Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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S. E. Var. L. 1554. f. 6.
168. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Don Ramiro Nuñez
De Guzman, his Ambassador In Genoa.
Informs him that he has concluded a truce for one year between the Emperor, the King of England, himself, and the Prince (Charles), on the one part ; and the Kings of France and Scotland on the other part.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Ramiro Nuñez de Guzman."
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
S. E. Fl. L. 496. ff. 37, 38.
169. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in
Answered his last letters on the 9th of March, and instructed him to tell Madame Margaret that the truce with France having been concluded at the orders of the Emperor, there was no choice left him but to observe it. The Emperor told Quintana that he would take upon himself to persuade the King of England to ratify the truce.
He is to tell Madame Margaret, in secret, that the principal reason why the Emperor and he had accepted the offers of France was because they had discovered a conspiracy of the Italians to drive him and the Emperor out of Italy, and to wrest from them their Italian states. Such being the case, it would have been foolish of the Emperor and of him to have left their own states defenceless for the sake of making war on France. Hopes Madame Margaret will be of the same opinion and help the Emperor to persuade the King of England not to resist the conclusion of the truce, but to accept and ratify it. It is very necessary that the Emperor, the King of England, and he should be always united in friendship and brotherly feeling, whether they have made a truce or a peace, or whether they are at war with the King of France. Otherwise France would soon break her engagements, in order to carry out her ambitious plans. The more France strives to separate them the more reason they have to remain united.
Madame Margaret is the person on whom, more than on any one else on earth, peace or war depends. Beseeches her to use her great influence in favour of peace. The Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and he will send ambassadors to her, and she can conduct the negotiations of peace, and the treaty can be concluded in her presence.
The treaty of truce was concluded on the 13th of March. It is to last one year. Hostilities are to cease on land and at sea. The contracting parties are the Emperor, the Queen of Castile, the King of England, he, and the Prince (Charles), on the one part, and the King of France and the King of Scotland, on the other part. The Duke and the duchy of Milan are included in it. Quintana has sent a ratified copy of it to the Emperor. He is to see that, if negotiations of peace are begun, they are carried on in the most secret manner. There are a great many persons who would oppose the peace.
Madame Margaret wishes to marry the King of France. Tells him in secret, and only for his information, that the King of France wishes to marry again because he wishes to have children, and he believes that Madame Margaret would not bear him children. That is the reason why he would not like to marry her. Should, however, the King of France show any inclination towards a marriage with Madame Margaret, he would do all in his power to promote it.
Artieta and his (Juan de Lanuza's) brother have arrived. Thanks Madame for all she has done concerning the arrest of Juan Manuel. Begs her to continue her good services, and to see that Juan Manuel is punished, and the other bad servants who are bent on sowing discord between brothers and father and sons.
Sends his (Juan de Lanuza's) brother back to Flanders with letters for him and Madame.
The Pope, on the 4th of March, pronounced judgment as umpire, and declared peace between the Emperor and the Venetians.
The Cardinal of Gurk is a faithful servant to him and to the Emperor. Begs Madame Margaret to show him favour.— No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to the Knight Commander de Lanuza."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 16.
170. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Answered all his letters concerning the treaty of Lille in the despatch which was sent on the 8th of December by the courier Guadalupe. He and the other Spanish ambassadors had not signed that treaty, but had sent a copy of it to him (King Ferdinand), in order that he might sign it if he liked. Changed different articles of the treaty, and sent a copy of the altered treaty, signed and sealed, back to him, ordering him to show it to the King of England, and to ask him likewise to sign and seal it in its new form. The changes related principally to the pay of the 6,000 German troops and to the security the King of England was to give. Wrote another despatch to him on the 20th of December, and sent it by the same courier (Guadalupe), who received it before embarking for England. Told him in the second despatch not to speak to the King of England about the alterations in the treaty until he had received more formal instructions respecting the security which the King of England was to give.
These despatches show how desirous he was to carry out the wishes of the Emperor and the King of England, and how much he wished and still wishes to remain their close ally. When, however, he was about to send formal instructions respecting the security to be given by the King of England, he discovered a great conspiracy of the Italian princes to deprive him and the Emperor of their Italian dominions. The conspirators were only waiting for the moment when war with France should begin, in order to execute their treason. They were persuaded that they could conquer in one month all that he and the Emperor possessed in Italy. Obtained, by a miracle, the very letters of the conspirators. Informed the Emperor, who was of opinion that they ought to conclude a truce of one year with the King of France, and to suppress, during that time, the Italian conspiracy.
The truce is concluded between the Emperor, the King of England, himself (King Ferdinand), and the Prince (Charles) on the one part, and the Kings of France and of Scotland on the other part. The danger arising from the Italian conspiracy would not only have affected the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand), but the detrimental consequences of it would also have been felt by the King of England and his sister, the Princess of Castile. (fn. 1) Was of the same opinion as the Emperor, that is to say, that it was necessary first to defend their own states.
His interests are inseparably united with those of the Emperor and the King of England. Refused, therefore, to conclude the truce with France before King Louis had given him sufficient security that he would satisfy the demands of the King of England with respect to the government of Scotland and the peace between the English and Scotch. Besides, the King of France has declared himself ready to pay annually to the King of England the usual pensions.
He is to ask the King of England to keep secret what he has told him about the conspiracy of the Italians. Intends, in common with the Emperor, to punish the Italians before they know that he has discovered their perfidy. He is not to tell the King of England that he (King Ferdinand) has sent him a signed and sealed copy of the treaty of Lille ; on the contrary, he is to declare that he (King Ferdinand) intended to deliver the copy of the modified treaty to the English ambassador in Spain.
He is further to communicate to the King of England that the Emperor, when he proposed the truce with France, took upon himself to persuade the King of England to ratify it, and authorized Quintana to sign it in his (the Emperor's) name, and in the name of all his allies. Could not believe but that the Emperor, who is not staying far from England, had first consulted with the King of England on this matter. He is to tell the King of England anything he thinks expedient. He must do all in his power to obtain from the King of England the ratification of the truce with France ; but he must not ask the King of England to deliver him a ratified copy of the truce, as the Emperor has taken upon himself to procure it. He is only to assist the ambassador of the Emperor in his efforts. Has incorporated in the treaty of truce with France the article respecting Scotland, in order to avoid the appearance of leaving the King to carry on the Scotch war by himself, especially as the Regent of Scotland is the sister, and the King the nephew, of the King of England.
The Queen of France had offered, shortly before she died, to bring about a general peace of Christendom. Rejected all such offers until he discovered the Italian conspiracy. Entered afterwards into negotiations on this subject with the Emperor, who was to inform the King of England of what was going on. When the Queen of France died the Emperor proposed to him to marry Madame Eleanor to King Louis, and at the same time to open negotiations with France respecting the general peace proposed by the late Queen of France. The Emperor expressed his opinion that it would be advisable to conclude the peace if the King of France satisfied all the demands of the King of England and of the other confederates.
If the King of France, he said, were to marry the sister of the Prince (Charles), who, on his part, is married to the sister of the King of England, the great princes of Christendom would be united together by such close bonds of relationship that a general peace would be secured, and a treaty of alliance between him (the Emperor), the King of England, him (Ferdinand), and the Prince (Charles), on the one part, and the King of France on the other part, might be concluded, especially as the reasons for which he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England undertook the war with France no longer exist. They began the war in order to defend the Holy Church and to uproot the schism. But the King and the Church of France have renounced the schismatic council ; they have also submitted to the demands of the Pope, and done penance.
Is of opinion that he and the King of England ought not to neglect the advice of the Emperor. A general peace and great advantages would be obtained by concluding peace with France.
Should the King of France not satisfy the reasonable demands of England, or afterwards not fulfil his promises, two things could be done during the time of the truce ; he and the Emperor could remove the danger with which their Italian states are threatened, and he, the Emperor, and the King of England could conclude a league between themselves. The preparations for war with France might be made during the time of truce, and actual war might begin as soon as the truce was at an end.
His wish is to bring about a general peace of Christendom. The Emperor desires the same thing. He (Don Luis) is to do all in his power to induce the King of England to adopt his and the Emperor's policy of peace. The Emperor will begin negotiations with the King of England on this subject. He is to join the Imperial ambassador in his efforts as soon as a favourable opportunity occurs. He is to tell the King of England that the King of France will probably have a son by Madame Eleanor, who will be his successor on the throne of France. It would be no small advantage if the King of France, being married to the sister of Prince Charles, were the brother of the Prince ; and the Prince, being married to the sister of the King of England, were the brother of the King. All three of them, the King of France, the King of England, and Prince Charles, would thus be united in brotherly love. The future King of France, though not a brother, would still be the nephew of the Prince, and consequently of the King of England. But the principal security of peace is and always will be that the Emperor, the King of England, he (King Ferdinand), and the Prince (Charles) would remain friends and allies in peace and war.
He is to burn the treaty of Lille, and only to keep a copy of it.
The Pope has sent a nuncio to England, who is ordered by his Holiness to do all he can to reconcile the King of England with the King of France. He is to tell the nuncio that the Pope wishes soon to see the general peace concluded, towards which the late truce is the first indispensable step. The interests of Italy are taken care of in the truce, as the King of France has bound himself not to attack the Duke or the duchy of Milan.
Leaves him at liberty to communicate to the King of England all the contents of this despatch, or only a portion of them, according to his judgment. At all events, he is to preserve the friendship of the King of England.
The Pope intends to dissolve the Council of the Lateran at the next sitting. Thinks it is very wrong to dismiss the council before it has come to a conclusion on the subjects for which it was convoked, viz., a general war with the Infidels and the reformation of the Church. The King of England ought to remonstrate with the Pope. Is willing to do the same.—No date. No signature.
On the margin is written : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.
S. E. A. L. 635. f. 11.
171. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his
Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Has received his letter dated the 20th of February, in which he writes that the Emperor was very glad to learn from him what the Pope intended to do. Has since received letters from Rome of the 5th of March, by which he is informed that the Holy Father, in accordance with the arbitration made by him, pronounced, on the 4th of March, peace between the Emperor and the Venetians. Encloses a transcript of the articles of that peace. The Pope has delivered a bull to the Cardinal of Gurk, in which he promises not to give judgment on the reserved points without having first obtained his (King Ferdinand's) express approval.
Quintana has sent him a copy of the truce which he had concluded with the King of France in virtue of the power that the Emperor had given him. Is informed by Quintana that another copy of the truce, ratified by the King of France, has been sent to him (Pedro de Urea), in order that he might exchange it with the ratification of the Emperor. The truce with France does not make any difference as to the truce of the Emperor with Venice. Promises not to permit the Pope to give any judgment on the reserved points of the quarrel of the Emperor with Venice, excepting such as shall entirely satisfy the Emperor. Thus, the peace of the Emperor with Venice is equivalent to a truce for one year. Begs the Emperor to ratify it. His ratification will serve to conceal the secret negotiatons which he and the Emperor are carrying on with France. If the Emperor should refuse to ratify the treaty of peace with Venice, he would thereby render the Pope and the Italians suspicious. For the same reason it seems advisable to continue the negotiations about the general league with the Italians.
Begs the Emperor to ratify the treaty with France without delay, and to use his influence with the King of England to persuade him likewise to ratify the French treaty. The Emperor can tell the King of England, in secret, that he (King Ferdinand) has discovered a conspiracy of the Italians to drive them (the Emperor and King Ferdinand) out of Italy as soon as war with France had begun. In order to prevent the Italians from carrying out this plan, he can say, it has seemed to him (King Ferdinand) and to the Emperor necessary to make a truce with France. The Emperor may further represent to the King of England that it was incumbent on them first to save their (the Emperor's and King Ferdinand's) own states, especially as their losses would be likewise a loss to the King of England and to his sister, the Princess of Castile. (fn. 2) Begs, further, the Emperor to remind the King of England that he (King Ferdinand) and the Emperor had not concluded any kind of treaty with France without including in it all their allies. The King of France has even promised to use his influence in Scotland in such a way that the government of that country and the peace with England shall be settled to the entire satisfaction of the King of England. (fn. 3) He has further bound himself to pay the King of England the same pension which he paid him formerly. Thinks it will not be difficult for the Emperor to persuade the King of England to ratify the truce with France if he offer to marry Prince Charles to his sister, and promises to make him King of the Romans. The consummation of the marriage of Prince Charles can be postponed until his bodily strength is sufficient to fulfil the duties of a husband.
The King of England must likewise be given to understand that, in case he should not ratify the treaty with France, it would then appear as if he were not on friendly terms with the Emperor and with him (King Ferdinand), an appearance that ought to be avoided by all means ; for the King of France desires nothing more than to disunite them, only because he hopes to profit by their disunion.
Is of opinion that it would be very expedient that the Cardinal of Gurk should be sent to the Emperor. He is the very person who could best induce the Emperor to ratify the treaty with France. He (Pedro de Urea) is to ask the Emperor to beg as a favour from the Pope that the Cardinal of Gurk may be sent as Papal Legate to Germany. It is evident why the Pope must not know for what purpose the presence of the Cardinal at the Imperial Court is desired. The Emperor can tell the Pope that he wishes to arrange with the Cardinal the reserved points of his treaty of peace with the Venetians. The Cardinal of Gurk has asked him (King Ferdinand) to procure for him from the King of France the bishopric of Bourges. (fn. 4) He (Don Pedro) is to tell him that he is already in possession of a rent of 5,000 ducats a year in Milan, and that this rent might be increased. Is using his influence with the Emperor in order to procure for the Cardinal of Gurk the bishopric of Salzburg. Thinks that the bishopric of Salzburg is worth much more than that of Bourges, and is of opinion that it would be difficult to obtain the Papal dispensation to hold three bishoprics. Advises the Cardinal, therefore, to accept the bishopric of Salzburg, and not to think of that of Bourges. The true reason why he does not wish to see the bishopric of Bourges conferred on the Cardinal of Gurk is that that prelate would thereby become dependent on the King of France.
The Emperor has changed his mind respecting the article of the treaty which relates to Milan. A war with France would now be unjust, since the King of France has renounced his adhesion to the schismatic council, and adheres to the Council of the Lateran. Besides, the war would be very expensive and dangerous to them (the Emperor and King Ferdinand) and to their successors. It would be unreasonable to carry on continual war with France only for the Duke Maximilian, and, in addition, to give up their conquest of Venice. If the King of France were to marry his daughter to the Duke of Milan, as the Emperor seems to wish, the consequences would be detrimental to them (the Emperor and King Ferdinand) ; for the Duke Maximilian would by such a marriage become a stout partisan of France. On the other hand, a marriage of the Duke Maximilian with one of their grandchildren would be impossible, as the King of France, although he might readily renounce his rights on Milan in favour of his daughter, could scarcely be expected to renounce the same rights in favour of the Duke Maximilian. All these reasons induce him to wish that the Emperor may, as soon as possible, ratify the treaty of peace with France, especially as there is some danger lest the King of France should conclude a separate treaty with the King of England.
The Emperor must treat this subject with the greatest secrecy. He must not send formal embassies, but some confidential gentleman of his palace. The Pope and the Italians suspect that they are negotiating with France, and if they knew the nature of the negotiations they would oppose them with all their power. The treaty must be concluded before the world knows that it is in contemplation.
Is informed that Madame Margaret wishes to become Queen of France, and thinks that the marriage of Madame Eleanor is injurious to herself. For this reason, and because she thinks her (Eleanor?) an enemy of France, and partly because she wishes to give satisfaction to the King of England, she secretly opposes the treaty. (fn. 5) He is to beg the Emperor to speak to Madame Margaret, and to make her understand that the peace, as it is projected, is a most advantageous one for them, and the only means whereby all difficulties can be overcome. He is, however, not to speak in direct terms of the marriage (of Madame Margaret with the King of France). Thinks it would be expedient to show great honour to Madame Margaret, and to admit her as a contracting party to the treaty, if it be certain that she approves of it, and will keep it secret.
The King of France will perhaps not be inclined to assist with his army in an enterprise on Venice. It would therefore be best to ask for money only from him. The Emperor ought to pay a portion of the Spanish infantry with the money he is to receive from the Venetians. Their armies are to remain where they are. The Emperor can tell the Italians that he (King Ferdinand) keeps a portion of the Venetian territory until the Pope has pronounced on the reserved points, in order to secure the execution of that judgment.
If the Emperor should refuse to conclude peace with France, he (King Ferdinand) will disband his army in Italy. The Emperor must then accept the conditions pronounced by Pope Julius, that is to say, he must leave Verona and Vicenza to Venice, and content himself with Padua and Treviso, with a payment of 250,000 ducats, and with a tribute of 30,000 ducats. All the other territories in dispute will remain in the possession of the Venetians, who will pay a considerable sum of money for them to the Emperor, who, at all events, must himself decide without delay which of the two lines of policy he will adopt.
The Emperor consents to his request that a great state should be formed in Italy, and given to the Infante Ferdinand. Is of opinion that, as the Infante Ferdinand is to have Milan and Venice, he may renounce his inheritance in Germany. Spain, Germany, and the two Sicilies will then form the inheritance of the Prince (Charles). Postpones his decision on the fate of Genoa until peace is concluded, and Milan is in their power. If Genoa behave well, she may be spared ; if not, they can afterwards do what they like with her.
It is important that the Swiss should not believe what Juan Jacobo has told them. They must, therefore, be assured that the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) intend to conclude a league with them for no other purpose than the defence of their states. As soon as the time appointed for the conquest of Milan arrives, the Emperor, the King of France, and he can send an embassy to the Swiss, and tell them that Milan belongs by right to the King of France, and not to the Duke Maximilian. They can promise the Swiss that they will remain their friends, and pay them the pension which the Duke Maximilian has granted them.
Begs the Emperor to order his servants in Italy not to conduct themselves with so much arrogance as they do.
Is informed that the Pope is resolved to dissolve the Council of the Lateran without deciding any of the questions for which it was convoked, and especially those concerning the reformation of the Church and the war with the Infidels. Begs the Emperor to tell the Pope that he has no right to do so. There are decretals of councils which state expressly that the Pope cannot dissolve a council until it has concluded the business for which it was convoked. Will do the same.
He is to burn the original copy of the treaty of Lille, which he (King Ferdinand) has signed and sealed, and sent by Heredia. He is, however, to retain a copy of it.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
On the margin is written by Almazan : (fn. 6) "Fiat."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 12.
S. E. Cor. d. Ar. L. 267. f. 32.
172. King Ferdinand The Catholic to his Viceroy Of
In order to pacify Christendom and to undertake a war with the Infidels, he has concluded a truce of one year between the Emperor, Queen Juana, his daughter, the King of England, himself, and the Prince (Charles), his grandson, on the one part, and the King of France and King of Scotland on the other part. The Duke and duchy of Milan is included in this treaty. Orders him to publish it in Pamplona, &c.
Similar orders to the Warden of the Castle of Amposta, Governor of Valentia, Viceroy of Majorca, &c. &c.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
S. E. Var. L. 1554. f. 3.
173. King Ferdinand Of Spain to Diego Del Aguila, his
Ambassador in Milan.
As it seems impossible to obtain at once from France all that he desires, he has tried whether he cannot obtain it in two instalments. Has therefore concluded a truce of one year between the Emperor, the King of England, himself, and the Prince, on the one part, and the King of France and the King of Scotland on the other part. It is his intention afterwards to convert this truce into a definitive peace. The Duke and duchy of Milan will, during the time of this truce, be in perfect security from any attack of the King of France. Orders him to make this known to the Duke. Wishes to know whether the Pope is intriguing against him.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Diego del Aguila."
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.