heard that a treaty of peace was proposed between her and the king of France, you had thought well to send and beseech both of them to be pleased to come to just and honourable terms, for which object he (Don Juan) was here ; and that your Majesty's ministers in France were urging the same very earnestly on his Most Christian Majesty. He said also he had orders to congratulate her heartily in case peace should already be concluded, and also to say from your Majesty that although you had no doubt the Queen would perceive how important it was, both for the restitution of Calais and for other reasons, that in the new treaty the convention of Chateau Cambresi should be declared perfectly firm and valid, your Majesty thought well to point out to her that the preservation of peace largely depended upon it. She thanked him very much and said peace was concluded, which is true, as the French ambassador tells me.
Your Majesty will have learnt from Madame's letters about the Nuncio who was coming here. By Madame's orders I write to the Nuncio dissuading him from coming. In accordance therewith I also write to Her Highness and to the ambassador Vargas, so that the letters may be read in the congregation in Rome, as Vargas advised that his Holiness had announced was to be done. I send your Majesty copies of all these letters, and also of a separate letter I write to Her Highness informing her of certain things that had passed with the Queen about the Nuncio's coming, and on religious affairs, the substance of which is that she is very dissatisfied with the person of the Nuncio, and knows that he is coming at the instance of the French and in league with some of the Catholics here, all of whom have consequently been arrested. As regards religion she is so determined that in my opinion nothing is to be hoped for. She wasted much time in trying to persuade me that the difference between Catholics and Lutherans was not of much importance in substance, and she thought that when I had heard her opinion fully I should be satisfied. I answered that none of the things she had told me caused me any surprise, as I knew the masters who had taught her, but one thing alone shocked me greatly, which was to see that she would not acknowledge the power of the general Councils by means of which our Lord had preserved His church for 1,500 years, and had cleansed it of many greater errors than those which now exist in it. I enlarged on this somewhat, and when the conversation ended she said we would return to the subject. I will not fail to tell her what is right, although so many preach to the contrary that I know it is waste of time, particularly as she is so badly inclined.
I am compelled by my conscience, (fn. 4) and in order not to fail in my duty to your Majesty to say that the Catholics here complain that your Majesty should sustain this Queen in her dominions, and so cause heresy to strike its roots in the realm. They are very downcast about this and will be more so when they hear that the Nuncio is going back on my advice, which he will be very glad to publish. I well know how much your Majesty has done to redress matters here, but seeing that it is of no avail, it is to be considered whether more can be done than hitherto, especially as the evil is reaching your Majesty's own States, and that beyond any doubt, for I can certify that there are in this country over 10,000 of your Majesty's subjects, with such a store of preachers and ministers, that in a very short time they may consume what remains of goodness in the States. I have always refused to discuss these matters with the Queen, thinking that the less I said about them the more alarmed she would be, but she is so determined, and I perceive so clearly the danger to your Majesty's interests done by the alienation of these Catholics from their devotion to you that I cannot refrain from bogging your Majesty to consider the question and order how I should proceed with regard to it.—London, 25th July 1560.