Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. l. Cas. d. A. L. 2. f. 49.
34. Maximilian, Emperor Elect, to All Persons.
Ratifies the treaty concluded with King Ferdinand at Blois on the 12th of December 1509, in which the Pope and the Kings of France and England are included.—Bolzano, the 1st of January 1510.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
35. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Between him and the King of England, his son, there are and ought to be no other feelings except those of true love, as becomes a good father and a good son. Empowers him, therefore, in his name and in the name of Queen Juana of Castile, whose governor he is, to conclude with the King of England a treaty of most intimate and everlasting friendship and alliance.—Valladolid, the 6th of January 1510.
Latin. Autograph. pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 136.
36. Henry VIII. Treaty with Louis, King Of France.
The commissioners of the King of England are Richard, Bishop of Winchester ; Thomas, Bishop of Durham ; and Thomas, Earl of Surrey.
The commissioners of the King of France are Anthony Bothier, Abbot of St. Trinity, &c., in Rouen ; Randon Lanoy, Chamberlain of the King of France ; and Anthony Danzolles, Seneschal of the King of France.
1. The King of England and the King of France conclude a treaty of peace and friendship between themselves, their subjects, dominions, and confederates for the time of their joint lives and one year longer.
|2. All wars, fighting, quarrelling, &c., between the contracting parties, their subjects, and confederates are henceforth entirely to cease.|
|3. All subjects of one of the contracting parties are at liberty to travel, stay, and carry on business in the dominions of the other contracting party. If they are armed, they are not to be permitted to assemble in greater numbers than 100 at a time.|
|4. All the duties, taxes, and other burdens laid within the last 47 years on the merchants of one of the contracting parties in the dominions of the other contracting party are abolished. The privileges of towns and counties, however, remain in full force.|
|5. All merchants, whether subjects of the contracting princes, or Venetians, Florentines, and Genoese, are at liberty to import their own or foreign merchandise into France and England in their own or foreign vessels.|
|6. Both contracting princes promise to undertake nothing that could be detrimental to the other contracting party or its confederates. Should one of the contracting parties, in contravention of this treaty, undertake anything by which the other contracting party could be injured, full reparation must be given as soon as the injured party makes complaint.|
7. The King of England binds himself not to suffer soldiers
and other armed persons to assemble in Calais, Ham, and
Guines, or in any other town or haven subject to his authority,
in order to perpetrate acts of robbery or piracy. The
King of France binds himself not to permit soldiers and other
armed men to assemble in Boulogne, Fiennes, or in any other
towns or havens of France, with the intention to perpetrate
acts of piracy or robbery. Should, nevertheless, subjects of
one of the contracting parties attack and rob subjects of the
other contracting prince, by sea or by land, full reparation is
to be given.
If a subject or subjects of one of the contracting princes is or are arrested by armed subjects of the other prince, and the case is not clear enough to be decided summarily, the conservators of this treaty will inquire into it, and set the arrested persons at liberty as soon as sufficient security is given for them.
Neither of the contracting princes will grant letters of marque and reprisal against the subjects of the other contracting party, except against great and notorious criminals, or in case of open denial of justice.
If the subjects of one of the contracting parties should act in contravention to this treaty, the treaty itself will, nevertheless, remain in full force, and only the guilty persons will be punished.
8. Included in this treaty are—
By England :
Pope Julius II. ; Maximilian, King of the Romans and Emperor elect ; the Kings of Aragon, Hungary, Denmark, Scotland, Bohemia, and Portugal ; Charles, Prince of Castile ; the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers ; the Bishop of Utrecht ; and the German Hanseatic towns :
By France :
Pope Julius II. ; the Emperor elect ; the Princes Electors of the Empire ; the Kings of Aragon, Hungary, Bohemia, Scotland, Portugal, and Denmark ; Charles, Prince of Castile ; the Duke and the whole House of Bavaria ; the Dukes of Savoy, Lorraine, Ferrara, and Gueldres ; the Bishops of Cleves and Juliers ; the town of Liege, the old and new League of Florence ; and all the inhabitants and subjects of Tournay, Mortagne, and St. Amand.
|9. Rebels and exiles of one of the contracting princes are not to be permitted to stay and assemble in the dominions of the other contracting prince. On the contrary, they will be delivered up, if the prince whose subjects they are requires their extradition.|
10. The conservators of this treaty of peace are—
In England :
The Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Custos of the Cinq Ports, and the Lieutenant of Calais.
In France :
The Cardinal of Amboise in Normandy ; the Cardinal of Alby in Languedoc ; the Duke of Longueville in Guienne ; the Seigneur de Montauban in Brittany ; the Seigneur de Grutuze in Picardy ; the Seigneur de la Tremouille in Burgundy ; and the Seigneurs Granville and Chaumont in the seaports.
There is an appeal open from the decisions of the conservators to the decision of the king whose subjects they are.
11. The treaty is to be ratified and sworn to by both
parties, and to be confirmed by the Pope within six months.
—London, the 23rd of March 1509.
Indorsed : "Copy of the last treaty of peace concluded between England and France."
Latin. Contemporary copy, written on English paper and in an English handwriting. pp. 14.
S. E. Pat. Re. Cap. c. l. Cas. d. A. L. 2. f. 31.
37. Maximilian, Emperor Elect, to All Persons.
Has lately concluded a treaty of alliance with King Ferdinand the Catholic, the King of France acting as mediator. The Pope, the King of France, the King of England, and the King of Portugal are expressly included in the said treaty, being the friends of both contracting parties. Confirms this treaty, and nominates his other allies.—Augsburg, the 28th of April 1510.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
S. E. Pat Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
38. King Henry VIII. to Dr. Thomas Ruthall, Bishop
Considers King Ferdinand as his true father. Empowers him to conclude, in his name with King Ferdinand of Aragon, &c., and with Queen Juana of Castile, &c., a treaty of everlasting and most intimate friendship and alliance.—Westminster, the 20th of May 1510, 2nd Henry VIII.
Latin. Original copy on parchment. pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 138.
39. Treaty Of Alliance between King Henry VIII. and
King Ferdinand The Catholic, in his name and in
the name of Queen Juana Of Castile.
Commissioners : on the part of England, Thomas, Bishop of Durham ; on the part of Spain, Don Luis Caroz de Villaragut.
1. The treaties of peace and alliance between King Ferdinand and the late Queen Isabella, on the one part, and the late King Henry of England, on the other part, remain in full force, except so far as they are in contradiction with this treaty, the object of which is to form a more intimate friendship between the sovereigns who, by the marriage of Queen Katharine with the King of England, have become so nearly related.
2. True friendship, alliance, and peace, on land as well as on the sea, are to be strictly observed between the contracting parties, their successors, dominions, and subjects of whatever rank or position they may be, archbishops and dukes not excepted. This friendship and peace is to last for all time to come.
3. Each of the contracting parties binds itself and heirs not to do, or attempt to do, or to permit others to do, anything prejudicial to the other contracting party and its heirs.
4. Each of the contracting kings binds himself not to assist or to give advice or show favour to any one, without exception, who undertakes to do injury to the other contracting king, or to his heirs and successors. In case one of the contracting kings be attacked or injured by another prince or republic, the injured king is to warn the aggressor to desist from his attacks and to give full satisfaction. If this warning is not complied with, the injured party may openly declare war with his adversary. If actual war has begun, the contracting party which is at war has the right to summon the other contracting party openly to denounce war upon and to begin hostilities with the prince who has injured his ally. The party thus requested is bound without delay to require the enemy of his ally to desist from his aggressions and to give full satisfaction. If his request remains without effect, he is bound to declare war upon the enemy of his ally, and to begin actual hostilities within the space of six months after he has been required to do so. If the aggressor is the King of France, the contracting king who has been requested by his ally to make war upon him is bound to go to war in person ; if the aggressor is any other prince, the army or the fleet may be commanded by a captain or a lieutenant. Each contracting party is bound to pay its own share of the expenses of the war. When war has begun, neither of the contracting parties is at liberty to desist from it totally or partially without the knowledge and consent of his ally, nor is he permitted to conclude truce or peace with the common enemy.
In case one of the contracting kings is prevented by illness or any other reasonable obstacle from making war in person when it is obligatory on him to do so, he is bound to send a captain with such an army as he would have commanded in person, and the war is to be carried on in the same manner as though both kings took part in it personally.
If, in the war with the common enemy, one of the contracting princes should conquer or get into his possession towns, cities, fortresses, provinces, or dominions which by right belong to the other contracting party, he is bound to deliver them, without making difficulties and without delay, to his ally.
Both contracting kings are bound to swear to this treaty when they are requested to do so.
Both contracting kings bind themselves to ratify this treaty within one year after its date. King Ferdinand is bound to ratify the treaty in his own name as well as in the name of his daughter the Queen of Castile. The ratified treaties are to be exchanged.
The power of Henry VIII. is annexed.
The power of King Ferdinand is annexed.
London, the 24th of May 1510.
Thomas, Bishop of Durham.
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph. pp. 11.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
40. Treaty Of Alliance between King Henry VIII.
and King Ferdinand The Catholic, in his name
and in the name of Queen Juana Of Castile.
This document is a duplicate of the preceding treaty, signed by the Bishop of Durham. Written on a very large sheet of parchment.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 142.
41. Treaty between King Henry VIII. and King Ferdinand
The Catholic, in his name and in the name
of his daughter Juana, Queen Of Castile.
This document is a Spanish translation of the preceding treaty.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 143.
42. King Henry VIII. to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Has not written to him of late, because nothing has happened worth telling. Has for some time past received no news from him. As, however, the Spanish ambassador is returning to Spain, he cannot let this occasion pass without telling him that he and his Queen are perfectly happy, and that his kingdom enjoys undisturbed tranquillity, Wishes, like a good son, to have news from him, his good father. Has heard with pleasure all that the newly appointed Spanish ambassador has told him in his (King Ferdinand's) name. Has expressed to the ambassador the high esteem in which he holds him (King Ferdinand.) Has commissioned some of his chief councillors to enter into negotiations at once with the new ambassador on the subject of his mission. The negotiations have already led to a satisfactory result, as his ambassador will, no doubt, inform him.
Regards him as his true father, and promises to be a dutiful and obedient son.—Greenwich, the 27th of May.
"Your good brother and son Henry."
Addressed : "To the most serene and excellent Lord Ferdinand, by the grace of God, King of Aragon, &c., our dearest father."
Indorsed by Almazan : "To his Highness, from the King of England, the 27th of March 1510."
Latin. Autograph. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 62.
43. Queen Katharine to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Is persuaded that he wishes to hear of her. Some days before was delivered of a daughter. That her child was stillborn is considered to be a misfortune in England. Has, therefore, not written sooner, or permitted any other person to send the news of her confinement. Begs him not to be angry with her, for it has been the will of God. She and the King her husband are cheerful. Thanks God and him that he has given her such a husband as the King of England.
When in labour vowed to present to St. Peter the Martyr, of the order of the Franciscan Friars, one of her richest head-dresses. Sent it by one of her maids, the niece of the treasurer Morales, who wishes to become a nun of the same order. But the father of that lady retained her letter to the Prioress, as well as the head-dress, declaring before a public notary that it belonged to his daughter. Begs he will reprimand the father of the niece of Morales for such a want of respect.
Considers all favours done to her confessor as done to herself. —Greenwich, the 27th of May.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Lord the King, my Lord."
Indorsed by Almazan : "To his Highness, from the Queen of England, the 27th of May 1510."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 147.
44. Luis Caroz De Villaragut, Spanish Ambassador in
England, to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
The last courier arrived on the 5th of May, at break of day, and delivered to him his letters.
As the Privy Council remained in London until Tuesday, the 7th of May, he did not think it convenient to go earlier to the place where the court resided. Could not well begin negotiations with the King before his councillors had arrived. Told the King, according to his instructions, that he (King Ferdinand) perfectly approved the manner in which the English treaty of alliance with France had been concluded. His conversation with the King afforded him an opportunity of telling him how much he (King Ferdinand) was satisfied with his filial obedience, (fn. 1) how well he loved him, and how he regarded him as his true son. Does not permit any occasion to pass without making use of it to increase mutual affection between him (King Ferdinand) and the King of England.
Said to the King, "Sire, why do not we conclude the closer union and alliance? In your own mind it is already concluded. Let us therefore set to work and reduce the treaty to writing." The King answered that he wished for nothing better, and that he was willing to conclude the treaty of stricter alliance at once. Said, "I am ready to conclude it in whatever manner your Highness may direct." The King replied, "Conclude it without asking for further instructions." Declared that, since he (King Henry) wished it, he would conclude the treaty without delay, adding that he was ordered to assent to and to sign whatever he (the King of England) wished. The King showed great joy, and became visibly excited in his desire to show his great readiness to serve him (King Ferdinand). Told the King to order some of his privy councillors to take the matter in hand at once, and to conclude and sign the treaty.
The King called for his secretary, the Bishop of Durham, who was present. As neither the Bishop of Winchester, (fn. 2) who is Privy Seal, nor the treasurer, were at court, the King sent for three or four other councillors, and ordered them to attend to the negotiations, in addition to the Bishop of Durham. Heard from them that the matter had already been discussed and decided upon in the council. Asked them without delay to conclude the treaty. The next Saturday the Bishops of Winchester and of Durham came to his house and brought him a draft of the treaty. Looked over the different heads of it only, and asked them to leave him the copy, as he wished to examine it more closely. They did so.
Negotiated and concluded the treaty in such a manner as, in his estimation, will best secure his (King Ferdinand's) interests and purposes. Thinks the treaty is in accordance with his first instructions and with the instructions the last courier brought him. Is of opinion that the alliance is very intimate. Protests that at all events he has had the best intentions, and begs him to inform him in what respect he has erred, if he has erred, in order that he may amend his fault. Had he not been persuaded that this treaty is advantageous to him, and had it not been dangerous to delay the conclusion of it, he would certainly not have concluded it without first consulting him.
The King of England behaved in this and in all the other affairs on which he spoke with him in his (King Ferdinand's) name as a most obedient son. He does not like to occupy himself much with business. All was, therefore, very soon concluded with the King, who told him to arrange the details with his councillors. The councillors are very different from the King. They are slow in concluding anything. They caused him much disgust, and made him suspect a thousand things. Did not get rid of his suspicions until the treaty was really concluded.
All business affairs are in the hands of the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester. Endeavoured to gain their good will by stratagem, and told each of them separately that they ought to be made cardinals. They answered at first with great duplicity, but at the end of his communications with them, they each asked him separately to speak with the King about this matter, without, however, mentioning their names. Afterwards they each came to him and begged him not to permit the matter to drop.
Managed the business in the following manner. (fn. 3)They had told him that the Pope was in great fear of the French, and that he had even distrusted the English, in consequence of the last treaty of peace with the King of France. Since, however, his Holiness had seen the treaty, he had been somewhat comforted. Moreover, they said, the Pope was afraid lest after his death a French Pope should be elected, since the cardinals who adhered to the French cause were so very numerous. In order to obviate this danger as much as possible the Pope intended to create, in addition to the English archbishop who is ambassador in Rome, some new Spanish and Italian cardinals, who are hostile to France.
Answered that in order to obviate this danger it would be much better to create more English cardinals.
They replied that the English did not solicit favours. If they did so, they would, they thought, be oftener made cardinals.
Broached the matter in this way with the English prelates, and added that the Church and all the kingdoms of Christendom would be placed in the greatest danger if the French had command over the Pope. On this account, he said, it was necessary to create Spanish and English cardinals. These two nations alone would suffice to counterbalance French influence. Told them moreover that he believed that he (King Ferdinand) had already taken some steps in this affair.
The bishops declared to him that they were entirely of his opinion, and begged him to speak with the King about the matter, but not to mention his conversation with them, and not to name the persons who were to be selected, in order that the King might not know that the demand came from them.
Spoke with the King about the creation of English cardinals. The King declared himself ready to enter into negotiations with the Pope on the subject, and said that he thought it was a very necessary thing.
Communicated his conversation with the King to the bishops, who begged him to write to him (King Ferdinand), and ask his intercession in their behalf with the King of England, under the form of advice. The King, they said, is young, and does not care to occupy himself with anything but the pleasures of his age. All other affairs he neglects. If, therefore, he (King Ferdinand) would write to him and spur him on, the affair would soon be concluded, with his (the ambassador's) assistance. (fn. 4) Begs him to write to the King of England in behalf of the bishops. Nothing but advantage could result from such a letter. The bishops would be more diligent and solicitous to serve him. Is persuaded that had he not excited in the breasts of the bishops the desire of being created cardinals this treaty would not have been concluded until at least a month later, and it would never have been concluded in such a form and in such a courteous manner as it had been. The English commissioners came seven or eight times to his house only in order to speak with him on this subject. Moreover, they begged that he (King Ferdinand) would always advise the King of England what he ought to do. He (King Henry) likes it, and profits much by it.
Spoke with the King about the Emperor, the King of France, and the Venetians. The King of England says that the Emperor does not like to make peace with the Venetians, and that in his opinion the fault lies with the council of the Emperor, most of the Imperial councillors being in the interest of France. The King of England has sent a gentleman to the Emperor, who is to negotiate with him respecting the affairs of Venice, and the general treaty of alliance and confederacy between the Emperor, Prince Charles, Spain, and England. They (the English) wish that the general treaty of alliance should be kept separate from the more intimate treaty between Spain and England. The English have, furthermore, begged him to write to the Spanish ambassador in Germany, and to ask him to act in conformity with the English ambassador. (fn. 5) Has promised and is about to do so.
Whilst having a conversation with the King (fn. 6) about the councillors of the Emperor who are bribed by France, said to the King, "In affairs which concern the French one scarcely knows to whom to speak, for they get to know it directly ; and then they countermine all one's designs. I beg, therefore, your Highness to tell me which of them (the English councillors) are the most trustworthy, because suspicions are rife in all quarters." The King answered, "Do not speak with any one except with the Bishop of Winchester about French affairs." Asked him, "Do you confide in him?" The King replied, "Yes, at my risk. Here in England they think he is a fox, and such is his name."
Writes this in order that he (King Ferdinand) may tell the King of England that many of his privy councillors are believed to be Frenchmen at heart, and that he may tell him with which of them it will be safe to negotiate on matters which concern the King of France. Thinks the manner in which he spoke with the King of England was the mildest form (fn. 7) in which he could treat the subject. Did not like to push the matter further, as in his opinion what he said was sufficient.
The councillors of the King of England told him that Madame Margaret already knew of the way in which the treaty with France was concluded. Writes this to him, as he (Luiz Caroz) was ordered, in the last despatch he received from him, to show the treaty to Madame Margaret, and to urge on her to act with more energy in all that concerns the general alliance.
When the English learnt by letters from France and from Rome how arrogantly the French had behaved themselves, and how they had threatened and boasted on account of the treaty they had concluded with England, they were somewhat offended, and said that he (King Ferdinand) had been right in his predictions. They declared, however, that no other choice had been left them than to conclude the treaty of peace with France, because the King being young and not having a son, it would have been dangerous to engage in a war with France. Besides, they said, he (King Henry) had not yet concluded any alliances with his friends and relations. As soon as he had concluded such alliances and God had given him a son, he would be more at liberty to do what he wished. Approved greatly of what they told him, and did not like to be more explicit on the bad manner in which the treaty (with France) had been concluded. The English admit that the manner was bad in which the alliance (with France) was concluded, although the treaty itself, they say, is good. Told them that he (King Ferdinand) had approved greatly of the treaty, and considered it to be good, holy, and well considered.
Asked, in the most courteous manner possible, for a copy of the treaty with France. They gave him one, and at the same time showed him the original, signed by the English and French commissioners. Read the original treaty. When they brought him the copy which is enclosed in this letter, it was already late, and the Bishop of Durham asked him whether he wished to collate it with the original. To have done so would have seemed to him to be very impolite. Asked the Bishop, therefore, whether he had collated it. The Bishop said yes. Told him that that was sufficient.
The Bishop of Winchester is Privy Seal. On speaking the first time to the King about the affairs of the King of France, and asking him what his intentions were in case the King of France should entirely destroy the Venetians, the King told him to confer on that subject with the Bishop (of Winchester). The Bishop, on his part, declared that the affair was a difficult one, and that he would give his answer after the Feast of Easter. Easter has passed away, but the Bishop has not given his answer, nor has he spoken a single word more to him about Venice. In the last despatch he has received has been instructed not to mention this affair if the English do not speak first about it. Promises he will not.
He writes him that, according to letters from France, the treaty between the King of France and the King of England was concluded on the 14th of March. The fact is that the treaty was concluded the beginning of March, and that then a courier was sent to the King of France, in order to obtain his signature. When the courier returned, the treaty was signed by all the parties interested in it on the 23rd of March. Has been told so by the privy councillors themselves. They told him, moreover, that the King of England did not wish to conclude the treaty with France, but that some of his most intimate councillors insisted so much on it that he at last gave way. The Duke of Buckingham and many others are mortal enemies of the French. It is due to their influence that the treaty was not concerted in a more offensive manner. Thinks that the conclusion of the treaty may be excused.
Expects new powers authorizing him to witness the King of England swear to the treaty (with King Ferdinand), and to receive a copy of it. Asked the King whether John Stile was to see him (King Ferdinand) swear to the treaty, and was told that another person would be sent expressly for that purpose. The English wish this treaty to remain secret until the treaty with the Emperor is concluded. Tells them to induce the Emperor, through Prince Charles, to enter the alliance.—London, the 29th of May 1510.
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 9.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c.I.L. 5. f. 149.
45. Luis Caroz De Villaragut, to King Ferdinand the
The courier whom he despatched on the 22nd of April from Zaragoza arrived early in the morning of the 5th of May, and delivered his letters. Has done all in his power to despatch the business which he was ordered to transact in the shortest time possible, but it has been impossible to conclude it earlier, and to send the courier back sooner. Begs him, if he does not receive any letters from England for some time, to be persuaded that nothing has happened worth writing.
The King and Queen rejoice much at the good tidings they have received respecting the victory in Africa. The English believe it to be the beginning of very great things, they pray for him, and hope that in his lifetime all the Infidels will be conquered. Begs him to communicate all his successes to the King and Queen of England.
The King of England amuses himself almost every day of the week with running the ring, and with jousts and tournaments on foot, in which one single person fights with an appointed adversary. Two days in the week are consecrated to this kind of tournament, which is to continue till the Feast of St. John, and which is instituted in imitation of Amadis and Lanzilote, and other knights of olden times, of whom so much is written in books. The combatants are clad in breast plates, and wear a particular kind of helmet. They use lances of fourteen hands breadth long, with blunt iron points. They throw these lances at one another, and fight afterwards with two-handed swords, each of the combatants dealing twelve strokes. They are separated from one another by a barrier which reaches up to the girdle, in order to prevent them from seizing one another and wrestling. There are many young men who excel in this kind of warfare, but the most conspicuous amongst them all, the most assiduous, and the most interested in the combats is the King himself, who never omits being present at them.
Letters from the King and the Queen are enclosed in this despatch. Has not written the news concerning the Queen, as she wished to write with her own hand, and forbade him to speak of her.—London, the 29th of May 1510.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Prince and King, the Catholic King our Lord."
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 148.
46. Luis Caroz De Villaragut to Miguel Perez Almazan,
First Secretary Of State.
Has written to the King in common writing and in cipher. Fears he has committed many errors and blunders in his negotiations with the English, as he is quite new in his office. Begs him to tell him wherein he has failed, and promises to do all in his power to become an efficient ambassador.
This courier would have left a week ago had he not waited for the letters of the Queen, who had forbidden him to write about the news which she intended to communicate to her father in a letter written with her own hand.
To-morrow, Robert Wingfield, who is nominated ambassador to the Emperor, takes his leave. (fn. 8) He goes first to Flanders, to see Madame Margaret. Has written to the Spanish ambassador (at the Imperial court), in accordance with what he has concerted with the Privy Council (of the King of England).
Has been ordered to put down the exact dates when he left the court of Spain, when he arrived at Valencia, when he left Valencia, and when he landed in England. Supposes that these dates are required in order to calculate his expenses and his salary. The expenses of an ambassador in England are enormous. His house costs him 40 ducats a year. Has been obliged to have it repaired. Every kind of furniture is excessively dear in England. Nothing is cheap. Has ten beds, and yet is unable to receive a guest in his house. Besides his town house, he has taken a house in the place where the King holds his court. That is indispensable. Although the expenses of all the other ambassadors are great, his are incomparably greater. Thinks it is not just to pay him less than the sum given to other ambassadors. Both the King and Queen are young and lately married, and he is, as Spanish ambassador, obliged to appear at all kinds of festivities in a style befitting his high position. Has been obliged to borrow money, and to give bills of exchange for six months salary, amounting to four ducats a day. Begs his bills may be paid.
Sends two copies of the treaty, signed by the Bishop of Durham, one on parchment and the other on paper. The servant of the Bishop, who acts as his secretary, begs a gratification. It has, he says, been hard work to write out the copies of the treaty. English officers are not ashamed to take money on such occasions.
Has in his keeping the power of the King of England for the Bishop of Durham to sign the treaty, whilst he (Luis Caroz) has delivered his power to the Bishop.
The Count de Camarata has arrived in England, and has been much courted. He travels for purposes of education. In a week he intends to go to Flanders and Germany.— London, the 29th of May 1510.
Addressed : "To the very magnificent and virtuous Lord, the Secretary Miguel Perez Almazan."
Indorsed : "To me, from Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 4.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. Hist. K. 1482. No. 56.
47. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona,
his Viceroy of Naples.
Has learnt by letters from Rome, dated the 6th, and by letters from France, dated the 9th of the current month of May, that the King of France is marching to Italy by way of Lyons, Grenoble, and Milan, with so powerful an army that there is no doubt he intends to conquer the whole of Venice, Siena, and in fact as much of the rest of Italy as he can, to depose the present Pope, and to set up another of his own making. Is resolved to remain at peace with the King of France, who shows him greater friendship than ever ; but if he offends the whole of Christendom by trampling under foot the Pope, or if he attacks his (King Ferdinand's) dominions, he (King Ferdinand) and his son, the King of England, are firmly resolved to declare war with France. Has, under the pretext of a war with the Moors, provided every thing that is necessary for a war with France. Count Pedro Navaro is at the head of 8,000 Spanish infantry, who at a moment's notice can be sent wherever they are wanted.
He is to keep this letter secret, and to behave as though the greatest friendship prevailed between him (King Ferdinand) and the King of France. He must, however, send trusty agents to the frontiers of Naples, who, under pretext of seeing that no gold or prohibited merchandise be exported, shall search all travellers for letters of which they may be bearers. All ciphered letters, without any exception, are to be detained. Wishes to know whether the Neapolitans are entertaining secret intelligence with the French.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2½.
P. A. d. l'E. M. H. K. 1482. No. 64.
48. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De
Vich, his Ambassador in Rome. (fn. 9)
Has learnt by his letters of the 6th of May that the King of France refuses to ratify two clauses of the treaty with the Pope. The clause concerning Ferrara shows that the Pope likes to take the property of his neighbour. His Holiness will soon learn by experience that he has reckoned without his host. From another clause of the treaty it is clear that the King of France intends to march this summer to Rome. Wishes to know whether the Pope has contented himself with the ratification by the King of France of the other clauses of the treaty, or has broken off all negotiations with France.
The Emperor, it must be confessed, does not behave in a very friendly manner towards the Pope, but it is very unwise of the Holy Father to repay the Emperor in kind, for by offending the Emperor he will cause him to become the ally of the King of France, who is the only dangerous enemy of the Pope.
Cabanillas has written on the 9th of May. He says that the King of France intends to lead in person to Italy next summer a larger army than that of last year. He is making his preparations in secret, and has entered into a close alliance with the Florentines, who have promised to help him to conquer Siena, and to carry out his other plans on Italy. He has tried to introduce a French garrison into Mantua, and the French army is not to march in conjunction with the Imperial troops, but to advance through the states of the Duke of Ferrara, and to take up a position between the Venetian army and Padua. The French say that they will deliver to the Emperor the places they conquer. Does not believe it.
The King of France is said to be determined to depose the Pope and to create another. The French, therefore, would be glad if the Pope were to fly from Rome.
The manner in which the French intend to execute their plans is the following : If the Pope remains in Rome they will take him prisoner, and have him deposed by a mock council which they will convoke. That done, the King of France will tell the cardinals to elect another Pope. As soon as the new Pope is elected, the King of France will give him his obedience. Most of the cardinals are won by him, and those who are not corrupted will obey him from fear. If the Pope flies from Rome, he will be tried and deposed as absent ; which done, the election of a new Pope will be proceeded with.
The King of France is endeavouring to bring the Emperor over to his party. In order to bring about this result he has told him that the Pope has declared himself ready to enter into an alliance with France against the Emperor.
From the whole conduct of the King of France it is clear that he is striving to get both the spiritual and temporal power into his hands, and that he wishes to be the master of the world. (fn. 10)
The worst is, that both the Pope and the Emperor are doing the work of their enemy. He is to do all in his power to reconcile the Pope with the Emperor, and to persuade the Pope to make peace between the Emperor and the Venetians. That is the only means whereby to prevent the French from carrying out their designs.
The King of France has bought two Venetian captains, Lucio Malvesio and Dionisio Brisaghella, who have promised to go over to him with 400 men-at-arms and 4,000 foot.
He pays them 50,000 ducats, and has promised to maintain them as captains for three years. He is to communicate this piece of news to the Venetian ambassador, but he is to take the greatest care that the French do not even suspect that he has betrayed them.
The Pope is said to be inconsistent. Does not care much about his inconsistency, as he values him very little, and makes use of him only as his instrument, to be thrown away when no longer wanted. He is to procure from the Pope three things, namely, the investiture of Naples, his assistance in the war with the Moors, and his promise to reconcile himself with the Emperor. Should the French accuse him of opposing their policy, he can assure them to the contrary, and in public he must speak as though he were assisting the French.
He has been right in preventing the Cardinal of Auch from going to Naples.
Wishes to know whether the Pope intends to flee, and whether he will take the cardinals with him. It is also of importance to him to know which cardinals are to be relied upon, and which not.
He must write directly.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "His Highness to Don Hieronymo de Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 145.
49. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
It is a very long time since he has received letters from the King and Queen of England or from him. As he had written a long time ago, saying that the Queen had, according to English custom, taken to her apartments, in expectation of her delivery, it is probable that she was confined in the month of May. Orders him to write immediately and say whether the Queen is confined, and to send his letter by the present courier, who goes to England for this sole purpose.
From [blank.]—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 146.
50. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Has answered all his letters by Arnao Dascote, courier, who left Zaragoza on the 22nd of April. Has told him to conclude, without delay and without further consulting him, the treaty of alliance with the King of England on terms of equality for both parties. Has also ordered him to act with much circumspection, and not to show any great desire to conclude the treaty. It must appear as though he entered this alliance only in order to comply with the wishes of the King of England. The fact is, however, that the speedy conclusion of it is of the greatest importance to him ; for, if the King of France should really undertake something against Spain, the principal remedy, after God and his good right, would be an alliance with the King of England, and war with France vigorously carried on by both Kings with all their forces. Such being the case, it is most desirable that the treaty of alliance with England should be concluded and England and Spain well prepared for war, before open hostilities with France break out.
He is to be careful that the English do not suspect that he fears a war with France. If they were to do so, they would make difficulties, and delay the conclusion of the alliance. As soon as the treaty is signed, he is to send a copy of it by a flying courier.
According to letters received from France and Rome, the King of France intends this summer to send a very powerful army to Italy. The army is to be as numerous, or more numerous even, than that of last year, and the greater part of it has already entered Italy. Not a day passes without new troops passing the Italian frontiers, accompanied by the first personages of the French court and of the kingdom of France. It is even said that the King intends to take the field in person. He is already on his way to Lyons, whence he intends to go by way of Grenoble to Italy. It is said that the objects he has in view are plainly recognisable, namely, to conquer and subjugate all that is remaining to the Venetians, to appropriate to himself Siena, and to obtain, by indirect means, possession of Ferrara and Mantua. The King of France has no right, and does not even pretend to have a right, to do any of these things, but he expects that it will be easy to carry out his plans, because there is no prince in Christendom prepared to resist him. When the King of France has carried out these his first objects he intends to march to Rome, to dethrone the Pope, and to have another Pope of his own making elected. The plan of the King of France concerning the Pope is the following : If the Pope remains in Rome, the King of France will seize on his person, for appearance sake convoke a council, although not a legal one, and have it decreed that the Pope is to be detained in prison and deprived of his dignity. When all that is done, the cardinals will be asked to elect another Pope. Some of the cardinals are already gained over by the French, and others, who are intimidated, will not dare to oppose them. As soon as the new Pope is elected the King of France will swear obedience to him, in order to give him greater authority. If, on the contrary, the Pope leaves Rome and takes flight, the King of France will proceed in the same manner as though he had taken him prisoner. Although some of the cardinals may accompany the Pope, the French are persuaded that the greater part of them will come to Rome when the King of France calls for them.
Such Frenchmen as take part in the government of their country do not conceal their opinion that, if the King of France renders himself spiritual and temporal lord of Italy in the manner described, no resistance to him will be possible in Christendom. The same spirit is visible in all other public affairs. The King of France, a very short time ago, concluded a new treaty of friendship with the Pope, in which it is stipulated that the French shall not advance in Italy further than Reggio. Lately, however, the King of France sent to tell the Pope that he will not observe this stipulation, and that he intends to march his army to Siena, a city which is near Rome. Thus the intention of the French to go to Rome is quite clear. The Pope is in despair. The King of France, who has already recovered every inch of land in Italy to which he has any pretension, says that he is going with his powerful army to assist the Emperor, to whom he will deliver all the places that he conquers. But the King of France also says that he does not intend to carry on the war in the same way as the Emperor ; his army is to act quite independently and separately from that of the Emperor. The King of France has entered into negotiations with the wife of the Marquis of Mantua, and has asked her permission to garrison Mantua, telling her that the city would not be safe without a French garrison. He is likewise negotiating with the Florentines. The King of France has asked them for assistance in his Siena enterprise, promising in return to restore to them one or two castles in the Sienese territory on which the Florentines pretend to have some lawful claims.
The French are treating, at the same time, more briskly than ever with certain cardinals, in order to gain their votes for the intended election of the new Pope. They are trying to create enmity between the Emperor and the Pope, with the object of making the Emperor assist the King of France in making a new Pope. The measures which the French employ for this purpose are to promise the Emperor to recover for him all the imperial cities which are held by the Venetians. They also tell him they will help him to go to Rome, to be crowned there. It is said the French are persuaded that the Emperor will be forced by sheer necessity to do their bidding, as, without their assistance, he cannot recover his cities from the Venetians, or go to Rome for his coronation. Even if the Emperor should not do the bidding of the King of France, the French say they will carry out their plans without and against him.
All this is clearly very prejudicial to all Christian princes, and places them in a most dangerous position. It is therefore necessary that they should concert together the measures they intend to take against the French. The French are already beginning to execute their plans. As they are always very quick in the execution of what they undertake, it is of the greatest importance that the resistance to be offered to them should be speedily organised. The principal means of resistance to the French is the intimate alliance between him (King Ferdinand) and the King of England, his son. If, when this despatch arrives, the new treaty of a more intimate alliance with England is not concluded, he is not to mention a word of the French designs either to the King or to his advisers, for if they knew them they would think that he (King Ferdinand) is in great want of their assistance, and so would defer the conclusion of the alliance. Nevertheless he is to employ all the means in his power to conclude the treaty of alliance as soon as possible.
When that is done, he is to speak to the King of England in secret, and to communicate to him all the designs of the French mentioned in this despatch. He is to explain to him how much the French are endangering and injuring all the princes of Christendom, and how necessary it is to concert measures of resistance against them. If the King of England proposes of his own free will measures which will be effectual to stop the encroachments of the French, he is to do nothing but to praise the King and to encourage him. If, however, the King of England does not propose such measures, he is to speak to him about them, and to tell him that the intimate alliance between them, although very necessary, is not all that ought to be done. It is also, he is to say, their indispensable duty to gain over the Emperor to their cause. In this way alone can the princes of Christendom, and especially the King of England, be preserved from the serious dangers with which the French threaten all of them. He is to enlarge much on the precarious state in which England would be placed if the French were to carry out their plans. A further measure, which must be taken by him (King Ferdinand) and the King of England without delay, consists in persuading the Pope to reconcile himself with the Emperor, and to enter their alliance. When England, Spain, the Emperor, and the Pope are all united in this way against France, they will be better enabled to find means for putting down the arrogance and the tyranny of the French. The most necessary thing of all is, however, for the Pope to spare no efforts to reconcile the Emperor at once with the Venetians. If such reconciliation is effected, all the pretexts of the French for their plans fall to the ground.
He is to inform him without delay of the intentions of the King of England, and to tell him what he thinks the King of England will do. Before knowing that, it is impossible for him to take his measures. Speaks here only of the general policy of France, which it is the duty of all the princes of Christendom effectually to oppose. Should, however, the King of France attack Spain or England, the resources of these two countries alone would suffice to repel him, and to force on him whatever conditions of peace they like. It is possible that the King of France may not attack either him or the King of England at present ; but, if he do not, the King of England may be sure that the French are only delaying hostilities until they have brought their other enterprises to a conclusion.
Should the King of France really depose the Pope, such an insult to the common church of all Christian people and to all the princes of Christendom would be even a greater offence to them than an attack on their dominions, and they would be bound to oppose France with all their might. If a general council, convoked according to established law, should undertake to reform the Papal court and the Church, his duty, and the duty of the King of England, his son, would be to see that the measure was justly carried out for the benefit of Christendom. But to allow a reformation of the Church to be undertaken by force and against all law would be in contradiction with the duties of any Christian prince.
He is to consider well how, and with whom, to speak on this matter. At all events, the French must know nothing of it.
Should the King of England be disinclined to undertake anything against France, he is to make use of the Queen of England, and ask her to persuade her husband to do what he is desired to perform. Should, however, the Queen refuse to persuade the King to break with France, and prefer to see him at peace, although all the world go to pieces, he is to make use of the friar her confessor, and through him persuade her to use her influence with the King. Orders him to make use of any means he can to persuade the King of England to do what he begs of him.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft, written by Almazan. pp. 9.
S. E. L. 635. f. 1.
51. Maximilian, King of the Romans and Emperor Elect,
to Mercurino De Gattinara.
Empowers him to conclude, in his name and in the name of his son (fn. 11) Prince Charles, a most strict and intimate alliance with Ferdinand, King of Aragon, &c, and Henry, King of England.—Inspruck, the 14th of August 1510.
Indorsed : "Copy of the power which the Emperor has sent for the more intimate alliance of the three."
Latin. Copy, written by Almazan. pp. 4.
M. D. Pas. d. G.
52. Mosen Hieronymo De Cabanillas to King Ferdinand
Sent the courier Miguel Roig on the 6th of August, with a letter of the Emperor and other letters.
The Pope, continuing his war with Ferrara, has taken Cudignola, Lugo, and Modena. The King of France has sent a succour of 300 or 400 lances to the Duke of Ferrara, besides the 200 lances and two or three thousand foot he has already there.
The Swiss have assembled an army on the frontiers of Savoy. The King of France having occupied the mountain passes, it is believed that the Swiss will not be able to march into Italy, but will remain under arms in order to obtain their pay.
The King of France, suspecting that the Pope was entertaining a secret correspondence with Genoa and Milan, intercepted various couriers with a great number of letters, among which it is said are several briefs of the Pope. Has seen a letter taken from an English courier. It is from the English ambassador in Rome to the nuncio of the Pope in England. In it the English ambassador asks the nuncio to speak very boldly (fn. 12) to the King of England, and to beg him to avail himself of the opportunity he has of increasing his honour and of obtaining great advantages. The right moment has come, he writes to the nuncio, for the King of England to recover all that belongs to him, and to render it possible to the Archduke, his kinsman, to reconquer Burgundy. He begs the nuncio to make use of very forcible language. (fn. 13) The King of France has shown him also a brief of the Pope in which his Holiness tells his nuncio to place entire faith in what the English ambassador writes to him, and to do what he bids him. The King of France has told him that similar briefs to Germany and Switzerland were intercepted.
One circumstance seems to him very extraordinary, viz., that the English ambassador should write to the nuncio and not to the King of England direct. The French could not explain this circumstance.
Begged the King of France not to intercept his (King Ferdinand's) couriers.
Inheritance of the Queen (Germaine), &c.
Robertet says he will do all in his power to preserve friendship between France and Spain, &c, &c.—Tours, the 10th of September 1510. Sealed the 14th of September.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Prince, King, and Lord, the Catholic King of Spain, our Lord"
Indorsed by Almazan "To his Highness, from Mosen Cabanillas,the 10th of September 1510."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 7.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
53. King Henry VIII. to All Persons.
Ratifies the treaty with King Ferdinand the Catholic, concluded by their ambassadors, Luis Caroz and Thomas, Bishop of Durham, on the 24th of May 1510.—London the 20th of November 1510.
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph, p. 1.