Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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|21 May (?)
P. A. d. l'E. Neg. K. 1638. 18.
104. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Quintana,
his Secretary and Envoy to the King Of
He is to deliver to the King of France his credentials, and to speak to him as follows.
He and the King of France have already given "proofs to God" that it is their earnest desire to reconcile the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and himself (King Ferdinand) with one another, and thus to restore peace and tranquillity to the whole of Christendom. Thinks he should be acting against the commandments of God, if he were not to do all in his power not only to establish peace but also intimate friendship between the King of France and himself. Is persuaded that the best way to secure peace and friendship would be for him and the King of France to settle all the questions in dispute between themselves before they send their ambassadors to the public and general conference of the envoys from the different princes of Christendom. Sends him for that purpose to the King of France. His mission, however, must be kept strictly secret. Nobody, except the King and the Queen of France, the Cardinal of [blank], and Robertet, ought even to suspect that he is sent on such a mission.
When France and Spain are at peace with one another, the whole of Christendom enjoys the blessings of peace. On the other hand, when France and Spain are at war with one another, the whole of Christendom is convulsed. It is therefore highly important not only to conclude a common treaty of peace, but such a one as will be sure to last for ever. Has, therefore, received with pleasure the proposal of the Cardinal of Santa Croce, that the Infante Ferdinand should contract marriage with the Princess Renée, and that the duchy of Milan should be given as dower to the Princess, to be enjoyed by her after the death of the King of France. Promises the King of France that, if the Princess Renée marries the Infante, he and the Emperor will help him to recover Milan and will defend it as long as they live. He is to tell the King of France that the Infante is a very handsome, intelligent, and good boy. He is already much more developed, both intellectually and bodily, than from his years could be imagined.
If the King of France does not propose soon to deliver the Princess Renée into his keeping as security for the fulfilment of the treaty, he (Quintana) is to ask him to do so. Until the King of France promises this security he is not to enter into negotiations about any other question of detail.
One half of the whole patrimony of the Emperor is the inheritance of the Infante, who, will besides inherit from him (King Ferdinand) the portion due to him by law. He is, therefore, a young prince who is well provided for.
If the King of France requires the kingdom of Naples to be given to the Infante, he is to answer that he (King Ferdinand) will do for the Infante all that can be done without injustice. It may be that the Infante will receive Naples as equivalent for his right of inheritance in Germany. But this point is not yet settled.
Hopes he will be able to make the Infante Grand Master of the three Orders in Spain. That is worth much more than the kingdom of Naples.
Begs the King of France to renounce all his claims on the kingdom of Naples.
If it is impossible to persuade the King of France to make a renunciation of his rights on the kingdom of Naples in his favour, he must try to obtain from him a renunciation of his rights on Naples in favour of the Princess Renée and the Infante, her future husband.
If the King of France asks him to pay the arrears of 50,000 ducats due to him as his pension out of the revenues of Naples, he must answer that it is impossible for him (King Ferdinand) to make any such payment, for he has spent more than two millions of gold in the last war. If the King of France, nevertheless, insists on the payment of the 50,000 ducats, he is to say that he (King Ferdinand) will employ the money in the maintenance of the Princess Renée during the first four years that she will be in his keeping.
It may be that the King of France will ask him to bind himself to help him to defend his dominions against the King of England. If that should be the case, he must tell the King of France that he (King Ferdinand) is ready to conclude a defensive alliance with him, in which he will bind himself to help him to defend France, but that he does not wish the King of England, or any other prince, to be mentioned by name. Such mention would produce enmity.
Does not think that the proposal of the King of France to conquer and destroy Venice is calculated to ensure peace. Begs the King of France to content himself with as much of the duchy of Milan as Duke Lodovico possessed ; that is to say, with Cremona and the Gerrardada, leaving the other towns to Venice. As for the Emperor, he thinks that the Emperor ought to accept peace on the conditions which the Venetians offered him through Count Cariati. Should, however, the Venetians create new difficulties, he is ready to make common cause with the Emperor and the King of France, and to destroy Venice.
The Pope and he have taken under their protection Florence, Siena, and Piombino, and the King of France has other Italian states under his protection. In order to avoid all and every cause of dispute between the King of France and him, he proposes that henceforth the Pope, the King of France, and he shall be joint protectors of the Italian states. Proposes to the King of France to constitute themselves, in the first article of the proposed treaty, perpetual defenders of Pope Leo X. and the Holy Church.
Begs the King of France to conclude with him an article by which each of them will bind himself always to observe friendship, peace, and brotherhood with the Emperor and the King of England. If any disputes should arise between the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and himself, or any two of them, the King of France and he, or either of them, is to employ his good offices in order to reconcile the disputing parties. Such an article is highly desirable, as the Emperor and the King of England would learn from it by what feelings towards them he and the King of France are animated.
The peace and alliance which it is his intention to conclude with the King of France must be a firm and durable alliance.
Pedro Navaro, the Marquis of Bitonto, and the Marquis of Tela must be set at liberty as soon as the treaty is signed.
Is of opinion that the treaty ought at once to be signed in secret by the King of France and him. The conference of their ambassadors with the ambassadors of the Emperor and the King of England must take place afterwards.
He must not permit himself to be deceived by the King of France, and must see that the treaty is concluded without delay.
Begs the King of France to permit him to inform the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England what has been concluded between him and the King of France. It would not be well that his allies should be first informed by the King of France of the conclusion of the treaty in contemplation. Knows the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England very well, and is well acquainted with the manner in which they may be persuaded to enter into an alliance with France and with him.
As soon as the treaty with the King of France is signed he is to send the letter to Hieronymo de Vich, which he has in charge, by a flying courier to Rome. In case the Emperor and the King of England make difficulties and refuse to conclude the general league with the King of France and him, he and the King of France ought to send ambassadors extraordinary to his Holiness, and beg the Pope to promise him and the King of France that, if the King of France should choose him as umpire between him and the Emperor and the King of England, he will not pronounce his verdict until it has been approved by the King of France and him. As soon as the Pope has given such promise, the King of France ought to choose him as umpire, and beg him to pronounce on all or any of his disputes with the Emperor and the King of England. The Emperor and the King of England could not in such a case refuse to accept the arbitration of the Pope. If they were obstinate, the Pope and the General Council might pronounce ecclesiastical censures against them, and take the necessary steps to secure the peace of Christendom.
He is to tell the King of France that the King of England and his councillors have almost forced his (King Ferdinand's) ambassador in England to sign a new treaty of alliance against France, although they knew that he had ordered his ambassador not to conclude such alliance. Has not ratified that treaty, because it has always been his desire to be the most intimate friend of the King of France, his brother.
As soon as the treaty with France is signed the reformation of the Church must be taken in hand, and a general war with the Infidels must be undertaken.
Indorsed : "Instruction to Don Pedro de Quintana. What he is to negotiate with the King of France concerning the secret treaty and the marriage between Madame Renée and the Infante."
Spanish. Draft, written by Miguel Perez Almazan. pp. 11.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. His. B, 1639. No. 33.
105. Treaty between Louis, King Of France, and King
Ferdinand The Catholic. (fn. 1)
The following articles have been covenanted, signed, and sworn to by—
Louis, King of France, on the one part ; and
King Ferdinand the Catholic, in his name as well as in the name of Juana, Queen of Castile, whose guardian he is, on the other part :—
The intentions of the contracting parties are to render peace to Christendom, to remove all causes of dispute between Christian princes, and to make a joint expedition against the Infidels possible.
1. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves to remain friends and allies all their lives long, in order to be better prepared to defend Pope Leo X. and the Holy Church against all aggressors. They intend, besides, to make war upon the Infidels.
2. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves to do all in their power, and to combine their efforts, through the remainder of their lives, to secure a perpetual and general peace of Christendom.
3. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves to remain during all the remainder of their lives friends and brotherly allies of the Emperor and of Henry, King of England. Should, nevertheless, disputes and dissensions arise in future between the contracting parties, or any one of them, and the said Emperor or King of England ; the King of France and King Ferdinand solemnly bind themselves to act in common, or one of them, as mediators, or mediator, between the disputing parties, and to do all in their power to preserve peace.
4. Perpetual peace is to be observed between the contracting parties and all the dominions they possess or in future may possess. They are to assist one another in defending their states.
5. In order to render this alliance more indissoluble, Don Ferdinand, Infante of Castile and Aragon, and son of the late King Philip and Queen Juana, is to marry Madame Renée, second daughter of the King of France. The marriage, per verba de prœsenti, is to be contracted as soon as Madame Renée has attained the twelfth year of her age.
6. The King of France binds himself to give to Madame Renée, to her future husband, Don Ferdinand, and to their legitimate descendants, the duchy of Milan. The Emperor is without delay to give the investiture of the duchy to Madame Renée.
7. Madame Renée is within the time of [blank] to be delivered into the hands of Queen Germaine, wife of King Ferdinand.
8. The King of France binds himself to deliver within the space of 30 days after he has conquered the duchy of Milan a public document to King Ferdinand, in which all the estates of the duchy shall swear fealty to Madame Renée, her future husband, Don Ferdinand, and their legitimate descendants.
9. Don Ferdinand is to have his full share of the inheritance of the Emperor, of King Ferdinand, and of Queen Juana.
10. Monsieur d'Angoulême and Madame Claude are to resign all their rights on the duchy of Milan in favour of Madame Renée.
11. The King of France renounces all his rights on the kingdom of Naples in favour of King Ferdinand.
12. As soon as Madame Renée is delivered into the hands of Queen Germaine, King Ferdinand is bound to assist the King of France to recover as much of the duchy of Milan as was possessed by the late Duke Lodovico.
13. The Pope and King Ferdinand are protectors of Florence, Siena, and Piombino, and other Italian states are under the protection of France. Henceforth this protection of the Italian states is to be exercised in common by the Pope, the King of France, and King Ferdinand the Catholic.
14. The prisoners of war held by either of the contracting parties are to be set at liberty.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed in a more modern hand : "Not executed."
Spanish. It seems to be the original draft of the projected treaty. pp. 7.
S. E. R. L. 847. f. 108.
106. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich,
his Ambassador in Rome.
Has always desired peace, and much more so since the election of the present Pope. Desires his pontificate to be distinguished by peace among Christians and war with the Infidels.
Such being his feelings, he has constantly wished that the Venetians should make peace with the Emperor, and that a general league of the Italian princes should be concluded. A general league of the Italian princes and republics alone can prevent the French from invading Italy. The Venetians, however, have never consented to an alliance with the Emperor, the Pope, and him (King Ferdinand). They have, on the contrary, concluded a treaty of alliance with the King of France. (fn. 2)
The King of England has also behaved in no better manner. He has concluded a truce or peace with the King of France, without including in it either the Emperor or him (King Ferdinand). He thereby enables the French to send an army to Italy to conquer the duchy of Milan.
Moreover, the barons and the people of the duchy of Milan are not contented with their Duke. They are dissatisfied because the Duke is unable to defend them, and has not even conquered the castles of Milan and of Cremona, which are held by the French. They are ready to rise against their Duke as soon as only a small body of French troops enters Italy.
Thus, there is not only no league to repel the French invaders, but all the princes of Christendom are doing what they can to assist them.
[The following paragraph, concerning the King of England, is blotted out in the original document.]
The King of England does not like the French. He even says that it is his intention to invade France with a powerful army ; yet he (King Ferdinand) has always found it impossible to come to any definite conclusion with the English. It has not been possible for him to induce the King of England to conclude a treaty with him respecting the intended invasion of France. If no treaty is concluded, he is not sure that the English would not forsake him, nor could the English count on him. The King of England has even done worse. He has obstinately refused to fulfil his old treaty with him (King Ferdinand), and has forced his ambassador to sign a treaty which he well knew was against the instructions he (King Ferdinand) had given to his ambassador. The King of England is not in earnest with respect to the war with France. His intention is only to frighten the King of France, and to make a profitable peace with him. If the King of England really intended to make war upon France, he would either have renewed his old treaty with Spain, or would have concluded a new one on such conditions as would have made it easy to undertake the war.
Such being the disposition of all Christian princes in and out of Italy, he has thought it advisable that the Pope, the Emperor, and he (King Ferdinand) should come to an understanding with the King of France, obliging him at the same time to make peace with all the other states of Christendom.
The King of France must renounce his rights on Milan, Genoa, and Piacenza, in favour of his daughter Renée, who is to marry the Infante Ferdinand. Milan, Genoa, and Piacenza must at once to be delivered to him (King Ferdinand), who will hold them as governor or administrator, in the name of the King of France, until Madame Renée and the Infante Ferdinand are of age to consummate their marriage. The duchy of Milan is to be limited to those cities and territories which belonged to it in the time of the late Duke Lodovico. For, although the Venetians have forsaken the Pope and him, it would not be wise for the Pope and him to be hard upon the Venetians who in future may have an opportunity of rendering good services in a war with France.
As England leaves France at liberty to invade Italy, and as the Milanese are not contented with their Duke, there is no other remedy left to him (King Ferdinand) but to make Madame Renée and the Infante Ferdinand Duchess and Duke of Milan. The Milanese will like them. This plan will be profitable to all parties, to the Pope, the Emperor, the King of England, and him, as well as to the King of France. The King of England, in especial, as he has already consented to a separate peace or truce with France, will be placed in a position to conclude even a more profitable peace, as he (King Ferdinand) and the Emperor have made it a condition of their reconciliation with the King of France that he should satisfy the demands of the King of England.
The King of France has promised to pay the King of England the usual pensions, and to assist him in giving to Scotland any government he likes.
All these reasons have induced him to conclude a treaty of peace between the Holy Father, the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, if he likes to accept it, the Queen of Castile, the Prince (Charles), and himself. Encloses a copy of the treaty.
The treaty is most profitable to the Pope and the Church. Would rather sacrifice his life than ever refuse his assistance to the Holy Father. Begs the Pope to send him a power to sign the treaty in his name, and to write to the King of France and to him expressing his satisfaction that the treaty has been concluded.
Is of opinion that the Pope ought immediately to bring about a league of all the Italian states to prevent the French from returning to Italy.
The Pope must likewise write to the Emperor and to the King of England, exhorting them to make peace. He must beg them to send ambassadors with sufficient power to Rome, where the treaty is to be signed by all parties.
He may communicate to the Florentines, to the Sienese and to the Siegneur of Piombino as much of the contents of this despatch as he thinks convenient. That done, he is to go to Naples, and there to disband the infantry of his army.
[This despatch is followed by a note, stating that a similar despatch was sent to the Viceroy of Naples and to the Pope himself. At the end of this note stand the words :
The whole of this note is crossed.]
No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "France. Valladolid, the 21st of May 1513. Quintana took this despatch in cipher with him, in order to send it as soon as the treaty of peace was concluded."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 8.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. Hist. K. 1482. No. 30.
107. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Gabriel De Orti,
his Envoy to the King Of France and to the King
After his departure Jaques, one of the valets de chambre of the Queen of France, arrived, and brought two letters written by herself, and addressed, one to himself and the other to the Queen his wife. The Queen of France inquired after his health and begged him to enter into negotiations of peace with France, as the truce had already been concluded. In order to render peace more secure, she proposed to marry her daughter, Madame Renée, with the Infante Ferdinand. The duchy of Milan, she said, would after the death of the King of France be given to the Infante and to Madame Renée as dower.
Answered that he entertained the same wishes for peace as the Queen of France, and begged her to give orders that the treaty of peace and of marriage should be committed to paper.
Jaques will return to France with this answer in two days. (fn. 3) It will take him about twenty days to travel to Blois. It is not only the Cardinal of Santa Croce, but also the Queen of France, who proposes the marriage, and he (King Ferdinand) is inclined not to reject their proposals. Wishes the whole subject to be kept strictly secret, and hopes the treaty will be signed before it becomes known. He is to speak first with the Queen (of France).
He is to tell the King and Queen of France that, although the King of England has declared that he is not willing to observe the truce, he (King Ferdinand) is fully determined to abide by it. Hopes still to prevail upon the King of England to accept the truce and to conclude a good and amicable peace. He must try to bring the negotiations of peace to a conclusion whilst the English are making preparations to invade France.
The King of France has written to Queen Germaine, and asked her to lend him her good offices, in order that a general peace of Christendom may be concluded.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Valladolid, 23rd May 1513."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
P. A. d. l'E. K. B. 1. 48/61.
108. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Gabriel De Orti,
his Envoy to France.
The Queen of France has sent to him Jaques, a gentleman of her bed chamber. The King of France proposes to marry his second daughter Madame Renée, to the Infante Ferdinand, and to give them the duchy of Milan after his death.
He is to speak about this affair with the Queen of France in secret. If the King of France had made these offers earlier it would have been much better.
Indorsed : "23rd May. Gabriel de Orti."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. Hist. K. 1482. No. 31.
109. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Don Pedro De
Quintana, his Secretary and Ambassador. (fn. 4)
Wrote to him two days ago, and sent his letter by Peti Juan. Received on the day of the date of this despatch a letter from Pedro de Urea, dated Augsburgh the 12th of May, by which he is informed that Don Pedro and an ambassador of the Emperor are on their way to Spain, bringing with them a full power of the Emperor to ratify the truce.
He is to tell the King and Queen of France this, and to beg the King to prorogue the time which has been fixed for the ratification of the treaty of truce.
Is of opinion that a peace between France, Spain, and the Emperor would be attended with great advantages. Is determined to conclude a separate peace with France if the Emperor refuses to become a party to it.
He is to ask the Queen and even the King of France whether they are willing to deliver Madame Renée to him as security for the fulfilment of the treaty.
He is immediately to write the answer of the King of France and all that he is able to learn respecting England.
Has learnt that in Germany, in Italy, and in other parts he is suspected of entertaining an ambassador in France, and it seems that Gabriel de Orti is generally believed to be that ambassador. Empowers him to send Gabriel de Orti back to Spain, if he thinks it advisable.— No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Valladolid, 27th May 1513."
Spanish : Draft. pp. 1½.