Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1899.
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May 1588, 1-10
Bill Cotton Vesp. CVIII. English.
|279. Statement of the Ships, &c., of the Armada under the Command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia.|
|The Squadron of the Galleons of Portugal||10||2||7,476|
|Squadron of John Martinez de Recalde, of the province of Biscay||10||4||6,566|
|Squadron of Pedro de Valdez, of Andalusia||10||1||8,302|
|Squadron of Mignel de Oquendo, of Biscay||10||4||6,891|
|Squadron of Martin de Bertondona, ships of Italy||10||0||7,756|
|Squadron of hulks in charge of Juan de Medina||22||0||9,960|
|Squadron of Don Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza||4||19||1,545|
|Squadron of Diego Flores de Valdez, galleons, &c., from St. Lucar||14||4||8,564|
|Squadron of Alonso Flores from Santa Maria||0||13||150|
|Galleys 4. Galleasses 4.|
|Men on the ... barks||6,587||(Sailors?)|
|... four galleys||1,325|
|... (fn. 1)||402|
|Pipes of wine||13,760||pipes.|
|Beans and peas||7,236||fanegas.|
|Pipes of water||10,625||pipes.|
|Note.—The quintal is 100 lbs., the arroba of oil or vinegar 3½ gallons, the fanega of beans, 2 bushels.|
Paris Archives, K. 1567.
280. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
After closing the accompanying despatches, I saw the Nuncio, who told me that some months ago his Holiness had requested the King (of France) to represent to the queen of England how advantageous it would be for her to become a Catholic ; the reason of the step being that the Pope had news that she might cede to similar persuasions. This King wrote to his ambassador to inquire whether the Queen showed any disposition this way, and the reply he sent was that Treasurer Cecil had caused the idea to be brought before the Pope, through certain spies, pretended Catholics whom he maintained in Rome ; (fn. 2) in order to gain time and cool his Holiness towards your Majesty's enterprise. The Pope had again signified through Cardinal Joyeuse that it would be well for the King again to approach the Queen on the subject by means of a special ambassador, and Secretary Villeroy had spoken to the Nuncio about it. He (Villeroy) said that it would be no good for the King to send a special embassy for the purpose, unless it were given out that the object of the embassy was to offer succour to the queen of England, which would disturb matters here more than ever, and he asked the Nuncio to write to his Holiness to this effect. I said that, so far as offering help to the queen of England was concerned, that had been done from here already, as he (the Nuncio) knew ; and the King refused to send the envoy as the Pope asked him to do, in order to avoid pledging himself not to assist the Queen. The Nuncio replied that there was a great deal in what I said.
(Relates the great fear of the king of France at the expected approach of Guise. Great precautions for the King's safety).—Paris, 8th May 1588.
281. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I caused Miss Curle to write to (Miss) Kennedy what I told your Majesty, and although the letter arrived and (Miss) Kennedy has written to me twice, she does not acknowledge receipt of it. She says that she understands that your Majesty, out of respect for the late queen of Scots, had given her companion Curle a pension, and as her (Kennedy's) services were no less worthy, she doubted not that your Majesty would reward her in the same way ; and she asks me to use my good offices to this effect, without listening to the reports that might have reached me that she was married to the former steward of the Queen. Even if this were true he was a person of quality, who had always been loyal to the Queen. It is quite clear from this that they are engaged, and as the steward is a heretic whom the queen of Scots greatly wished to convert, I am afraid that (Miss) Kennedy will not leave Scotland. Pending the receipt of your Majesty's instructions as to what I am to say to her, I will reply that if she had stayed here, I intended to petition your Majesty to show her some favour, but as she is in a country where the Catholic religion is not practised, after she had been the servant of one who had suffered for the cause, I could not venture to appeal to your Majesty on her behalf.
I will give orders for the representatives (guarantors) of Charles Arundell to be paid the 2,000 crowns, which your Majesty desires them to be paid in discharge of the conscience of the queen of Scots, as well as the two months and 25 days of his pension for his debts. With regard to the other 1,000 crowns which remain to be paid, the archbishop of Glasgow is trying to have the debt proved by the creditor.
I sent the earl of Morton and Colonel Semple to Flanders, as I wrote to your Majesty, and I have a letter from Semple, dated 16th ultimo, from Dunkirk. He says they were embarking that night with fair weather, and if any change took place he would let me know. As I have heard no more, I conclude they have continued their voyage with a favourable wind, as I know that ships that left Scotland at the same time had contrary weather.
I have received two letters from Robert Bruce, copies of which I enclose in the general despatch (fn. 3).—Paris, 8th May 1588.
282. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
The Spaniard Pedro de Santa Cruz, who has left England, and from whom I sent your Majesty a letter, brought me the letter for Esteban Lercaro, which I enclose in the general despatch, in order that your Majesty may have it opened. It is from Marco Antonio Messia, a Genoese, whom the marquis de Santa Cruz sent to England to report. (fn. 4)
Pedro de Santa Cruz reports verbally to me what he wrote in his letter ; and at the request of Marco Antonio conveys to me, for transmission to your Majesty, that in his opinion the Isle of Wight is the most convenient part for the Armada to come to. He also begs me to write to him regularly under disguise of commercial names and terms, because, as he receives very few letters, the English were becoming suspicious that he had not any real business there. He is intimate with Horatio Pallavicini, who told him in great secresy that the Queen had no fleet fit to resist the Spanish Armada ; and that it had therefore been decided to let the Spaniards land, and that Drake, after having burnt the Spanish ships, should land his men, as is set forth in the advices enclosed. They also report that the Queen is certain of being able to get the king of Scotland delivered to her by the Scots of the English faction at any moment she likes. Santa Cruz has gone by way of Nantes, and I have instructed him to go to Don Martin de Idiaquez as soon as he arrives in Spain, to report verbally what Marco Antonio had told him.—Paris, 8th May 1588.
283. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Julio reports in a letter from London, of the 20th ultimo, that M. de Foi, who had arrived as a special envoy from Bearn to the Queen, had submitted the following three points to her :—First, his (Bearn's) thanks to her for her goodwill and help extended to him ; secondly, to excuse the small effect attained by the heretic German army in France ; and, thirdly, to beg her to join with the German Princes in assisting him with another levy. Walsingham told Julio that the Queen replied that she was very glad that Bearn was so grateful for what she had done, but, with regard to the second point, she would not hear of the excuses, as she did not know whether Bearn or the Frenchmen who guided the German force ought to present them. To the third point she replied that matters in France were not at present in such a condition, nor was she in a position to render discussion on the point possible. With that she dismissed him without granting his request, or absolutely refusing it. M. de Foi was starting for Strasbourg.
There was little hope in England of the peace negotiations. Walsingham had confessed to Julio that they had done very wrong in wasting time over them, and they were in such a state as neither they nor their forefathers had ever been in before. This was said in words that demonstrated the alarm they feel. I hear from the new confidant that Horatio Pallavicini writes in the same tone to the English ambassador here, on behalf of the Treasurer, and says how hardly pressed they are. Even if the Queen had to help in raising the German levies it was best, he said, that they should not come before October or November.
The Treasurer told Julio that if he had remained two days longer weeping for his mother, who had died, the rest of the Council would have despatched Drake, who would now delay until the 24th April, which is the 4th May in our style, unless something fresh occurred with regard to the Spanish fleet. They write to the English ambassador here, telling him to be vigilant in obtaining news about it.—Paris, 8th May 1588.
284. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I have news from England subsequent to the reports of the 20th ultimo, already conveyed to your Majesty, saying that neither Drake nor the four Queen's ships that were fitting out had sailed. Orders had been sent to Drake to leave on the 24th April—4th May by our calculation—but the new confidant tells me it was not certain that he would go.
The English ambassador publishes here that the city of London has offered the Queen 20,000l. in cash, to increase her fleet by 20 ships, and to raise 10,000 men who were to be held ready for service whenever she might require them. (fn. 5) It may be concluded that the ships will not be ready to accompany Drake if he sails at the time stated.
M. de Foi, Bearn's envoy, had left for Germany to attend the meeting of Protestant Princes at Strasbourg, where it was expected that the king of Denmark would also be present. The queen of England was sending thither to represent her, Sidney, the brother of Philip Sidney who died in Flanders. I have received from Scotland the accompanying reports, and just as I am closing the despatch, I have had handed to me advices from London of 26th. In conformity with them an Italian who left London on the date mentioned concludes that Drake would sail on the 4th May, although there was no certainty of it. They are short of many things which will be necessary for them to continue the war. The French ambassador in London writes under date of 28th ultimo, that Drake's fleet was daily diminishing, and the Admiral, although he had received reinforcements of men, had but few ships.—Paris, 8th May 1588.
Paris Archives, K. 1568.
285. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Since closing my despatches I have news from England, dated 2nd instant (N.S.), saying that Drake and the Lord Admiral were to sail for Spain with 80 sail, to seek your Majesty's Armada, whilst Winter remained in the Channel with 50 well armed vessels to hold in check the duke of Parma.
The new confidant tells me that on the 29th the Admiral was at Court, and it was said that he was going post to Plymouth. It was therefore considered that he could not sail so quickly as they said.
The friend of Pedro de Santa Cruz has sent an answer to what I wrote to him, and forwards to me the enclosed paper for Lisbon, which your Majesty will have opened to learn the news he gives. Both Drake's and Winter's fleets will, according to all accounts, be smaller than is stated.—Paris, 8th May 1588.
Paris Archives, K. 1567.
286. Bernardino De Mendoza to Martin De Idiaquez.
The letter I received for the duke of Parma was forwarded instantly by a trustworthy person.
I thank you warmly for your action in having the English ships arrested. You will see by the reports from Scotland how they trade under the name of that Hunter, and that the King's letters are only a cloak for it. This will be explained by the man who will go with the proofs. He is one Alexander Scott, who also discovered last year a great quantity of English goods, which from their character it was impossible could be Scotch. I trust you will keep a hand in the business. Scott is starting by way of Nantes to explain the whole matter. He says one of the ships sailed from Scotland, where she had loaded the English goods, but the other two sailed from Norwich, where they had taken their cargo on board.
The representatives of the queen of England met those of our King on the 21st ultimo, a half league from Ostend, but I have no news as to the result. I have not received letters from the duke of Parma for some time.—(In an autograph note Mendoza begs the Secretary not to leave him without money. He has so many people depending upon him who must be satisfied).—Paris, 8th May 1588.
|287. Full Statement of the Armada sailing from Lisbon Sent to the King by the Duke of Medina Sidonia. (fn. 6)|
|Galleon, "San Martin," fleet flagship||1,000||48||300||177||477|
|" "San Juan," fleet vice-flagship||1,050||50||321||179||500|
|" "San Marcos"||790||33||292||117||409|
|" "San Felipe"||800||40||415||117||532|
|" "San Luis"||830||38||376||116||492|
|" "San Mateo"||750||34||277||120||397|
|" "San Cristobal"||352||20||300||78||378|
|" "San Bernardo"||352||21||250||81||331|
|Biscay Squadron under Admiral Juan Martinez de Recalde.|
|"Santa Ana," flagship||768||30||256||73||329|
|"La Concepcion de Zubelzu"||486||16||90||70||160|
|"La Concepcion de Juanes de Cano"||418||18||164||61||225|
|"Santa Maria de Montemayor"||707||18||206||45||257|
|Patache, "Maria de Aguirre"||70||6||20||23||43|
|" "Miguel Suso"||36||6||20||26||46|
|" "San Esteban"||96||6||20||26||46|
|Galleons of Castile under Admiral Diego Flores de Valdes.|
|Galleon, "San Cristobal," flagship||700||36||205||120||225|
|" "San Juan Bautista"||750||24||207||136||243|
|" "San Pedro"||530||24||141||131||272|
|" "San Juan"||530||24||163||113||276|
|" "Santiago el Mayor"||530||24||210||132||343|
|" "San Felipe y Santiago"||530||24||151||116||267|
|" "Nuestra Senora del Barrio"||530||24||155||108||263|
|" "San Medel y Celedon"||530||24||160||101||271|
|" "Santa Ana"||250||24||91||80||170|
|Ship, "Nuestra Senora de Begoña"||750||24||174||123||297|
|" "Santa Catalina"||882||24||190||159||349|
|" "San Juan Bautista"||650||24||192||93||285|
|Patache, "N.S. del Socorro"||75||14||20||25||45|
|" "San Antonio de Padua"||75||14||20||46||66|
|Andalusian Squadron under Don Pedro de Valdes.|
|Ship, "N.S. del Rosario," flagship||1,150||46||304||118||422|
|" "San Francisco," vice-flagship||915||21||222||56||278|
|Galleon, "San Juan"||810||31||245||89||334|
|"San Juan de Gargarin"||569||16||165||56||221|
|Hulk, "Duquesa Santa Ana"||900||23||280||77||357|
|"Santa Maria del Juncal"||730||20||228||80||308|
|Patache, "Espiritu Santo"||70||33||10||43|
|Guipuzcoan Squadron under Miguel de Oquendo.|
|Ship, "Santa Ana," flagship||1,200||47||303||82||385|
|" "N.S. de la Rosa," vice-flagship||945||26||233||64||297|
|" "San Salvador"||958||25||321||75||396|
|" "San Esteban"||736||26||196||68||264|
|" "Santa Marta"||548||20||173||63||236|
|" "Santa Barbara"||525||12||154||45||199|
|" "San Buenventrura"||379||21||168||53||221|
|" "La Maria San Juan"||291||12||110||30||140|
|" "Santa Cruz"||680||16||156||32||188|
|" "San Bernabé||69||9||20||23||43|
|Squadron of Levantine ships under Martin de Bertondona.|
|"La Regazona," flagship||1,249||30||344||80||424|
|"La Lavia," vice-flagship||728||25||203||71||274|
|"La Rata Coronada"||820||35||335||84||419|
|"San Juan de Sicilia"||800||26||279||63||342|
|"La Trinidad Valencera"||1,100||42||281||79||360|
|"San Nicolas Prodaneli"||834||26||374||81||355|
|"Santa Maria de la Vison"||666||18||236||71||307|
|"La Trinidad de Scala"||900||22||307||79||386|
|Fleet of Hulks under Juan Gomez de Medina.|
|"Gran Grifon," flagship||650||38||243||43||286|
|"San Salvador," vice-flagship||650||24||218||43||261|
|"Falcon Blanco," mayor||500||16||161||36||197|
|"Barca de Amburg"||600||23||239||25||264|
|"Casa de Paz Grande"||650||26||198||27||225|
|"San Pedro," mayor||581||29||213||28||241|
|"San Pedro Menor"||500||18||157||23||180|
|"Barca de Anziqne" (Dantzic)||450||26||200||25||225|
|"Falcon Blanco," Mediano||300||16||76||27||103|
|"Casa de Paz," chica||350||15||162||24||186|
|Pataches and Zabras, (fn. 7) commanded by Don Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza.|
|"Nuestra Señora del Pilar," flagship||300||11||109||51||160|
|"La Caridad" (English)||180||12||70||36||106|
|"San Andres" (Scotch)||12||40||29||69|
|"Nuestra Señora del Puerto"||55||8||30||33||63|
|"La Concepcion de Carasa"||70||5||30||42||72|
|"Nuestra Señora de Begoña"||64||20||26||46|
|"La Concepcion de Capetillo"||60||10||20||26||46|
|"Nuestra Señora de Gracia"||57||5||20||34||54|
|"La Concepcion de Francisco de Latero"||75||6||20||29||59|
|"Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe"||70||20||42||62|
|"Nuestra Señora de Castro"||2||26||26|
|"La Concepcion de Valmaseda"||22||22|
|"La Concepcion de Somanila"||31||31|
|"San Juan de Carasa"||23||23|
|22 ships.||1,131||91||479||774||1,093 (fn. 8)|
|Galleasses of Naples, under Don Hugo de Moncada.|
|Galleass, "Capitana" (San Lorenzo)||50||264||124||386 (?)|
|" "Patrona" (Zuñiga)||50||178||112||290|
|Galleys of Portugal, under Don Diego de Medrano.|
|4 with 888 oarsmen.||362||362|
|General Summary of the entire Armada.|
|Squadron of Galleons of Portugal.||12||7,737||347||3,330||1,293||4,623|
|Squadron of Biscay||14||6,567||238||1,937||863||2,800|
|Squadron of Castile||16||8,714||384||2,458||1,719||4,171 (?)|
|Squadron of Andalucia||11||8,962||240||2,327||780||3,105 (?)|
|Squadron of Guipuzcoa||14||6,991||247||1,992||616||2,608|
|Squadron of Levantine Ships.||10||7,705||280||2,780||767||3,523 (?)|
|Pataches and Zabras||22||1,121||91||479||574||1,093 (?)|
|Galleasses of Naples||4||200||773||468||1,341 (?)|
|(fn. 9) 29,453|
Note.—Appended to the above document there is an extremely long
list of the names of all the gentlemen adventurers and officers on
the Armada, with the number of servants by whom each one was
attended. As the list in its entirety has been published by Captain
Fernandez Duro in "La Armada Invencible" it is not considered
necessary to reproduce it here. It may, however, be interesting to
give the following particulars :—
There were 116 gentlemen adventurers, of whom 62 were noblemen. Four of the adventurers appear to be English, one Irish, and one German. There were 456 servants to the gentlemen adventurers. Don Alonso de Leyva (who was to take supreme command in case of the death or disablement of Medina Sidonia) and the prince of Ascoli (the supposed son of Philip II.) having respectively 36 and 39 servants.
There were 238 salaried officers unattached, attended by 163
servants. Of these officers the following appear to have been Irish
or English :—
Sir Maurice Geraldine.
Sir Charles O'Connor.
Sir Thomas Geraldine.
Tristram Winglade (?).
Robert Lario (?).
Sir Peter Marley.
Edward Riford (?).
Sir Robert Daniell.
Thomas Vitres (?), an Irish priest.
The artillery staff consisted in all of 167 men ; the hospital staff of 62 men, with five physicians and five surgeons. Four priests were attached to the hospital staff. There were also 180 monks and friars on the fleet. The regular troops on the Armada were organised into seven regiments of about 25 companies, each consisting of about 100 men. The six Maestres de Campo, or Colonels, namely, Don Diego de Pimentel, Don Francisco de Toledo, Don Alonso de Luzon, Nicolas Isla, Don Agustin Mexia and Gaspar de Sosa (the seventh regiment being composed of detached companies) appear each to have commanded a company, in addition to having a general control of his regiment. The total number of companies was estimated at 172, each under a captain and ensign, and the aggregate of the rank and file is placed at 18,973 men.
The household of the duke of Medina Sidonia consisted of 22 gentlemen and 50 servants.
An immense quantity of spare stores is specified as having been taken on the fleet ; amongst other things 8,000 leather bottles, 5,000 pairs of shoes and 11,000 pairs of sandals, 20 gun-carriages for battery artillery, 3,500 spare cannon balls for the same, 40 artillery mules, waggons, limbers, harness, &c., 7,000 harquebusses, 1,000 muskets, 10,000 pikes, and a great number of all sorts of sappers' tools.
288. Summary Statement of the Vessels that compose the most
fortunate Armada, which His Majesty has ordered to be
collected in this Port of Lisbon, the Commander-in-Chief
of which is the Duke Of Medina Sidonia ; together with
the Soldiers, Sailors, Pilots, Munitions, Provisions, and
other necessaries therein, and the period of time for which
the said provisions will last.
There will go in the Armada 130 ships, as follows :—
|Galleons and ships of war||65|
|Hulks from 300 to 700 tons burden||25|
|Dispatch boats (pataches) from 70 to 100 tons||19|
|Zabras (Biscay smacks), two being large ones belonging to the Portuguese Crown||13|
|The total tonnage of the above ships is 57,868 tons.|
|Caravels taken for the service of the Armada||10 caravels.|
|Armed faluas with six sailors in each||10 faluas.|
|There are taken in all 2,431 pieces of ordnance, namely, 1,497 bronze pieces of various calibres, many of them being cannous or half-culverins and pedrero (stone-shooting) cannons, and 934 cast iron guns||2,431 guns.|
|Balls for the said guns||123,790 balls.|
|Powder for cannon and small-arms||5,175 quintals ; all harquebuss powder.|
|Lead for the harquebusses||1,238 quintals.|
|Harquebuss fire match||1,151 "|
|Men going in the said Armada.|
|Spanish soldiers||16,973 men.|
|Portuguese soldiers||2,000 "|
|Volunteers (Gentlemen adventurers)||124 "|
|Volunteers' servants||465 "|
|Officers unattached||238 "|
|Servants to the same||163 "|
|Hospital staff||85 "|
|Religious of various orders||180 "|
|Gentlemen of the Duke's household||22 "|
|Servants of the Duke's household||50 "|
|Inspector-General and financial staff||17 "|
|Servants of the Inspector-General||50 "|
|Officers of justice||19 "|
|Total number of persons on the Armada||28,605 "|
|In the galleasses and galleys||2,088 "|
|Total strength||30,693 "|
|Stores. (fn. 10)|
|Fish of all sorts||8,000 "|
|Beans and chickpeas||6,320 fanegas.|
|Pipes of water||11,870 pipes.|
|Which stores will suffice the Armada for six months.|
Commander-in-Chief and Principal Officers.
Duke of Medina Sidonia, Commander-in-Chief.
Don Alonso Martinez de Leiva, Commander-in-Chief of the Cavalry of Milan.
Juan Martinez de Recalde, General of the Biscay fleet, Admiral of the whole Armada.
Diego Flores de Valdes, General of the galleons of Castile.
Pedro de Valdes, General of the Andalusian fleet.
Miguel de Oquendo, General of the Guipuzcoan fleet.
Martin de Bertondona, in charge of the Levantine ships.
Juan Gomez de Medina, commanding the hulks.
Don Hugo de Moncada, commanding the four galleasses.
Diego Medrano, commanding the four galleys.
Don Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza, General of the despatch boats.
(N.S.) Paris Archives, K. 1568. French.
289. Advices from London.
Drake has not yet sailed. He is awaiting 20 ships from London and six from Bristol.
He is extremely negligent in guarding his ships ; 1,000 of his men have mutinied for want of pay.
The 20 London ships will not be ready in three weeks.
It is said that the Admiral will join Drake, and that they will have together 100 sail.
It is said that Mr. Winter will guard the Flemish seas with 40 or 50 ships, and they are depending upon the men of Holland and Zeeland, who will help them if necessary.
The Lord Chamberlain, governor of Berwick, (fn. 11) had travelled three days towards London when he was countermanded by the Queen, and returned to Berwick.
The Queen seems to be very jealous and afraid of the king of Scotland.
Great stores of horses and muskets are being collected here, and it is said that we shall be as well supplied with muskets as the Spaniards.
In consequence of some news she recently received from Paris, the Queen became unwell, and almost had an attack of palpitation of the heart.