Simancas: August 1570

Pages 262-273

Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 2, 1568-1579. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.

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August 1570

Aug. 1. 199. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
Since my letter of the 28th, great haste has been made in completing the equipment of the Queen's ships, and many sailors are passing through here from the south coast to man them. Some of the ships are already going down the river. There are seventeen in all, and, although the Queen has five others armed in various ports, there is a great lack of seamen, and they will consequently be badly manned with extra hands instead of seamen.
The Admiral is in Kent, raising men for the ships, and it is said that he himself will go on board of them.
They have placed two hundred soldiers in Dover Castle in addition to the ordinary garrison.
They have brought twelve gentlemen here prisoners from Norfolk, who are again being examined.
There is a rumour here to-day that the duke of Alba was embarking soldiers on his fleet. They are spreading this news in order to incense the people against us as much as they can.
M. de Poigny who went to the queen of Scotland has returned here and we shall soon learn something about her affairs.
The adoption of the earl of Lennox as governor of Scotland is now fully confirmed.
The plague is increasing here, and last week 96 deaths occurred from it besides two in the Tower. The duke of Norfolk has, therefore, petitioned that they will either release him or change his prison, but it is understood that the afore-mentioned arrests will prevent his being released at present.
The alarm publicly expressed by the people here, and their fears of being ruined, are perfectly incredible, and the whole talk at Court consists in discussions as to how they will defend themselves or how they will perish.
It is certain that Secretary Cecil, on returning from the Queen's rooms to his own a fortnight since, said, in great distress, to his wife, "Oh, wife, if God do not help us we shall all be lost and undone. Get together all the jewels and the money you can, so that you may follow me when the time comes, for surely trouble is in store for us." Although this seems improbable, yet it is certain that it took place. It is thought that at the last extremity they will abandon the whole business and escape to Italy, Vienna, or some other place, as both they and the bishops have placed for years past great sums of money in Germany, as they did when the late Queen Mary came to the throne. This suspicion also has caused most of them to sign deeds of gift of all their property to their heirs.
A gentleman from the duke of Saxony and another from duke of Olff (Holstein?) have arrived here, it is believed to offer their services to the Queen.
It is reported that John Hawkins has increased his fleet to twelve ships for a voyage to our Indies, taking no cargo but stores, lime, stone, and wood, and it is to be presumed that the intention is to land at some place where they may cause us trouble, building forts for the purpose. He will unite with Captain Sores, a Frenchman, who has 800 men with him, Hawkins having 1,600. It is to be hoped that some measures will be taken to prevent this.
The pirates are gathering at the Isle of Wight, and it appears that the pirate who was arrested will be released.
The earl of Lennox, the new governor of Scotland, has sent a gentleman to this Queen, asking for help in money and men. It appears he is going against Westmoreland and the Scotch friends of that Queen.
Postscript : The Portuguese pilot Bayon has left for Plymouth to go with Hawkins, who will sail some time this month. They have been entrusted with large sums of money by people here. This bad pilot, who knows much and has great experience, will certainly do us some grave injury if means are not quickly devised to prevent it.
The gentleman I said had come from the Duke of Olff (Holstein?) really comes from the Count Palatine, but the other man comes as I said, from the duke of Saxony.—London, 1st August.
Aug. 5. 200. Guerau De Spes to the King.
I have reported in previous letters the preparations being made here, and, although I have a person of my own on the watch at Plymouth to inspect their ships, I have learned from my friend at Court that the earl of Bedford was recently in that port for the purpose of arranging for the despatch of this expedition, in which will sail 1,500 Englishmen with all requisites for colonisation. They will first try to meet our Indian fleet, and Bartolomé Bayon, the Portuguese pilot, will go with them. They have provided him with money for an outfit, and he has left here taking with him two Spanish rogues, who were astray in London. The first idea was to colonise some place near the Straits of Magellan, but they now tell me that the intention is to go to the Rio del Oro, near New Spain. They take with them pinnaces to enter the river, at the mouth of which there is a good port which they intend to colonise, after having stolen all the gold they can lay their hands on in the interior, which they think will be a large amount. The second ship that Winter sent to this place has returned hither, and they have bartered their goods there, at Cape de la Vela and Jamaica, for hides and silver of which they bring large quantities. Since the arrival of Fitzwilliams, the English commissioner, the Queen expresses dissatisfaction at the result of his negotiation with the duke of Alba, and is now hastening the equipment of all her ships, 23 of which are large. They are being provisioned for three months, and will be ready in a fortnight with five thousand five hundred mariners and soldiers, with instructions to sail for Scotland, even though the duke of Alba should disarm. The principal object will be to take possession of the castle of Dumbarton, and Sussex has been ordered to re-assemble his army to the number of 4,500 men and the cavalry which he now has, for the purpose of crossing over the border to help the earl of Lennox. In these two enterprises, I am assured that the Queen is spending all the cash she possesses, and, in order to calm the minds of people, she has ordered the duke of Norfolk to be sent to his own house under arrest, on the pretext that people are dying of the plague in the Tower. The Queen has promised the gentlemen from the king of France who came about the queen of Scotland's affairs that she will send in all haste a messenger to ascertain the reason why Livingstone had been detained on the frontier. This man had been sent by the queen of Scotland to endeavour to reconcile the Scotch nobles to receive her as Queen when she was set at liberty, so that when this was arranged in Scotland, the negotiations for her release here might have been undertaken.
All these things are simply tricks of Cecil's, who thinks thereby to cheat everybody, in which, to a certain extent, he succeeds. I have news from the Isle of Wight that the pirates are there in great numbers.
The servant of the Count Palatine, who is here trying to arrange an alliance with his master and other princes of the Empire, is being put off, because the Queen is afraid of incurring further expense.—London, 5th August 1570.
201. Guerau De Spes to Zayas.
As I know that Cecil instructed Fitzwilliams to complain of me to the duke of Alba, saying that the (northern) rebels had escaped by means of a passport from me, and that I was a party to their rising, it is well that his Majesty should know with what intention this complaint is made. The object is to expel me, now that they think I understand better than before the affairs of this country, and Cecil thinks that I, in unison with others, might make such representations to the Queen as would diminish his great authority. There is no need for me to specially write to his Majesty to this effect, but I wish to point out to your worship that Cecil is a crafty fox, a mortal enemy to the Catholics and to our lord the King, and that it is necessary to watch his designs very closely, because he proceeds with the greatest caution and dissimulation. There is nothing in his power that he does not attempt in order to injure us. The Queen's own opinion is of little importance, and that of Leicester still less, so that Cecil unrestrainedly and arrogantly governs all. So far as expelling me from this country goes, that, indeed, would not distress me, because it is necessary one way or another that these affairs should be settled, and my wish is that they should be settled in a way which will increase the power of our King, so that the English in future may pay him more respect. Your worship may be certain that, if Cecil is allowed to have his own way, he will disturb the Netherlands.—London, 5th August 1570.
7 Aug. 202. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
Since my letter to your worship of the 1st instant, the news is that the new governor of Scotland, the earl of Lennox, has taken up arms against the good Scotsmen who are faithful subjects of their Queen, and against the Englishmen who are with them. Lennox has sent here for help in money, but there is no news yet of its having been granted, although posts are despatched to him every day. It is said that the earl of Northumberland is still a prisoner, and that the queen of Scotland, although well in health, is being guarded more closely than hitherto.
As I wrote in my last, the earl of Bedford went to the west country, Plymouth and Falmouth, and six thousand crowns have recently been sent him for the despatch with all speed of Captain Hawkins and his fleet of 12 ships for the purpose of meeting our Indian flotilla. The wicked Portuguese pilot, Bayon, is in Plymouth, and he has contrived to seduce and take with him some of your Majesty's Spanish subjects. We suspect that he has tricked Damian Dela, who was a servant of mine, and one Barrientos, and others. I was shocked to hear about Damian, (fn. 1) and, if it be true, I hope he will be the first to suffer. Their object is to unite with Captain Sores, and land in some part of our Indies.
They will together form a great fleet, and it really is to be hoped that some measures will be promptly taken that the Indian fleet may come safely, and that these knaves may not succeed in their evil designs.
All the Queen's ships, to the number of 22, are being equipped here, and the pirates are collecting at the Isle of Wight by orders of the Council ; but, although the Queen's ships have gone to the mouth of the river to make an appearance of being ready, it is certain that they will not be so for some time. It is understood that they will be sent off, as they are equipped, to Scotland, and the Admiral will go in the last detachment. Their object is to seize the port of Dumbarton, which they think will ensure them against the possibility of either the French or Spanish setting foot in England or Scotland. From the Thames to Berwick the coast is guarded on land as if an enemy were in sight, and for defence on the Scotch side they have three thousand soldiers in Berwick. It is reported that six thousand men, soldiers and sailors, will go in the Queen's fleet, which is provisioned for three months. They have sent twenty thousand crowns to the governor of Berwick in order that he may be ready with his three thousand men.
The duke of Norfolk has been brought out of the Tower and confined in his own house under guard. There is much discourse on the matter, and it is believed that they have done this for fear of the people of his county. If he were at liberty, much harm might come to them thereby. The prisoners from Norfolk have been lodged in the Tower, and seven or eight of them were summarily condemned to death.
The man who fixed the Pope's ban upon the bishop of London's door was condemned to death two days ago. He has made many statements, which are related diversely, but with great firmness he publicly repeated all the contents of the brief, to the effect that his Holiness was by divine law the Supreme Pontiff, the Queen illegitimate, the excommunication sacred, and those who disregarded it members of the devil.
M. de Poigny, who came from the queen of Scotland, is leaving for France. The English commissioner who recently came back from Flanders is again shortly returning thither.
It is said that a new fort is to be erected on this river.
Two boats, one of forty tons and the other twenty-five, have been sent from here to the coast of France to watch if the fleet there makes any movement and report to this Queen.
All over this country great unrest exists in consequence of the arming of these fleets, and nothing else is spoken of. They are doing what they can to provide for defence, but they are as much alarmed as if they knew they were going to be conquered. As I reported in my first letters, I have, since the beginning of these troubles, continued to report to the duke of Alba both what I write to your worship as well as other things which it is fitting that he should know in his Majesty's interests.—London, 7th August 1570.
9 Aug. 203. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
Since my letter to your worship of the 7th, these people have changed their plans, and Hawkins will not leave with his fleet until they see what is going to be done in Flanders, so that they may not find themselves without that force on the west coast. Under the pretence that he had no intention of accompanying the fleet, the Portuguese pilot, Bayon, has returned to London. The preparations for defence are being very busily carried on, and the general fear is that the country is to be attacked, although they see that no preparations are being made excepting those for the passage of our lady, the Queen. They executed to-day the gentleman who nailed the Pope's ban on the Bishop's door. (fn. 2) He remained firm, saying that all that the declaration contained was sacred. They quartered him with great cruelty whilst he was still alive. The day and the hour of the execution were unusual ones, for fear of the people. It took place before the Bishop's house.
They have just sent two aldermen of the city to the ambassador in the name of the Queen's Council, ordering him to meet certain representatives of the Queen on Friday next at a place 20 miles from here. (fn. 3) We presume that this extraordinary step means no good, and that the intention may be to order him to quit the kingdom, although it may be with some other object. God rescue us from these terrible folks !—London, 9th August 1570.
12 Aug. 204. Guerau De Spes to the King.
By various channels I have reported to your Majesty that this Queen was equipping her 23 ships, which are now at Queenborough on the Thames, and will be ready to sail in 10 days. The governor of the Isle of Wight recently asked the captains of the pirates whether they would be willing to serve against your Majesty's fleet if necessary. They were united in saying that they would do so, and would serve better than Englishmen. They have 35 ships there, well armed and manned. Hawkins has been ordered not to sail ; it is understood because they wish to wait until the fleet carrying our Queen shall have passed, although Hawkins is pressing greatly to be allowed to leave. In the meanwhile Bartolomé Bayon, the Portuguese, tells me that he will not go in that fleet, but wants to take other ships and another route, unless your Majesty will acccept his services. He says that Hawkins will not colonise the Indies, although most of the pirates may stay there, but that Hawkins will go direct to take possession of the island of San Juan de Ulloa, in order to be master of the fleets which may come and go. He threatens to revenge himself well for the past injuries done him, and if he should fail in consequence of finding the island fortified, he will do the worst damage he can. I learn that he has 12 ships ready, although the man I sent there to inspect them has not returned.
The commissioners are at Southampton inspecting the merchandise.
The answer that commissioner Fitzwilliams brought from the duke of Alba has not given much satisfaction here, as they thought, with all this show of armament, that things would have been dealt with more gently. They are therefore in a bad temper, and say that I am not a suitable person to stay here, the intention being to get rid of me, on the grounds that I am not confining myself to my own duties, and that I tried to hinder the appropriation of the money which the Queen asserts belonged to merchants. With this object, two aldermen came to tell me that if I would go to St. Alban's, eight miles from the Court, certain members of the Council would meet me there to discuss matters. As I was warned of their intention, I replied that I could not treat privately with any of them until the Queen would receive me, at least without the express order of the duke of Alba. It appears that the earl of Leicester railed a good deal about it at the Court when my servant took the reply, saying that it was a very great annoyance that I should remain so long in England, considering the way in which I was behaving, as I was only here to spy out what was going on. The letter which they wrote to me afterwards, and my reply thereto, are enclosed herewith. I do not believe that they will stop here, as the determination of Cecil and Leicester is, as the former's own secretary tells me, to turn me out of here, as they say that at such a time as this it is not fitting that your Majesty should have an ambassador in England. The duke of Norfolk is under guard in his own house, and it is believed will soon be released, as the Queen wishes to make use of him.—London, 12th August 1570.
205. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
Since my last letter of the 9th instant, the only trustworthy news of importance is that the new governor of Scotland is in arms against the faithful subjects of the Queen, and the English have provided the governor of Berwick with money to keep 3,000 men on the frontier.
The earl of Northumberland is still a prisoner, and Westmoreland and Dacre, with their Englishmen, are with the queen of Scotland's friends.
The pirates have collected at the Isle of Wight 31 sail besides a few others in the ports and at sea.
At the mouth of this river all the Queen's ships are being armed and provisioned. Nine of the best of them are fully prepared, and anchored in the Downs, bound for Scotland, for the purpose of capturing Dumbarton. The other 14 cannot be ready under a month for lack of mariners, and because neither the biscuit nor the meat is ready. They have only taken the ships there to make an appearance of preparedness. Hawkins is ordered not to leave, and is lying off Plymouth until our fleet shall have passed. The pilot, Bayon, has returned here, and is passing his time until Hawkins has orders to sail.
The news of peace in France is confirmed to-day, which makes these people all the more anxious.
The president of Brittany has come here to try to get some money from this Queen on behalf of the woman who calls herself queen of Navarre, to help the Admiral and the Huguenots. He is being forwarded in his efforts by the Cardinal.
The members of this Council are determined to annoy the ambassador. They have recently written him a very discourteous letter, confirming their request that he would appear before certain representatives of the Queen within two days at a place 20 miles from here. It is expected that the object is to declare to him the Queen's request that he will leave the country. For good reasons his lordship has replied that he would not attend, as he had no instructions to negotiate, but it is to be presumed that in order to carry out their intention they will not scruple to come to his own house shortly.
The agent of Portugal continues to negotiate about the treaty, and both he and the English are persuaded that they will come to terms, so that the trade between the two countries may be peacefully carried on as in ordinary times.
The rancour they show against those who knew anything of the Pope's excommunication is astonishing. Many persons are in prison in connection with this, and some are in danger of suffering the fearful cruelty which was perpetrated on the man who fixed the paper to the Bishop's door. The Admiral has taken leave of the Queen to go with the fleet. He passed through London yesterday, accompanied by five Englishmen of high station, who are to serve as his lieutenants and councillors.
Postscript : It is now said that they have summoned the ambassador in order to arrest him, and keep him under guard in his house until further orders. We shall know all in a few days, and I, myself, am expecting ill-treatment from them.—12th August 1570.
14 Aug. 206. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
I wrote to your worship on the 12th, and I now have to report that the Council has just sent a reply to the ambassador's letter. They say that as he has not attended they should not consider him henceforward as an ambassador, or treat him as such. The answer was given verbally to the man who took the ambassador's letter, and we are expecting every moment that the Queen and Council will send an armed force to take the ambassador to the Tower, or give him into the custody of some gentleman who will guard him closely. If they take me too, it will not be so bad, but we fear they will separate us, and molest each of us according to our degree, showing to us in our own persons the feelings they entertain towards his Majesty's subjects. I leave this letter written in order that it may be sent through a friend for your information, as it is believed that neither the ambassador nor myself in future will have a chance of writing. It is not to be supposed that they would treat us in this extraordinary manner, and yet leave us free to write, but I have verbally begged a friend to let your worship know what may happen to us.—London, 14th August 1570.
16 Aug. 207. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
The letter which goes herewith was already sealed, but as the messenger was detained I may continue by saying that we have been awaiting hourly some news from the Court respecting the ambassador, but nothing has yet arrived, although I have learned from a trustworthy source that they are determined to arrest him, and it is presumed that the English Commissioner who recently returned from Flanders is going back thither to-day to inform the Duke of the matter ; although this will not be his only object, but also to spy out what is being done about our fleet.
Scotland is all up in arms, and the Queen's friends are determined to give battle to the new governor and others. He is begging for men and money here. This news is certain. Although it is quite incredible, it is generally affirmed that when our fleet passes, the English fleet will force it to salute. This absurdity sounds like a joke, but it is asserted by persons of weight, who assure us that the Admiral bears orders to do all manner of wonderful things if our fleet does not salute.
The French ambassador has gone to Court to announce to the Queen the terms of peace, and M. de Poigny is going back to France.
The plague, thank God, is not increasing, but there is great sickness of fever all over the country. The Queen is in poor health with her malady in the leg.
The Admiral has returned to Court to discuss their intentions, and afterwards left in all haste to push forward the preparations on the fleet. Reviews are being held all over the island, and they are on the watch day and night. These people are saying that the Moors of Granada are resisting more than ever, at which they say they rejoice. —London, 16th.
Postscript : Whilst I was writing this, the Queen sent a gentleman to tell the ambassador that they are dissatisfied at his not having attended the appointment with the Queen's representatives as requested, but the ambassador excused himself, and he was then asked for a passport for Harry Cobham, whom this Queen is sending to welcome our Queen. There are reports of some disturbance in the province of the earl of Derby. This Queen would not believe the settlement of peace in France until the ambassador showed her a letter from his King on the subject. This news of peace has caused them to send to-day to the Isle of Wight ordering the Englishmen who are on board the Walloon and French ships to come ashore, and to no longer accompany those pirates.
These people are in great fear of the return of our fleet from Spain to Flanders, and dread lest the king of France should have made peace with his rebels on such bad terms only to turn upon the English.—Closed 18th August 1570.
208. Guerau De Spes to the Duke of Alba.
By the ordinary post I wrote to your Excellency what had passed with the Council, sending you copies of their letter and my reply. After that, Cecil said to my secretary, Cipres, in the presence of another servant of mine, that he gathered from my letter that I wished to consult your Excellency, and this being so, the Queen did not consider me any longer an ambassador. My secretary, not wishing to take such a reply, Cecil said with great arrogance that he himself would send it to me either before the secretary got back or afterwards. I have therefore been expecting some piece of impertinence from him, but no one has come yet. I am told, however, that Fitzwilliams is being despatched to your Excellency, perhaps with the object of giving an account of this. They have refused to grant a passport for a servant of mine to go to your Excellency about it. I send this advice as best I can, and if your Excellency thinks fit, Fitzwilliams may be spoken to about the ill-treatment meted out to an ambassador of such a sovereign as ours, at the sole instigation of Cecil, who has done so much to offend the King, and is trying to break the old friendship between the countries. He fears that, if the Queen hears it from my mouth, (and I can affirm it because I know) it may cause him to lose his place, and he misses no opportunity therefore of preventing it, feigning anything he thinks best ; just as he did in the case of the bishop of Aquila, to whom it is notorious that he ordered poison to be administered.
I have been informed that his brother-in-law, the Lord Chancellor, was going to interrogate me at St. Alban's, his house being near that town, and what with the gout and his fear of the plague, he dares not come nearer London. I am told that the interrogation was to take the form of a general inquiry, they thinking that I should be sure to fall into some expression which they could seize hold of, and make an excuse for my detention as I should have been taken unawares. Cecil drew up the memorandum for it with his own hand, although the Queen was not very urgent about it, as she entertains some suspicions in consequence of the duke of Chatelherault having gathered a much greater force in Scotland than the earl of Lennox, whom he is going to meet. If the English cross the border to help Lennox they will break the treaty with France, and Cecil therefore wants the Queen to send two councillors to the queen of Scotland to see whether some reconciliation cannot be made with her, without intervention of the French or Spaniards. The bishop of Ross will try to accompany them if they go.
I also have to report that the letter that these four councillors wrote me was not written with proper courtesy, but I replied in the customary form in order to deprive them of any opportunity which might give Cecil a better chance of succeeding.—London, 16th August 1570.
17 Aug. 209. Guerau De Spes to the King.
As affairs here are changeable, so also will be the reports I send to your Majesty. On the 13th instant Cecil sent his reply, as I stated in my last, to the effect that this Queen did not consider me as an ambassador because I had to consult the duke of Alba. Cipres, my secretary, would not receive this answer. Since then matters have changed. The certainty of the peace in France, the news that Lennox is not obeyed in Scotland, doubts of the earl of Derby and his part of the country, as well as other fears, have caused them to alter their intention, and yesterday Walsingham, the man they have appointed to go to France, came to me from the Queen to complain mildly that I have not been to meet her representatives, pretending that my intentions were not good ; to which I replied that the duty of ambassadors was to treat with the sovereign to whom they are accredited, although points are often referred by them for discussion with councillors or representatives, but that the point was easily settled by my offering to go and kiss the Queen's hand whenever she might order me to do so. Walsingham asked me from the Queen to give a passport and letter of recommendation to Henry Cobbam, a pensioner of this Queen, whom she is sending to visit our Queen. I have done this amply, and they have given me a passport for a servant of mine to go to Flanders.—London, 17th August 1570.
20 Aug. 210. Antonio De Guaras to Zayas.
I wrote to your worship on the 16th, and the news since then is that they have enticed Dr. Storey, whom you will know, on board a ship in Flanders, and have brought him hither. He was betrayed by a false companion of his, a treacherous Englishman, and an acquaintance of mine met the traitor on the 16th instant coming from Harwich (?) whither Storey had been taken. My acquaintance seeing the traitor alone, was surprised that he should be here ; the latter said, "I have come hither to do the Queen a great service, for I have managed to bring into England a bitter enemy of the Queen and this country." It is now understood that Storey will arrive here a prisoner to-night or to-morrow.
Hawkins has been ordered to stay with his fleet at Plymouth, and it is believed that he will not sail on his voyage until after our fleet has passed. It is even probable that he will not now undertake his voyage to our Indies, and to waylay our fleet as was intended. I have since discovered that the Portuguese pilot was really to go with the fleet although he denied it.
A man arriving yesterday from Berwick asserts that all Scotland is in arms, and that the queen of Scotland's friends are much more powerful than those of the governor.
The English sailors have been withdrawn from the pirate ships and have been ordered to embark on the Queen's vessels, which are being armed and victualled with all speed.—London, 20th August 1570.
Postscript : Hawkins has now ready, although short handed, one ship of 230 tons for a flag-ship, some sloops, one of 350 tons, another of 150, another of 120, six barques, four of 50 tons and two of 25 tons. The Queen's ships are about 13, now being equipped, and the pirate have 36, some large and the rest boats.
22 Aug. 211. Antonio de Guaras to Zayas.
I wrote on the 20th, and the present letter is to report that the English, having heard that our lady, the Queen, arrived on the 21st instant at Bergen, to stay a short time with the intention of leaving with the first fine weather, our fleet being already there, had decided that nine of the Queen's ships, well armed and found, shall go out to watch our fleet. The rest of the Queen's ships are at the mouth of this river, making a pretence of being ready, and that they will leave with the others. But this is not so, as they cannot sail for some time, being short of seamen, without victuals and with insufficient powder. The pirates are also together between the Isle of Wight and Dover waiting for the passage of our fleet.
Captain Hawkins has been sent for from Plymouth, and, it is said, will return thither in two days to join his fleet and also watch our fleet on that side. It is thought now that he will not attempt his voyage before next March.
There is a rumour here that the Admiral is detained at Court, and this is spoken about publicly without any cause being assigned for it.
The good Dr. Storey was taken to the Tower yesterday, having been brought by treachery from Flanders. These people in London are only talking of the martyrs they are going to make.
There is nothing new from Scotland except that the Queen is well. Her ambassador, the bishop of Ross, is here at liberty, but the duke of Norfolk still under arrest in his own house. Harry Cobham has left for Flanders in company with the English ambassador. The plague has increased in London, and there is a great sickness of fever all over the country.—London, 22nd August 1570.


  • 1. Damian de Dela was a Valencian tailor, who had lived in London for many years.
  • 2. John Felton.
  • 3. St. Albans.