Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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S. E. A. L. 635. f. 8.
189. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Sent him a despatch by Benito de Vereda on the 21st of last month, and informed him of the state in which affairs then were. Insisted much on the necessity of a speedy peace between the Emperor and the Venetians, without which a general league for the defence of their states would be impossible. Taking into account the great danger in which they are placed, and considering that the Venetians cannot be persuaded to accept the peace proposed by the late Pope Julius, or that proposed by the present Pope last year, he begged the Emperor, without delay, to send power to Rome to conclude peace with Venice on condition of his receiving only Verona and its territory, and leaving all the other towns and territories to the Venetians, who are ready to pay him a large sum of money. As soon as the Emperor should have sent his power, not only peace with Venice, but also the general league, would be concluded, to which the Venetians are to be parties. Such a league would render it impossible for the King of France ever to invade Italy. Thus, their states, and the Duke and duchy of Milan would be in safety, and the Emperor might employ the money he is to receive from the Venetians for the conquest of Burgundy.
Has since received letters from Rome, dated the 23rd of last month, in which he is told that the Pope is very desirous of the league for the defence of Italy in general, and of Milan in particular. His Holiness says that he is quite resolved never to separate himself from the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand). But although the Pope is very firm in appearance, he is secretly believed to be delaying the conclusion of the league, until the Emperor has made peace with Venice. The Emperor must not deceive himself. He will gain nothing by deferring the conclusion of peace with Venice, for the Venetians are very proud and hopeful now that they expect an invasion of Italy by the French.
Has received his letters of the 23rd of last month. Learns by them that the Emperor approves of his (King Ferdinand's) plan of forming a general league with the Italians and the Swiss, as the negotiations with France are broken off. Has likewise observed that the Emperor has sent an ambassador to Rome, and empowered him to conclude the general league on such conditions as he (King Ferdinand) might think convenient, and to make peace with Venice on condition that he retains Brescia, Verona, and some of the passes of Friuli. It is to be hoped that the Emperor, when he sees Cardinal Gurk at Inspruck, will make more concessions. He is to write to the Emperor, and tell him how necessary it is that the peace with Venice and the general league should be immediately concluded. The King of France has broken off all negotiations with him and the Emperor, and is preparing to invade Italy. Not only Brescia, Bergamo, and Verona are in danger of being wrested from the Emperor, but Naples and Sicily are also in danger of being lost to their heirs. It is not impossible that the King of France should enter now into an alliance with the Pope and the Swiss.
His finances are in a bad state. It is impossible for him to pay his army any longer than up to the end of October of the present year ; after which time his infantry will disperse, and he will be obliged to march his men-at-arms back to Naples.
He is to do his utmost to prevent the Emperor, whose dilatory policy has already been the cause of the failure of their negotiations with France, from causing the present negotiations to be broken off by his procrastinations. That would be their utter ruin.
Is informed that the Emperor wishes the league to be not only defensive, but offensive also. It is his firm conviction that the defensive league must be first concluded. An offensive league can afterwards be easily made. Now to ask the Pope and the Venetians to enter into an offensive league against France would be to put into jeopardy even the defensive league, and would, at all events, cause delay.
The Emperor says that the Swiss will not march into Italy if they are not at least 8,000 or 10,000 men strong. If that be so, all the confederates must contribute to pay the desired number of Swiss. Although the number of Swiss will be greater than that of either the Spanish or German troops, the Spaniards and Germans united will be strong enough to prevent them from doing any harm to the Germans, whom the Swiss hate.
If Madame Margaret is disposed to marry the Duke of Milan, the marriage is to be concluded as soon as possible. Confides in Madame Margaret as much as in any of his granddaughters.
Is informed that the King of England has included the Prince (Charles) in his treaty with France, and has left him three months liberty to declare whether he will be a party to that peace or not. The Emperor wishes his advice on this subject. Is of opinion that the Prince (Charles) ought to accept the offer of the King of England, and to become a party to the peace between England and France. He thereby secures his states in Flanders.
Has read the answer which the Emperor gave to the King of England when he was informed of the peace between England and France. Approves of the behaviour of the Emperor. Nevertheless, he and the Emperor must not let any opportunity pass of gaining over the King of England to their side. An alliance between the Emperor, Spain, England, and the Prince (Charles) is the most advantageous thing that can be obtained for all of them.
The Knight Commander Gilaberte must be sent back to him, and the sooner the better.
The Cardinal of Gurk must go as legate to Germany.
Sends a letter in favour of Micer Jacobus de Bannisis, who wishes to have the deanery of Antwerp.
Sends a letter for Count Cariati, and 600 florins for Master Mota.
Thinks that the marriage of the Prince (Charles) with the daughter of the King of Hungary would be attended with great advantages.
Should the marriage between Madame Margaret and the Duke of Milan come to a conclusion, he is to procure with ...
[The despatch breaks off at this point.]—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Pedro Urea."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 20.
The despatch is extremely diffuse, the same phrases being repeated over and over again.
S. E. Fl. L. 496. ff. 30, 31, 32.
190. Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in Flanders.
Has received his letters of the 30th of September, and has read with great pleasure that Madame Margaret is so well disposed towards him, and has so earnestly asked the Emperor immediately to send a power to Rome to conclude peace with the Venetians on condition that the Emperor retains Verona and the Veronese territories only, receiving for his other claims a goodly sum of money from the Venetians.
Has received letters from Rome, dated the 23rd of September. Learns by them that the Pope entertains the best intentions towards the Emperor and him, and says he wishes much that the peace between the Emperor and Venice, as well as the general league for defending the Duke and duchy of Milan and the whole of Italy, should be soon concluded. His Holiness is desirous that the French should be prevented from returning to Italy. Although the Pope openly declares that he would like to see the general league concluded soon, it is known that in secret he wishes to postpone its conclusion until the Emperor has made peace with the Venetians ; for he thinks that until this peace is made the general league would be of no use whatever, since the Venetians could not be a party to it.
Is informed by the same letters that the Venetians, hoping that the French will soon be in Italy, are haughty, and refuse to accept any peace on conditions less advantageous than those proposed to them. The Pope, he is told, has declared himself ready, directly after peace is made with Venice, to conclude the general league, to remain under all circumstances united with the Emperor and him, and to declare war with France. It is the firm intention of his Holiness to reduce the King of France to the necessity of abandoning all his plans on Italy and making peace with all the members of the league.
If the Emperor does not make peace with the Venetians, the general league cannot be concluded. If the general league is not concluded, the French will have it in their power to invade Italy. If the French invade Italy, the Venetians will be able not only to conquer Brescia and Verona, but as many more cities as they like, and the Emperor would lose not only Brescia and Verona, but also the money which the Venetians offer him at present ; the whole of Italy would be in danger, and the kingdom of Naples, which is the inheritance of the Prince (Charles), the grandson of the Emperor, could scarcely be defended.
On the other hand, if the Emperor concludes peace with the Venetians, the general league would soon follow the Pope, the Duke of Milan, the Swiss, the Venetians, Florence, and all the other Italian states would be their allies ; Naples would be out of danger ; France would be forced to renounce for ever her claims on Milan and the other states of Italy ; the general peace of the Christian world would be secured, and a war with the Infidels could be undertaken.
The Emperor must choose between the losses and the dishonour of the first alternative and the invaluable advantages to him and to Christendom in general of the second alternative, the adoption of which would crown him with immortal glory. He is to tell Madame Margaret this, and to beseech her to persuade the Emperor to the utmost of her ability to send his power to Rome without delay, and to order his ambassador to conclude peace with Venice in his name, on condition that he is to have Verona and the Veronese territories only, the Venetians paying him money in consideration of his waiving his other claims. If the Emperor delays the conclusion of the peace, and the French invade Italy, it will be too late. The Venetians will be still more haughty, and will refuse to accept the conditions they now offer. If the Emperor repeats the errors he committed during the negotiations with France, he will ruin himself and him (King Ferdinand).
He writes to him (King Ferdinand) that Monsieur de Ravastans (fn. 1) and Monsieur de Vendôme say that he (King Ferdinand) has resumed his negotiations with France concerning the marriage between the Infante (Ferdinand) and Madame Renée. It is clear that this is quite the contrary of what he intends. It is, however, an old habit of the French to invent stories, and to render those who are friends and allies suspicious of one another. Their intention is to separate him from the Emperor and Madame Margaret. They give him also very unfavourable reports about the Emperor and Madame. Knows the French, and their calumnies produce no effect upon him. Begs the Emperor and Madame Margaret, who know the French as well as he, to do the same as he does. The French have openly declared that they are afraid of the grandeur and power of the Prince who is to be the heir of both the Emperor and him, and they are trying, therefore, to separate them, hoping that, in consequence of their disunion, the Prince might lose one half of his inheritance. All that Madame de Ravastans has said to this effect to Madame Margaret is pure invention. In order to put an end to these French insinuations, he thinks the proposal of Madame Margaret that the Infante should immediately marry the daughter of the King of Hungary, is very wise. This marriage would be a great advantage to the Prince (Charles) with respect to the states which he is to inherit in Germany.
The Kings of France and of England have reserved to the Prince the right to become a party to the treaty they have lately concluded, and Madame Margaret wishes to know his opinion about it. He is to tell her that he is as much concerned in the security of the states of the Prince as in that of his own states and of the possessions of Queen Juana, his daughter. Advises her, therefore, to accept the offer of the King of France and of the King of England, and to see that the Prince becomes a party to their treaty. The advantage of it is twofold ; the dominions of the Prince are thereby placed beyond all danger of an attack or invasion, and the Emperor and he are at greater liberty to act as they choose with respect to Italy. He is to tell Madame Margaret that notwithstanding the treaty which the King of England has concluded with the King of France, the Emperor and he must try to win the King of England over to their party. An alliance and a real friendship between the Emperor, the King of England, and him would be a most advantageous thing for all three of them, and for the Prince (Charles). Does all in his power to gain the friendship of the King of England, and begs Madame Margaret, on her part, to do the same thing.
Has written to Don Pedro de Urea ordering him to propose to the Emperor a marriage between the Duke of Milan and one of their common granddaughters. Such a marriage would contribute to remove the suspicions which the Pope and the Italians have of the Emperor and of him. Don Pedro has answered that, according to what the Emperor has told him, Madame Margaret wishes to marry the Duke of Milan. Loves Madame Margaret as though she were his own child, and has ordered Don Pedro de Urea to do all he can to conclude this marriage soon. As however, it is of the utmost importance that the successor of Madame in the government of Flanders be a person who is faithful to the Emperor, to the Prince, and to him, he (de Lanuza) is to take care that a proper person be appointed as successor to Madame.
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to the Knight Commander de Lanuza."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.